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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Fri, 16 Jun 2023

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1.Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface Assisted Semantic Communication Systems

Authors:Jiajia Shi, Tse-Tin Chan, Haoyuan Pan, Tat-Ming Lok

Abstract: Semantic communication, which focuses on conveying the meaning of information rather than exact bit reconstruction, has gained considerable attention in recent years. Meanwhile, reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is a promising technology that can achieve high spectral and energy efficiency by dynamically reflecting incident signals through programmable passive components. In this paper, we put forth a semantic communication scheme aided by RIS. Using text transmission as an example, experimental results demonstrate that the RIS-assisted semantic communication system outperforms the point-to-point semantic communication system in terms of BLEU scores in Rayleigh fading channels, especially at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. In addition, the RIS-assisted semantic communication system exhibits superior robustness against channel estimation errors compared to its point-to-point counterpart. RIS can improve performance as it provides extra line-of-sight (LoS) paths and enhances signal propagation conditions compared to point-to-point systems.

2.The Optimality of AIFV Codes in the Class of $2$-bit Delay Decodable Codes

Authors:Kengo Hashimoto, Ken-ichi Iwata

Abstract: AIFV (almost instantaneous fixed-to-variable length) codes are noiseless source codes that can attain a shorter average codeword length than Huffman codes by allowing a time-variant encoder with two code tables and a decoding delay of at most 2 bits. First, we consider a general class of noiseless source codes, called k-bit delay decodable codes, in which one allows a finite number of code tables and a decoding delay of at most k bits for k >= 0. Then we prove that AIFV codes achieve the optimal average codeword length in the 2-bit delay decodable codes class.

3.Terahertz Near-Field Communications and Sensing

Authors:Zhaolin Wang, Xidong Mu, Yuanwei Liu

Abstract: This article focuses on the near-field effect in terahertz (THz) communications and sensing systems. By equipping with extremely large-scale antenna arrays (ELAAs), the near-field region in THz systems can be possibly extended to hundreds of meters in proximity to THz transceivers, which necessitates the consideration of near-field effect in the THz band both for the communications and sensing. We first review the main characteristics of the near-field region in the THz bands. The signal propagation in the near-field region is characterized by spherical waves rather than planar waves in the far-field region. This distinction introduces a new distance dimension to the communication and sensing channels, which brings new opportunities and challenges for both THz communications and sensing. More particularly, 1) For THz communications, the near-field effect enables a new mechanism for beamforming, namely, beamfocusing, in the focusing region. Furthermore, in THz multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems, the near-field effect can be exploited to combat the multiplexing gain degradation caused by the sparse THz channels. To address the near-field beam split effect caused by the conventional frequency-independent hybrid beamforming architecture in THz wideband communications, we propose a pair of wideband beamforming optimization approaches by a new hybrid beamforming architecture based on true-time-delayers (TTDs). 2) For THz sensing, joint angle and distance sensing can be achieved in the near-field region. Additionally, the near-field beam split becomes a beneficial effect for enhancing the sensing performance by focusing on multiple possible target locations rather than a drawback encountered in communications. Finally, several topics for future research are discussed.

4.Analysis of the Age of Information in Age-Threshold Slotted ALOHA

Authors:Howard H. Yang, Nikolaos Pappas, Tony Q. S. Quek, Martin Haenggi

Abstract: We investigate the performance of a random access network consisting of source-destination dipoles. The source nodes transmit information packets to their destinations over a shared spectrum. All the transmitters in this network adhere to an age threshold slotted ALOHA (TSA) protocol: every source node remains silent until the age of information (AoI) reaches a threshold, after which the source accesses the radio channel with a certain probability. We derive a tight approximation for the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) meta distribution and verify its accuracy through simulations. We also obtain analytical expressions for the average AoI. Our analysis reveals that when the network is densely deployed, employing TSA significantly decreases the average AoI. The update rate and age threshold must be jointly optimized to fully exploit the potential of the TSA protocol.

5.The Information Bottleneck's Ordinary Differential Equation: First-Order Root-Tracking for the IB

Authors:Shlomi Agmon

Abstract: The Information Bottleneck (IB) is a method of lossy compression. Its rate-distortion (RD) curve describes the fundamental tradeoff between input compression and the preservation of relevant information. However, it conceals the underlying dynamics of optimal input encodings. We argue that these typically follow a piecewise smooth trajectory as the input information is being compressed, as recently shown in RD. These smooth dynamics are interrupted when an optimal encoding changes qualitatively, at a bifurcation. By leveraging the IB's intimate relations with RD, sub-optimal solutions can be seen to collide or exchange optimality there. Despite the acceptance of the IB and its applications, there are surprisingly few techniques to solve it numerically, even for finite problems whose distribution is known. We derive anew the IB's first-order Ordinary Differential Equation, which describes the dynamics underlying its optimal tradeoff curve. To exploit these dynamics, one needs not only to detect IB bifurcations but also to identify their type in order to handle them accordingly. Rather than approaching the optimal IB curve from sub-optimal directions, the latter allows us to follow a solution's trajectory along the optimal curve, under mild assumptions. Thereby, translating an understanding of IB bifurcations into a surprisingly accurate numerical algorithm.