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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Thu, 20 Apr 2023

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1.Transmit Power Minimization for STAR-RIS Empowered Symbiotic Radio Communications

Authors:Chao Zhou, Bin Lyu, Youhong Feng, Dinh Thai Hoang

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a simultaneously transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surface (STAR-RIS) empowered transmission scheme for symbiotic radio (SR) systems to make more flexibility for network deployment and enhance system performance. The STAR-RIS is utilized to not only beam the primary signals from the base station (BS) towards multiple primary users on the same side of the STAR-RIS, but also achieve the secondary transmission to the secondary users on another side. We consider both the broadcasting signal model and unicasting signal model at the BS. For each model, we aim for minimizing the transmit power of the BS by designing the active beamforming and simultaneous reflection and transmission coefficients under the practical phase correlation constraint. To address the challenge of solving the formulated problem, we propose a block coordinate descent based algorithm with the semidefinite relaxation, penalty dual decomposition and successive convex approximation methods, which decomposes the original problem into one sub-problem about active beamforming and the other sub-problem about simultaneous reflection and transmission coefficients, and iteratively solve them until the convergence is achieved. Numerical results indicate that the proposed scheme can reduce up to 150.6% transmit power compared to the backscattering device enabled scheme.

2.The Seven Worlds and Experiences of the Wireless Metaverse: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors:Omar Hashash, Christina Chaccour, Walid Saad, Tao Yu, Kei Sakaguchi, Merouane Debbah

Abstract: The wireless metaverse will create diverse user experiences at the intersection of the physical, digital, and virtual worlds. These experiences will enable novel interactions between the constituents (e.g., extended reality (XR) users and avatars) of the three worlds. However, remarkably, to date, there is no holistic vision that identifies the full set of metaverse worlds, constituents, and experiences, and the implications of their associated interactions on next-generation communication and computing systems. In this paper, we present a holistic vision of a limitless, wireless metaverse that distills the metaverse into an intersection of seven worlds and experiences that include the: i) physical, digital, and virtual worlds, along with the ii) cyber, extended, live, and parallel experiences. We then articulate how these experiences bring forth interactions between diverse metaverse constituents, namely, a) humans and avatars and b) connected intelligence systems and their digital twins (DTs). Then, we explore the wireless, computing, and artificial intelligence (AI) challenges that must be addressed to establish metaverse-ready networks that support these experiences and interactions. We particularly highlight the need for end-to-end synchronization of DTs, and the role of human-level AI and reasoning abilities for cognitive avatars. Moreover, we articulate a sequel of open questions that should ignite the quest for the future metaverse. We conclude with a set of recommendations to deploy the limitless metaverse over future wireless systems.

3.To Reflect or Not To Reflect: On-Off Control and Number Configuration for Reflecting Elements in RIS-Aided Wireless Systems

Authors:Hao Xie, Dong Li

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) has been regarded as a promising technique due to its high array gain and low power. However, the traditional passive RIS suffers from the ``double fading'' effect, which has restricted the performance of passive RIS-aided communications. Fortunately, active RIS can alleviate this problem since it can adjust the phase shift and amplify the received signal simultaneously. Nevertheless, a high beamforming gain often requires a number of reflecting elements, which leads to non-negligible power consumption, especially for the active RIS. Thus, one challenge is how to improve the scalability of the RIS and the energy efficiency. Different from the existing works where all reflecting elements are activated, we propose a novel element on-off mechanism where reflecting elements can be flexibly activated and deactivated. Two different optimization problems for passive RIS and active RIS are formulated by maximizing the total energy efficiency. We develop two different alternating optimization-based iterative algorithms to obtain sub-optimal solutions. Furthermore, we consider special cases involving rate maximization problems for given the same total power budget, and respectively analyze the number configuration for passive RIS and active RIS. Simulation results verify that reflecting elements under the proposed algorithms can be flexibly activated and deactivated.

4.DNA-Correcting Codes: End-to-end Correction in DNA Storage Systems

Authors:Avital Boruchovsky, Daniella Bar-Lev, Eitan Yaakobi

Abstract: This paper introduces a new solution to DNA storage that integrates all three steps of retrieval, namely clustering, reconstruction, and error correction. DNA-correcting codes are presented as a unique solution to the problem of ensuring that the output of the storage system is unique for any valid set of input strands. To this end, we introduce a novel distance metric to capture the unique behavior of the DNA storage system and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for DNA-correcting codes. The paper also includes several upper bounds and constructions of DNA-correcting codes.

5.Adaptive Greedy Rejection Sampling

Authors:Gergely Flamich, Lucas Theis

Abstract: We consider channel simulation protocols between two communicating parties, Alice and Bob. First, Alice receives a target distribution $Q$, unknown to Bob. Then, she employs a shared coding distribution $P$ to send the minimum amount of information to Bob so that he can simulate a single sample $X \sim Q$. For discrete distributions, Harsha et al. (2009) developed a well-known channel simulation protocol -- greedy rejection sampling (GRS) -- with a bound of ${D_{KL}[Q \,\Vert\, P] + 2\ln(D_{KL}[Q \,\Vert\, P] + 1) + \mathcal{O}(1)}$ on the expected codelength of the protocol. In this paper, we extend the definition of GRS to general probability spaces and allow it to adapt its proposal distribution after each step. We call this new procedure Adaptive GRS (AGRS) and prove its correctness. Furthermore, we prove the surprising result that the expected runtime of GRS is exactly $\exp(D_\infty[Q \,\Vert\, P])$, where $D_\infty[Q \,\Vert\, P]$ denotes the R\'enyi $\infty$-divergence. We then apply AGRS to Gaussian channel simulation problems. We show that the expected runtime of GRS is infinite when averaged over target distributions and propose a solution that trades off a slight increase in the coding cost for a finite runtime. Finally, we describe a specific instance of AGRS for 1D Gaussian channels inspired by hybrid coding. We conjecture and demonstrate empirically that the runtime of AGRS is $\mathcal{O}(D_{KL}[Q \,\Vert\, P])$ in this case.

6.New Closed-Form ASER Expressions for Dual-Hop Mixed THz-RF Cooperative Relay Networks

Authors:Soumendu Das, Nagendra Kumar, Dharmendra Dixit

Abstract: In this paper, we consider a dual-hop mixed THz-RF system model for backhaul-fronthaul applications where the link between source and destination is established only through the relay node in which decode-and-forward relaying protocol is used. The THz link suffers from the joint impact of antenna misalignment and stochastic characteristics of wireless channels, including the effect of environmental conditions such as pressure, humidity, and temperature. The envelope of THz link in the first hop follows a generalized $\alpha-\mu$ distribution, and for the RF end, the Nakagami-$m$ distribution is considered. In this context, we obtain new closed-form expressions of the cumulative density function and the moment-generating function of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Further, we derive the average symbol error rate expressions for coherent rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (RQAM) and coherent hexagonal QAM (HQAM), as well as the non-coherent modulation scheme. The asymptotic behavior is also discussed to examine the system's diversity. Furthermore, the impact of several parameters, such as fading coefficients of individual links and antenna misalignment, as well as the distance between nodes, are also highlighted in the system's performance. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations are used to validate the presented analytical framework. Finally, the presented numerical insights aid in the extraction of practical design principles.