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Information Theory (cs.IT)

Wed, 16 Aug 2023

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1.Resolution of Near-Field Beamforming and Its Impact on NOMA

Authors:Zhiguo Ding

Abstract: The resolution of near-field beamforming is an important metric to measure how effectively users with different locations can be located. This letter identifies the condition under which the resolution of near-field beamforming is not perfect. This imperfect resolution means that one user's near-field beam can be still useful to other users, which motivates the application of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). Both the analytical and simulation results are developed to demonstrate that those near-field beams preconfigured for legacy users can indeed be used to effectively serve additional NOMA users, which improves the overall connectivity and system throughput.

2.Hybrid Polar Encoding with Applications in Non-Coherent Channels

Authors:Mengfan Zheng

Abstract: In coding theory, an error-correcting code can be encoded either systematically or non-systematically. In a systematic encode, the input data is embedded in the encoded output. Conversely, in a non-systematic code, the output does not contain the input symbols. In this paper, we propose a hybrid encoding scheme for polar codes, in which some data bits are systematically encoded while the rest are non-systematically encoded. Based on the proposed scheme, we design a joint channel estimation and data decoding scheme. We use the systematic bits in the hybrid encoding scheme as pilots for channel estimation. To mitigate the code rate loss caused by the pilots and to provide additional error detecting capability, we propose a dynamic pilot design by building connections between the systematic bits and non-systematic bits. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed scheme approaches that of the traditional non-systematic polar coding scheme with perfect channel state information (CSI) with the increase of SNR.

3.A Hybrid Wireless Image Transmission Scheme with Diffusion

Authors:Xueyan Niu, Xu Wang, Deniz Gündüz, Bo Bai, Weichao Chen, Guohua Zhou

Abstract: We propose a hybrid joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme, in which the conventional digital communication scheme is complemented with a generative refinement component to improve the perceptual quality of the reconstruction. The input image is decomposed into two components: the first is a coarse compressed version, and is transmitted following the conventional separation based approach. An additional component is obtained through the diffusion process by adding independent Gaussian noise to the input image, and is transmitted using DeepJSCC. The decoder combines the two signals to produce a high quality reconstruction of the source. Experimental results show that the hybrid design provides bandwidth savings and enables graceful performance improvement as the channel quality improves.

4.Perpetual Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces Through In-Band Energy Harvesting: Architectures, Protocols, and Challenges

Authors:Konstantinos Ntontin, Alexandros-Apostolos A. Boulogeorgos, Sergi Abadal, Agapi Mesodiakaki, Symeon Chatzinotas, Björn Ottersten

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are considered to be a key enabler of highly energy-efficient 6G and beyond networks. This property arises from the absence of power amplifiers in the structure, in contrast to active nodes, such as small cells and relays. However, still an amount of power is required for their operation. To improve their energy efficiency further, we propose the notion of perpetual RISs, which secure the power needed to supply their functionalities through wireless energy harvesting of the impinging transmitted electromagnetic signals. Towards this, we initially explain the rationale behind such RIS capability and proceed with the presentation of the main RIS controller architecture that can realize this vision under an in-band energy harvesting consideration. Furthermore, we present a typical energy-harvesting architecture followed by two harvesting protocols. Subsequently, we study the performance of the two protocols under a typical communications scenario. Finally, we elaborate on the main research challenges governing the realization of large-scale networks with perpetual RISs.

5.PSA Based Power Control for Cell-Free Massive MIMO under LoS/NLoS Channels

Authors:Ashish Pratap Singh, Ribhu Chopra

Abstract: A primary design goal of the cell-free~(CF) massive MIMO architecture is to provide uniformly good coverage to all the user equipments~(UEs) connected to the network. However, it has been found that this requirement may not be satisfied in case the channels between the access points~(APs) and the UEs are mixed LoS/NLoS. In this paper, we try to address this issue via the use of appropriate power control in both the uplink and downlink of a CF massive MIMO system under mixed LoS/NLoS channels. We find that simplistic power control techniques, such as channel inversion-based power control perform sub-optimally as compared to max-min power control. As a consequence, we propose a particle swarm algorithm~(PSA) based power control algorithm to optimize the performance of the system under study. We then use numerical simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed PSA-based solution and show that it results in a significant improvement in the fairness of the underlying system while incurring a lower computational complexity.

6.Incremental Collaborative Beam Alignment for Millimeter Wave Cell-Free MIMO Systems

Authors:Cheng Zhang, Leming Chen, Lujia Zhang, Yongming Huang, Wei Zhang

Abstract: Millimeter wave (mmWave) cell-free MIMO achieves an extremely high rate while its beam alignment (BA) suffers from excessive overhead due to a large number of transceivers. Recently, user location and probing measurements are utilized for BA based on machine learning (ML) models, e.g., deep neural network (DNN). However, most of these ML models are centralized with high communication and computational overhead and give no specific consideration to practical issues, e.g., limited training data and real-time model updates. In this paper, we study the {probing} beam-based BA for mmWave cell-free MIMO downlink with the help of broad learning (BL). For channels without and with uplink-downlink reciprocity, we propose the user-side and base station (BS)-side BL-aided incremental collaborative BA approaches. Via transforming the centralized BL into a distributed learning with data and feature splitting respectively, the user-side and BS-side schemes realize implicit sharing of multiple user data and multiple BS features. Simulations confirm that the user-side scheme is applicable to fast time-varying and/or non-stationary channels, while the BS-side scheme is suitable for systems with low-bandwidth fronthaul links and a central unit with limited computing power. The advantages of proposed schemes are also demonstrated compared to traditional and DNN-aided BA schemes.

7.Soft-Information Post-Processing for Chase-Pyndiah Decoding Based on Generalized Mutual Information

Authors:Andreas Straßhofer, Diego Lentner, Gianluigi Liva, Alexandre Graell i Amat

Abstract: Chase-Pyndiah decoding is widely used for decoding product codes. However, this method is suboptimal and requires scaling the soft information exchanged during the iterative processing. In this paper, we propose a framework for obtaining the scaling coefficients based on maximizing the generalized mutual information. Our approach yields gains up to 0.11 dB for product codes with two-error correcting extended BCH component codes over the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise channel compared to the original Chase-Pyndiah decoder with heuristically obtained coefficients. We also introduce an extrinsic version of the Chase-Pyndiah decoder and associate product codes with a turbo-like code ensemble to derive a Monte Carlo-based density evolution analysis. The resulting iterative decoding thresholds accurately predict the onset of the waterfall region.

8.Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Multi-Hop Decode-and-Forward Networks

Authors:Shalanika Dayarathna, Rajitha Senanayake, Jamie Evans

Abstract: This paper analyses the data rate achieved by various relay selection schemes in a single-user multi-hop relay network with decode-and-forward (DF) relaying. While the single-user relay selection problem is well studied in the literature, research on achievable rate maximization is limited to dual-hop networks and multi-hop networks with a single relay per hop. We fill this important gap by focusing on achievable rate maximization in multi-hop, multi-relay networks. First, we consider optimal relay selection and obtain two approximations to the achievable rate. Next, we consider three existing sub-optimal relay selection strategies namely hop-by-hop, ad-hoc and block-by-block relay selection and obtain exact expressions for the achievable rate under each of these strategies. We also extend the sliding window based relay selection to the DF relay network and derive an approximation to the achievable rate. Further, we investigate the impact of window size in sliding window based relay selection and show that a window size of three is sufficient to achieve most of the possible performance gains. Finally, we extend this analysis to a noise limited multi-user network where the number of available relay nodes is large compared to the number of users and derive approximations to the achievable sum-rate.

9.Probabilistic Ray-Tracing Aided Positioning at mmWave frequencies

Authors:Viet-Hoa Nguyen, Vincent Corlay, Nicolas Gresset, Cristina Ciochina

Abstract: We consider the following positioning problem where several base stations (BS) try to locate a user equipment (UE): The UE sends a positioning signal to several BS. Each BS performs Angle of Arrival (AoA) measurements on the received signal. These AoA measurements as well as a 3D model of the environment are then used to locate the UE. We propose a method to exploit not only the geometrical characteristics of the environment by a ray-tracing simulation, but also the statistical characteristics of the measurements to enhance the positioning accuracy.