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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Wed, 17 May 2023

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1."Low Complexity Detection of Spatial Modulation Aided OTFS in Doubly-Selective Channels"

Authors:Zeping Sui, Hongming Zhang, Yu Xin, Tong Bao, Lie-Liang Yang, Lajos Hanzo

Abstract: A spatial modulation-aided orthogonal time frequency space (SM-OTFS) scheme is proposed for high-Doppler scenarios, which relies on a low-complexity distance-based detection algorithm. We first derive the delay-Doppler (DD) domain input-output relationship of our SM-OTFS system by exploiting an SM mapper, followed by characterizing the doubly-selective channels considered. Then we propose a distance-based ordering subspace check detector (DOSCD) exploiting the \emph{a priori} information of the transmit symbol vector. Moreover, we derive the discrete-input continuous-output memoryless channel (DCMC) capacity of the system. Finally, our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SM-OTFS system outperforms the conventional single-input-multiple-output (SIMO)-OTFS system, and that the DOSCD conceived is capable of striking an attractive bit error ratio (BER) vs. complexity trade-off.

2.Asynchronous Grant-Free Random Access: Receiver Design with Partially Uni-Directional Message Passing and Interference Suppression Analysis

Authors:Zhaoji Zhang, Yuhao Chi, Qinghua Guo, Ying Li, Guanghui Song, Chongwen Huang

Abstract: Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) features a massive number of low-cost user equipments (UEs) with sparse activity. Tailor-made for these features, grant-free random access (GF-RA) serves as an efficient access solution for mMTC. However, most existing GF-RA schemes rely on strict synchronization, which incurs excessive coordination burden for the low-cost UEs. In this work, we propose a receiver design for asynchronous GF-RA, and address the joint user activity detection (UAD) and channel estimation (CE) problem in the presence of asynchronization-induced inter-symbol interference. Specifically, the delay profile is exploited at the receiver to distinguish different UEs. However, a sample correlation problem in this receiver design impedes the factorization of the joint likelihood function, which complicates the UAD and CE problem. To address this correlation problem, we design a partially uni-directional (PUD) factor graph representation for the joint likelihood function. Building on this PUD factor graph, we further propose a PUD message passing based sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) algorithm for asynchronous UAD and CE (PUDMP-SBL-aUADCE). Our theoretical analysis shows that the PUDMP-SBL-aUADCE algorithm exhibits higher signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) in the asynchronous case than in the synchronous case, i.e., the proposed receiver design can exploit asynchronization to suppress multi-user interference. In addition, considering potential timing error from the low-cost UEs, we investigate the impacts of imperfect delay profile, and reveal the advantages of adopting the SBL method in this case. Finally, extensive simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the PUDMP-SBL-aUADCE algorithm.

3.Over-the-Air Federated Learning in MIMO Cloud-RAN Systems

Authors:Haoming Ma, Xiaojun Yuan, Zhi Ding

Abstract: To address the limitations of traditional over-the-air federated learning (OA-FL) such as limited server coverage and low resource utilization, we propose an OA-FL in MIMO cloud radio access network (MIMO Cloud-RAN) framework, where edge devices upload (or download) model parameters to the cloud server (CS) through access points (APs). Specifically, in every training round, there are three stages: edge aggregation; global aggregation; and model updating and broadcasting. To better utilize the correlation among APs, called inter-AP correlation, we propose modeling the global aggregation stage as a lossy distributed source coding (L-DSC) problem to make analysis from the perspective of rate-distortion theory. We further analyze the performance of the proposed OA-FL in MIMO Cloud-RAN framework. Based on the analysis, we formulate a communication-learning optimization problem to improve the system performance by considering the inter-AP correlation. To solve this problem, we develop an algorithm by using alternating optimization (AO) and majorization-minimization (MM), which effectively improves the FL learning performance. Furthermore, we propose a practical design that demonstrates the utilization of inter-AP correlation. The numerical results show that the proposed practical design effectively leverages inter-AP correlation, and outperforms other baseline schemes.

4.Optimized Joint Beamforming for Wireless Powered Over-the-Air Computation

Authors:Siyao Zhang, Xinmin Li, Yin Long, Jie Xu, Shuguang Cui

Abstract: This correspondence studies the wireless powered over-the-air computation (AirComp) for achieving sustainable wireless data aggregation (WDA) by integrating AirComp and wireless power transfer (WPT) into a joint design. In particular, we consider that a multi-antenna hybrid access point (HAP) employs the transmit energy beamforming to charge multiple single-antenna low-power wireless devices (WDs) in the downlink, and the WDs use the harvested energy to simultaneously send their messages to the HAP for AirComp in the uplink. Under this setup, we minimize the computation mean square error (MSE), by jointly optimizing the transmit energy beamforming and the receive AirComp beamforming at the HAP, as well as the transmit power at the WDs, subject to the maximum transmit power constraint at the HAP and the wireless energy harvesting constraints at individual WDs. To tackle the non-convex computation MSE minimization problem, we present an efficient algorithm to find a converged high-quality solution by using the alternating optimization technique. Numerical results show that the proposed joint WPT-AirComp approach significantly reduces the computation MSE, as compared to other benchmark schemes.

5.Stronger Polarization for the Deletion Channel

Authors:Dar Arava, Ido Tal

Abstract: In this paper we show a polar coding scheme for the deletion channel with a probability of error that decays roughly like $2^{-\sqrt{\Lambda}}$, where $\Lambda$ is the length of the codeword. That is, the same decay rate as that of seminal polar codes for memoryless channels. This is stronger than prior art in which the square root is replaced by a cube root. Our coding scheme is similar yet distinct from prior art. The main differences are: 1) Guard-bands are placed in almost all polarization levels; 2) Trellis decoding is applied to the whole received word, and not to segments of it. As before, the scheme is capacity-achieving. The price we pay for this improvement is a higher decoding complexity, which is nonetheless still polynomial, $O(\Lambda^4)$.

6.Error-Correcting Codes for Nanopore Sequencing

Authors:Anisha Banerjee, Yonatan Yehezkeally, Antonia Wachter-Zeh, Eitan Yaakobi

Abstract: Nanopore sequencers, being superior to other sequencing technologies for DNA storage in multiple aspects, have attracted considerable attention in recent times. Their high error rates however demand thorough research on practical and efficient coding schemes to enable accurate recovery of stored data. To this end, we consider a simplified model of a nanopore sequencer inspired by Mao \emph{et al.}, that incorporates intersymbol interference and measurement noise. Essentially, our channel model passes a sliding window of length $\ell$ over an input sequence, that outputs the $L_1$-weight of the enclosed $\ell$ bits and shifts by $\delta$ positions with each time step. The resulting $(\ell+1)$-ary vector, termed the \emph{read vector}, may also be corrupted by $t$ substitution errors. By employing graph-theoretic techniques, we deduce that for $\delta=1$, at least $\log \log n$ bits of redundancy are required to correct a single ($t=1$) substitution. Finally for $\ell \geq 3$, we exploit some inherent characteristics of read vectors to arrive at an error-correcting code that is optimal up to an additive constant for this setting.

7.To Re-transmit or Not to Re-transmit for Freshness

Authors:Subhankar Banerjee, Sennur Ulukus, Anthony Ephremides

Abstract: We consider a time slotted communication network with a base station (BS) and a user. At each time slot a fresh update packet arrives at the BS with probability $p>0$. When the BS transmits an update packet for the first time, it goes through with a success probability of $q_1$. In all subsequent re-transmissions, the packet goes through with a success probability of $q_2$ where $q_2>q_1$, due to the accumulation of observations at the receiver used to decode the packet. When the packet goes through the first time, the age of the user drops to 1, while when the packet goes through in subsequent transmissions, the age of the user drops to the age of the packet since its generation. Thus, when the BS is in the process of re-transmitting an old packet, if it receives a new packet, it has to decide whether to re-transmit the old packet with higher probability of successful transmission but resulting in higher age, or to transmit the new packet which will result in a lower age upon successful reception but this will happen with lower probability. In this paper, we provide an optimal algorithm to solve this problem.

8.$\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$-skew cyclic codes and their application to quantum codes

Authors:Om Prakash, Shikha Patel, Habibul Islam

Abstract: Let $p$ be a prime and $\mathbb{F}_q$ be the finite field of order $q=p^m$. In this paper, we study $\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$-skew cyclic codes where $\mathcal{R}=\mathbb{F}_q+u\mathbb{F}_q$ with $u^2=u$. To characterize $\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$-skew cyclic codes, we first establish their algebraic structure and then discuss the dual-containing properties by considering a non-degenerate inner product. Further, we define a Gray map over $\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$ and obtain their $\mathbb{F}_q$-Gray images. As an application, we apply the CSS (Calderbank-Shor-Steane) construction on Gray images of dual containing $\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$-skew cyclic codes and obtain many quantum codes with better parameters than the best-known codes available in the literature.