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Optimization and Control (math.OC)

Mon, 11 Sep 2023

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1.Optimization Method Based On Optimal Control

Authors:Yeming Xu, Ziyuan Guo, Hongxia Wang, Huanshui Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we focus on a method based on optimal control to address the optimization problem. The objective is to find the optimal solution that minimizes the objective function. We transform the optimization problem into optimal control by designing an appropriate cost function. Using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle and the associated forward-backward difference equations (FBDEs), we derive the iterative update gain for the optimization. The steady system state can be considered as the solution to the optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the compelling characteristics of our method and further demonstrate its high precision, low oscillation, and applicability for finding different local minima of non-convex functions through several simulation examples.

2.Simba: A Scalable Bilevel Preconditioned Gradient Method for Fast Evasion of Flat Areas and Saddle Points

Authors:Nick Tsipinakis, Panos Parpas

Abstract: The convergence behaviour of first-order methods can be severely slowed down when applied to high-dimensional non-convex functions due to the presence of saddle points. If, additionally, the saddles are surrounded by large plateaus, it is highly likely that the first-order methods will converge to sub-optimal solutions. In machine learning applications, sub-optimal solutions mean poor generalization performance. They are also related to the issue of hyper-parameter tuning, since, in the pursuit of solutions that yield lower errors, a tremendous amount of time is required on selecting the hyper-parameters appropriately. A natural way to tackle the limitations of first-order methods is to employ the Hessian information. However, methods that incorporate the Hessian do not scale or, if they do, they are very slow for modern applications. Here, we propose Simba, a scalable preconditioned gradient method, to address the main limitations of the first-order methods. The method is very simple to implement. It maintains a single precondition matrix that it is constructed as the outer product of the moving average of the gradients. To significantly reduce the computational cost of forming and inverting the preconditioner, we draw links with the multilevel optimization methods. These links enables us to construct preconditioners in a randomized manner. Our numerical experiments verify the scalability of Simba as well as its efficacy near saddles and flat areas. Further, we demonstrate that Simba offers a satisfactory generalization performance on standard benchmark residual networks. We also analyze Simba and show its linear convergence rate for strongly convex functions.

3.Computing Wasserstein Barycenter via operator splitting: the method of averaged marginals

Authors:D. Mimouni IFPEN, P Malisani IFPEN, J. Zhu IFPEN, W. de Oliveira CMA

Abstract: The Wasserstein barycenter (WB) is an important tool for summarizing sets of probabilities. It finds applications in applied probability, clustering, image processing, etc. When the probability supports are finite and fixed, the problem of computing a WB is formulated as a linear optimization problem whose dimensions generally exceed standard solvers' capabilities. For this reason, the WB problem is often replaced with a simpler nonlinear optimization model constructed via an entropic regularization function so that specialized algorithms can be employed to compute an approximate WB efficiently. Contrary to such a widespread inexact scheme, we propose an exact approach based on the Douglas-Rachford splitting method applied directly to the WB linear optimization problem for applications requiring accurate WB. Our algorithm, which has the interesting interpretation of being built upon averaging marginals, operates series of simple (and exact) projections that can be parallelized and even randomized, making it suitable for large-scale datasets. As a result, our method achieves good performance in terms of speed while still attaining accuracy. Furthermore, the same algorithm can be applied to compute generalized barycenters of sets of measures with different total masses by allowing for mass creation and destruction upon setting an additional parameter. Our contribution to the field lies in the development of an exact and efficient algorithm for computing barycenters, enabling its wider use in practical applications. The approach's mathematical properties are examined, and the method is benchmarked against the state-of-the-art methods on several data sets from the literature.

4.Dynamic Pricing in an Energy Community Providing Capacity Limitation Services

Authors:Bennevis Crowley, Jalal Kazempour, Lesia Mitridati

Abstract: This paper proposes a mathematical framework for dynamic pricing in an energy community to enable the provision of capacity limitation services to the distribution grid. In this framework, the energy community complies with a time-variant limit on its maximum power import from the distribution grid in exchange for grid tariff discounts. A bi-level optimization model is developed to implicitly coordinate the energy usage of prosumers within the community. In the upper-level problem, the community manager minimizes the total operational cost of the community based on reduced grid tariffs and power capacity limits by setting time-variant and prosumer-specific prices. In the lower-level problem, each prosumer subsequently adjusts their energy usage over a day to minimize their individual operational cost. This framework allows the community manager to maintain central economic market properties such as budget balance and individual rationality for prosumers. We show how the community benefits can be allocated to prosumers either in an equal or a proportional manner. The proposed model is eventually reformulated into a mixed integer second-order cone program and thereafter applied to a distribution grid case study.

5.Convergence analysis of the semismooth Newton method for sparse control problems governed by semilinear elliptic equations

Authors:Casas Eduardo, Mateos Mariano

Abstract: We show that a second order sufficient condition for local optimality, along with a strict complementarity condition, is enough to get the super-linear convergence of the semismooth Newton method for an optimal control problem governed by a semilinear elliptic equation. The objective functional may include a sparsity promoting term and we allow for box control constraints. We also obtain quadratic convergence under quite natural assumptions on the data of the control problem.

6.Turnpike and dissipativity in generalized discrete-time stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control

Authors:Jonas Schießl, Ruchuan Ou, Timm Faulwasser, Michael Heinrich Baumann, Lars Grüne

Abstract: We investigate different turnpike phenomena of generalized discrete-time stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problems. Our analysis is based on a novel strict dissipativity notion for such problems, in which a stationary stochastic process replaces the optimal steady state of the deterministic setting. We show that from this time-varying dissipativity notion, we can conclude turnpike behaviors concerning different objects like distributions, moments, or sample paths of the stochastic system and that the distributions of the stationary pair can be characterized by a stationary optimization problem. The analytical findings are illustrated by numerical simulations.

7.Algorithms for DC Programming via Polyhedral Approximations of Convex Functions

Authors:Fahaar Mansoor Pirani, Firdevs Ulus

Abstract: There is an existing exact algorithm that solves DC programming problems if one component of the DC function is polyhedral convex (Loehne, Wagner, 2017). Motivated by this, first, we consider two cutting-plane algorithms for generating an $\epsilon$-polyhedral underestimator of a convex function g. The algorithms start with a polyhedral underestimator of g and the epigraph of the current underestimator is intersected with either a single halfspace (Algorithm 1) or with possibly multiple halfspaces (Algorithm 2) in each iteration to obtain a better approximation. We prove the correctness and finiteness of both algorithms, establish the convergence rate of Algorithm 1, and show that after obtaining an $\epsilon$-polyhedral underestimator of the first component of a DC function, the algorithm from (Loehne, Wagner, 2017) can be applied to compute an $\epsilon$ solution of the DC programming problem without further computational effort. We then propose an algorithm (Algorithm 3) for solving DC programming problems by iteratively generating a (not necessarily $\epsilon$-) polyhedral underestimator of g. We prove that Algorithm 3 stops after finitely many iterations and it returns an $\epsilon$-solution to the DC programming problem. Moreover, the sequence $\{x_k\}_{k\geq 0} outputted by Algorithm 3 converges to a global minimizer of the DC problem when $\epsilon$ is set to zero. Computational results based on some test instances from the literature are provided.

8.Energy-optimal Timetable Design for Sustainable Metro Railway Networks

Authors:Shuvomoy Das Gupta, Bart P. G. Van Parys, J. Kevin Tobin

Abstract: We present our collaboration with Thales Canada Inc, the largest provider of communication-based train control (CBTC) systems worldwide. We study the problem of designing energy-optimal timetables in metro railway networks to minimize the effective energy consumption of the network, which corresponds to simultaneously minimizing total energy consumed by all the trains and maximizing the transfer of regenerative braking energy from suitable braking trains to accelerating trains. We propose a novel data-driven linear programming model that minimizes the total effective energy consumption in a metro railway network, capable of computing the optimal timetable in real-time, even for some of the largest CBTC systems in the world. In contrast with existing works, which are either NP-hard or involve multiple stages requiring extensive simulation, our model is a single linear programming model capable of computing the energy-optimal timetable subject to the constraints present in the railway network. Furthermore, our model can predict the total energy consumption of the network without requiring time-consuming simulations, making it suitable for widespread use in managerial settings. We apply our model to Shanghai Railway Network's Metro Line 8 -- one of the largest and busiest railway services in the world -- and empirically demonstrate that our model computes energy-optimal timetables for thousands of active trains spanning an entire service period of one day in real-time (solution time less than one second on a standard desktop), achieving energy savings between approximately 20.93% and 28.68%. Given the compelling advantages, our model is in the process of being integrated into Thales Canada Inc's industrial timetable compiler.

9.Safe Adaptive Control of Hyperbolic PDE-ODE Cascades

Authors:Ji Wang, Miroslav Krstic

Abstract: Adaptive safe control employing conventional continuous infinite-time adaptation requires that the initial conditions be restricted to a subset of the safe set due to parametric uncertainty, where the safe set is shrunk in inverse proportion to the adaptation gain. The recent regulation-triggered adaptive control approach with batch least-squares identification (BaLSI, pronounced ``ballsy'') completes perfect parameter identification in finite time and offers a previously unforeseen advantage in adaptive safe control, which we elucidate in this paper. Since the true challenge of safe control is exhibited for CBF of a high relative degree, we undertake a safe BaLSI design in this paper for a class of systems that possess a particularly extreme relative degree: ODE-PDE-ODE sandwich systems. Such sandwich systems arise in various applications, including delivery UAV with a cable-suspended load. Collision avoidance of the payload with the surrounding environment is required. The considered class of plants is $2\times2$ hyperbolic PDEs sandwiched by a strict-feedback nonlinear ODE and a linear ODE, where the unknown coefficients, whose bounds are known and arbitrary, are associated with the PDE in-domain coupling terms that can cause instability and with the input signal of the distal ODE. This is the first safe adaptive control design for PDEs, where we introduce the concept of PDE CBF whose non-negativity as well as the ODE CBF's non-negativity are ensured with a backstepping-based safety filter. Our safe adaptive controller is explicit and operates in the entire original safe set.

10.A distributionally robust index tracking model with the CVaR penalty: tractable reformulation

Authors:Ruyu Wang, Yaozhong Hu, Chao Zhang

Abstract: We propose a distributionally robust index tracking model with the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) penalty. The model combines the idea of distributionally robust optimization for data uncertainty and the CVaR penalty to avoid large tracking errors. The probability ambiguity is described through a confidence region based on the first-order and second-order moments of the random vector involved. We reformulate the model in the form of a min-max-min optimization into an equivalent nonsmooth minimization problem. We further give an approximate discretization scheme of the possible continuous random vector of the nonsmooth minimization problem, whose objective function involves the maximum of numerous but finite nonsmooth functions. The convergence of the discretization scheme to the equivalent nonsmooth reformulation is shown under mild conditions. A smoothing projected gradient (SPG) method is employed to solve the discretization scheme. Any accumulation point is shown to be a global minimizer of the discretization scheme. Numerical results on the NASDAQ index dataset from January 2008 to July 2023 demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model and the efficiency of the SPG method, compared with several state-of-the-art models and corresponding methods for solving them.

11.An exact algorithm for linear optimization problem subject to max-product fuzzy relational inequalities with fuzzy constraints

Authors:Amin Ghodousian, Romina Omidi

Abstract: Fuzzy relational inequalities with fuzzy constraints (FRI-FC) are the generalized form of fuzzy relational inequalities (FRI) in which fuzzy inequality replaces ordinary inequality in the constraints. Fuzzy constraints enable us to attain optimal points (called super-optima) that are better solutions than those resulted from the resolution of the similar problems with ordinary inequality constraints. This paper considers the linear objective function optimization with respect to max-product FRI-FC problems. It is proved that there is a set of optimization problems equivalent to the primal problem. Based on the algebraic structure of the primal problem and its equivalent forms, some simplification operations are presented to convert the main problem into a more simplified one. Finally, by some appropriate mathematical manipulations, the main problem is transformed into an optimization model whose constraints are linear. The proposed linearization method not only provides a super-optimum (that is better solution than ordinary feasible optimal solutions) but also finds the best super-optimum for the main problem. The current approach is compared with our previous work and some well-known heuristic algorithms by applying them to random test problems in different sizes.