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Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)

Tue, 06 Jun 2023

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1.DVIS: Decoupled Video Instance Segmentation Framework

Authors:Tao Zhang, Xingye Tian, Yu Wu, Shunping Ji, Xuebo Wang, Yuan Zhang, Pengfei Wan

Abstract: Video instance segmentation (VIS) is a critical task with diverse applications, including autonomous driving and video editing. Existing methods often underperform on complex and long videos in real world, primarily due to two factors. Firstly, offline methods are limited by the tightly-coupled modeling paradigm, which treats all frames equally and disregards the interdependencies between adjacent frames. Consequently, this leads to the introduction of excessive noise during long-term temporal alignment. Secondly, online methods suffer from inadequate utilization of temporal information. To tackle these challenges, we propose a decoupling strategy for VIS by dividing it into three independent sub-tasks: segmentation, tracking, and refinement. The efficacy of the decoupling strategy relies on two crucial elements: 1) attaining precise long-term alignment outcomes via frame-by-frame association during tracking, and 2) the effective utilization of temporal information predicated on the aforementioned accurate alignment outcomes during refinement. We introduce a novel referring tracker and temporal refiner to construct the \textbf{D}ecoupled \textbf{VIS} framework (\textbf{DVIS}). DVIS achieves new SOTA performance in both VIS and VPS, surpassing the current SOTA methods by 7.3 AP and 9.6 VPQ on the OVIS and VIPSeg datasets, which are the most challenging and realistic benchmarks. Moreover, thanks to the decoupling strategy, the referring tracker and temporal refiner are super light-weight (only 1.69\% of the segmenter FLOPs), allowing for efficient training and inference on a single GPU with 11G memory. The code is available at \href{}{}.

2.DreamSparse: Escaping from Plato's Cave with 2D Diffusion Model Given Sparse Views

Authors:Paul Yoo, Jiaxian Guo, Yutaka Matsuo, Shixiang Shane Gu

Abstract: Synthesizing novel view images from a few views is a challenging but practical problem. Existing methods often struggle with producing high-quality results or necessitate per-object optimization in such few-view settings due to the insufficient information provided. In this work, we explore leveraging the strong 2D priors in pre-trained diffusion models for synthesizing novel view images. 2D diffusion models, nevertheless, lack 3D awareness, leading to distorted image synthesis and compromising the identity. To address these problems, we propose DreamSparse, a framework that enables the frozen pre-trained diffusion model to generate geometry and identity-consistent novel view image. Specifically, DreamSparse incorporates a geometry module designed to capture 3D features from sparse views as a 3D prior. Subsequently, a spatial guidance model is introduced to convert these 3D feature maps into spatial information for the generative process. This information is then used to guide the pre-trained diffusion model, enabling it to generate geometrically consistent images without tuning it. Leveraging the strong image priors in the pre-trained diffusion models, DreamSparse is capable of synthesizing high-quality novel views for both object and scene-level images and generalising to open-set images. Experimental results demonstrate that our framework can effectively synthesize novel view images from sparse views and outperforms baselines in both trained and open-set category images. More results can be found on our project page:

3.Diversifying Joint Vision-Language Tokenization Learning

Authors:Vardaan Pahuja, AJ Piergiovanni, Anelia Angelova

Abstract: Building joint representations across images and text is an essential step for tasks such as Visual Question Answering and Video Question Answering. In this work, we find that the representations must not only jointly capture features from both modalities but should also be diverse for better generalization performance. To this end, we propose joint vision-language representation learning by diversifying the tokenization learning process, enabling tokens that are sufficiently disentangled from each other to be learned from both modalities. We observe that our approach outperforms the baseline models in a majority of settings and is competitive with state-of-the-art methods.

4.Prompting Large Language Models to Reformulate Queries for Moment Localization

Authors:Wenfeng Yan, Shaoxiang Chen, Zuxuan Wu, Yu-Gang Jiang

Abstract: The task of moment localization is to localize a temporal moment in an untrimmed video for a given natural language query. Since untrimmed video contains highly redundant contents, the quality of the query is crucial for accurately localizing moments, i.e., the query should provide precise information about the target moment so that the localization model can understand what to look for in the videos. However, the natural language queries in current datasets may not be easy to understand for existing models. For example, the Ego4D dataset uses question sentences as the query to describe relatively complex moments. While being natural and straightforward for humans, understanding such question sentences are challenging for mainstream moment localization models like 2D-TAN. Inspired by the recent success of large language models, especially their ability of understanding and generating complex natural language contents, in this extended abstract, we make early attempts at reformulating the moment queries into a set of instructions using large language models and making them more friendly to the localization models.

5.Change Diffusion: Change Detection Map Generation Based on Difference-Feature Guided DDPM

Authors:Yihan Wen, Jialu Sui, Xianping Ma, Wendi Liang, Xiaokang Zhang, Man-On Pun

Abstract: Deep learning (DL) approaches based on CNN-purely or Transformer networks have demonstrated promising results in bitemporal change detection (CD). However, their performance is limited by insufficient contextual information aggregation, as they struggle to fully capture the implicit contextual dependency relationships among feature maps at different levels. Additionally, researchers have utilized pre-trained denoising diffusion probabilistic models (DDPMs) for training lightweight CD classifiers. Nevertheless, training a DDPM to generate intricately detailed, multi-channel remote sensing images requires months of training time and a substantial volume of unlabeled remote sensing datasets, making it significantly more complex than generating a single-channel change map. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel end-to-end DDPM-based model architecture called change-aware diffusion model (CADM), which can be trained using a limited annotated dataset quickly. Furthermore, we introduce dynamic difference conditional encoding to enhance step-wise regional attention in DDPM for bitemporal images in CD datasets. This method establishes state-adaptive conditions for each sampling step, emphasizing two main innovative points of our model: 1) its end-to-end nature and 2) difference conditional encoding. We evaluate CADM on four remote sensing CD tasks with different ground scenarios, including CDD, WHU, Levier, and GVLM. Experimental results demonstrate that CADM significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods, indicating the generalization and effectiveness of the proposed model.

6.GaitGCI: Generative Counterfactual Intervention for Gait Recognition

Authors:Huanzhang Dou, Pengyi Zhang, Wei Su, Yunlong Yu, Yining Lin, Xi Li

Abstract: Gait is one of the most promising biometrics that aims to identify pedestrians from their walking patterns. However, prevailing methods are susceptible to confounders, resulting in the networks hardly focusing on the regions that reflect effective walking patterns. To address this fundamental problem in gait recognition, we propose a Generative Counterfactual Intervention framework, dubbed GaitGCI, consisting of Counterfactual Intervention Learning (CIL) and Diversity-Constrained Dynamic Convolution (DCDC). CIL eliminates the impacts of confounders by maximizing the likelihood difference between factual/counterfactual attention while DCDC adaptively generates sample-wise factual/counterfactual attention to efficiently perceive the sample-wise properties. With matrix decomposition and diversity constraint, DCDC guarantees the model to be efficient and effective. Extensive experiments indicate that proposed GaitGCI: 1) could effectively focus on the discriminative and interpretable regions that reflect gait pattern; 2) is model-agnostic and could be plugged into existing models to improve performance with nearly no extra cost; 3) efficiently achieves state-of-the-art performance on arbitrary scenarios (in-the-lab and in-the-wild).

7.Revisiting the Trade-off between Accuracy and Robustness via Weight Distribution of Filters

Authors:Xingxing Wei, Shiji Zhao

Abstract: Adversarial attacks have been proven to be potential threats to Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), and many methods are proposed to defend against adversarial attacks. However, while enhancing the robustness, the clean accuracy will decline to a certain extent, implying a trade-off existed between the accuracy and robustness. In this paper, we firstly empirically find an obvious distinction between standard and robust models in the filters' weight distribution of the same architecture, and then theoretically explain this phenomenon in terms of the gradient regularization, which shows this difference is an intrinsic property for DNNs, and thus a static network architecture is difficult to improve the accuracy and robustness at the same time. Secondly, based on this observation, we propose a sample-wise dynamic network architecture named Adversarial Weight-Varied Network (AW-Net), which focuses on dealing with clean and adversarial examples with a ``divide and rule" weight strategy. The AW-Net dynamically adjusts network's weights based on regulation signals generated by an adversarial detector, which is directly influenced by the input sample. Benefiting from the dynamic network architecture, clean and adversarial examples can be processed with different network weights, which provides the potentiality to enhance the accuracy and robustness simultaneously. A series of experiments demonstrate that our AW-Net is architecture-friendly to handle both clean and adversarial examples and can achieve better trade-off performance than state-of-the-art robust models.

8.DFormer: Diffusion-guided Transformer for Universal Image Segmentation

Authors:Hefeng Wang, Jiale Cao, Rao Muhammad Anwer, Jin Xie, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Yanwei Pang

Abstract: This paper introduces an approach, named DFormer, for universal image segmentation. The proposed DFormer views universal image segmentation task as a denoising process using a diffusion model. DFormer first adds various levels of Gaussian noise to ground-truth masks, and then learns a model to predict denoising masks from corrupted masks. Specifically, we take deep pixel-level features along with the noisy masks as inputs to generate mask features and attention masks, employing diffusion-based decoder to perform mask prediction gradually. At inference, our DFormer directly predicts the masks and corresponding categories from a set of randomly-generated masks. Extensive experiments reveal the merits of our proposed contributions on different image segmentation tasks: panoptic segmentation, instance segmentation, and semantic segmentation. Our DFormer outperforms the recent diffusion-based panoptic segmentation method Pix2Seq-D with a gain of 3.6% on MS COCO val2017 set. Further, DFormer achieves promising semantic segmentation performance outperforming the recent diffusion-based method by 2.2% on ADE20K val set. Our source code and models will be publicly on

9.MetaGait: Learning to Learn an Omni Sample Adaptive Representation for Gait Recognition

Authors:Huanzhang Dou, Pengyi Zhang, Wei Su, Yunlong Yu, Xi Li

Abstract: Gait recognition, which aims at identifying individuals by their walking patterns, has recently drawn increasing research attention. However, gait recognition still suffers from the conflicts between the limited binary visual clues of the silhouette and numerous covariates with diverse scales, which brings challenges to the model's adaptiveness. In this paper, we address this conflict by developing a novel MetaGait that learns to learn an omni sample adaptive representation. Towards this goal, MetaGait injects meta-knowledge, which could guide the model to perceive sample-specific properties, into the calibration network of the attention mechanism to improve the adaptiveness from the omni-scale, omni-dimension, and omni-process perspectives. Specifically, we leverage the meta-knowledge across the entire process, where Meta Triple Attention and Meta Temporal Pooling are presented respectively to adaptively capture omni-scale dependency from spatial/channel/temporal dimensions simultaneously and to adaptively aggregate temporal information through integrating the merits of three complementary temporal aggregation methods. Extensive experiments demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of the proposed MetaGait. On CASIA-B, we achieve rank-1 accuracy of 98.7%, 96.0%, and 89.3% under three conditions, respectively. On OU-MVLP, we achieve rank-1 accuracy of 92.4%.

10.Looking and Listening: Audio Guided Text Recognition

Authors:Wenwen Yu, Mingyu Liu, Biao Yang, Enming Zhang, Deqiang Jiang, Xing Sun, Yuliang Liu, Xiang Bai

Abstract: Text recognition in the wild is a long-standing problem in computer vision. Driven by end-to-end deep learning, recent studies suggest vision and language processing are effective for scene text recognition. Yet, solving edit errors such as add, delete, or replace is still the main challenge for existing approaches. In fact, the content of the text and its audio are naturally corresponding to each other, i.e., a single character error may result in a clear different pronunciation. In this paper, we propose the AudioOCR, a simple yet effective probabilistic audio decoder for mel spectrogram sequence prediction to guide the scene text recognition, which only participates in the training phase and brings no extra cost during the inference stage. The underlying principle of AudioOCR can be easily applied to the existing approaches. Experiments using 7 previous scene text recognition methods on 12 existing regular, irregular, and occluded benchmarks demonstrate our proposed method can bring consistent improvement. More importantly, through our experimentation, we show that AudioOCR possesses a generalizability that extends to more challenging scenarios, including recognizing non-English text, out-of-vocabulary words, and text with various accents. Code will be available at

11.SciCap+: A Knowledge Augmented Dataset to Study the Challenges of Scientific Figure Captioning

Authors:Zhishen Yang, Raj Dabre, Hideki Tanaka, Naoaki Okazaki

Abstract: In scholarly documents, figures provide a straightforward way of communicating scientific findings to readers. Automating figure caption generation helps move model understandings of scientific documents beyond text and will help authors write informative captions that facilitate communicating scientific findings. Unlike previous studies, we reframe scientific figure captioning as a knowledge-augmented image captioning task that models need to utilize knowledge embedded across modalities for caption generation. To this end, we extended the large-scale SciCap dataset~\cite{hsu-etal-2021-scicap-generating} to SciCap+ which includes mention-paragraphs (paragraphs mentioning figures) and OCR tokens. Then, we conduct experiments with the M4C-Captioner (a multimodal transformer-based model with a pointer network) as a baseline for our study. Our results indicate that mention-paragraphs serves as additional context knowledge, which significantly boosts the automatic standard image caption evaluation scores compared to the figure-only baselines. Human evaluations further reveal the challenges of generating figure captions that are informative to readers. The code and SciCap+ dataset will be publicly available at

12.Efficient Anomaly Detection with Budget Annotation Using Semi-Supervised Residual Transformer

Authors:Hanxi Li, Jingqi Wu, Hao Chen, Mingwen Wang, Chunhua Shen

Abstract: Anomaly Detection is challenging as usually only the normal samples are seen during training and the detector needs to discover anomalies on-the-fly. The recently proposed deep-learning-based approaches could somehow alleviate the problem but there is still a long way to go in obtaining an industrial-class anomaly detector for real-world applications. On the other hand, in some particular AD tasks, a few anomalous samples are labeled manually for achieving higher accuracy. However, this performance gain is at the cost of considerable annotation efforts, which can be intractable in many practical scenarios. In this work, the above two problems are addressed in a unified framework. Firstly, inspired by the success of the patch-matching-based AD algorithms, we train a sliding vision transformer over the residuals generated by a novel position-constrained patch-matching. Secondly, the conventional pixel-wise segmentation problem is cast into a block-wise classification problem. Thus the sliding transformer can attain even higher accuracy with much less annotation labor. Thirdly, to further reduce the labeling cost, we propose to label the anomalous regions using only bounding boxes. The unlabeled regions caused by the weak labels are effectively exploited using a highly-customized semi-supervised learning scheme equipped with two novel data augmentation methods. The proposed method outperforms all the state-of-the-art approaches using all the evaluation metrics in both the unsupervised and supervised scenarios. On the popular MVTec-AD dataset, our SemiREST algorithm obtains the Average Precision (AP) of 81.2% in the unsupervised condition and 84.4% AP for supervised anomaly detection. Surprisingly, with the bounding-box-based semi-supervisions, SemiREST still outperforms the SOTA methods with full supervision (83.8% AP) on MVTec-AD.

13.Instructive Feature Enhancement for Dichotomous Medical Image Segmentation

Authors:Lian Liu, Han Zhou, Jiongquan Chen, Sijing Liu, Wenlong Shi, Dong Ni, Deng-Ping Fan, Xin Yang

Abstract: Deep neural networks have been widely applied in dichotomous medical image segmentation (DMIS) of many anatomical structures in several modalities, achieving promising performance. However, existing networks tend to struggle with task-specific, heavy and complex designs to improve accuracy. They made little instructions to which feature channels would be more beneficial for segmentation, and that may be why the performance and universality of these segmentation models are hindered. In this study, we propose an instructive feature enhancement approach, namely IFE, to adaptively select feature channels with rich texture cues and strong discriminability to enhance raw features based on local curvature or global information entropy criteria. Being plug-and-play and applicable for diverse DMIS tasks, IFE encourages the model to focus on texture-rich features which are especially important for the ambiguous and challenging boundary identification, simultaneously achieving simplicity, universality, and certain interpretability. To evaluate the proposed IFE, we constructed the first large-scale DMIS dataset Cosmos55k, which contains 55,023 images from 7 modalities and 26 anatomical structures. Extensive experiments show that IFE can improve the performance of classic segmentation networks across different anatomies and modalities with only slight modifications. Code is available at

14.Ada-TTA: Towards Adaptive High-Quality Text-to-Talking Avatar Synthesis

Authors:Zhenhui Ye, Ziyue Jiang, Yi Ren, Jinglin Liu, Chen Zhang, Xiang Yin, Zejun Ma, Zhou Zhao

Abstract: We are interested in a novel task, namely low-resource text-to-talking avatar. Given only a few-minute-long talking person video with the audio track as the training data and arbitrary texts as the driving input, we aim to synthesize high-quality talking portrait videos corresponding to the input text. This task has broad application prospects in the digital human industry but has not been technically achieved yet due to two challenges: (1) It is challenging to mimic the timbre from out-of-domain audio for a traditional multi-speaker Text-to-Speech system. (2) It is hard to render high-fidelity and lip-synchronized talking avatars with limited training data. In this paper, we introduce Adaptive Text-to-Talking Avatar (Ada-TTA), which (1) designs a generic zero-shot multi-speaker TTS model that well disentangles the text content, timbre, and prosody; and (2) embraces recent advances in neural rendering to achieve realistic audio-driven talking face video generation. With these designs, our method overcomes the aforementioned two challenges and achieves to generate identity-preserving speech and realistic talking person video. Experiments demonstrate that our method could synthesize realistic, identity-preserving, and audio-visual synchronized talking avatar videos.

15.Semantic Segmentation on VSPW Dataset through Contrastive Loss and Multi-dataset Training Approach

Authors:Min Yan, Qianxiong Ning, Qian Wang

Abstract: Video scene parsing incorporates temporal information, which can enhance the consistency and accuracy of predictions compared to image scene parsing. The added temporal dimension enables a more comprehensive understanding of the scene, leading to more reliable results. This paper presents the winning solution of the CVPR2023 workshop for video semantic segmentation, focusing on enhancing Spatial-Temporal correlations with contrastive loss. We also explore the influence of multi-dataset training by utilizing a label-mapping technique. And the final result is aggregating the output of the above two models. Our approach achieves 65.95% mIoU performance on the VSPW dataset, ranked 1st place on the VSPW challenge at CVPR 2023.

16.Recognize Anything: A Strong Image Tagging Model

Authors:Youcai Zhang, Xinyu Huang, Jinyu Ma, Zhaoyang Li, Zhaochuan Luo, Yanchun Xie, Yuzhuo Qin, Tong Luo, Yaqian Li, Shilong Liu, Yandong Guo, Lei Zhang

Abstract: We present the Recognize Anything Model (RAM): a strong foundation model for image tagging. RAM can recognize any common category with high accuracy. RAM introduces a new paradigm for image tagging, leveraging large-scale image-text pairs for training instead of manual annotations. The development of RAM comprises four key steps. Firstly, annotation-free image tags are obtained at scale through automatic text semantic parsing. Subsequently, a preliminary model is trained for automatic annotation by unifying the caption and tagging tasks, supervised by the original texts and parsed tags, respectively. Thirdly, a data engine is employed to generate additional annotations and clean incorrect ones. Lastly, the model is retrained with the processed data and fine-tuned using a smaller but higher-quality dataset. We evaluate the tagging capabilities of RAM on numerous benchmarks and observe impressive zero-shot performance, significantly outperforming CLIP and BLIP. Remarkably, RAM even surpasses the fully supervised manners and exhibits competitive performance with the Google API. We are releasing the RAM at \url{} to foster the advancements of large models in computer vision.

17.Expanding Explainability Horizons: A Unified Concept-Based System for Local, Global, and Misclassification Explanations

Authors:Fatemeh Aghaeipoor, Dorsa Asgarian, Mohammad Sabokrou

Abstract: Explainability of intelligent models has been garnering increasing attention in recent years. Of the various explainability approaches, concept-based techniques are notable for utilizing a set of human-meaningful concepts instead of focusing on individual pixels. However, there is a scarcity of methods that consistently provide both local and global explanations. Moreover, most of the methods have no offer to explain misclassification cases. To address these challenges, our study follows a straightforward yet effective approach. We propose a unified concept-based system, which inputs a number of super-pixelated images into the networks, allowing them to learn better representations of the target's objects as well as the target's concepts. This method automatically learns, scores, and extracts local and global concepts. Our experiments revealed that, in addition to enhancing performance, the models could provide deeper insights into predictions and elucidate false classifications.

18.Real-Time Onboard Object Detection for Augmented Reality: Enhancing Head-Mounted Display with YOLOv8

Authors:Mikołaj Łysakowski, Kamil Żywanowski, Adam Banaszczyk, Michał R. Nowicki, Piotr Skrzypczyński, Sławomir K. Tadeja

Abstract: This paper introduces a software architecture for real-time object detection using machine learning (ML) in an augmented reality (AR) environment. Our approach uses the recent state-of-the-art YOLOv8 network that runs onboard on the Microsoft HoloLens 2 head-mounted display (HMD). The primary motivation behind this research is to enable the application of advanced ML models for enhanced perception and situational awareness with a wearable, hands-free AR platform. We show the image processing pipeline for the YOLOv8 model and the techniques used to make it real-time on the resource-limited edge computing platform of the headset. The experimental results demonstrate that our solution achieves real-time processing without needing offloading tasks to the cloud or any other external servers while retaining satisfactory accuracy regarding the usual mAP metric and measured qualitative performance

19.SDR-GAIN: A High Real-Time Occluded Pedestrian Pose Completion Method for Autonomous Driving

Authors:Honghao Fu

Abstract: To mitigate the challenges arising from partial occlusion in human pose keypoint based pedestrian detection methods , we present a novel pedestrian pose keypoint completion method called the separation and dimensionality reduction-based generative adversarial imputation networks (SDR-GAIN) . Firstly, we utilize OpenPose to estimate pedestrian poses in images. Then, we isolate the head and torso keypoints of pedestrians with incomplete keypoints due to occlusion or other factors and perform dimensionality reduction to enhance features and further unify feature distribution. Finally, we introduce two generative models based on the generative adversarial networks (GAN) framework, which incorporate Huber loss, residual structure, and L1 regularization to generate missing parts of the incomplete head and torso pose keypoints of partially occluded pedestrians, resulting in pose completion. Our experiments on MS COCO and JAAD datasets demonstrate that SDR-GAIN outperforms basic GAIN framework, interpolation methods PCHIP and MAkima, machine learning methods k-NN and MissForest in terms of pose completion task. In addition, the runtime of SDR-GAIN is approximately 0.4ms, displaying high real-time performance and significant application value in the field of autonomous driving.

20.Human 3D Avatar Modeling with Implicit Neural Representation: A Brief Survey

Authors:Mingyang Sun, Dingkang Yang, Dongliang Kou, Yang Jiang, Weihua Shan, Zhe Yan, Lihua Zhang

Abstract: A human 3D avatar is one of the important elements in the metaverse, and the modeling effect directly affects people's visual experience. However, the human body has a complex topology and diverse details, so it is often expensive, time-consuming, and laborious to build a satisfactory model. Recent studies have proposed a novel method, implicit neural representation, which is a continuous representation method and can describe objects with arbitrary topology at arbitrary resolution. Researchers have applied implicit neural representation to human 3D avatar modeling and obtained more excellent results than traditional methods. This paper comprehensively reviews the application of implicit neural representation in human body modeling. First, we introduce three implicit representations of occupancy field, SDF, and NeRF, and make a classification of the literature investigated in this paper. Then the application of implicit modeling methods in the body, hand, and head are compared and analyzed respectively. Finally, we point out the shortcomings of current work and provide available suggestions for researchers.

21.An Open Patch Generator based Fingerprint Presentation Attack Detection using Generative Adversarial Network

Authors:Anuj Rai, Ashutosh Anshul, Ashwini Jha, Prayag Jain, Ramprakash Sharma, Somnath Dey

Abstract: The low-cost, user-friendly, and convenient nature of Automatic Fingerprint Recognition Systems (AFRS) makes them suitable for a wide range of applications. This spreading use of AFRS also makes them vulnerable to various security threats. Presentation Attack (PA) or spoofing is one of the threats which is caused by presenting a spoof of a genuine fingerprint to the sensor of AFRS. Fingerprint Presentation Attack Detection (FPAD) is a countermeasure intended to protect AFRS against fake or spoof fingerprints created using various fabrication materials. In this paper, we have proposed a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based technique that uses a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to augment the dataset with spoof samples generated from the proposed Open Patch Generator (OPG). This OPG is capable of generating realistic fingerprint samples which have no resemblance to the existing spoof fingerprint samples generated with other materials. The augmented dataset is fed to the DenseNet classifier which helps in increasing the performance of the Presentation Attack Detection (PAD) module for the various real-world attacks possible with unknown spoof materials. Experimental evaluations of the proposed approach are carried out on the Liveness Detection (LivDet) 2015, 2017, and 2019 competition databases. An overall accuracy of 96.20\%, 94.97\%, and 92.90\% has been achieved on the LivDet 2015, 2017, and 2019 databases, respectively under the LivDet protocol scenarios. The performance of the proposed PAD model is also validated in the cross-material and cross-sensor attack paradigm which further exhibits its capability to be used under real-world attack scenarios.

22.RDFC-GAN: RGB-Depth Fusion CycleGAN for Indoor Depth Completion

Authors:Haowen Wang, Zhengping Che, Mingyuan Wang, Zhiyuan Xu, Xiuquan Qiao, Mengshi Qi, Feifei Feng, Jian Tang

Abstract: The raw depth image captured by indoor depth sensors usually has an extensive range of missing depth values due to inherent limitations such as the inability to perceive transparent objects and the limited distance range. The incomplete depth map with missing values burdens many downstream vision tasks, and a rising number of depth completion methods have been proposed to alleviate this issue. While most existing methods can generate accurate dense depth maps from sparse and uniformly sampled depth maps, they are not suitable for complementing large contiguous regions of missing depth values, which is common and critical in images captured in indoor environments. To overcome these challenges, we design a novel two-branch end-to-end fusion network named RDFC-GAN, which takes a pair of RGB and incomplete depth images as input to predict a dense and completed depth map. The first branch employs an encoder-decoder structure, by adhering to the Manhattan world assumption and utilizing normal maps from RGB-D information as guidance, to regress the local dense depth values from the raw depth map. In the other branch, we propose an RGB-depth fusion CycleGAN to transfer the RGB image to the fine-grained textured depth map. We adopt adaptive fusion modules named W-AdaIN to propagate the features across the two branches, and we append a confidence fusion head to fuse the two outputs of the branches for the final depth map. Extensive experiments on NYU-Depth V2 and SUN RGB-D demonstrate that our proposed method clearly improves the depth completion performance, especially in a more realistic setting of indoor environments, with the help of our proposed pseudo depth maps in training.

23.Emotional Talking Head Generation based on Memory-Sharing and Attention-Augmented Networks

Authors:Jianrong Wang, Yaxin Zhao, Li Liu, Tianyi Xu, Qi Li, Sen Li

Abstract: Given an audio clip and a reference face image, the goal of the talking head generation is to generate a high-fidelity talking head video. Although some audio-driven methods of generating talking head videos have made some achievements in the past, most of them only focused on lip and audio synchronization and lack the ability to reproduce the facial expressions of the target person. To this end, we propose a talking head generation model consisting of a Memory-Sharing Emotion Feature extractor (MSEF) and an Attention-Augmented Translator based on U-net (AATU). Firstly, MSEF can extract implicit emotional auxiliary features from audio to estimate more accurate emotional face landmarks.~Secondly, AATU acts as a translator between the estimated landmarks and the photo-realistic video frames. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments have shown the superiority of the proposed method to the previous works. Codes will be made publicly available.

24.Human-Object Interaction Prediction in Videos through Gaze Following

Authors:Zhifan Ni, Esteve Valls Mascaró, Hyemin Ahn, Dongheui Lee

Abstract: Understanding the human-object interactions (HOIs) from a video is essential to fully comprehend a visual scene. This line of research has been addressed by detecting HOIs from images and lately from videos. However, the video-based HOI anticipation task in the third-person view remains understudied. In this paper, we design a framework to detect current HOIs and anticipate future HOIs in videos. We propose to leverage human gaze information since people often fixate on an object before interacting with it. These gaze features together with the scene contexts and the visual appearances of human-object pairs are fused through a spatio-temporal transformer. To evaluate the model in the HOI anticipation task in a multi-person scenario, we propose a set of person-wise multi-label metrics. Our model is trained and validated on the VidHOI dataset, which contains videos capturing daily life and is currently the largest video HOI dataset. Experimental results in the HOI detection task show that our approach improves the baseline by a great margin of 36.3% relatively. Moreover, we conduct an extensive ablation study to demonstrate the effectiveness of our modifications and extensions to the spatio-temporal transformer. Our code is publicly available on

25.Mutual Information Regularization for Weakly-supervised RGB-D Salient Object Detection

Authors:Aixuan Li, Yuxin Mao, Jing Zhang, Yuchao Dai

Abstract: In this paper, we present a weakly-supervised RGB-D salient object detection model via scribble supervision. Specifically, as a multimodal learning task, we focus on effective multimodal representation learning via inter-modal mutual information regularization. In particular, following the principle of disentangled representation learning, we introduce a mutual information upper bound with a mutual information minimization regularizer to encourage the disentangled representation of each modality for salient object detection. Based on our multimodal representation learning framework, we introduce an asymmetric feature extractor for our multimodal data, which is proven more effective than the conventional symmetric backbone setting. We also introduce multimodal variational auto-encoder as stochastic prediction refinement techniques, which takes pseudo labels from the first training stage as supervision and generates refined prediction. Experimental results on benchmark RGB-D salient object detection datasets verify both effectiveness of our explicit multimodal disentangled representation learning method and the stochastic prediction refinement strategy, achieving comparable performance with the state-of-the-art fully supervised models. Our code and data are available at:

26.PQM: A Point Quality Evaluation Metric for Dense Maps

Authors:Yash Turkar, Pranay Meshram, Charuvahan Adhivarahan, Karthik Dantu

Abstract: LiDAR-based mapping/reconstruction are important for various applications, but evaluating the quality of the dense maps they produce is challenging. The current methods have limitations, including the inability to capture completeness, structural information, and local variations in error. In this paper, we propose a novel point quality evaluation metric (PQM) that consists of four sub-metrics to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of point cloud quality. The completeness sub-metric evaluates the proportion of missing data, the artifact score sub-metric recognizes and characterizes artifacts, the accuracy sub-metric measures registration accuracy, and the resolution sub-metric quantifies point cloud density. Through an ablation study using a prototype dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of each of the sub-metrics and compare them to popular point cloud distance measures. Using three LiDAR SLAM systems to generate maps, we evaluate their output map quality and demonstrate the metrics robustness to noise and artifacts. Our implementation of PQM, datasets and detailed documentation on how to integrate with your custom dense mapping pipeline can be found at

27.Human-imperceptible, Machine-recognizable Images

Authors:Fusheng Hao, Fengxiang He, Yikai Wang, Fuxiang Wu, Jing Zhang, Jun Cheng, Dacheng Tao

Abstract: Massive human-related data is collected to train neural networks for computer vision tasks. A major conflict is exposed relating to software engineers between better developing AI systems and distancing from the sensitive training data. To reconcile this conflict, this paper proposes an efficient privacy-preserving learning paradigm, where images are first encrypted to become ``human-imperceptible, machine-recognizable'' via one of the two encryption strategies: (1) random shuffling to a set of equally-sized patches and (2) mixing-up sub-patches of the images. Then, minimal adaptations are made to vision transformer to enable it to learn on the encrypted images for vision tasks, including image classification and object detection. Extensive experiments on ImageNet and COCO show that the proposed paradigm achieves comparable accuracy with the competitive methods. Decrypting the encrypted images requires solving an NP-hard jigsaw puzzle or an ill-posed inverse problem, which is empirically shown intractable to be recovered by various attackers, including the powerful vision transformer-based attacker. We thus show that the proposed paradigm can ensure the encrypted images have become human-imperceptible while preserving machine-recognizable information. The code is available at \url{}

28.YONA: You Only Need One Adjacent Reference-frame for Accurate and Fast Video Polyp Detection

Authors:Yuncheng Jiang, Zixun Zhang, Ruimao Zhang, Guanbin Li, Shuguang Cui, Zhen Li

Abstract: Accurate polyp detection is essential for assisting clinical rectal cancer diagnoses. Colonoscopy videos contain richer information than still images, making them a valuable resource for deep learning methods. Great efforts have been made to conduct video polyp detection through multi-frame temporal/spatial aggregation. However, unlike common fixed-camera video, the camera-moving scene in colonoscopy videos can cause rapid video jitters, leading to unstable training for existing video detection models. Additionally, the concealed nature of some polyps and the complex background environment further hinder the performance of existing video detectors. In this paper, we propose the \textbf{YONA} (\textbf{Y}ou \textbf{O}nly \textbf{N}eed one \textbf{A}djacent Reference-frame) method, an efficient end-to-end training framework for video polyp detection. YONA fully exploits the information of one previous adjacent frame and conducts polyp detection on the current frame without multi-frame collaborations. Specifically, for the foreground, YONA adaptively aligns the current frame's channel activation patterns with its adjacent reference frames according to their foreground similarity. For the background, YONA conducts background dynamic alignment guided by inter-frame difference to eliminate the invalid features produced by drastic spatial jitters. Moreover, YONA applies cross-frame contrastive learning during training, leveraging the ground truth bounding box to improve the model's perception of polyp and background. Quantitative and qualitative experiments on three public challenging benchmarks demonstrate that our proposed YONA outperforms previous state-of-the-art competitors by a large margin in both accuracy and speed.

29.Deep Learning-Enabled Sleep Staging From Vital Signs and Activity Measured Using a Near-Infrared Video Camera

Authors:Jonathan Carter, João Jorge, Bindia Venugopal, Oliver Gibson, Lionel Tarassenko

Abstract: Conventional sleep monitoring is time-consuming, expensive and uncomfortable, requiring a large number of contact sensors to be attached to the patient. Video data is commonly recorded as part of a sleep laboratory assessment. If accurate sleep staging could be achieved solely from video, this would overcome many of the problems of traditional methods. In this work we use heart rate, breathing rate and activity measures, all derived from a near-infrared video camera, to perform sleep stage classification. We use a deep transfer learning approach to overcome data scarcity, by using an existing contact-sensor dataset to learn effective representations from the heart and breathing rate time series. Using a dataset of 50 healthy volunteers, we achieve an accuracy of 73.4\% and a Cohen's kappa of 0.61 in four-class sleep stage classification, establishing a new state-of-the-art for video-based sleep staging.

30.Towards Visual Foundational Models of Physical Scenes

Authors:Chethan Parameshwara, Alessandro Achille, Matthew Trager, Xiaolong Li, Jiawei Mo, Matthew Trager, Ashwin Swaminathan, CJ Taylor, Dheera Venkatraman, Xiaohan Fei, Stefano Soatto

Abstract: We describe a first step towards learning general-purpose visual representations of physical scenes using only image prediction as a training criterion. To do so, we first define "physical scene" and show that, even though different agents may maintain different representations of the same scene, the underlying physical scene that can be inferred is unique. Then, we show that NeRFs cannot represent the physical scene, as they lack extrapolation mechanisms. Those, however, could be provided by Diffusion Models, at least in theory. To test this hypothesis empirically, NeRFs can be combined with Diffusion Models, a process we refer to as NeRF Diffusion, used as unsupervised representations of the physical scene. Our analysis is limited to visual data, without external grounding mechanisms that can be provided by independent sensory modalities.

31.Towards Scalable Multi-View Reconstruction of Geometry and Materials

Authors:Carolin Schmitt, Božidar Antić, Andrei Neculai, Joo Ho Lee, Andreas Geiger

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel method for joint recovery of camera pose, object geometry and spatially-varying Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (svBRDF) of 3D scenes that exceed object-scale and hence cannot be captured with stationary light stages. The input are high-resolution RGB-D images captured by a mobile, hand-held capture system with point lights for active illumination. Compared to previous works that jointly estimate geometry and materials from a hand-held scanner, we formulate this problem using a single objective function that can be minimized using off-the-shelf gradient-based solvers. To facilitate scalability to large numbers of observation views and optimization variables, we introduce a distributed optimization algorithm that reconstructs 2.5D keyframe-based representations of the scene. A novel multi-view consistency regularizer effectively synchronizes neighboring keyframes such that the local optimization results allow for seamless integration into a globally consistent 3D model. We provide a study on the importance of each component in our formulation and show that our method compares favorably to baselines. We further demonstrate that our method accurately reconstructs various objects and materials and allows for expansion to spatially larger scenes. We believe that this work represents a significant step towards making geometry and material estimation from hand-held scanners scalable.

32.Performance-optimized deep neural networks are evolving into worse models of inferotemporal visual cortex

Authors:Drew Linsley, Ivan F. Rodriguez, Thomas Fel, Michael Arcaro, Saloni Sharma, Margaret Livingstone, Thomas Serre

Abstract: One of the most impactful findings in computational neuroscience over the past decade is that the object recognition accuracy of deep neural networks (DNNs) correlates with their ability to predict neural responses to natural images in the inferotemporal (IT) cortex. This discovery supported the long-held theory that object recognition is a core objective of the visual cortex, and suggested that more accurate DNNs would serve as better models of IT neuron responses to images. Since then, deep learning has undergone a revolution of scale: billion parameter-scale DNNs trained on billions of images are rivaling or outperforming humans at visual tasks including object recognition. Have today's DNNs become more accurate at predicting IT neuron responses to images as they have grown more accurate at object recognition? Surprisingly, across three independent experiments, we find this is not the case. DNNs have become progressively worse models of IT as their accuracy has increased on ImageNet. To understand why DNNs experience this trade-off and evaluate if they are still an appropriate paradigm for modeling the visual system, we turn to recordings of IT that capture spatially resolved maps of neuronal activity elicited by natural images. These neuronal activity maps reveal that DNNs trained on ImageNet learn to rely on different visual features than those encoded by IT and that this problem worsens as their accuracy increases. We successfully resolved this issue with the neural harmonizer, a plug-and-play training routine for DNNs that aligns their learned representations with humans. Our results suggest that harmonized DNNs break the trade-off between ImageNet accuracy and neural prediction accuracy that assails current DNNs and offer a path to more accurate models of biological vision.

33.Learning to Ground Instructional Articles in Videos through Narrations

Authors:Effrosyni Mavroudi, Triantafyllos Afouras, Lorenzo Torresani

Abstract: In this paper we present an approach for localizing steps of procedural activities in narrated how-to videos. To deal with the scarcity of labeled data at scale, we source the step descriptions from a language knowledge base (wikiHow) containing instructional articles for a large variety of procedural tasks. Without any form of manual supervision, our model learns to temporally ground the steps of procedural articles in how-to videos by matching three modalities: frames, narrations, and step descriptions. Specifically, our method aligns steps to video by fusing information from two distinct pathways: i) {\em direct} alignment of step descriptions to frames, ii) {\em indirect} alignment obtained by composing steps-to-narrations with narrations-to-video correspondences. Notably, our approach performs global temporal grounding of all steps in an article at once by exploiting order information, and is trained with step pseudo-labels which are iteratively refined and aggressively filtered. In order to validate our model we introduce a new evaluation benchmark -- HT-Step -- obtained by manually annotating a 124-hour subset of HowTo100M\footnote{A test server is accessible at \url{}.} with steps sourced from wikiHow articles. Experiments on this benchmark as well as zero-shot evaluations on CrossTask demonstrate that our multi-modality alignment yields dramatic gains over several baselines and prior works. Finally, we show that our inner module for matching narration-to-video outperforms by a large margin the state of the art on the HTM-Align narration-video alignment benchmark.

34.X-Align++: cross-modal cross-view alignment for Bird's-eye-view segmentation

Authors:Shubhankar Borse, Senthil Yogamani, Marvin Klingner, Varun Ravi, Hong Cai, Abdulaziz Almuzairee, Fatih Porikli

Abstract: Bird's-eye-view (BEV) grid is a typical representation of the perception of road components, e.g., drivable area, in autonomous driving. Most existing approaches rely on cameras only to perform segmentation in BEV space, which is fundamentally constrained by the absence of reliable depth information. The latest works leverage both camera and LiDAR modalities but suboptimally fuse their features using simple, concatenation-based mechanisms. In this paper, we address these problems by enhancing the alignment of the unimodal features in order to aid feature fusion, as well as enhancing the alignment between the cameras' perspective view (PV) and BEV representations. We propose X-Align, a novel end-to-end cross-modal and cross-view learning framework for BEV segmentation consisting of the following components: (i) a novel Cross-Modal Feature Alignment (X-FA) loss, (ii) an attention-based Cross-Modal Feature Fusion (X-FF) module to align multi-modal BEV features implicitly, and (iii) an auxiliary PV segmentation branch with Cross-View Segmentation Alignment (X-SA) losses to improve the PV-to-BEV transformation. We evaluate our proposed method across two commonly used benchmark datasets, i.e., nuScenes and KITTI-360. Notably, X-Align significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art by 3 absolute mIoU points on nuScenes. We also provide extensive ablation studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the individual components.

35.Learning Human Mesh Recovery in 3D Scenes

Authors:Zehong Shen, Zhi Cen, Sida Peng, Qing Shuai, Hujun Bao, Xiaowei Zhou

Abstract: We present a novel method for recovering the absolute pose and shape of a human in a pre-scanned scene given a single image. Unlike previous methods that perform sceneaware mesh optimization, we propose to first estimate absolute position and dense scene contacts with a sparse 3D CNN, and later enhance a pretrained human mesh recovery network by cross-attention with the derived 3D scene cues. Joint learning on images and scene geometry enables our method to reduce the ambiguity caused by depth and occlusion, resulting in more reasonable global postures and contacts. Encoding scene-aware cues in the network also allows the proposed method to be optimization-free, and opens up the opportunity for real-time applications. The experiments show that the proposed network is capable of recovering accurate and physically-plausible meshes by a single forward pass and outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of both accuracy and speed.

36.Conditional Diffusion Models for Weakly Supervised Medical Image Segmentation

Authors:Xinrong Hu, Yu-Jen Chen, Tsung-Yi Ho, Yiyu Shi

Abstract: Recent advances in denoising diffusion probabilistic models have shown great success in image synthesis tasks. While there are already works exploring the potential of this powerful tool in image semantic segmentation, its application in weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) remains relatively under-explored. Observing that conditional diffusion models (CDM) is capable of generating images subject to specific distributions, in this work, we utilize category-aware semantic information underlied in CDM to get the prediction mask of the target object with only image-level annotations. More specifically, we locate the desired class by approximating the derivative of the output of CDM w.r.t the input condition. Our method is different from previous diffusion model methods with guidance from an external classifier, which accumulates noises in the background during the reconstruction process. Our method outperforms state-of-the-art CAM and diffusion model methods on two public medical image segmentation datasets, which demonstrates that CDM is a promising tool in WSSS. Also, experiment shows our method is more time-efficient than existing diffusion model methods, making it practical for wider applications.

37.Emergent Correspondence from Image Diffusion

Authors:Luming Tang, Menglin Jia, Qianqian Wang, Cheng Perng Phoo, Bharath Hariharan

Abstract: Finding correspondences between images is a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this paper, we show that correspondence emerges in image diffusion models without any explicit supervision. We propose a simple strategy to extract this implicit knowledge out of diffusion networks as image features, namely DIffusion FeaTures (DIFT), and use them to establish correspondences between real images. Without any additional fine-tuning or supervision on the task-specific data or annotations, DIFT is able to outperform both weakly-supervised methods and competitive off-the-shelf features in identifying semantic, geometric, and temporal correspondences. Particularly for semantic correspondence, DIFT from Stable Diffusion is able to outperform DINO and OpenCLIP by 19 and 14 accuracy points respectively on the challenging SPair-71k benchmark. It even outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised methods on 9 out of 18 categories while remaining on par for the overall performance. Project page:

38.Towards Label-free Scene Understanding by Vision Foundation Models

Authors:Runnan Chen, Youquan Liu, Lingdong Kong, Nenglun Chen, Xinge Zhu, Yuexin Ma, Tongliang Liu, Wenping Wang

Abstract: Vision foundation models such as Contrastive Vision-Language Pre-training (CLIP) and Segment Anything (SAM) have demonstrated impressive zero-shot performance on image classification and segmentation tasks. However, the incorporation of CLIP and SAM for label-free scene understanding has yet to be explored. In this paper, we investigate the potential of vision foundation models in enabling networks to comprehend 2D and 3D worlds without labelled data. The primary challenge lies in effectively supervising networks under extremely noisy pseudo labels, which are generated by CLIP and further exacerbated during the propagation from the 2D to the 3D domain. To tackle these challenges, we propose a novel Cross-modality Noisy Supervision (CNS) method that leverages the strengths of CLIP and SAM to supervise 2D and 3D networks simultaneously. In particular, we introduce a prediction consistency regularization to co-train 2D and 3D networks, then further impose the networks' latent space consistency using the SAM's robust feature representation. Experiments conducted on diverse indoor and outdoor datasets demonstrate the superior performance of our method in understanding 2D and 3D open environments. Our 2D and 3D network achieves label-free semantic segmentation with 28.4% and 33.5% mIoU on ScanNet, improving 4.7% and 7.9%, respectively. And for nuScenes dataset, our performance is 26.8% with an improvement of 6%. Code will be released (

39.SAM3D: Segment Anything in 3D Scenes

Authors:Yunhan Yang, Xiaoyang Wu, Tong He, Hengshuang Zhao, Xihui Liu

Abstract: In this work, we propose SAM3D, a novel framework that is able to predict masks in 3D point clouds by leveraging the Segment-Anything Model (SAM) in RGB images without further training or finetuning. For a point cloud of a 3D scene with posed RGB images, we first predict segmentation masks of RGB images with SAM, and then project the 2D masks into the 3D points. Later, we merge the 3D masks iteratively with a bottom-up merging approach. At each step, we merge the point cloud masks of two adjacent frames with the bidirectional merging approach. In this way, the 3D masks predicted from different frames are gradually merged into the 3D masks of the whole 3D scene. Finally, we can optionally ensemble the result from our SAM3D with the over-segmentation results based on the geometric information of the 3D scenes. Our approach is experimented with ScanNet dataset and qualitative results demonstrate that our SAM3D achieves reasonable and fine-grained 3D segmentation results without any training or finetuning of SAM.