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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Tue, 22 Aug 2023

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1.Orthogonal Constant-Amplitude Sequence Families for System Parameter Identification in Spectrally Compact OFDM

Authors:Shih-Hao Lu, Char-Dir Chung, Wei-Chang Chen, Ping-Feng Tsou

Abstract: In rectangularly-pulsed orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, constant-amplitude (CA) sequences are desirable to construct preamble/pilot waveforms to facilitate system parameter identification (SPI). Orthogonal CA sequences are generally preferred in various SPI applications like random-access channel identification. However, the number of conventional orthogonal CA sequences (e.g., Zadoff-Chu sequences) that can be adopted in cellular communication without causing sequence identification ambiguity is insufficient. Such insufficiency causes heavy performance degradation for SPI requiring a large number of identification sequences. Moreover, rectangularly-pulsed OFDM preamble/pilot waveforms carrying conventional CA sequences suffer from large power spectral sidelobes and thus exhibit low spectral compactness. This paper is thus motivated to develop several order-I CA sequence families which contain more orthogonal CA sequences while endowing the corresponding OFDM preamble/pilot waveforms with fast-decaying spectral sidelobes. Since more orthogonal sequences are provided, the developed order-I CA sequence families can enhance the performance characteristics in SPI requiring a large number of identification sequences over multipath channels exhibiting short-delay channel profiles, while composing spectrally compact OFDM preamble/pilot waveforms.

2.Multi-User Modular XL-MIMO Communications: Near-Field and Beam Focusing Pattern and User Grouping

Authors:Xinrui Li, Zhenjun Dong, Yong Zeng, Shi Jin, Rui Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate multi-user modular extremely large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (XL-MIMO) communication systems, where modular extremely large-scale uniform linear array (XL-ULA) is deployed at the base station (BS) to serve multiple single-antenna users. By exploiting the unique modular array architecture and considering the potential near-field propagation, we develop sub-array based uniform spherical wave (USW) models for distinct versus common angles of arrival/departure (AoAs/AoDs) with respect to different sub-arrays/modules, respectively. Under such USW models, we analyze the beam focusing patterns at the near-field observation location by using near-field beamforming. The analysis reveals that compared to the conventional XL-MIMO with collocated antenna elements, modular XL-MIMO can provide better spatial resolution by benefiting from its larger array aperture. However, it also incurs undesired grating lobes due to the large inter-module separation. Moreover, it is found that for multi-user modular XL-MIMO communications, the achievable signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for users may be degraded by the grating lobes of the beam focusing pattern. To address this issue, an efficient user grouping method is proposed for multi-user transmission scheduling, so that users located within the grating lobes of each other are not allocated to the same time-frequency resource block (RB) for their communications. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed user grouping method, as well as the superior performance of modular XL-MIMO over its collocated counterpart with densely distributed users.

3.Information Bottleneck Revisited: Posterior Probability Perspective with Optimal Transport

Authors:Lingyi Chen, Shitong Wu, Wenhao Ye, Huihui Wu, Hao Wu, Wenyi Zhang, Bo Bai, Yining Sun

Abstract: Information bottleneck (IB) is a paradigm to extract information in one target random variable from another relevant random variable, which has aroused great interest due to its potential to explain deep neural networks in terms of information compression and prediction. Despite its great importance, finding the optimal bottleneck variable involves a difficult nonconvex optimization problem due to the nonconvexity of mutual information constraint. The Blahut-Arimoto algorithm and its variants provide an approach by considering its Lagrangian with fixed Lagrange multiplier. However, only the strictly concave IB curve can be fully obtained by the BA algorithm, which strongly limits its application in machine learning and related fields, as strict concavity cannot be guaranteed in those problems. To overcome the above difficulty, we derive an entropy regularized optimal transport (OT) model for IB problem from a posterior probability perspective. Correspondingly, we use the alternating optimization procedure and generalize the Sinkhorn algorithm to solve the above OT model. The effectiveness and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated via numerical experiments.

4.Alternative Normalized-Preconditioning for Scalable Iterative Large-MIMO Detection

Authors:Jiuyu Liu, Yi Ma, Rahim Tafazolli

Abstract: Signal detection in large multiple-input multiple-output (large-MIMO) systems presents greater challenges compared to conventional massive-MIMO for two primary reasons. First, large-MIMO systems lack favorable propagation conditions as they do not require a substantially greater number of service antennas relative to user antennas. Second, the wireless channel may exhibit spatial non-stationarity when an extremely large aperture array (ELAA) is deployed in a large-MIMO system. In this paper, we propose a scalable iterative large-MIMO detector named ANPID, which simultaneously delivers 1) close to maximum-likelihood detection performance, 2) low computational-complexity (i.e., square-order of transmit antennas), 3) fast convergence, and 4) robustness to the spatial non-stationarity in ELAA channels. ANPID incorporates a damping demodulation step into stationary iterative (SI) methods and alternates between two distinct demodulated SI methods. Simulation results demonstrate that ANPID fulfills all the four features concurrently and outperforms existing low-complexity MIMO detectors, especially in highly-loaded large MIMO systems.

5.Fast Gao-like Decoding of Horizontally Interleaved Linearized Reed-Solomon Codes

Authors:Felicitas Hörmann, Hannes Bartz

Abstract: Both horizontal interleaving as well as the sum-rank metric are currently attractive topics in the field of code-based cryptography, as they could mitigate the problem of large key sizes. In contrast to vertical interleaving, where codewords are stacked vertically, each codeword of a horizontally $s$-interleaved code is the horizontal concatenation of $s$ codewords of $s$ component codes. In the case of horizontally interleaved linearized Reed-Solomon (HILRS) codes, these component codes are chosen to be linearized Reed-Solomon (LRS) codes. We provide a Gao-like decoder for HILRS codes that is inspired by the respective works for non-interleaved Reed-Solomon and Gabidulin codes. By applying techniques from the theory of minimal approximant bases, we achieve a complexity of $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(s^{2.373} n^{1.635})$ operations in $\mathbb{F}_{q^m}$, where $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\cdot)$ neglects logarithmic factors, $s$ is the interleaving order and $n$ denotes the length of the component codes. For reasonably small interleaving order $s \ll n$, this is subquadratic in the component-code length $n$ and improves over the only known syndrome-based decoder for HILRS codes with quadratic complexity. Moreover, it closes the performance gap to vertically interleaved LRS codes for which a decoder of complexity $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(s^{2.373} n^{1.635})$ is already known. We can decode beyond the unique-decoding radius and handle errors of sum-rank weight up to $\frac{s}{s + 1} (n - k)$ for component-code dimension $k$. We also give an upper bound on the failure probability in the zero-derivation setting and validate its tightness via Monte Carlo simulations.

6.Graph Neural Network-Enhanced Expectation Propagation Algorithm for MIMO Turbo Receivers

Authors:Xingyu Zhou, Jing Zhang, Chao-Kai Wen, Shi Jin, Shuangfeng Han

Abstract: Deep neural networks (NNs) are considered a powerful tool for balancing the performance and complexity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) receivers due to their accurate feature extraction, high parallelism, and excellent inference ability. Graph NNs (GNNs) have recently demonstrated outstanding capability in learning enhanced message passing rules and have shown success in overcoming the drawback of inaccurate Gaussian approximation of expectation propagation (EP)-based MIMO detectors. However, the application of the GNN-enhanced EP detector to MIMO turbo receivers is underexplored and non-trivial due to the requirement of extrinsic information for iterative processing. This paper proposes a GNN-enhanced EP algorithm for MIMO turbo receivers, which realizes the turbo principle of generating extrinsic information from the MIMO detector through a specially designed training procedure. Additionally, an edge pruning strategy is designed to eliminate redundant connections in the original fully connected model of the GNN utilizing the correlation information inherently from the EP algorithm. Edge pruning reduces the computational cost dramatically and enables the network to focus more attention on the weights that are vital for performance. Simulation results and complexity analysis indicate that the proposed MIMO turbo receiver outperforms the EP turbo approaches by over 1 dB at the bit error rate of $10^{-5}$, exhibits performance equivalent to state-of-the-art receivers with 2.5 times shorter running time, and adapts to various scenarios.

7.Achievable Sum-rate of variants of QAM over Gaussian Multiple Access Channel with and without security

Authors:Shifa Showkat, Zahid Bashir Dar, Shahid Mehraj Shah

Abstract: The performance of next generation wireless systems (5G/6G and beyond) at the physical layer is primarily driven by the choice of digital modulation techniques that are bandwidth and power efficient, while maintaining high data rates. Achievable rates for Gaussian input and some finite constellations (BPSK/QPSK/QAM) are well studied in the literature. However, new variants of Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) such as Cross-QAM (XQAM), Star-QAM (S-QAM), Amplitude and phase shift keying (APSK), and Hexagonal Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (H-QAM) are not studied in the context of achievable rates for meeting the demand of high data rates. In this paper, we study achievable rate region for different variants of M-QAM like Cross-QAM, H-QAM, Star-QAM and APSK. We also compute mutual information corresponding to the sum rate of Gaussian Multiple Access Channel (G-MAC), for hybrid constellation scheme, e.g., user 1 transmits using Star-QAM and user 2 by H-QAM. From the results, it is observed that S-QAM gives the maximum sum-rate when users transmit same constellations. Also, it has been found that when hybrid constellation is used, the combination of Star-QAM \& H-QAM gives the maximum rate. In the next part of the paper, we consider a scenario wherein an adversary is also present at the receiver side and is trying to decode the information. We model this scenario as Gaussian Multiple Access Wiretap Channel (G-MAW-WT). We then compute the achievable secrecy sum rate of two user G-MAC-WT with discrete inputs from different variants of QAM (viz, X-QAM, H-QAM and S-QAM).It has been found that at higher values of SNR, S-QAM gives better values of SSR than the other variants. For hybrid inputs of QAM, at lower values of SNR, combination of APSK and S-QAM gives better results and at higher values of SNR, combination of HQAM and APSK gives greater value of SSR.