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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Wed, 10 May 2023

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1.MDD-Enabled Two-Tier Terahertz Fronthaul in Indoor Industrial Cell-Free Massive MIMO

Authors:Bohan Li, Diego Dupleich, Guoqing Xia, Huiyu Zhou, Yue Zhang, Pei Xiao, Lie-Liang Yang

Abstract: To make indoor industrial cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-mMIMO) networks free from wired fronthaul, this paper studies a multicarrier-division duplex (MDD)-enabled two-tier terahertz (THz) fronthaul scheme. More specifically, two layers of fronthaul links rely on the mutually orthogonal subcarreir sets in the same THz band, while access links are implemented over sub-6G band. The proposed scheme leads to a complicated mixed-integer nonconvex optimization problem incorporating access point (AP) clustering, device selection, the assignment of subcarrier sets between two fronthaul links and the resource allocation at both the central processing unit (CPU) and APs. In order to address the formulated problem, we first resort to the low-complexity but efficient heuristic methods thereby relaxing the binary variables. Then, the overall end-to-end rate is obtained by iteratively optimizing the assignment of subcarrier sets and the number of AP clusters. Furthermore, an advanced MDD frame structure consisting of three parallel data streams is tailored for the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed dynamic AP clustering approach in dealing with the varying sizes of networks. Moreover, benefiting from the well-designed frame structure, MDD is capable of outperforming TDD in the two-tier fronthaul networks. Additionally, the effect of the THz bandwidth on system performance is analyzed, and it is shown that with sufficient frequency resources, our proposed two-tier fully-wireless fronthaul scheme can achieve a comparable performance to the fiber-optic based systems. Finally, the superiority of the proposed MDD-enabled fronthaul scheme is verified in a practical scenario with realistic ray-tracing simulations.

2.Coding for IBLTs with Listing Guarantees

Authors:Daniella Bar-Lev, Avi Mizrahi, Tuvi Etzion, Ori Rottenstreich, Eitan Yaakobi

Abstract: The Invertible Bloom Lookup Table (IBLT) is a probabilistic data structure for set representation, with applications in network and traffic monitoring. It is known for its ability to list its elements, an operation that succeeds with high probability for sufficiently large table. However, listing can fail even for relatively small sets. This paper extends recent work on the worst-case analysis of IBLT, which guarantees successful listing for all sets of a certain size, by introducing more general IBLT schemes. These schemes allow for greater freedom in the implementation of the insert, delete, and listing operations and demonstrate that the IBLT memory can be reduced while still maintaining successful listing guarantees. The paper also explores the time-memory trade-off of these schemes, some of which are based on linear codes and \(B_h\)-sequences over finite fields.

3.Transaction Confirmation in Coded Blockchain

Authors:Ilan Tennenhouse, Netanel Raviv

Abstract: As blockchains continue to seek to scale to a larger number of nodes, the communication complexity of protocols has become a significant priority as the network can quickly become overburdened. Several schemes have attempted to address this, one of which uses coded computation to lighten the load. Here we seek to address one issue with all such coded blockchain schemes known to the authors: transaction confirmation. In a coded blockchain, only the leader has access to the uncoded block, while the nodes receive encoded data that makes it effectively impossible for them to identify which transactions were included in the block. As a result, a Byzantine leader might choose not to notify a sender or receiver of a transaction that the transaction went into the block, and even with an honest leader, they would not be able to produce a proof of a transaction's inclusion. To address this, we have constructed a protocol to send the nodes enough information so that a client sending or receiving a transaction is guaranteed to not only be notified but also to receive a proof of that transaction's inclusion in the block. Crucially, we do this without substantially increasing the bit complexity of the original coded blockchain protocol.

4.Integrated Access and Backhaul in 5G with Aerial Distributed Unit using OpenAirInterface

Authors:Rakesh Mundlamuri, Omid Esrafilian, Rajeev Gangula, Rohan Kharade, Cedric Roux, Florian Kaltenberger, Raymond Knopp, David Gesbert

Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate the Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB) capabilities of an aerial robot offering 5G connectivity to ground users. The robot is integrated with a distributed unit (DU) and has 5G wireless backhaul access to a terrestrial central unit (CU). The CU-DU interface fully complies with the 3GPP defined F1 application protocol (F1AP). Such aerial robots can be instantiated and configured dynamically tailoring to the network demands. The complete radio and access network solution is based on open-source software from OpenAirInterface, and off-the-shelf commercial 5G mobile terminals. Experimental results illustrate throughput gains, coverage extension and dynamic adaptability nature of the aerial DU.

5.Orders between channels and some implications for partial information decomposition

Authors:André F. C. Gomes, Mário A. T. Figueiredo

Abstract: The partial information decomposition (PID) framework is concerned with decomposing the information that a set of random variables has with respect to a target variable into three types of components: redundant, synergistic, and unique. Classical information theory alone does not provide a unique way to decompose information in this manner and additional assumptions have to be made. Inspired by Kolchinsky's recent proposal for measures of intersection information, we introduce three new measures based on well-known partial orders between communication channels and study some of their properties.

6.Secure Block Joint Source-Channel Coding with Sequential Encoding

Authors:Hamid Ghourchian, Tobias J. Oechtering, Mikael Skoglund

Abstract: We extend the results of Ghourchian et al. [IEEE JSAIT-2021], to joint source-channel coding with eavesdropping. Our work characterizes the sequential encoding process using the cumulative rate distribution functions (CRDF) and includes a security constraint using the cumulative leakage distribution functions (CLF). The information leakage is defined based on the mutual information between the source and the output of the wiretap channel to the eavesdropper. We derive inner and outer bounds on the achievable CRDF for a given source and CLF, and show that the bounds are tight when the distribution achieving the capacity of the wiretap channel is the same as the one achieving the capacity of the channel.

7.Computation-Efficient Backscatter-Blessed MEC with User Reciprocity

Authors:Bowen Gu, Hao Xie, Dong Li

Abstract: This letter proposes a new user cooperative offloading protocol called user reciprocity in backscatter communication (BackCom)-aided mobile edge computing systems with efficient computation, whose quintessence is that each user can switch alternately between the active or the BackCom mode in different slots, and one user works in the active mode and the other user works in the BackCom mode in each time slot. In particular, the user in the BackCom mode can always use the signal transmitted by the user in the active mode for more data transmission in a spectrum-sharing manner. To evaluate the proposed protocol, a computation efficiency (CE) maximization-based optimization problem is formulated by jointly power control, time scheduling, reflection coefficient adjustment, and computing frequency allocation, while satisfying various physical constraints on the maximum energy budget, the computing frequency threshold, the minimum computed bits, and harvested energy threshold. To solve this non-convex problem, Dinkelbach's method and quadratic transform are first employed to transform the complex fractional forms into linear ones. Then, an iterative algorithm is designed by decomposing the resulting problem to obtain the suboptimal solution. The closed-form solutions for the transmit power, the RC, and the local computing frequency are provided for more insights. Besides, the analytical performance gain with the reciprocal mode is also derived. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms benchmark schemes regarding the CE.

8.Access-Redundancy Tradeoffs in Quantized Linear Computations

Authors:Vinayak Ramkumar, Netanel Raviv, Itzhak Tamo

Abstract: Linear real-valued computations over distributed datasets are common in many applications, most notably as part of machine learning inference. In particular, linear computations which are quantized, i.e., where the coefficients are restricted to a predetermined set of values (such as $\pm 1$), gained increasing interest lately due to their role in efficient, robust, or private machine learning models. Given a dataset to store in a distributed system, we wish to encode it so that all such computations could be conducted by accessing a small number of servers, called the access parameter of the system. Doing so relieves the remaining servers to execute other tasks, and reduces the overall communication in the system. Minimizing the access parameter gives rise to an access-redundancy tradeoff, where smaller access parameter requires more redundancy in the system, and vice versa. In this paper we study this tradeoff, and provide several explicit code constructions based on covering codes in a novel way. While the connection to covering codes has been observed in the past, our results strictly outperform the state-of-the-art, and extend the framework to new families of computations.

9.Entropy Functions on Two-Dimensional Faces of Polymatroidal Region of Degree Four

Authors:Shaocheng Liu, Qi Chen

Abstract: In this paper, we characterize entropy functions on the 2-dimensional faces of the polymatroidal region $\Gamma_4$. We enumerate all 59 types of 2-dimensional faces of $\Gamma_4$ and fully characterized entropy functions on 27 types of them, among which 4 types are non-trivial.

10.Mixing a Covert and a Non-Covert User

Authors:Abdelaziz Bounhar, Mireille Sarkiss, Michèle Wigger

Abstract: This paper establishes the fundamental limits of a two-user single-receiver system where communication from User 1 (but not from User 2) needs to be undetectable to an external warden. Our fundamental limits show a tradeoff between the highest rates (or square-root rates) that are simultaneously achievable for the two users. Moreover, coded time-sharing for both users is fundamentally required on most channels, which distinguishes this setup from the more classical setups with either only covert users or only non-covert users. Interestingly, the presence of a non-covert user can be beneficial for improving the covert capacity of the other user.

11.Maximal Leakage of Masked Implementations Using Mrs. Gerber's Lemma for Min-Entropy

Authors:Julien Béguinot, Yi Liu, Olivier Rioul, Wei Cheng, Sylvain Guilley

Abstract: A common countermeasure against side-channel attacks on secret key cryptographic implementations is $d$th-order masking, which splits each sensitive variable into $d+1$ random shares. In this paper, maximal leakage bounds on the probability of success of any side-channel attack are derived for any masking order. Maximal leakage (Sibson's information of order infinity) is evaluated between the sensitive variable and the noisy leakage, and is related to the conditional ``min-entropy'' (Arimoto's entropy of order infinity) of the sensitive variable given the leakage. The latter conditional entropy is then lower-bounded in terms of the conditional entropies for each share using majorization inequalities. This yields a generalization of Mrs. Gerber's lemma for min-entropy in finite Abelian groups.

12.Explicit Information-Debt-Optimal Streaming Codes With Small Memory

Authors:M. Nikhil Krishnan, Myna Vajha, Vinayak Ramkumar, P. Vijay Kumar

Abstract: For a convolutional code in the presence of a symbol erasure channel, the information debt $I(t)$ at time $t$ provides a measure of the number of additional code symbols required to recover all message symbols up to time $t$. Information-debt-optimal streaming ($i$DOS) codes are convolutional codes which allow for the recovery of all message symbols up to $t$ whenever $I(t)$ turns zero under the following conditions; (i) information debt can be non-zero for at most $\tau$ consecutive time slots and (ii) information debt never increases beyond a particular threshold. The existence of periodically-time-varying $i$DOS codes are known for all parameters. In this paper, we address the problem of constructing explicit, time-invariant $i$DOS codes. We present an explicit time-invariant construction of $i$DOS codes for the unit memory ($m=1$) case. It is also shown that a construction method for convolutional codes due to Almeida et al. leads to explicit time-invariant $i$DOS codes for all parameters. However, this general construction requires a larger field size than the first construction for the $m=1$ case.

13.Perfect vs. Independent Feedback in the Multiple-Access Channel

Authors:Oliver Kosut, Michelle Effros, Michael Langberg

Abstract: The multiple access channel (MAC) capacity with feedback is considered under feedback models designed to tease out which factors contribute to the MAC feedback capacity benefit. Comparing the capacity of a MAC with ``perfect'' feedback, which causally delivers to the transmitters the true channel output, to that of a MAC with ``independent'' feedback, which causally delivers to the transmitters an independent instance of that same channel output, allows separation of effects like cooperation from alternative feedback benefits such as knowledge of the channel instance. Proving that the Cover-Leung (CL) achievability bound, which is known to be loose for some channels, is achievable also under (shared or distinct) independent feedback at the transmitters shows that the CL bound does not require transmitter knowledge of the channel instance. Proving that each transmitter's maximal rate under independent feedback exceeds that under perfect feedback highlights the potential power of an independent look at the channel output.

14.Generalizations and Extensions to Lifting Constructions for Coded Caching

Authors:V. R. Aravind, Pradeep Kiran Sarvepalli, Andrew Thangaraj

Abstract: Coded caching is a technique for achieving increased throughput in cached networks during peak hours. Placement delivery arrays (PDAs) capture both placement and delivery scheme requirements in coded caching in a single array. Lifting is a method of constructing PDAs, where entries in a small base PDA are replaced with constituent PDAs that satisfy a property called Blackburn-compatibility. We propose two new constructions for Blackburn-compatible PDAs including a novel method for lifting Blackburn-compatible PDAs to obtain new sets of Blackburn-compatible PDAs. Both of these constructions improve upon previous tradeoffs between rate, memory and subpacketization. We generalize lifting constructions by defining partial Blackburn-compatibility between two PDAs w.r.t. a third PDA. This is a wider notion of Blackburn-compatibility making the original definition a special case. We show that some popular coded caching schemes can be defined as lifting constructions in terms of this extended notion.