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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Tue, 25 Jul 2023

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1.Nonlinear Probabilistic Constellation Shaping with Sequence Selection

Authors:Stella Civelli, Enrico Forestieri, Marco Secondini

Abstract: Probabilistic shaping is a pragmatic approach to improve the performance of coherent optical fiber communication systems. In the nonlinear regime, the advantages offered by probabilistic shaping might increase thanks to the opportunity to obtain an additional nonlinear shaping gain. Unfortunately, the optimization of conventional shaping techniques, such as probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS), yields a relevant nonlinear shaping gain only in scenarios of limited practical interest. In this manuscript we use sequence selection to investigate the potential, opportunities, and challenges offered by nonlinear probabilistic shaping. First, we show that ideal sequence selection is able to provide up to 0.13 bit/s/Hz gain with respect to PAS with an optimized blocklength. However, this additional gain is obtained only if the selection metric accounts for the signs of the symbols: they must be known to compute the selection metric, but there is no need to shape them. Furthermore, we show that the selection depends in a non-critical way on the symbol rate and link length: the sequences selected for a certain scenario still provide a relevant gain if these are modified. Then, we analyze and compare several practical implementations of sequence selection by taking into account interaction with forward error correction (FEC) and complexity. Overall, the single block and the multi block FEC-independent bit scrambling are the best options, with a gain up to 0.08 bit/s/Hz. The main challenge and limitation to their practical implementation remains the evaluation of the metric, whose complexity is currently too high. Finally, we show that the nonlinear shaping gain provided by sequence selection persists when carrier phase recovery is included.

2.The Method of Types for the AWGN Channel

Authors:Sergey Tridenski, Anelia Somekh-Baruch

Abstract: For the discrete-time AWGN channel with a power constraint, we give an alternative derivation of Shannon's sphere-packing upper bound on the optimal block error exponent and prove for the first time an analogous lower bound on the optimal correct-decoding exponent. The derivations use the method of types with finite alphabets of sizes depending on the block length n and with the number of types sub-exponential in n.

3.Multi-Objective Optimisation of URLLC-Based Metaverse Services

Authors:Xinyu Gao, Wenqiang Yi, Yuanwei Liu, Lajos Hanzo

Abstract: Metaverse aims for building a fully immersive virtual shared space, where the users are able to engage in various activities. To successfully deploy the service for each user, the Metaverse service provider and network service provider generally localise the user first and then support the communication between the base station (BS) and the user. A reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is capable of creating a reflected link between the BS and the user to enhance line-of-sight. Furthermore, the new key performance indicators (KPIs) in Metaverse, such as its energy-consumption-dependent total service cost and transmission latency, are often overlooked in ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC) designs, which have to be carefully considered in next-generation URLLC (xURLLC) regimes. In this paper, our design objective is to jointly optimise the transmit power, the RIS phase shifts, and the decoding error probability to simultaneously minimise the total service cost and transmission latency and approach the Pareto Front (PF). We conceive a twin-stage central controller, which aims for localising the users first and then supports the communication between the BS and users. In the first stage, we localise the Metaverse users, where the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithm is invoked for accurate user localisation. In the second stage, a meta-learning-based position-dependent multi-objective soft actor and critic (MO-SAC) algorithm is proposed to approach the PF between the total service cost and transmission latency and to further optimise the latency-dependent reliability. Our numerical results demonstrate that ...

4.Holographic MIMO Communications: What is the benefit of closely spaced antennas?

Authors:Antonio Alberto D'Amico, Luca Sanguinetti

Abstract: Holographic MIMO refers to an array (possibly large) with a massive number of antennas that are individually controlled and densely deployed. The aim of this paper is to provide further insights into the advantages (if any) of having closely spaced antennas in the uplink and downlink of a multi-user Holographic MIMO system. To this end, we make use of the multiport communication theory, which ensures physically consistent uplink and downlink models. We first consider a simple uplink scenario with two side-by-side half-wavelength dipoles, two users and single path line-of-sight propagation, and show both analytically and numerically that the channel gain and average spectral efficiency depend strongly on the directions from which the signals are received and on the array matching network used. Numerical results are then used to extend the analysis to more practical scenarios with a larger number of dipoles and users. The case in which the antennas are densely packed in a space-constrained factor form is also considered. It turns out that the spectral efficiency increases as the antenna distance reduces thanks to the larger number of antennas that allow to collect more energy, not because of the mutual coupling.

5.Secure Aggregation with an Oblivious Server

Authors:Hua Sun

Abstract: Secure aggregation usually aims at securely computing the sum of the inputs from $K$ users at a server. Noticing that the sum might inevitably reveal information about the inputs (when the inputs are non-uniform) and typically the users (not the server) desire the sum (in applications such as federated learning), we consider a variant of secure aggregation where the server is oblivious, i.e., the server only serves as a communication facilitator/helper to enable the users to securely compute the sum and learns nothing in the process. Our communication protocol involves one round of messages from the users to the server and one round of messages from the server to each user such that in the end each user only learns the sum of all $K$ inputs and the server learns no information about the inputs. For this secure aggregation with an oblivious server problem, we show that to compute $1$ bit of the sum securely, each user needs to send at least $1$ bit to the server, the server needs to send at least $1$ bit to each user, each user needs to hold a key of at least $2$ bits, and all users need to collectively hold at least $K$ key bits. In addition, when user dropouts are allowed, the optimal performance remains the same, except that the minimum size of the key held by each user increases to $K$ bits, per sum bit.

6.Good codes from twisted group algebras

Authors:Samir Assuena

Abstract: In this paper, we shall give an explicit proof that constacyclic codes over finite commutative rings can be realized as ideals in some twisted group rings. Also, we shall study isometries between those codes and, finally, we shall study k-Galois LCD constacyclic codes over finite fields. In particular, we shall characterize constacyclic LCD codes with respect to Euclidean inner product in terms of its idempotent generators and the classical involution using the twisted group algebras structures and find some good LCD codes.

7.On the Error-Reducing Properties of Superposition Codes

Authors:Kirill Andreev, Pavel Rybin, Alexey Frolov

Abstract: Next-generation wireless communication systems impose much stricter requirements for transmission rate, latency, and reliability. The peak data rate of 6G networks should be no less than 1 Tb/s, which is comparable to existing long-haul optical transport networks. It is believed that using long error-correcting codes (ECC) with soft-decision decoding (SDD) is not feasible in this case due to the resulting high power consumption. On the other hand, ECC with hard-decision decoding (HDD) suffers from significant performance degradation. In this paper, we consider a concatenated solution consisting of an outer long HDD code and an inner short SDD code. The latter code is a crucial component of the system and the focus of our research. Due to its short length, the code cannot correct all errors, but it is designed to minimize the number of errors. Such codes are known as error-reducing codes. We investigate the error-reducing properties of superposition codes. Initially, we explore sparse regression codes (SPARCs) with Gaussian signals. This approach outperforms error-reducing binary LDPC codes optimized by Barakatain, et al. (2018) in terms of performance but faces limitations in practical applicability due to high implementation complexity. Subsequently, we propose an LDPC-based superposition code scheme with low-complexity soft successive interference cancellation (SIC) decoding. This scheme demonstrates comparable performance to SPARCs while maintaining manageable complexity. Numerical results were obtained for inner codes with an overhead (OH) of 8.24% within a concatenated scheme (15% OH) with an outer hard-decision decoded staircase code (6.25% OH).