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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Thu, 17 Aug 2023

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1.Movable-Antenna Array Enhanced Beamforming: Achieving Full Array Gain with Null Steering

Authors:Lipeng Zhu, Wenyan Ma, Rui Zhang

Abstract: Conventional beamforming with fixed-position antenna (FPA) arrays has a fundamental trade-off between maximizing the signal power (array gain) over a desired direction and simultaneously minimizing the interference power over undesired directions. To overcome this limitation, this letter investigates the movable antenna (MA) array enhanced beamforming by exploiting the new degree of freedom (DoF) via antenna position optimization, in addition to the design of antenna weights. We show that by jointly optimizing the antenna positions vector (APV) and antenna weights vector (AWV) of a linear MA array, the full array gain can be achieved over the desired direction while null steering can be realized over all undesired directions, under certain numbers of MAs and null-steering directions. The optimal solutions for AWV and APV are derived in closed form, which reveal that the optimal AWV for MA arrays requires only the signal phase adjustment with a fixed amplitude. Numerical results validate our analytical solutions for MA array beamforming and show their superior performance to the conventional beamforming techniques with FPA arrays.

2.Secure Transmission in NOMA-enabled Industrial IoT with Resource-Constrained Untrusted Devices

Authors:Sapna Thapar, Deepak Mishra, Ravikant Saini

Abstract: The security of confidential information associated with devices in the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) network is a serious concern. This article focuses on achieving a nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-enabled secure IIoT network in the presence of untrusted devices by jointly optimizing the resources, such as decoding order and power allocated to devices. Assuming that the devices are resource-constrained for performing perfect successive interference cancellation (SIC), we characterize the residual interference at receivers with the linear model. Firstly, considering all possible decoding orders in an untrusted scenario, we obtain secure decoding orders that are feasible to obtain a positive secrecy rate for each device. Then, under the secrecy fairness criterion, we formulate a joint optimization problem of maximizing the minimum secrecy rate among devices. Since the formulated problem is non-convex and combinatorial, we first obtain the optimal secure decoding order and then solve it for power allocation by analyzing Karush-Kuhn-Tucker points. Thus, we provide the closed-form global-optimal solution of the formulated optimization problem. Numerical results validate the analytical claims and demonstrate an interesting observation that the conventional decoding order and assigning more power allocation to the weak device, as presumed in many works on NOMA, is not an optimal strategy from the secrecy fairness viewpoint. Also, the average percentage gain of about 22.75%, 50.58%, 94.59%, and 98.16%, respectively, is achieved by jointly optimized solution over benchmarks ODEP (optimal decoding order, equal power allocation), ODFP (optimal decoding order, fixed power allocation), FDEP (fixed decoding order, equal power allocation), and FDFP (fixed decoding order, fixed power allocation).

3.Secrecy Outage Probability Analysis for Downlink Untrusted NOMA Under Practical SIC Error

Authors:Sapna Thapar, Deepak Mishra, Derrick Wing Kwan Ng, Ravikant Saini

Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) serves multiple users simultaneously via the same resource block by exploiting superposition coding at the transmitter and successive interference cancellation (SIC) at the receivers. Under practical considerations, perfect SIC may not be achieved. Thus, residual interference (RI) occurs inevitably due to imperfect SIC. In this work, we first propose a novel model for characterizing RI to provide a more realistic secrecy performance analysis of a downlink NOMA system under imperfect SIC at receivers. In the presence of untrusted users, NOMA has an inherent security flaw. Therefore, for this untrusted users' scenario, we derive new analytical expressions of secrecy outage probability (SOP) for each user in a two-user untrusted NOMA system by using the proposed RI model. To further shed light on the obtained results and obtain a deeper understanding, a high signal-to-noise ratio approximation of the SOPs is also obtained. Lastly, numerical investigations are provided to validate the accuracy of the desired analytical results and present valuable insights into the impact of various system parameters on the secrecy rate performance of the secure NOMA communication system.

4.Secrecy Outage Probability Analysis for Downlink NOMA with Imperfect SIC at Untrusted Users

Authors:Sapna Thapar, Insha Amin, Deepak Mishra, Ravikant Saini

Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has come to the fore as a spectrally efficient technique for fifth-generation networks and beyond. At the same time, NOMA faces severe security issues in the presence of untrusted users due to successive interference cancellation (SIC)-based decoding at receivers. In this paper, to make the system model more realistic, we consider the impact of imperfect SIC during the decoding process. Assuming the downlink mode, we focus on designing a secure NOMA communication protocol for the considered system model with two untrusted users. In this regard, we obtain the power allocation bounds to achieve a positive secrecy rate for both near and far users. Analytical expressions of secrecy outage probability (SOP) for both users are derived to analyze secrecy performance. Closed-form approximations of SOPs are also provided to gain analytical insights. Lastly, numerical results have been presented, which validate the exactness of the analysis and reveal the effect of various key parameters on achieved secrecy performance.

5.Untrusted NOMA with Imperfect SIC: Outage Performance Analysis and Optimization

Authors:Sapna Thapar, Deepak Mishra, Ravikant Saini

Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has come to the fore as a spectral-efficient technique for fifth-generation and beyond communication networks. We consider the downlink of a NOMA system with untrusted users. In order to consider a more realistic scenario, imperfect successive interference cancellation is assumed at the receivers during the decoding process. Since pair outage probability (POP) ensures a minimum rate guarantee to each user, it behaves as a measure of the quality of service for the pair of users. With the objective of designing a reliable communication protocol, we derive the closed-form expression of POP. Further, we find the optimal power allocation that minimizes the POP. Lastly, numerical results have been presented which validate the exactness of the analysis, and reveal the effect of various key parameters on achieved pair outage performance. In addition, we benchmark optimal power allocation against equal and fixed power allocations with respect to POP. The results indicate that optimal power allocation results in improved communication reliability.

6.User-Pair Selection for QoS-Aware Secrecy Rate Maximization in Untrusted NOMA

Authors:Sapna Thapar, Deepak Mishra, Ravikant Saini, Zhiguo Ding

Abstract: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been recognized as one of the key enabling technologies for future generation wireless networks. Sharing the same time-frequency resource among users imposes secrecy challenges in NOMA in the presence of untrusted users. This paper characterizes the impact of user-pair selection on the secrecy performance of an untrusted NOMA system. In this regard, an optimization problem is formulated to maximize the secrecy rate of the strong user while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) demands of the user with poorer channel conditions. To solve this problem, we first obtain optimal power allocation in a two-user NOMA system, and then investigate the user-pair selection problem in a more generalized four user NOMA system. Extensive performance evaluations are conducted to validate the accuracy of the proposed results and present valuable insights on the impact of various system parameters on the secrecy performance of the NOMA communication system.

7.Coexistence of Heterogeneous Services in the Uplink with Discrete Signaling and Treating Interference as Noise

Authors:Min Qiu, Yu-Chih Huang, Jinhong Yuan

Abstract: The problem of enabling the coexistence of heterogeneous services, e.g., different ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) services and/or enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) services, in the uplink is studied. Each service has its own error probability and blocklength constraints and the longer transmission block suffers from heterogeneous interference. Due to the latency concern, the decoding of URLLC messages cannot leverage successive interference cancellation (SIC) and should always be performed before the decoding of eMBB messages. This can significantly degrade the achievable rates of URLLC users when the interference from other users is strong. To overcome this issue, we propose a new transmission scheme based on discrete signaling and treating interference as noise decoding, i.e., without SIC. Guided by the deterministic model, we provide a systematic way to construct discrete signaling for handling heterogeneous interference effectively. We demonstrate theoretically and numerically that the proposed scheme can perform close to the benchmark scheme based on capacity-achieving Gaussian signaling with the assumption of perfect SIC.

8.Unfolding for Joint Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection in MIMO Communication Systems

Authors:Swati Bhattacharya, K. V. S. Hari, Yonina C. Eldar

Abstract: This paper proposes a Joint Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection (JED) scheme for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. Our proposed method for JED using Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (JED-ADMM) and its model-based neural network version JED using Unfolded ADMM (JED-U-ADMM) markedly improve the symbol detection performance over JED using Alternating Minimization (JED-AM) for a range of MIMO antenna configurations. Both proposed algorithms exploit the non-smooth constraint, that occurs as a result of the Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) data symbols, to effectively improve the performance using the ADMM iterations. The proposed unfolded network JED-U-ADMM consists of a few trainable parameters and requires a small training set. We show the efficacy of the proposed methods for both uncorrelated and correlated MIMO channels. For certain configurations, the gain in SNR for a desired BER of $10^{-2}$ for the proposed JED-ADMM and JED-U-ADMM is upto $4$ dB and is also accompanied by a significant reduction in computational complexity of upto $75\%$, depending on the MIMO configuration, as compared to the complexity of JED-AM.

9.New Properties of Intrinsic Information and Their Relation to Bound Secrecy

Authors:Andrey Khesin, Andrew Tung, Karthik Vedula

Abstract: The secret-key rate measures the rate at which Alice and Bob can extract secret bits from sampling a joint probability distribution, unknown to an eavesdropper Eve. The secret-key rate has been bounded above by the intrinsic information and reduced intrinsic information. However, we prove that the reduced intrinsic information is 0 if and only if the intrinsic information is 0. This result implies that at least one of the following two conjectures is false: bound secrecy exists, or the reduced intrinsic information equals the secret-key rate. We give an explicit construction of an information-erasing binarization for a candidate for bound secrecy. We then introduce some approaches for proving the existence of bound secrecy, such as reducing the channel space, linearly transforming Bob's map, and perturbing a channel for Eve.