Wed, 10 May 2023
1.Case Weighted Adaptive Power Priors for Hybrid Control Analyses with Time-to-Event Data
Authors:Evan Kwiatkowski, Jiawen Zhu, Xiao Li, Herbert Pang, Grazyna Lieberman, Matthew A. Psioda
Abstract: We develop a method for hybrid analyses that uses external controls to augment internal control arms in randomized controlled trials (RCT) where the degree of borrowing is determined based on similarity between RCT and external control patients to account for systematic differences (e.g. unmeasured confounders). The method represents a novel extension of the power prior where discounting weights are computed separately for each external control based on compatibility with the randomized control data. The discounting weights are determined using the predictive distribution for the external controls derived via the posterior distribution for time-to-event parameters estimated from the RCT. This method is applied using a proportional hazards regression model with piecewise constant baseline hazard. A simulation study and a real-data example are presented based on a completed trial in non-small cell lung cancer. It is shown that the case weighted adaptive power prior provides robust inference under various forms of incompatibility between the external controls and RCT population.
2.Statistical Plasmode Simulations -- Potentials, Challenges and Recommendations
Authors:Nicholas Schreck, Alla Slynko, Maral Saadati, Axel Benner
Abstract: Statistical data simulation is essential in the development of statistical models and methods as well as in their performance evaluation. To capture complex data structures, in particular for high-dimensional data, a variety of simulation approaches have been introduced including parametric and the so-called plasmode simulations. While there are concerns about the realism of parametrically simulated data, it is widely claimed that plasmodes come very close to reality with some aspects of the "truth'' known. However, there are no explicit guidelines or state-of-the-art on how to perform plasmode data simulations. In the present paper, we first review existing literature and introduce the concept of statistical plasmode simulation. We then discuss advantages and challenges of statistical plasmodes and provide a step-wise procedure for their generation, including key steps to their implementation and reporting. Finally, we illustrate the concept of statistical plasmodes as well as the proposed plasmode generation procedure by means of a public real RNA dataset on breast carcinoma patients.
3.Flexible cost-penalized Bayesian model selection: developing inclusion paths with an application to diagnosis of heart disease
Authors:Erica M. Porter, Christopher T. Franck, Stephen Adams
Abstract: We propose a Bayesian model selection approach that allows medical practitioners to select among predictor variables while taking their respective costs into account. Medical procedures almost always incur costs in time and/or money. These costs might exceed their usefulness for modeling the outcome of interest. We develop Bayesian model selection that uses flexible model priors to penalize costly predictors a priori and select a subset of predictors useful relative to their costs. Our approach (i) gives the practitioner control over the magnitude of cost penalization, (ii) enables the prior to scale well with sample size, and (iii) enables the creation of our proposed inclusion path visualization, which can be used to make decisions about individual candidate predictors using both probabilistic and visual tools. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our inclusion path approach and the importance of being able to adjust the magnitude of the prior's cost penalization through a dataset pertaining to heart disease diagnosis in patients at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, where several candidate predictors with various costs were recorded for patients, and through simulated data.