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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Thu, 14 Sep 2023

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1.A Tutorial on Environment-Aware Communications via Channel Knowledge Map for 6G

Authors:Yong Zeng, Junting Chen, Jie Xu, Di Wu, Xiaoli Xu, Shi Jin, Xiqi Gao, David Gesbert, Shuguang Cui, Rui Zhang

Abstract: Sixth-generation (6G) mobile communication networks are expected to have dense infrastructures, large-dimensional channels, cost-effective hardware, diversified positioning methods, and enhanced intelligence. Such trends bring both new challenges and opportunities for the practical design of 6G. On one hand, acquiring channel state information (CSI) in real time for all wireless links becomes quite challenging in 6G. On the other hand, there would be numerous data sources in 6G containing high-quality location-tagged channel data, making it possible to better learn the local wireless environment. By exploiting such new opportunities and for tackling the CSI acquisition challenge, there is a promising paradigm shift from the conventional environment-unaware communications to the new environment-aware communications based on the novel approach of channel knowledge map (CKM). This article aims to provide a comprehensive tutorial overview on environment-aware communications enabled by CKM to fully harness its benefits for 6G. First, the basic concept of CKM is presented, and a comparison of CKM with various existing channel inference techniques is discussed. Next, the main techniques for CKM construction are discussed, including both the model-free and model-assisted approaches. Furthermore, a general framework is presented for the utilization of CKM to achieve environment-aware communications, followed by some typical CKM-aided communication scenarios. Finally, important open problems in CKM research are highlighted and potential solutions are discussed to inspire future work.

2.A Gaussian Copula Approach to the Performance Analysis of Fluid Antenna Systems

Authors:Farshad Rostami Ghadi, Kai-Kit Wong, F. Javier Lopez-Martinez, Chan-Byoung Chae, Kin-Fai Tong, Yangyang Zhang

Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of a singleuser fluid antenna system (FAS), by exploiting a class of elliptical copulas to describe the structure of dependency amongst the fluid antenna ports. By expressing Jakes' model in terms of the Gaussian copula, we consider two cases: (i) the general case, i.e., any arbitrary correlated fading distribution; and (ii) the specific case, i.e., correlated Nakagami-m fading. For both scenarios, we first derive analytical expressions for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) and probability density function (PDF) of the equivalent channel in terms of multivariate normal distribution. Then, we obtain the outage probability (OP) and the delay outage rate (DOR) to analyze the performance of the FAS. By employing the popular rank correlation coefficients such as Spearman's \{rho} and Kendall's {\tau}, we measure the degree of dependency in correlated arbitrary fading channels and illustrate how the Gaussian copula can be accurately connected to Jakes' model in FAS without complicated mathematical analysis. Numerical results show that increasing the fluid antenna size provides lower OP and DOR, but the system performance saturates as the number of antenna ports increases. In addition, our results indicate that FAS provides better performance compared to conventional single-fixed antenna systems even when the size of fluid antenna is small.

3.Fluid Antenna-Assisted Dirty Multiple Access Channels over Composite Fading

Authors:Farshad Rostami Ghadi, Kai-Kit Wong, F. Javier Lopez-Martinez, Chan-Byoung Chae, Kin-Fai Tong, Yangyang Zhang

Abstract: This letter investigates the application of the emerging fluid antenna (FA) technology in multiuser communication systems when side information (SI) is available at the transmitters. In particular, we consider a K-user dirty multiple access channel (DMAC) with non-causally known SI at the transmitters, where K users send independent messages to a common receiver with a FA capable of changing its location depending on the channel condition. By connecting Jakes' model to copula theory through Spearman's {\rho} rank correlation coefficient, we accurately describe the spatial correlation between the FA channels, and derive a closed-form expression for the outage probability (OP) under Fisher-Snedecor F fading. Numerical results illustrate how considering FA can improve the performance of multiuser communication systems in terms of the OP and also support a large number of users using only one FA at the common receiver in a few wavelengths of space.

4.Estimating mutual information for spike trains: a bird song example

Authors:Jake Witter University of Bristol, Conor Houghton University of Bristol

Abstract: Zebra finch are a model animal used in the study of audition. They are adept at recognizing zebra finch songs and the neural pathway involved in song recognition is well studied. Here, this example is used to illustrate the estimation of mutual information between stimulus and response using a Kozachenko-Leonenko estimator. The challenge in calculating mutual information for spike trains is that there are no obvious coordinates for the data. The Kozachenko-Leonenko estimator does not require coordinates, it relies only on the distance between data points. In the case of bird song, estimating the mutual information demonstrates that the information content of spiking does not diminish as the song progresses.

5.Performance Analysis of RIS/STAR-IOS-aided V2V NOMA/OMA Communications over Composite Fading Channels

Authors:Farshad Rostami Ghadi, Masoud Kaveh, Diego Martin

Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of vehicleto-vehicle (V2V) communications assisted by a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) and a simultaneous transmitting and reflecting intelligent omni-surface (STAR-IOS) under nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and orthogonal multiple access (OMA) schemes. In particular, we consider that the RIS is close to the transmitter vehicle while the STAR-IOS is near the receiver vehicles. In addition, we assume that the STAR-IOS exploits the energy-splitting (ES) protocol for communication and the fading channels between the RIS and STAR-IOS follow composite Fisher-Snedecor F distribution. Under such assumptions, we first use the central limit theorem (CLT) to derive the PDF and the CDF of equivalent channels at receiver vehicles, and then, we derive the closed-form expression of outage probability (OP) under NOMA/OMA scenarios. Additionally, by exploiting Jensen's inequality, we propose an upper bound of the ergodic capacity (EC), and then, we derive an analytical expression of the energy efficiency (EE) for both NOMA and OMA cases. Further, our analytical results, which are double-checked with the Monte-Carlo simulation, reveal that applying RIS/STAR-RIS in V2V communications can significantly improve the performance of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Besides, the results indicate that considering the NOMA scheme provides better performance in terms of the OP, EC, and EE as compared with the OMA case for the considered V2V communication.