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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Fri, 18 Aug 2023

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1.Training-Free Energy Beamforming Assisted by Wireless Sensing

Authors:Li Zhang, Yuan Fang, Zixiang Ren, Ling Qiu, Jie Xu

Abstract: This paper studies the transmit energy beamforming in a multi-antenna wireless power transfer (WPT) system, in which an access point (AP) equipped with a uniform linear array (ULA) sends radio signals to wirelessly charge multiple single-antenna energy receivers (ERs). Different from conventional energy beamforming designs that require the AP to acquire the channel state information (CSI) via training and feedback, we propose a new training-free energy beamforming approach assisted by wireless radar sensing, which is implemented based on the following two-stage protocol. In the first stage, the AP performs wireless radar sensing to estimate the path gain and angle parameters of the ERs for constructing the corresponding CSI. In the second stage, the AP implements the transmit energy beamforming based on the constructed CSI to efficiently charge these ERs in a fair manner. Under this setup, first, we jointly optimize the sensing beamformers and duration in the first stage to minimize the sensing duration, while ensuring a given accuracy threshold for parameters estimation subject to the maximum transmit power constraint at the AP. Next, we optimize the energy beamformers in the second stage to maximize the minimum harvested energy by all ERs. In this approach, the estimation accuracy threshold for the first stage is properly designed to balance the resource allocation between the two stages for optimizing the ultimate energy harvesting performance. Finally, numerical results show that the proposed training-free energy beamforming design performs close to the performance upper bound with perfect CSI, and outperforms the benchmark schemes without such joint optimization and that with isotropic transmission.

2.A Rank-One Optimization Framework and Its Applications to Transmit Beamforming

Authors:Tuan Anh Le, Derrick Wing Kwan Ng, Xin-She Yang

Abstract: This paper proposes an elegant optimization framework consisting of a mix of linear-matrix-inequality and second-order-cone constraints. The proposed framework generalizes the semidefinite relaxation (SDR) enabled solution to the typical transmit beamforming problems presented in the form of quadratically constrained quadratic programs (QCQPs) in the literature. It is proved that the optimization problems subsumed under the framework always admit a rank-one optimal solution when they are feasible and their optimal solutions are not trivial. This finding indicates that the relaxation is tight as the optimal solution of the original beamforming QCQP can be straightforwardly obtained from that of the SDR counterpart without any loss of optimality. Four representative examples of transmit beamforming, i.e., transmit beamforming with perfect channel state information (CSI), transmit beamforming with imperfect CSI, chance-constraint approach for imperfect CSI, and reconfigurable-intelligent-surface (RIS) aided beamforming, are shown to demonstrate how the proposed optimization framework can be realized in deriving the SDR counterparts for different beamforming designs.

3.STAR-RIS Aided MISO SWIPT-NOMA System with Energy Buffer: Performance Analysis and Optimization

Authors:Kengyuan Xie, Guofa Cai, Jiguang He, Georges Kaddoum

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a simultaneous transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surface (STAR-RIS) and energy buffer aided multiple-input single-output (MISO) simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system, which consists of a STAR-RIS, an access point (AP), and reflection users and transmission users with energy buffers. In the proposed system, the multi-antenna AP can transmit information and energy to several single-antenna reflection and transmission users simultaneously in a NOMA fashion, where the power transfer and information transmission states of the users are modeled using Markov chains. The reflection and transmission users harvest and store the energy in energy buffers as additional power supplies. The power outage probability, information outage probability, sum throughput, and joint outage probability closed-form expressions of the proposed system are derived over Nakagami-m fading channels, which are validated via simulations. Results demonstrate that the proposed system achieves better performance in comparison to the STAR-RIS aided MISO SWIPT-NOMA buffer-less, conventional RIS and energy buffer aided MISO SWIPT-NOMA, and STAR-RIS and energy buffer aided MISO SWIPT-time-division multiple access (TDMA) systems. Furthermore, a particle swarm optimization based power allocation (PSO-PA) algorithm is designed to maximize the sum throughput with a constraint on the joint outage probability. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed PSO-PA algorithm can achieve an improved sum throughput performance of the proposed system.

4.Multiuser Communications with Movable-Antenna Base Station: Joint Antenna Positioning, Receive Combining, and Power Control

Authors:Zhenyu Xiao, Xiangyu Pi, Lipeng Zhu, Xiang-Gen Xia, Rui Zhang

Abstract: Movable antenna (MA) is an emerging technology which enables a local movement of the antenna in the transmitter/receiver region for improving the channel condition and communication performance. In this paper, we study the deployment of multiple MAs at the base station (BS) for enhancing the multiuser communication performance. First, we model the multiuser channel in the uplink to characterize the wireless channel variation due to MAs' movements at the BS. Then, an optimization problem is formulated to maximize the minimum achievable rate among multiple users for MA-aided uplink multiuser communications by jointly optimizing the MAs' positions, their receive combining at the BS, and the transmit power of users, under the constraints of finite moving region for MAs, minimum inter-MA distance, and maximum transmit power of each user. To solve this challenging non-convex optimization problem, a two-loop iterative algorithm is proposed by leveraging the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Specifically, the outer-loop updates the positions of a set of particles, where each particle's position represents one realization of the antenna position vector (APV) of all MAs. The inner-loop implements the fitness evaluation for each particle in terms of the max-min achievable rate of multiple users with its corresponding APV, where the receive combining matrix of the BS and the transmit power of each user are optimized by applying the block coordinate descent (BCD) technique. Simulation results show that the antenna position optimization for MAs-aided BSs can significantly improve the rate performance as compared to conventional BSs with fixed-position antennas (FPAs).

5.Angle-Delay Profile-Based and Timestamp-Aided Dissimilarity Metrics for Channel Charting

Authors:Phillip Stephan, Florian Euchner, Stephan ten Brink

Abstract: Channel charting is a self-supervised learning technique whose objective is to reconstruct a map of the radio environment, called channel chart, by taking advantage of similarity relationships in high-dimensional channel state information. We provide an overview of processing steps and evaluation methods for channel charting and propose a novel dissimilarity metric that takes into account angular-domain information as well as a novel deep learning-based metric. Furthermore, we suggest a method to fuse dissimilarity metrics such that both the time at which channels were measured as well as similarities in channel state information can be taken into consideration while learning a channel chart. By applying both classical and deep learning-based manifold learning to a dataset containing sub-6GHz distributed massive MIMO channel measurements, we show that our metrics outperform previously proposed dissimilarity measures. The results indicate that the new metrics improve channel charting performance, even under non-line-of-sight conditions.

6.Joint Optimization of IRS Deployment and Passive Beamforming to Enhance the Received Power

Authors:Jyotsna Rani, Deepak Mishra, Ganesh Prasad, Ashraf Hossain, Swades De, Kuntal Deka

Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) has recently emerged as a promising technology for beyond fifth-generation (B5G) and 6G networks conceived from metamaterials that smartly tunes the signal reflections via a large number of low-cost passive reflecting elements. However, the IRS-assisted communication model and the optimization of available resources needs to be improved further for more efficient communications. This paper investigates the enhancement of received power at the user end in an IRS assisted wireless communication by jointly optimizing the phase shifts at the IRS elements and its location. Employing the conventional Friss transmission model, the relationship between the transmitted power and reflected power is established. The expression of received power incorporates the free space loss, reflection loss factor, physical dimension of the IRS panel, and radiation pattern of the transmit signal. Also, the expression of reflection coefficient of IRS panel is obtained by exploiting the existing data of radar communications. Initially exploring a single IRS element within a two-ray reflection model, we extend it to a more complex multi-ray reflection model with multiple IRS elements in 3D Cartesian space. The received power expression is derived in a more tractable form, then, it is maximized by jointly optimizing the underlying underlying variables, the IRS location and the phase shifts. To realize the joint optimization of underlying variables, first, the phase shifts of the IRS elements are optimized to achieve constructive interference of received signal components at the user. Subsequently, the location of the IRS is optimized at the obtained optimal phase shifts. Numerical insights and performance comparison reveal that joint optimization leads to a substantial 37% enhancement in received power compared to the closest competitive benchmark scheme.