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Optimization and Control (math.OC)

Mon, 15 May 2023

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1.Optimal harvesting policy for biological resources with uncertain heterogeneity for application in fisheries management

Authors:Hidekazu Yoshioka

Abstract: Conventional harvesting problems for natural resources often assume physiological homogeneity of the body length/weight among individuals. However, such assumptions generally are not valid in real-world problems, where heterogeneity plays an essential role in the planning of biological resource harvesting. Furthermore, it is difficult to observe heterogeneity directly from the available data. This paper presents a novel optimal control framework for the cost-efficient harvesting of biological resources for application in fisheries management. The heterogeneity is incorporated into the resource dynamics, which is the population dynamics in this case, through a probability density that can be distorted from the reality. Subsequently, the distortion, which is the model uncertainty, is penalized through a divergence, leading to a non-standard dynamic differential game wherein the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs (HJBI) equation has a unique nonlinear partial differential term. Here, the existence and uniqueness results of the HJBI equation are presented along with an explicit monotone finite difference method. Finally, the proposed optimal control is applied to a harvesting problem with recreationally, economically, and ecologically important fish species using collected field data.

2.On the Optimal Rate for the Convergence Problem in Mean Field Control

Authors:Samuel Daudin, François Delarue, Joe Jackson

Abstract: The goal of this work is to obtain optimal rates for the convergence problem in mean field control. Our analysis covers cases where the solutions to the limiting problem may not be unique nor stable. Equivalently the value function of the limiting problem might not be differentiable on the entire space. Our main result is then to derive sharp rates of convergence in two distinct regimes. When the data is sufficiently regular, we obtain rates proportional to $N^{-1/2}$, with $N$ being the number of particles. When the data is merely Lipschitz and semi-concave with respect to the first Wasserstein distance, we obtain rates proportional to $N^{-2/(3d+6)}$. Noticeably, the exponent $2/(3d+6)$ is close to $1/d$, which is the optimal rate of convergence for uncontrolled particle systems driven by data with a similar regularity. The key argument in our approach consists in mollifying the value function of the limiting problem in order to produce functions that are almost classical sub-solutions to the limiting Hamilton-Jacobi equation (which is a PDE set on the space of probability measures). These sub-solutions can be projected onto finite dimensional spaces and then compared with the value functions associated with the particle systems. In the end, this comparison is used to prove the most demanding bound in the estimates. The key challenge therein is thus to exhibit an appropriate form of mollification. We do so by employing sup-convolution within a convenient functional Hilbert space. To make the whole easier, we limit ourselves to the periodic setting. We also provide some examples to show that our results are sharp up to some extent.

3.Fuzzy multiplier, sum and intersection rules in non-Lipschitzian settings: decoupling approach revisited

Authors:Marián Fabian, Alexander Y. Kruger, Patrick Mehlitz

Abstract: We revisit the decoupling approach widely used (often intuitively) in nonlinear analysis and optimization and initially formalized about a quarter of a century ago by Borwein & Zhu, Borwein & Ioffe and Lassonde. It allows one to streamline proofs of necessary optimality conditions and calculus relations, unify and simplify the respective statements, clarify and in many cases weaken the assumptions. In this paper we study weaker concepts of quasiuniform infimum, quasiuniform lower semicontinuity and quasiuniform minimum, putting them into the context of the general theory developed by the aforementioned authors. On the way, we unify the terminology and notation and fill in some gaps in the general theory. We establish rather general primal and dual necessary conditions characterizing quasiuniform $\varepsilon$-minima of the sum of two functions. The obtained fuzzy multiplier rules are formulated in general Banach spaces in terms of Clarke subdifferentials and in Asplund spaces in terms of Fr\'echet subdifferentials. The mentioned fuzzy multiplier rules naturally lead to certain fuzzy subdifferential calculus results. An application from sparse optimal control illustrates applicability of the obtained findings.

4.Minimal realizations of input-output behaviors by LPV state-space representations with affine dependency

Authors:Mihály Petreczky, Roland Tóth, Guillaume Mercère

Abstract: The paper makes the first steps towards a behavioral theory of LPV state-space representations with an affine dependency on scheduling, by characterizing minimality of such state-space representations. It is shown that minimality is equivalent to observability, and that minimal realizations of the same behavior are isomorphic.Finally, we establish a formal relationship between minimality of LPV state-space representations with an affine dependence on scheduling and minimality of LPV state-space representations with a dynamic and meromorphic dependence on scheduling.

5.A Note on the KKT Points for the Motzkin-Straus Program

Authors:G. Beretta Ca' Foscari University of Venice Polytechnic University of Turin, A. Torcinovich ETH, M. Pelillo Ca' Foscari University of Venice

Abstract: In a seminal 1965 paper, Motzkin and Straus established an elegant connection between the clique number of a graph and the global maxima of a quadratic program defined on the standard simplex. Since then, the result has been the subject of intensive research and has served as the motivation for a number of heuristics and bounds for the maximum clique problem. Most of the studies available in the literature, however, focus typically on the local/global solutions of the program, and little or no attention has been devoted so far to the study of its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) points. In contrast, in this paper we study the properties of (a parameterized version of) the Motzkin-Straus program and show that its KKT points can provide interesting structural information and are in fact associated with certain regular sub-structures of the underlying graph.

6.Delay-agnostic Asynchronous Coordinate Update Algorithm

Authors:Xuyang Wu, Changxin Liu, Sindri Magnusson, Mikael Johansson

Abstract: We propose a delay-agnostic asynchronous coordinate update algorithm (DEGAS) for computing operator fixed points, with applications to asynchronous optimization. DEGAS includes novel asynchronous variants of ADMM and block-coordinate descent as special cases. We prove that DEGAS converges under both bounded and unbounded delays under delay-free parameter conditions. We also validate by theory and experiments that DEGAS adapts well to the actual delays. The effectiveness of DEGAS is demonstrated by numerical experiments on classification problems.

7.A Dynamical Systems Perspective on Discrete Optimization

Authors:Tong Guanchun, Michael Muehlebach

Abstract: We discuss a dynamical systems perspective on discrete optimization. Departing from the fact that many combinatorial optimization problems can be reformulated as finding low energy spin configurations in corresponding Ising models, we derive a penalized rank-two relaxation of the Ising formulation. It turns out that the associated gradient flow dynamics exactly correspond to a type of hardware solvers termed oscillator-based Ising machines. We also analyze the advantage of adding angle penalties by leveraging random rounding techniques. Therefore, our work contributes to a rigorous understanding of oscillator-based Ising machines by drawing connections to the penalty method in constrained optimization and providing a rationale for the introduction of sub-harmonic injection locking. Furthermore, we characterize a class of coupling functions between oscillators, which ensures convergence to discrete solutions. This class of coupling functions avoids explicit penalty terms or rounding schemes, which are prevalent in other formulations.

8.Uniqueness of optimal plans for multi-marginal mass transport problems via a reduction argument

Authors:Mohammad Ali Ahmadpoor, Abbas Momeni

Abstract: For a family of probability spaces $\{(X_k,\mathcal{B}_{X_k},\mu_k)\}_{k=1}^N$ and a cost function $c: X_1\times\cdots\times X_N\to \mathbb{R}$ we consider the Monge-Kantorovich problem \begin{align}\label{MONKANT} \inf_{\lambda\in\Pi(\mu_1,\ldots,\mu_N)}\int_{\prod_{k=1}^N X_k}c\,d\lambda. \end{align} Then for each ordered subset $\mathcal{P}=\{i_1,\ldots,i_p\}\subsetneq\{1,...,N\}$ with $p\geq 2$ we create a new cost function $c_\mathcal{P}$ corresponding to the original cost function $c$ defined on $\prod_{k=1}^p X_{i_k}$. This new cost function $c_\mathcal{P}$ enjoys many of the features of the original cost $c$ while it has the property that any optimal plan $\lambda$ of \eqref{MONKANT} restricted to $\prod_{k=1}^p X_{i_k}$ is also an optimal plan to the problem \begin{align}\label{REDMONKANT} \inf_{\tau\in\Pi(\mu_{i_1},\ldots\mu_{i_p})}\int_{\prod_{k=1}^p X_{i_k}}c_{\mathcal{P}}\,d\tau. \end{align} Our main contribution in this paper is to show that, for appropriate choices of index set $\mathcal{P}$, one can recover the optimal plans of \eqref{MONKANT} from \eqref{REDMONKANT}. In particular, we study situations in which the problem \eqref{MONKANT} admits a unique solution depending on the uniqueness of the solution for the lower marginal problems of the form \eqref{REDMONKANT}. This allows us to prove many uniqueness results for multi-marginal problems when the unique optimal plan is not necessarily induced by a map. To this end, we extensively benefit from disintegration theorems and the $c$-extremality notions. Moreover, by employing this argument, besides recovering many standard results on the subject including the pioneering work of Gangbo-\'Swi\c ech, several new applications will be demonstrated to evince the applicability of this argument.

9.On the connections between optimization algorithms, Lyapunov functions, and differential equations: theory and insights

Authors:Paul Dobson, Jesus Maria Sanz-Serna, Konstantinos Zygalakis

Abstract: We study connections between differential equations and optimization algorithms for $m$-strongly and $L$-smooth convex functions through the use of Lyapunov functions by generalizing the Linear Matrix Inequality framework developed by Fazylab et al. in 2018. Using the new framework we derive analytically a new (discrete) Lyapunov function for a two-parameter family of Nesterov optimization methods and characterize their convergence rate. This allows us to prove a convergence rate that improves substantially on the previously proven rate of Nesterov's method for the standard choice of coefficients, as well as to characterize the choice of coefficients that yields the optimal rate. We obtain a new Lyapunov function for the Polyak ODE and revisit the connection between this ODE and the Nesterov's algorithms. In addition discuss a new interpretation of Nesterov method as an additive Runge-Kutta discretization and explain the structural conditions that discretizations of the Polyak equation should satisfy in order to lead to accelerated optimization algorithms.

10.Model Predictive Control with Reach-avoid Analysis

Authors:Dejin Ren, Wanli Lu, Jidong Lv, Lijun Zhang, Bai Xue

Abstract: In this paper we investigate the optimal controller synthesis problem, so that the system under the controller can reach a specified target set while satisfying given constraints. Existing model predictive control (MPC) methods learn from a set of discrete states visited by previous (sub-)optimized trajectories and thus result in computationally expensive mixed-integer nonlinear optimization. In this paper a novel MPC method is proposed based on reach-avoid analysis to solve the controller synthesis problem iteratively. The reach-avoid analysis is concerned with computing a reach-avoid set which is a set of initial states such that the system can reach the target set successfully. It not only provides terminal constraints, which ensure feasibility of MPC, but also expands discrete states in existing methods into a continuous set (i.e., reach-avoid sets) and thus leads to nonlinear optimization which is more computationally tractable online due to the absence of integer variables. Finally, we evaluate the proposed method and make comparisons with state-of-the-art ones based on several examples.

11.The Non-Strict Projection Lemma

Authors:T. J. Meijer, T. Holicki, S. J. A. M. van den Eijnden, C. W. Scherer, W. P. M. H. Heemels

Abstract: The projection lemma (often also referred to as the elimination lemma) is one of the most powerful and useful tools in the context of linear matrix inequalities for system analysis and control. In its traditional formulation, the projection lemma only applies to strict inequalities, however, in many applications we naturally encounter non-strict inequalities. As such, we present, in this note, a non-strict projection lemma that generalizes both its original strict formulation as well as an earlier non-strict version. We demonstrate several applications of our result in robust linear-matrix-inequality-based marginal stability analysis and stabilization, a matrix S-lemma, which is useful in (direct) data-driven control applications, and matrix dilation.

12.A Multilevel Low-Rank Newton Method with Super-linear Convergence Rate and its Application to Non-convex Problems

Authors:Nick Tsipinakis, Panagiotis Tigkas, Panos Parpas

Abstract: Second-order methods can address the shortcomings of first-order methods for the optimization of large-scale machine learning models. However, second-order methods have significantly higher computational costs associated with the computation of second-order information. Subspace methods that are based on randomization have addressed some of these computational costs as they compute search directions in lower dimensions. Even though super-linear convergence rates have been empirically observed, it has not been possible to rigorously show that these variants of second-order methods can indeed achieve such fast rates. Also, it is not clear whether subspace methods can be applied to non-convex cases. To address these shortcomings, we develop a link between multigrid optimization methods and low-rank Newton methods that enables us to prove the super-linear rates of stochastic low-rank Newton methods rigorously. Our method does not require any computations in the original model dimension. We further propose a truncated version of the method that is capable of solving high-dimensional non-convex problems. Preliminary numerical experiments show that our method has a better escape rate from saddle points compared to accelerated gradient descent and Adam and thus returns lower training errors.

13.Near-optimal control of nonlinear systems with hybrid inputs and dwell-time constraints

Authors:Ioana Lal, Constantin Morarescu, Jamal Daafouz, Lucian Busoniu

Abstract: We propose two new optimistic planning algorithms for nonlinear hybrid-input systems, in which the input has both a continuous and a discrete component, and the discrete component must respect a dwell-time constraint. Both algorithms select sets of input sequences for refinement at each step, along with a continuous or discrete step to refine (split). The dwell-time constraint means that the discrete splits must keep the discrete mode constant if the required dwell-time is not yet reached. Convergence rate guarantees are provided for both algorithms, which show the dependency between the near-optimality of the sequence returned and the computational budget. The rates depend on a novel complexity measure of the dwell-time constrained problem. We present simulation results for two problems, an adaptive-quantization networked control system and a model for the COVID pandemic.

14.Learning on Manifolds: Universal Approximations Properties using Geometric Controllability Conditions for Neural ODEs

Authors:Karthik Elamvazhuthi, Xuechen Zhang, Samet Oymak, Fabio Pasqualetti

Abstract: In numerous robotics and mechanical engineering applications, among others, data is often constrained on smooth manifolds due to the presence of rotational degrees of freedom. Common datadriven and learning-based methods such as neural ordinary differential equations (ODEs), however, typically fail to satisfy these manifold constraints and perform poorly for these applications. To address this shortcoming, in this paper we study a class of neural ordinary differential equations that, by design, leave a given manifold invariant, and characterize their properties by leveraging the controllability properties of control affine systems. In particular, using a result due to Agrachev and Caponigro on approximating diffeomorphisms with flows of feedback control systems, we show that any map that can be represented as the flow of a manifold-constrained dynamical system can also be approximated using the flow of manifold-constrained neural ODE, whenever a certain controllability condition is satisfied. Additionally, we show that this universal approximation property holds when the neural ODE has limited width in each layer, thus leveraging the depth of network instead for approximation. We verify our theoretical findings using numerical experiments on PyTorch for the manifolds S2 and the 3-dimensional orthogonal group SO(3), which are model manifolds for mechanical systems such as spacecrafts and satellites. We also compare the performance of the manifold invariant neural ODE with classical neural ODEs that ignore the manifold invariant properties and show the superiority of our approach in terms of accuracy and sample complexity.