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Optimization and Control (math.OC)

Fri, 28 Jul 2023

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1.Modeling Nonlinear Control Systems via Koopman Control Family: Universal Forms and Subspace Invariance Proximity

Authors:Masih Haseli, Jorge Cortés

Abstract: This paper introduces the Koopman Control Family (KCF), a mathematical framework for modeling general discrete-time nonlinear control systems with the aim of providing a solid theoretical foundation for the use of Koopman-based methods in systems with inputs. We demonstrate that the concept of KCF can completely capture the behavior of nonlinear control systems on a (potentially infinite-dimensional) function space. By employing a generalized notion of subspace invariance under the KCF, we establish a universal form for finite-dimensional models, which encompasses the commonly used linear, bilinear, and linear switched models as specific instances. In cases where the subspace is not invariant under the KCF, we propose a method for approximating models in general form and characterize the model's accuracy using the concept of invariance proximity. The proposed framework naturally lends itself to the incorporation of data-driven methods in modeling and control.

2.On new generalized differentials with respect to a set and their applications

Authors:Xiaolong Qin, Vo Duc Thinh, Jen-Chih Yao

Abstract: The notions and certain fundamental characteristics of the proximal and limiting normal cones with respect to a set are first presented in this paper. We present the ideas of the limiting coderivative and subdifferential with respect to a set of multifunctions and singleton mappings, respectively, based on these normal cones. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the Aubin property with respect to a set of multifunctions are then described by using the limiting coderivative with respect to a set. As a result of the limiting subdifferential with respect to a set, we offer the requisite optimality criteria for local solutions to optimization problems. In addition, we also provide examples to demonstrate the outcomes.

3.Minimal error momentum Bregman-Kaczmarz

Authors:Dirk A. Lorenz, Maximilian Winkler

Abstract: The Bregman-Kaczmarz method is an iterative method which can solve strongly convex problems with linear constraints and uses only one or a selected number of rows of the system matrix in each iteration, thereby making it amenable for large-scale systems. To speed up convergence, we investigate acceleration by heavy ball momentum in the so-called dual update. Heavy ball acceleration of the Kaczmarz method with constant parameters has turned out to be difficult to analyze, in particular no accelerated convergence for the L2-error of the iterates has been proven to the best of our knowledge. Here we propose a way to adaptively choose the momentum parameter by a minimal-error principle similar to a recently proposed method for the standard randomized Kaczmarz method. The momentum parameter can be chosen to exactly minimize the error in the next iterate or to minimize a relaxed version of the minimal error principle. The former choice leads to a theoretically optimal step while the latter is cheaper to compute. We prove improved convergence results compared to the non-accelerated method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed methods can accelerate convergence in practice, also for matrices which arise from applications such as computational tomography.

4.Symmetric separable convex resource allocation problems with structured disjoint interval bound constraints

Authors:Martijn H. H. Schoot Uiterkamp

Abstract: Motivated by the problem of scheduling electric vehicle (EV) charging with a minimum charging threshold in smart distribution grids, we introduce the resource allocation problem (RAP) with a symmetric separable convex objective function and disjoint interval bound constraints. In this RAP, the aim is to allocate an amount of resource over a set of $n$ activities, where each individual allocation is restricted to a disjoint collection of $m$ intervals. This is a generalization of classical RAPs studied in the literature where in contrast each allocation is only restricted by simple lower and upper bounds, i.e., $m=1$. We propose an exact algorithm that, for four special cases of the problem, returns an optimal solution in $O \left(\binom{n+m-2}{m-2} (n \log n + nF) \right)$ time, where the term $nF$ represents the number of flops required for one evaluation of the separable objective function. In particular, the algorithm runs in polynomial time when the number of intervals $m$ is fixed. Moreover, we show how this algorithm can be adapted to also output an optimal solution to the problem with integer variables without increasing its time complexity. Computational experiments demonstrate the practical efficiency of the algorithm for small values of $m$ and in particular for solving EV charging problems.

5.Convex Optimization of PV-Battery System Sizing and Operation with Non-Linear Loss Models

Authors:Jolien Despeghel, Jeroen Tant, Johan Driesen

Abstract: In the literature, when optimizing the sizing and operation of a residential PV system in combination with a battery energy storage system, the efficiency of the battery and the converter is generally assumed constant, which corresponds to a linear loss model that can be readily integrated in an optimization model. However, this assumption does not always represent the impact of the losses accurately. For this reason, an approach is presented that includes non-linear converter and battery loss models by applying convex relaxations to the non-linear constraints. The relaxed convex formulation is equivalent to the original non-linear formulation and can be solved more efficiently. The difference between the optimization model with non-linear loss models and linear loss models is illustrated for a residential DC-coupled PV-battery system. The linear loss model is shown to result in an underestimation of the battery size and cost as well as a lower utilization of the battery. The proposed method is useful to accurately model the impact of losses on the optimal sizing and operation in exchange for a slightly higher computational time compared to linear loss models, though far below that of solving the non-relaxed non-linear problem.

6.Nonlinear conjugate gradient method for vector optimization on Riemannian manifolds with retraction and vector transport

Authors:Kangming Chen, Ellen H. Fukuda, Hiroyuki Sato

Abstract: In this paper, we propose nonlinear conjugate gradient methods for vector optimization on Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of Wolfe and Zoutendjik conditions are extended for Riemannian manifolds. Specifically, we establish the existence of intervals of step sizes that satisfy the Wolfe conditions. The convergence analysis covers the vector extensions of the Fletcher--Reeves, conjugate descent, and Dai--Yuan parameters. Under some assumptions, we prove that the sequence obtained by the algorithm can converge to a Pareto stationary point. Moreover, we also discuss several other choices of the parameter. Numerical experiments illustrating the practical behavior of the methods are presented.

7.Be greedy and learn: efficient and certified algorithms for parametrized optimal control problems

Authors:Hendrik Kleikamp, Martin Lazar, Cesare Molinari

Abstract: We consider parametrized linear-quadratic optimal control problems and provide their online-efficient solutions by combining greedy reduced basis methods and machine learning algorithms. To this end, we first extend the greedy control algorithm, which builds a reduced basis for the manifold of optimal final time adjoint states, to the setting where the objective functional consists of a penalty term measuring the deviation from a desired state and a term describing the control energy. Afterwards, we apply machine learning surrogates to accelerate the online evaluation of the reduced model. The error estimates proven for the greedy procedure are further transferred to the machine learning models and thus allow for efficient a posteriori error certification. We discuss the computational costs of all considered methods in detail and show by means of two numerical examples the tremendous potential of the proposed methodology.

8.Inexact proximal methods for weakly convex functions

Authors:Pham Duy Khanh, Boris Mordukhovich, Dat Ba Tran

Abstract: This paper proposes and develops inexact proximal methods for finding stationary points of the sum of a smooth function and a nonsmooth weakly convex one, where an error is present in the calculation of the proximal mapping of the nonsmooth term. A general framework for finding zeros of a continuous mapping is derived from our previous paper on this subject to establish convergence properties of the inexact proximal point method when the smooth term is vanished and of the inexact proximal gradient method when the smooth term satisfies a descent condition. The inexact proximal point method achieves global convergence with constructive convergence rates when the Moreau envelope of the objective function satisfies the Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz (KL) property. Meanwhile, when the smooth term is twice continuously differentiable with a Lipschitz continuous gradient and a differentiable approximation of the objective function satisfies the KL property, the inexact proximal gradient method achieves the global convergence of iterates with constructive convergence rates.

9.$\ell_p$-sphere covering and approximating nuclear $p$-norm

Authors:Jiewen Guan, Simai He, Bo Jiang, Zhening Li

Abstract: The spectral $p$-norm and nuclear $p$-norm of matrices and tensors appear in various applications albeit both are NP-hard to compute. The former sets a foundation of $\ell_p$-sphere constrained polynomial optimization problems and the latter has been found in many rank minimization problems in machine learning. We study approximation algorithms of the tensor nuclear $p$-norm with an aim to establish the approximation bound matching the best one of its dual norm, the tensor spectral $p$-norm. Driven by the application of sphere covering to approximate both tensor spectral and nuclear norms ($p=2$), we propose several types of hitting sets that approximately represent $\ell_p$-sphere with adjustable parameters for different levels of approximations and cardinalities, providing an independent toolbox for decision making on $\ell_p$-spheres. Using the idea in robust optimization and second-order cone programming, we obtain the first polynomial-time algorithm with an $\Omega(1)$-approximation bound for the computation of the matrix nuclear $p$-norm when $p\in(2,\infty)$ is a rational, paving a way for applications in modeling with the matrix nuclear $p$-norm. These two new results enable us to propose various polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the computation of the tensor nuclear $p$-norm using tensor partitions, convex optimization and duality theory, attaining the same approximation bound to the best one of the tensor spectral $p$-norm. We believe the ideas of $\ell_p$-sphere covering with its applications in approximating nuclear $p$-norm would be useful to tackle optimization problems on other sets such as the binary hypercube with its applications in graph theory and neural networks, the nonnegative sphere with its applications in copositive programming and nonnegative matrix factorization.

10.Convergence of Augmented Lagrangian Methods for Composite Optimization Problems

Authors:Nguyen T. V. Hang, Ebrahim Sarabi

Abstract: Local convergence analysis of the augmented Lagrangian method (ALM) is established for a large class of composite optimization problems with nonunique Lagrange multipliers under a second-order sufficient condition. We present a new second-order variational property, called the semi-stability of second subderivatives, and demonstrate that it is widely satisfied for numerous classes of functions, important for applications in constrained and composite optimization problems. Using the latter condition and a certain second-order sufficient condition, we are able to establish Q-linear convergence of the primal-dual sequence for an inexact version of the ALM for composite programs.