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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Wed, 24 May 2023

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1.Directed Message Passing Based on Attention for Prediction of Molecular Properties

Authors:Chen Gong LJLL, Yvon Maday LJLL, IUF

Abstract: Molecular representation learning (MRL) has long been crucial in the fields of drug discovery and materials science, and it has made significant progress due to the development of natural language processing (NLP) and graph neural networks (GNNs). NLP treats the molecules as one dimensional sequential tokens while GNNs treat them as two dimensional topology graphs. Based on different message passing algorithms, GNNs have various performance on detecting chemical environments and predicting molecular properties. Herein, we propose Directed Graph Attention Networks (D-GATs): the expressive GNNs with directed bonds. The key to the success of our strategy is to treat the molecular graph as directed graph and update the bond states and atom states by scaled dot-product attention mechanism. This allows the model to better capture the sub-structure of molecular graph, i.e., functional groups. Compared to other GNNs or Message Passing Neural Networks (MPNNs), D-GATs outperform the state-of-the-art on 13 out of 15 important molecular property prediction benchmarks.

2.Segmented GRAND: Combining Sub-patterns in Near-ML Order

Authors:Mohammad Rowshan, Jinhong Yuan

Abstract: The recently introduced maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding scheme called guessing random additive noise decoding (GRAND) has demonstrated a remarkably low time complexity in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. However, the complexity is not as low at low SNR regimes and low code rates. To mitigate this concern, we propose a scheme for a near-ML variant of GRAND called ordered reliability bits GRAND (or ORBGRAND), which divides codewords into segments based on the properties of the underlying code, generates sub-patterns for each segment consistent with the syndrome (thus reducing the number of inconsistent error patterns generated), and combines them in a near-ML order using two-level integer partitions of logistic weight. The numerical evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme, called segmented ORBGRAND, significantly reduces the average number of queries at any SNR regime. Moreover, the segmented ORBGRAND with abandonment also improves the error correction performance.

3.UAV Trajectory Optimization and Tracking for User Localization in Wireless Networks

Authors:Omid Esrafilian, Rajeev Gangula, David Gesbert

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the problem of UAV-aided user localization in wireless networks. Unlike the existing works, we do not assume perfect knowledge of the UAV location, hence we not only need to localize the users but also to track the UAV location. To do so, we utilize the time-of-arrival along with received signal strength radio measurements collected from users using a UAV. A simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) framework building on the Expectation-Maximization-based least-squares method is proposed to classify measurements into line-of-sight or non-line-of-sight categories and learn the radio channel, and at the same, localize the users and track the UAV. This framework also allows us to exploit other types of measurements such as the rough estimate of the UAV location available from GPS, and the UAV velocity measured by an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on-board, to achieve better localization accuracy. Moreover, the trajectory of the UAV is optimized which brings considerable improvement to the localization performance. The simulations show the out-performance of the developed algorithm when compared to other approaches.

4.Towards Cyber Security for Low-Carbon Transportation: Overview, Challenges and Future Directions

Authors:Yue Cao, Sifan Li, Chenchen Lv, Di Wang, Hongjian Sun, Jing Jiang, Fanlin Meng, Lexi Xu, Xinzhou Cheng

Abstract: In recent years, low-carbon transportation has become an indispensable part as sustainable development strategies of various countries, and plays a very important responsibility in promoting low-carbon cities. However, the security of low-carbon transportation has been threatened from various ways. For example, denial of service attacks pose a great threat to the electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid networks. To minimize these threats, several methods have been proposed to defense against them. Yet, these methods are only for certain types of scenarios or attacks. Therefore, this review addresses security aspect from holistic view, provides the overview, challenges and future directions of cyber security technologies in low-carbon transportation. Firstly, based on the concept and importance of low-carbon transportation, this review positions the low-carbon transportation services. Then, with the perspective of network architecture and communication mode, this review classifies its typical attack risks. The corresponding defense technologies and relevant security suggestions are further reviewed from perspective of data security, network management security and network application security. Finally, in view of the long term development of low-carbon transportation, future research directions have been concerned.

5.Age of Information in Reservation Multi-Access Networks with Stochastic Arrivals: Analysis and Optimization

Authors:Qian Wang Henry, He Henry, Chen

Abstract: This paper analyzes and optimizes the average Age of Information (AAoI) of Frame Slotted ALOHA with Reservation and Data slots (FSA-RD) in a multi-access network, where multiple users transmit their randomly generated status updates to a common access point in a framed manner. Each frame consists of one reservation slot and several data slots. The reservation slot is further split into several mini-slots. In each reservation slot, users that want to transmit a status update will randomly send short reservation packets in one of the mini-slots to contend for data slots of the current frame. The reservation is successful only if one reservation packet is sent in a mini-slot. The data slots are then allocated to those users that succeed in the reservation slot. In the considered FSA-RD scheme, one user with a status update for transmission, termed active user, may need to perform multiple reservation attempts before successfully delivering it. As such, the number of active user(s) in different frames are dependent and thus the probability of making a successful reservation varies from frame to frame, making the AAoI analysis non-trivial. We manage to derive an analytical expression of AAoI for FSA-RD by characterizing the evolution of the number of active user(s) in each frame as a discrete-time Markov chain. We then consider the FSA-RD scheme with one reservation attempt per status update, termed FSA-RD-One. Thanks to the independent frame behaviors of FSA-RD-One, we attain a closed-form expression for its AAoI, which is further used to find the near-optimal reservation probability. Our analysis reveals the impact of key protocol parameters, such as frame size and reservation probability, on the AAoI. Simulation results validate our analysis and show that the optimized FSA-RD outperforms the optimized slotted ALOHA.

6.6G Enabled Advanced Transportation Systems

Authors:Ruiqi Liu, Meng Hua, Ke Guan, Xiping Wang, Leyi Zhang, Tianqi Mao, Di Zhang, Qingqing Wu, Abbas Jamalipour

Abstract: The 6th generation (6G) wireless communication network is envisaged to be able to change our lives drastically, including transportation. In this paper, two ways of interactions between 6G communication networks and transportation are introduced. With the new usage scenarios and capabilities 6G is going to support, passengers on all sorts of transportation systems will be able to get data more easily, even in the most remote areas on the planet. The quality of communication will also be improved significantly, thanks to the advanced capabilities of 6G. On top of providing seamless and ubiquitous connectivity to all forms of transportation, 6G will also transform the transportation systems to make them more intelligent, more efficient, and safer. Based on the latest research and standardization progresses, technical analysis on how 6G can empower advanced transportation systems are provided, as well as challenges and insights for a possible road ahead.

7.Generator polynomial matrices of the Galois hulls of multi-twisted codes

Authors:Ramy Taki Eldin, Patrick Sole

Abstract: In this study, we consider the Euclidean and Galois hulls of multi-twisted (MT) codes over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_{p^e}$ of characteristic $p$. Let $\mathbf{G}$ be a generator polynomial matrix (GPM) of a MT code $\mathcal{C}$. For any $0\le \kappa<e$, the $\kappa$-Galois hull of $\mathcal{C}$, denoted by $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$, is the intersection of $\mathcal{C}$ with its $\kappa$-Galois dual. The main result in this paper is that a GPM for $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$ has been obtained from $\mathbf{G}$. We start by associating a linear code $\mathcal{Q}_\mathbf{G}$ with $\mathbf{G}$. We show that $\mathcal{Q}_\mathbf{G}$ is quasi-cyclic. In addition, we prove that the dimension of $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$ is the difference between the dimension of $\mathcal{C}$ and that of $\mathcal{Q}_\mathbf{G}$. Thus the determinantal divisors are used to derive a formula for the dimension of $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$. Finally, we deduce a GPM formula for $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$. In particular, we handle the cases of $\kappa$-Galois self-orthogonal and linear complementary dual MT codes; we establish equivalent conditions that characterize these cases. Equivalent results can be deduced immediately for the classes of cyclic, constacyclic, quasi-cyclic, generalized quasi-cyclic, and quasi-twisted codes, because they are all special cases of MT codes. Some numerical examples, containing optimal and maximum distance separable codes, are used to illustrate the theoretical results.

8.Greedy Poisson Rejection Sampling

Authors:Gergely Flamich

Abstract: One-shot channel simulation is a fundamental data compression problem concerned with encoding a single sample from a target distribution $Q$ using a coding distribution $P$ using as few bits as possible on average. Algorithms that solve this problem find applications in neural data compression and differential privacy and can serve as a more efficient alternative to quantization-based methods. Sadly, existing solutions are too slow or have limited applicability, preventing widespread adoption. In this paper, we conclusively solve one-shot channel simulation for one-dimensional problems where the target-proposal density ratio is unimodal by describing an algorithm with optimal runtime. We achieve this by constructing a rejection sampling procedure equivalent to greedily searching over the points of a Poisson process. Hence, we call our algorithm greedy Poisson rejection sampling (GPRS) and analyze the correctness and time complexity of several of its variants. Finally, we empirically verify our theorems, demonstrating that GPRS significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art method, A* coding.

9.Outage Tradeoff Analysis in a Downlink Integrated Sensing and Communication Network

Authors:Marziyeh Soltani, Mahtab Mirmohseni, Rahim Tafazolli

Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the stochastic performance of a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) system in a downlink scenario, where a base station (BS) transmits a dual-functional radar-communication (DFRC) signal matrix, serving the purpose of transmitting communication data to the user while simultaneously sensing the angular location of a target. The channel between the BS and the user is modeled as a random channel with Rayleigh fading distribution, and the azimuth angle of the target is assumed to follow a uniform distribution. We use a maximum ratio transmission (MRT) beamformer to share resource between sensing and communication (S \& C) and observe the trade-off between them. We derive the approximate probability density function (PDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both the user and the target. Subsequently, leveraging the obtained PDF, we derive the expressions for the user's rate outage probability (OP), as well as the OP for the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the angle of arrival (AOA). In our numerical results, we demonstrate the trade-off between S \& C, confirmed with simulations.