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Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)

Mon, 05 Jun 2023

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1.ReContrast: Domain-Specific Anomaly Detection via Contrastive Reconstruction

Authors:Jia Guo, Shuai Lu, Lize Jia, Weihang Zhang, Huiqi Li

Abstract: Most advanced unsupervised anomaly detection (UAD) methods rely on modeling feature representations of frozen encoder networks pre-trained on large-scale datasets, e.g. ImageNet. However, the features extracted from the encoders that are borrowed from natural image domains coincide little with the features required in the target UAD domain, such as industrial inspection and medical imaging. In this paper, we propose a novel epistemic UAD method, namely ReContrast, which optimizes the entire network to reduce biases towards the pre-trained image domain and orients the network in the target domain. We start with a feature reconstruction approach that detects anomalies from errors. Essentially, the elements of contrastive learning are elegantly embedded in feature reconstruction to prevent the network from training instability, pattern collapse, and identical shortcut, while simultaneously optimizing both the encoder and decoder on the target domain. To demonstrate our transfer ability on various image domains, we conduct extensive experiments across two popular industrial defect detection benchmarks and three medical image UAD tasks, which shows our superiority over current state-of-the-art methods.

2.Do-GOOD: Towards Distribution Shift Evaluation for Pre-Trained Visual Document Understanding Models

Authors:Jiabang He, Yi Hu, Lei Wang, Xing Xu, Ning Liu, Hui Liu, Heng Tao Shen

Abstract: Numerous pre-training techniques for visual document understanding (VDU) have recently shown substantial improvements in performance across a wide range of document tasks. However, these pre-trained VDU models cannot guarantee continued success when the distribution of test data differs from the distribution of training data. In this paper, to investigate how robust existing pre-trained VDU models are to various distribution shifts, we first develop an out-of-distribution (OOD) benchmark termed Do-GOOD for the fine-Grained analysis on Document image-related tasks specifically. The Do-GOOD benchmark defines the underlying mechanisms that result in different distribution shifts and contains 9 OOD datasets covering 3 VDU related tasks, e.g., document information extraction, classification and question answering. We then evaluate the robustness and perform a fine-grained analysis of 5 latest VDU pre-trained models and 2 typical OOD generalization algorithms on these OOD datasets. Results from the experiments demonstrate that there is a significant performance gap between the in-distribution (ID) and OOD settings for document images, and that fine-grained analysis of distribution shifts can reveal the brittle nature of existing pre-trained VDU models and OOD generalization algorithms. The code and datasets for our Do-GOOD benchmark can be found at

3.Learned Alternating Minimization Algorithm for Dual-domain Sparse-View CT Reconstruction

Authors:Chi Ding, Qingchao Zhang, Ge Wang, Xiaojing Ye, Yunmei Chen

Abstract: We propose a novel Learned Alternating Minimization Algorithm (LAMA) for dual-domain sparse-view CT image reconstruction. LAMA is naturally induced by a variational model for CT reconstruction with learnable nonsmooth nonconvex regularizers, which are parameterized as composite functions of deep networks in both image and sinogram domains. To minimize the objective of the model, we incorporate the smoothing technique and residual learning architecture into the design of LAMA. We show that LAMA substantially reduces network complexity, improves memory efficiency and reconstruction accuracy, and is provably convergent for reliable reconstructions. Extensive numerical experiments demonstrate that LAMA outperforms existing methods by a wide margin on multiple benchmark CT datasets.

4.Dynamic Interactive Relation Capturing via Scene Graph Learning for Robotic Surgical Report Generation

Authors:Hongqiu Wang, Yueming Jin, Lei Zhu

Abstract: For robot-assisted surgery, an accurate surgical report reflects clinical operations during surgery and helps document entry tasks, post-operative analysis and follow-up treatment. It is a challenging task due to many complex and diverse interactions between instruments and tissues in the surgical scene. Although existing surgical report generation methods based on deep learning have achieved large success, they often ignore the interactive relation between tissues and instrumental tools, thereby degrading the report generation performance. This paper presents a neural network to boost surgical report generation by explicitly exploring the interactive relation between tissues and surgical instruments. We validate the effectiveness of our method on a widely-used robotic surgery benchmark dataset, and experimental results show that our network can significantly outperform existing state-of-the-art surgical report generation methods (e.g., 7.48% and 5.43% higher for BLEU-1 and ROUGE).

5.Calib-Anything: Zero-training LiDAR-Camera Extrinsic Calibration Method Using Segment Anything

Authors:Zhaotong Luo, Guohang Yan, Yikang Li

Abstract: The research on extrinsic calibration between Light Detection and Ranging(LiDAR) and camera are being promoted to a more accurate, automatic and generic manner. Since deep learning has been employed in calibration, the restrictions on the scene are greatly reduced. However, data driven method has the drawback of low transfer-ability. It cannot adapt to dataset variations unless additional training is taken. With the advent of foundation model, this problem can be significantly mitigated. By using the Segment Anything Model(SAM), we propose a novel LiDAR-camera calibration method, which requires zero extra training and adapts to common scenes. With an initial guess, we opimize the extrinsic parameter by maximizing the consistency of points that are projected inside each image mask. The consistency includes three properties of the point cloud: the intensity, normal vector and categories derived from some segmentation methods. The experiments on different dataset have demonstrated the generality and comparable accuracy of our method. The code is available at

6.Cyclic Learning: Bridging Image-level Labels and Nuclei Instance Segmentation

Authors:Yang Zhou, Yongjian Wu, Zihua Wang, Bingzheng Wei, Maode Lai, Jianzhong Shou, Yubo Fan, Yan Xu

Abstract: Nuclei instance segmentation on histopathology images is of great clinical value for disease analysis. Generally, fully-supervised algorithms for this task require pixel-wise manual annotations, which is especially time-consuming and laborious for the high nuclei density. To alleviate the annotation burden, we seek to solve the problem through image-level weakly supervised learning, which is underexplored for nuclei instance segmentation. Compared with most existing methods using other weak annotations (scribble, point, etc.) for nuclei instance segmentation, our method is more labor-saving. The obstacle to using image-level annotations in nuclei instance segmentation is the lack of adequate location information, leading to severe nuclei omission or overlaps. In this paper, we propose a novel image-level weakly supervised method, called cyclic learning, to solve this problem. Cyclic learning comprises a front-end classification task and a back-end semi-supervised instance segmentation task to benefit from multi-task learning (MTL). We utilize a deep learning classifier with interpretability as the front-end to convert image-level labels to sets of high-confidence pseudo masks and establish a semi-supervised architecture as the back-end to conduct nuclei instance segmentation under the supervision of these pseudo masks. Most importantly, cyclic learning is designed to circularly share knowledge between the front-end classifier and the back-end semi-supervised part, which allows the whole system to fully extract the underlying information from image-level labels and converge to a better optimum. Experiments on three datasets demonstrate the good generality of our method, which outperforms other image-level weakly supervised methods for nuclei instance segmentation, and achieves comparable performance to fully-supervised methods.

7.NFTVis: Visual Analysis of NFT Performance

Authors:Fan Yan, Xumeng Wang, Ketian Mao, Wei Zhang, Wei Chen

Abstract: A non-fungible token (NFT) is a data unit stored on the blockchain. Nowadays, more and more investors and collectors (NFT traders), who participate in transactions of NFTs, have an urgent need to assess the performance of NFTs. However, there are two challenges for NFT traders when analyzing the performance of NFT. First, the current rarity models have flaws and are sometimes not convincing. In addition, NFT performance is dependent on multiple factors, such as images (high-dimensional data), history transactions (network), and market evolution (time series). It is difficult to take comprehensive consideration and analyze NFT performance efficiently. To address these challenges, we propose NFTVis, a visual analysis system that facilitates assessing individual NFT performance. A new NFT rarity model is proposed to quantify NFTs with images. Four well-coordinated views are designed to represent the various factors affecting the performance of the NFT. Finally, we evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of our system using two case studies and user studies.

8.User-friendly Image Editing with Minimal Text Input: Leveraging Captioning and Injection Techniques

Authors:Sunwoo Kim, Wooseok Jang, Hyunsu Kim, Junho Kim, Yunjey Choi, Seungryong Kim, Gayeong Lee

Abstract: Recent text-driven image editing in diffusion models has shown remarkable success. However, the existing methods assume that the user's description sufficiently grounds the contexts in the source image, such as objects, background, style, and their relations. This assumption is unsuitable for real-world applications because users have to manually engineer text prompts to find optimal descriptions for different images. From the users' standpoint, prompt engineering is a labor-intensive process, and users prefer to provide a target word for editing instead of a full sentence. To address this problem, we first demonstrate the importance of a detailed text description of the source image, by dividing prompts into three categories based on the level of semantic details. Then, we propose simple yet effective methods by combining prompt generation frameworks, thereby making the prompt engineering process more user-friendly. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate the importance of prompts in text-driven image editing and our method is comparable to ground-truth prompts.

9.Overcoming Weak Visual-Textual Alignment for Video Moment Retrieval

Authors:Minjoon Jung, Youwon Jang, Seongho Choi, Joochan Kim, Jin-Hwa Kim, Byoung-Tak Zhang

Abstract: Video moment retrieval (VMR) aims to identify the specific moment in an untrimmed video for a given natural language query. However, this task is prone to suffer the weak visual-textual alignment problem from query ambiguity, potentially limiting further performance gains and generalization capability. Due to the complex multimodal interactions in videos, a query may not fully cover the relevant details of the corresponding moment, and the moment may contain misaligned and irrelevant frames. To tackle this problem, we propose a straightforward yet effective model, called Background-aware Moment DEtection TRansformer (BM-DETR). Given a target query and its moment, BM-DETR also takes negative queries corresponding to different moments. Specifically, our model learns to predict the target moment from the joint probability of the given query and the complement of negative queries for each candidate frame. In this way, it leverages the surrounding background to consider relative importance, improving moment sensitivity. Extensive experiments on Charades-STA and QVHighlights demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, we show that BM-DETR can perform robustly in three challenging VMR scenarios, such as several out-of-distribution test cases, demonstrating superior generalization ability.

10.ZIGNeRF: Zero-shot 3D Scene Representation with Invertible Generative Neural Radiance Fields

Authors:Kanghyeok Ko, Minhyeok Lee

Abstract: Generative Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have demonstrated remarkable proficiency in synthesizing multi-view images by learning the distribution of a set of unposed images. Despite the aptitude of existing generative NeRFs in generating 3D-consistent high-quality random samples within data distribution, the creation of a 3D representation of a singular input image remains a formidable challenge. In this manuscript, we introduce ZIGNeRF, an innovative model that executes zero-shot Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) inversion for the generation of multi-view images from a single out-of-domain image. The model is underpinned by a novel inverter that maps out-of-domain images into the latent code of the generator manifold. Notably, ZIGNeRF is capable of disentangling the object from the background and executing 3D operations such as 360-degree rotation or depth and horizontal translation. The efficacy of our model is validated using multiple real-image datasets: Cats, AFHQ, CelebA, CelebA-HQ, and CompCars.

11.Towards Better Explanations for Object Detection

Authors:Van Binh Truong, Truong Thanh Hung Nguyen, Vo Thanh Khang Nguyen, Quoc Khanh Nguyen, Quoc Hung Cao

Abstract: Recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology have promoted their use in almost every field. The growing complexity of deep neural networks (DNNs) makes it increasingly difficult and important to explain the inner workings and decisions of the network. However, most current techniques for explaining DNNs focus mainly on interpreting classification tasks. This paper proposes a method to explain the decision for any object detection model called D-CLOSE. To closely track the model's behavior, we used multiple levels of segmentation on the image and a process to combine them. We performed tests on the MS-COCO dataset with the YOLOX model, which shows that our method outperforms D-RISE and can give a better quality and less noise explanation.

12.A2B: Anchor to Barycentric Coordinate for Robust Correspondence

Authors:Weiyue Zhao, Hao Lu, Zhiguo Cao, Xin Li

Abstract: There is a long-standing problem of repeated patterns in correspondence problems, where mismatches frequently occur because of inherent ambiguity. The unique position information associated with repeated patterns makes coordinate representations a useful supplement to appearance representations for improving feature correspondences. However, the issue of appropriate coordinate representation has remained unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that geometric-invariant coordinate representations, such as barycentric coordinates, can significantly reduce mismatches between features. The first step is to establish a theoretical foundation for geometrically invariant coordinates. We present a seed matching and filtering network (SMFNet) that combines feature matching and consistency filtering with a coarse-to-fine matching strategy in order to acquire reliable sparse correspondences. We then introduce DEGREE, a novel anchor-to-barycentric (A2B) coordinate encoding approach, which generates multiple affine-invariant correspondence coordinates from paired images. DEGREE can be used as a plug-in with standard descriptors, feature matchers, and consistency filters to improve the matching quality. Extensive experiments in synthesized indoor and outdoor datasets demonstrate that DEGREE alleviates the problem of repeated patterns and helps achieve state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, DEGREE also reports competitive performance in the third Image Matching Challenge at CVPR 2021. This approach offers a new perspective to alleviate the problem of repeated patterns and emphasizes the importance of choosing coordinate representations for feature correspondences.

13.STAR Loss: Reducing Semantic Ambiguity in Facial Landmark Detection

Authors:Zhenglin Zhou, Huaxia Li, Hong Liu, Nanyang Wang, Gang Yu, Rongrong Ji

Abstract: Recently, deep learning-based facial landmark detection has achieved significant improvement. However, the semantic ambiguity problem degrades detection performance. Specifically, the semantic ambiguity causes inconsistent annotation and negatively affects the model's convergence, leading to worse accuracy and instability prediction. To solve this problem, we propose a Self-adapTive Ambiguity Reduction (STAR) loss by exploiting the properties of semantic ambiguity. We find that semantic ambiguity results in the anisotropic predicted distribution, which inspires us to use predicted distribution to represent semantic ambiguity. Based on this, we design the STAR loss that measures the anisotropism of the predicted distribution. Compared with the standard regression loss, STAR loss is encouraged to be small when the predicted distribution is anisotropic and thus adaptively mitigates the impact of semantic ambiguity. Moreover, we propose two kinds of eigenvalue restriction methods that could avoid both distribution's abnormal change and the model's premature convergence. Finally, the comprehensive experiments demonstrate that STAR loss outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on three benchmarks, i.e., COFW, 300W, and WFLW, with negligible computation overhead. Code is at

14.Differentially Private Cross-camera Person Re-identification

Authors:Lucas Maris, Yuki Matsuda, Keiichi Yasumoto

Abstract: Camera-based person re-identification is a heavily privacy-invading task by design, benefiting from rich visual data to match together person representations across different cameras. This high-dimensional data can then easily be used for other, perhaps less desirable, applications. We here investigate the possibility of protecting such image data against uses outside of the intended re-identification task, and introduce a differential privacy mechanism leveraging both pixelisation and colour quantisation for this purpose. We show its ability to distort images in such a way that adverse task performances are significantly reduced, while retaining high re-identification performances.

15.Cheap-fake Detection with LLM using Prompt Engineering

Authors:Guangyang Wu, Weijie Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Kele Xu, Tianjiao Wan, Wenyi Wang

Abstract: The misuse of real photographs with conflicting image captions in news items is an example of the out-of-context (OOC) misuse of media. In order to detect OOC media, individuals must determine the accuracy of the statement and evaluate whether the triplet (~\textit{i.e.}, the image and two captions) relates to the same event. This paper presents a novel learnable approach for detecting OOC media in ICME'23 Grand Challenge on Detecting Cheapfakes. The proposed method is based on the COSMOS structure, which assesses the coherence between an image and captions, as well as between two captions. We enhance the baseline algorithm by incorporating a Large Language Model (LLM), GPT3.5, as a feature extractor. Specifically, we propose an innovative approach to feature extraction utilizing prompt engineering to develop a robust and reliable feature extractor with GPT3.5 model. The proposed method captures the correlation between two captions and effectively integrates this module into the COSMOS baseline model, which allows for a deeper understanding of the relationship between captions. By incorporating this module, we demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in cheap-fakes detection performance. The proposed methodology holds promising implications for various applications such as natural language processing, image captioning, and text-to-image synthesis. Docker for submission is available at acmmmcheapfakes.

16.Reassembling Broken Objects using Breaking Curves

Authors:Ali Alagrami, Luca Palmieri, Sinem Aslan, Marcello Pelillo, Sebastiano Vascon

Abstract: Reassembling 3D broken objects is a challenging task. A robust solution that generalizes well must deal with diverse patterns associated with different types of broken objects. We propose a method that tackles the pairwise assembly of 3D point clouds, that is agnostic on the type of object, and that relies solely on their geometrical information, without any prior information on the shape of the reconstructed object. The method receives two point clouds as input and segments them into regions using detected closed boundary contours, known as breaking curves. Possible alignment combinations of the regions of each broken object are evaluated and the best one is selected as the final alignment. Experiments were carried out both on available 3D scanned objects and on a recent benchmark for synthetic broken objects. Results show that our solution performs well in reassembling different kinds of broken objects.

17.Transformer-Based UNet with Multi-Headed Cross-Attention Skip Connections to Eliminate Artifacts in Scanned Documents

Authors:David Kreuzer, Michael Munz

Abstract: The extraction of text in high quality is essential for text-based document analysis tasks like Document Classification or Named Entity Recognition. Unfortunately, this is not always ensured, as poor scan quality and the resulting artifacts lead to errors in the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process. Current approaches using Convolutional Neural Networks show promising results for background removal tasks but fail correcting artifacts like pixelation or compression errors. For general images, Transformer backbones are getting integrated more frequently in well-known neural network structures for denoising tasks. In this work, a modified UNet structure using a Swin Transformer backbone is presented to remove typical artifacts in scanned documents. Multi-headed cross-attention skip connections are used to more selectively learn features in respective levels of abstraction. The performance of this approach is examined regarding compression errors, pixelation and random noise. An improvement in text extraction quality with a reduced error rate of up to 53.9% on the synthetic data is archived. The pretrained base-model can be easily adapted to new artifacts. The cross-attention skip connections allow to integrate textual information extracted from the encoder or in form of commands to more selectively control the models outcome. The latter is shown by means of an example application.

18.TRACE: 5D Temporal Regression of Avatars with Dynamic Cameras in 3D Environments

Authors:Yu Sun, Qian Bao, Wu Liu, Tao Mei, Michael J. Black

Abstract: Although the estimation of 3D human pose and shape (HPS) is rapidly progressing, current methods still cannot reliably estimate moving humans in global coordinates, which is critical for many applications. This is particularly challenging when the camera is also moving, entangling human and camera motion. To address these issues, we adopt a novel 5D representation (space, time, and identity) that enables end-to-end reasoning about people in scenes. Our method, called TRACE, introduces several novel architectural components. Most importantly, it uses two new "maps" to reason about the 3D trajectory of people over time in camera, and world, coordinates. An additional memory unit enables persistent tracking of people even during long occlusions. TRACE is the first one-stage method to jointly recover and track 3D humans in global coordinates from dynamic cameras. By training it end-to-end, and using full image information, TRACE achieves state-of-the-art performance on tracking and HPS benchmarks. The code and dataset are released for research purposes.

19.Scene as Occupancy

Authors:Wenwen Tong, Chonghao Sima, Tai Wang, Silei Wu, Hanming Deng, Li Chen, Yi Gu, Lewei Lu, Ping Luo, Dahua Lin, Hongyang Li

Abstract: Human driver can easily describe the complex traffic scene by visual system. Such an ability of precise perception is essential for driver's planning. To achieve this, a geometry-aware representation that quantizes the physical 3D scene into structured grid map with semantic labels per cell, termed as 3D Occupancy, would be desirable. Compared to the form of bounding box, a key insight behind occupancy is that it could capture the fine-grained details of critical obstacles in the scene, and thereby facilitate subsequent tasks. Prior or concurrent literature mainly concentrate on a single scene completion task, where we might argue that the potential of this occupancy representation might obsess broader impact. In this paper, we propose OccNet, a multi-view vision-centric pipeline with a cascade and temporal voxel decoder to reconstruct 3D occupancy. At the core of OccNet is a general occupancy embedding to represent 3D physical world. Such a descriptor could be applied towards a wide span of driving tasks, including detection, segmentation and planning. To validate the effectiveness of this new representation and our proposed algorithm, we propose OpenOcc, the first dense high-quality 3D occupancy benchmark built on top of nuScenes. Empirical experiments show that there are evident performance gain across multiple tasks, e.g., motion planning could witness a collision rate reduction by 15%-58%, demonstrating the superiority of our method.

20.Asymmetric Patch Sampling for Contrastive Learning

Authors:Chengchao Shen, Jianzhong Chen, Shu Wang, Hulin Kuang, Jin Liu, Jianxin Wang

Abstract: Asymmetric appearance between positive pair effectively reduces the risk of representation degradation in contrastive learning. However, there are still a mass of appearance similarities between positive pair constructed by the existing methods, which inhibits the further representation improvement. In this paper, we propose a novel asymmetric patch sampling strategy for contrastive learning, to further boost the appearance asymmetry for better representations. Specifically, dual patch sampling strategies are applied to the given image, to obtain asymmetric positive pairs. First, sparse patch sampling is conducted to obtain the first view, which reduces spatial redundancy of image and allows a more asymmetric view. Second, a selective patch sampling is proposed to construct another view with large appearance discrepancy relative to the first one. Due to the inappreciable appearance similarity between positive pair, the trained model is encouraged to capture the similarity on semantics, instead of low-level ones. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method significantly outperforms the existing self-supervised methods on both ImageNet-1K and CIFAR dataset, e.g., 2.5% finetune accuracy improvement on CIFAR100. Furthermore, our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on downstream tasks, object detection and instance segmentation on COCO.Additionally, compared to other self-supervised methods, our method is more efficient on both memory and computation during training. The source code is available at

21.Single-Stage 3D Geometry-Preserving Depth Estimation Model Training on Dataset Mixtures with Uncalibrated Stereo Data

Authors:Nikolay Patakin, Mikhail Romanov, Anna Vorontsova, Mikhail Artemyev, Anton Konushin

Abstract: Nowadays, robotics, AR, and 3D modeling applications attract considerable attention to single-view depth estimation (SVDE) as it allows estimating scene geometry from a single RGB image. Recent works have demonstrated that the accuracy of an SVDE method hugely depends on the diversity and volume of the training data. However, RGB-D datasets obtained via depth capturing or 3D reconstruction are typically small, synthetic datasets are not photorealistic enough, and all these datasets lack diversity. The large-scale and diverse data can be sourced from stereo images or stereo videos from the web. Typically being uncalibrated, stereo data provides disparities up to unknown shift (geometrically incomplete data), so stereo-trained SVDE methods cannot recover 3D geometry. It was recently shown that the distorted point clouds obtained with a stereo-trained SVDE method can be corrected with additional point cloud modules (PCM) separately trained on the geometrically complete data. On the contrary, we propose GP$^{2}$, General-Purpose and Geometry-Preserving training scheme, and show that conventional SVDE models can learn correct shifts themselves without any post-processing, benefiting from using stereo data even in the geometry-preserving setting. Through experiments on different dataset mixtures, we prove that GP$^{2}$-trained models outperform methods relying on PCM in both accuracy and speed, and report the state-of-the-art results in the general-purpose geometry-preserving SVDE. Moreover, we show that SVDE models can learn to predict geometrically correct depth even when geometrically complete data comprises the minor part of the training set.

22.Unsupervised network for low-light enhancement

Authors:Praveen Kandula, Maitreya Suin, A. N. Rajagopalan

Abstract: Supervised networks address the task of low-light enhancement using paired images. However, collecting a wide variety of low-light/clean paired images is tedious as the scene needs to remain static during imaging. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised low-light enhancement network using contextguided illumination-adaptive norm (CIN). Inspired by coarse to fine methods, we propose to address this task in two stages. In stage-I, a pixel amplifier module (PAM) is used to generate a coarse estimate with an overall improvement in visibility and aesthetic quality. Stage-II further enhances the saturated dark pixels and scene properties of the image using CIN. Different ablation studies show the importance of PAM and CIN in improving the visible quality of the image. Next, we propose a region-adaptive single input multiple output (SIMO) model that can generate multiple enhanced images from a single lowlight image. The objective of SIMO is to let users choose the image of their liking from a pool of enhanced images. Human subjective analysis of SIMO results shows that the distribution of preferred images varies, endorsing the importance of SIMO-type models. Lastly, we propose a low-light road scene (LLRS) dataset having an unpaired collection of low-light and clean scenes. Unlike existing datasets, the clean and low-light scenes in LLRS are real and captured using fixed camera settings. Exhaustive comparisons on publicly available datasets, and the proposed dataset reveal that the results of our model outperform prior art quantitatively and qualitatively.

23.Towards Unified Text-based Person Retrieval: A Large-scale Multi-Attribute and Language Search Benchmark

Authors:Shuyu Yang, Yinan Zhou, Yaxiong Wang, Yujiao Wu, Li Zhu, Zhedong Zheng

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a large Multi-Attribute and Language Search dataset for text-based person retrieval, called MALS, and explore the feasibility of performing pre-training on both attribute recognition and image-text matching tasks in one stone. In particular, MALS contains 1,510,330 image-text pairs, which is about 37.5 times larger than prevailing CUHK-PEDES, and all images are annotated with 27 attributes. Considering the privacy concerns and annotation costs, we leverage the off-the-shelf diffusion models to generate the dataset. To verify the feasibility of learning from the generated data, we develop a new joint Attribute Prompt Learning and Text Matching Learning (APTM) framework, considering the shared knowledge between attribute and text. As the name implies, APTM contains an attribute prompt learning stream and a text matching learning stream. (1) The attribute prompt learning leverages the attribute prompts for image-attribute alignment, which enhances the text matching learning. (2) The text matching learning facilitates the representation learning on fine-grained details, and in turn, boosts the attribute prompt learning. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of the pre-training on MALS, achieving state-of-the-art retrieval performance via APTM on three challenging real-world benchmarks. In particular, APTM achieves a consistent improvement of +6.60%, +7.39%, and +15.90% Recall@1 accuracy on CUHK-PEDES, ICFG-PEDES, and RSTPReid datasets by a clear margin, respectively.

24.Robust Fiber ODF Estimation Using Deep Constrained Spherical Deconvolution for Diffusion MRI

Authors:Tianyuan Yao, Francois Rheault, Leon Y Cai, Vishwesh nath, Zuhayr Asad, Nancy Newlin, Can Cui, Ruining Deng, Karthik Ramadass, Andrea Shafer, Susan Resnick, Kurt Schilling, Bennett A. Landman, Yuankai Huo

Abstract: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a critical imaging method for capturing and modeling tissue microarchitecture at a millimeter scale. A common practice to model the measured DW-MRI signal is via fiber orientation distribution function (fODF). This function is the essential first step for the downstream tractography and connectivity analyses. With recent advantages in data sharing, large-scale multi-site DW-MRI datasets are being made available for multi-site studies. However, measurement variabilities (e.g., inter- and intra-site variability, hardware performance, and sequence design) are inevitable during the acquisition of DW-MRI. Most existing model-based methods (e.g., constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)) and learning based methods (e.g., deep learning (DL)) do not explicitly consider such variabilities in fODF modeling, which consequently leads to inferior performance on multi-site and/or longitudinal diffusion studies. In this paper, we propose a novel data-driven deep constrained spherical deconvolution method to explicitly constrain the scan-rescan variabilities for a more reproducible and robust estimation of brain microstructure from repeated DW-MRI scans. Specifically, the proposed method introduces a new 3D volumetric scanner-invariant regularization scheme during the fODF estimation. We study the Human Connectome Project (HCP) young adults test-retest group as well as the MASiVar dataset (with inter- and intra-site scan/rescan data). The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) dataset is employed for external validation. From the experimental results, the proposed data-driven framework outperforms the existing benchmarks in repeated fODF estimation. The proposed method is assessing the downstream connectivity analysis and shows increased performance in distinguishing subjects with different biomarkers.

25.Instruct-Video2Avatar: Video-to-Avatar Generation with Instructions

Authors:Shaoxu Li

Abstract: We propose a method for synthesizing edited photo-realistic digital avatars with text instructions. Given a short monocular RGB video and text instructions, our method uses an image-conditioned diffusion model to edit one head image and uses the video stylization method to accomplish the editing of other head images. Through iterative training and update (three times or more), our method synthesizes edited photo-realistic animatable 3D neural head avatars with a deformable neural radiance field head synthesis method. In quantitative and qualitative studies on various subjects, our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

26.Unsupervised haze removal from underwater images

Authors:Praveen Kandula, A. N. Rajagopalan

Abstract: Several supervised networks exist that remove haze information from underwater images using paired datasets and pixel-wise loss functions. However, training these networks requires large amounts of paired data which is cumbersome, complex and time-consuming. Also, directly using adversarial and cycle consistency loss functions for unsupervised learning is inaccurate as the underlying mapping from clean to underwater images is one-to-many, resulting in an inaccurate constraint on the cycle consistency loss. To address these issues, we propose a new method to remove haze from underwater images using unpaired data. Our model disentangles haze and content information from underwater images using a Haze Disentanglement Network (HDN). The disentangled content is used by a restoration network to generate a clean image using adversarial losses. The disentangled haze is then used as a guide for underwater image regeneration resulting in a strong constraint on cycle consistency loss and improved performance gains. Different ablation studies show that the haze and content from underwater images are effectively separated. Exhaustive experiments reveal that accurate cycle consistency constraint and the proposed network architecture play an important role in yielding enhanced results. Experiments on UFO-120, UWNet, UWScenes, and UIEB underwater datasets indicate that the results of our method outperform prior art both visually and quantitatively.

27.Zero shot framework for satellite image restoration

Authors:Praveen Kandula, A. N. Rajagopalan

Abstract: Satellite images are typically subject to multiple distortions. Different factors affect the quality of satellite images, including changes in atmosphere, surface reflectance, sun illumination, viewing geometries etc., limiting its application to downstream tasks. In supervised networks, the availability of paired datasets is a strong assumption. Consequently, many unsupervised algorithms have been proposed to address this problem. These methods synthetically generate a large dataset of degraded images using image formation models. A neural network is then trained with an adversarial loss to discriminate between images from distorted and clean domains. However, these methods yield suboptimal performance when tested on real images that do not necessarily conform to the generation mechanism. Also, they require a large amount of training data and are rendered unsuitable when only a few images are available. We propose a distortion disentanglement and knowledge distillation framework for satellite image restoration to address these important issues. Our algorithm requires only two images: the distorted satellite image to be restored and a reference image with similar semantics. Specifically, we first propose a mechanism to disentangle distortion. This enables us to generate images with varying degrees of distortion using the disentangled distortion and the reference image. We then propose the use of knowledge distillation to train a restoration network using the generated image pairs. As a final step, the distorted image is passed through the restoration network to get the final output. Ablation studies show that our proposed mechanism successfully disentangles distortion.

28.Weakly-Supervised Conditional Embedding for Referred Visual Search

Authors:Simon Lepage, Jérémie Mary, David Picard

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to image similarity search in the context of fashion, a domain with inherent ambiguity due to the multiple ways in which images can be considered similar. We introduce the concept of Referred Visual Search (RVS), where users provide additional information to define the desired similarity. We present a new dataset, LAION-RVS-Fashion, consisting of 272K fashion products with 842K images extracted from LAION, designed explicitly for this task. We then propose an innovative method for learning conditional embeddings using weakly-supervised training, achieving a 6% increase in Recall at one (R@1) against a gallery with 2M distractors, compared to classical approaches based on explicit attention and filtering. The proposed method demonstrates robustness, maintaining similar R@1 when dealing with 2.5 times as many distractors as the baseline methods. We believe this is a step forward in the emerging field of Referred Visual Search both in terms of accessible data and approach. Code, data and models are available at .

29.Human Spine Motion Capture using Perforated Kinesiology Tape

Authors:Hendrik Hachmann, Bodo Rosenhahn

Abstract: In this work, we present a marker-based multi-view spine tracking method that is specifically adjusted to the requirements for movements in sports. A maximal focus is on the accurate detection of markers and fast usage of the system. For this task, we take advantage of the prior knowledge of the arrangement of dots in perforated kinesiology tape. We detect the tape and its dots using a Mask R-CNN and a blob detector. Here, we can focus on detection only while skipping any image-based feature encoding or matching. We conduct a reasoning in 3D by a linear program and Markov random fields, in which the structure of the kinesiology tape is modeled and the shape of the spine is optimized. In comparison to state-of-the-art systems, we demonstrate that our system achieves high precision and marker density, is robust against occlusions, and capable of capturing fast movements.

30.INDigo: An INN-Guided Probabilistic Diffusion Algorithm for Inverse Problems

Authors:Di You, Andreas Floros, Pier Luigi Dragotti

Abstract: Recently it has been shown that using diffusion models for inverse problems can lead to remarkable results. However, these approaches require a closed-form expression of the degradation model and can not support complex degradations. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method (INDigo) that combines invertible neural networks (INN) and diffusion models for general inverse problems. Specifically, we train the forward process of INN to simulate an arbitrary degradation process and use the inverse as a reconstruction process. During the diffusion sampling process, we impose an additional data-consistency step that minimizes the distance between the intermediate result and the INN-optimized result at every iteration, where the INN-optimized image is composed of the coarse information given by the observed degraded image and the details generated by the diffusion process. With the help of INN, our algorithm effectively estimates the details lost in the degradation process and is no longer limited by the requirement of knowing the closed-form expression of the degradation model. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm obtains competitive results compared with recently leading methods both quantitatively and visually. Moreover, our algorithm performs well on more complex degradation models and real-world low-quality images.

31.Color-aware Deep Temporal Backdrop Duplex Matting System

Authors:Hendrik Hachmann, Bodo Rosenhahn

Abstract: Deep learning-based alpha matting showed tremendous improvements in recent years, yet, feature film production studios still rely on classical chroma keying including costly post-production steps. This perceived discrepancy can be explained by some missing links necessary for production which are currently not adequately addressed in the alpha matting community, in particular foreground color estimation or color spill compensation. We propose a neural network-based temporal multi-backdrop production system that combines beneficial features from chroma keying and alpha matting. Given two consecutive frames with different background colors, our one-encoder-dual-decoder network predicts foreground colors and alpha values using a patch-based overlap-blend approach. The system is able to handle imprecise backdrops, dynamic cameras, and dynamic foregrounds and has no restrictions on foreground colors. We compare our method to state-of-the-art algorithms using benchmark datasets and a video sequence captured by a demonstrator setup. We verify that a dual backdrop input is superior to the usually applied trimap-based approach. In addition, the proposed studio set is actor friendly, and produces high-quality, temporal consistent alpha and color estimations that include a superior color spill compensation.

32.Explicit Neural Surfaces: Learning Continuous Geometry With Deformation Fields

Authors:Thomas Walker, Octave Mariotti, Amir Vaxman, Hakan Bilen

Abstract: We introduce Explicit Neural Surfaces (ENS), an efficient surface reconstruction method that learns an explicitly defined continuous surface from multiple views. We use a series of neural deformation fields to progressively transform a continuous input surface to a target shape. By sampling meshes as discrete surface proxies, we train the deformation fields through efficient differentiable rasterization, and attain a mesh-independent and smooth surface representation. By using Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunctions as an intrinsic positional encoding alongside standard extrinsic Fourier features, our approach can capture fine surface details. ENS trains 1 to 2 orders of magnitude faster and can extract meshes of higher quality compared to implicit representations, whilst maintaining competitive surface reconstruction performance and real-time capabilities. Finally, we apply our approach to learn a collection of objects in a single model, and achieve disentangled interpolations between different shapes, their surface details, and textures.

33.Best of Both Worlds: Hybrid SNN-ANN Architecture for Event-based Optical Flow Estimation

Authors:Shubham Negi, Deepika Sharma, Adarsh Kumar Kosta, Kaushik Roy

Abstract: Event-based cameras offer a low-power alternative to frame-based cameras for capturing high-speed motion and high dynamic range scenes. They provide asynchronous streams of sparse events. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) with their asynchronous event-driven compute, show great potential for extracting the spatio-temporal features from these event streams. In contrast, the standard Analog Neural Networks (ANNs1) fail to process event data effectively. However, training SNNs is difficult due to additional trainable parameters (thresholds and leaks), vanishing spikes at deeper layers, non-differentiable binary activation function etc. Moreover, an additional data structure "membrane potential" responsible for keeping track of temporal information, must be fetched and updated at every timestep in SNNs. To overcome these, we propose a novel SNN-ANN hybrid architecture that combines the strengths of both. Specifically, we leverage the asynchronous compute capabilities of SNN layers to effectively extract the input temporal information. While the ANN layers offer trouble-free training and implementation on standard machine learning hardware such as GPUs. We provide extensive experimental analysis for assigning each layer to be spiking or analog in nature, leading to a network configuration optimized for performance and ease of training. We evaluate our hybrid architectures for optical flow estimation using event-data on DSEC-flow and Mutli-Vehicle Stereo Event-Camera (MVSEC) datasets. The results indicate that our configured hybrid architectures outperform the state-of-the-art ANN-only, SNN-only and past hybrid architectures both in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Specifically, our hybrid architecture exhibit a 31% and 24.8% lower average endpoint error (AEE) at 2.1x and 3.1x lower energy, compared to an SNN-only architecture on DSEC and MVSEC datasets, respectively.

34.BeyondPixels: A Comprehensive Review of the Evolution of Neural Radiance Fields

Authors:AKM Shahariar Azad Rabby, Chengcui Zhang

Abstract: Neural rendering combines ideas from classical computer graphics and machine learning to synthesize images from real-world observations. NeRF, short for Neural Radiance Fields, is a recent innovation that uses AI algorithms to create 3D objects from 2D images. By leveraging an interpolation approach, NeRF can produce new 3D reconstructed views of complicated scenes. Rather than directly restoring the whole 3D scene geometry, NeRF generates a volumetric representation called a ``radiance field,'' which is capable of creating color and density for every point within the relevant 3D space. The broad appeal and notoriety of NeRF make it imperative to examine the existing research on the topic comprehensively. While previous surveys on 3D rendering have primarily focused on traditional computer vision-based or deep learning-based approaches, only a handful of them discuss the potential of NeRF. However, such surveys have predominantly focused on NeRF's early contributions and have not explored its full potential. NeRF is a relatively new technique continuously being investigated for its capabilities and limitations. This survey reviews recent advances in NeRF and categorizes them according to their architectural designs, especially in the field of novel view synthesis.

35.Unveiling the Two-Faced Truth: Disentangling Morphed Identities for Face Morphing Detection

Authors:Eduarda Caldeira, Pedro C. Neto, Tiago Gonçalves, Naser Damer, Ana F. Sequeira, Jaime S. Cardoso

Abstract: Morphing attacks keep threatening biometric systems, especially face recognition systems. Over time they have become simpler to perform and more realistic, as such, the usage of deep learning systems to detect these attacks has grown. At the same time, there is a constant concern regarding the lack of interpretability of deep learning models. Balancing performance and interpretability has been a difficult task for scientists. However, by leveraging domain information and proving some constraints, we have been able to develop IDistill, an interpretable method with state-of-the-art performance that provides information on both the identity separation on morph samples and their contribution to the final prediction. The domain information is learnt by an autoencoder and distilled to a classifier system in order to teach it to separate identity information. When compared to other methods in the literature it outperforms them in three out of five databases and is competitive in the remaining.

36.Automating Style Analysis and Visualization With Explainable AI -- Case Studies on Brand Recognition

Authors:Yu-hsuan Chen, Levent Burak Kara, Jonathan Cagan

Abstract: Incorporating style-related objectives into shape design has been centrally important to maximize product appeal. However, stylistic features such as aesthetics and semantic attributes are hard to codify even for experts. As such, algorithmic style capture and reuse have not fully benefited from automated data-driven methodologies due to the challenging nature of design describability. This paper proposes an AI-driven method to fully automate the discovery of brand-related features. Our approach introduces BIGNet, a two-tier Brand Identification Graph Neural Network (GNN) to classify and analyze scalar vector graphics (SVG). First, to tackle the scarcity of vectorized product images, this research proposes two data acquisition workflows: parametric modeling from small curve-based datasets, and vectorization from large pixel-based datasets. Secondly, this study constructs a novel hierarchical GNN architecture to learn from both SVG's curve-level and chunk-level parameters. In the first case study, BIGNet not only classifies phone brands but also captures brand-related features across multiple scales, such as the location of the lens, the height-width ratio, and the screen-frame gap, as confirmed by AI evaluation. In the second study, this paper showcases the generalizability of BIGNet learning from a vectorized car image dataset and validates the consistency and robustness of its predictions given four scenarios. The results match the difference commonly observed in luxury vs. economy brands in the automobile market. Finally, this paper also visualizes the activation maps generated from a convolutional neural network and shows BIGNet's advantage of being a more human-friendly, explainable, and explicit style-capturing agent. Code and dataset can be found on Github: 1. Phone case study: 2. Car case study:

37.Interpretable Alzheimer's Disease Classification Via a Contrastive Diffusion Autoencoder

Authors:Ayodeji Ijishakin, Ahmed Abdulaal, Adamos Hadjivasiliou, Sophie Martin, James Cole

Abstract: In visual object classification, humans often justify their choices by comparing objects to prototypical examples within that class. We may therefore increase the interpretability of deep learning models by imbuing them with a similar style of reasoning. In this work, we apply this principle by classifying Alzheimer's Disease based on the similarity of images to training examples within the latent space. We use a contrastive loss combined with a diffusion autoencoder backbone, to produce a semantically meaningful latent space, such that neighbouring latents have similar image-level features. We achieve a classification accuracy comparable to black box approaches on a dataset of 2D MRI images, whilst producing human interpretable model explanations. Therefore, this work stands as a contribution to the pertinent development of accurate and interpretable deep learning within medical imaging.

38.HeadSculpt: Crafting 3D Head Avatars with Text

Authors:Xiao Han, Yukang Cao, Kai Han, Xiatian Zhu, Jiankang Deng, Yi-Zhe Song, Tao Xiang, Kwan-Yee K. Wong

Abstract: Recently, text-guided 3D generative methods have made remarkable advancements in producing high-quality textures and geometry, capitalizing on the proliferation of large vision-language and image diffusion models. However, existing methods still struggle to create high-fidelity 3D head avatars in two aspects: (1) They rely mostly on a pre-trained text-to-image diffusion model whilst missing the necessary 3D awareness and head priors. This makes them prone to inconsistency and geometric distortions in the generated avatars. (2) They fall short in fine-grained editing. This is primarily due to the inherited limitations from the pre-trained 2D image diffusion models, which become more pronounced when it comes to 3D head avatars. In this work, we address these challenges by introducing a versatile coarse-to-fine pipeline dubbed HeadSculpt for crafting (i.e., generating and editing) 3D head avatars from textual prompts. Specifically, we first equip the diffusion model with 3D awareness by leveraging landmark-based control and a learned textual embedding representing the back view appearance of heads, enabling 3D-consistent head avatar generations. We further propose a novel identity-aware editing score distillation strategy to optimize a textured mesh with a high-resolution differentiable rendering technique. This enables identity preservation while following the editing instruction. We showcase HeadSculpt's superior fidelity and editing capabilities through comprehensive experiments and comparisons with existing methods.

39.ELEV-VISION: Automated Lowest Floor Elevation Estimation from Segmenting Street View Images

Authors:Yu-Hsuan Ho, Cheng-Chun Lee, Nicholas D. Diaz, Samuel D. Brody, Ali Mostafavi

Abstract: We propose an automated lowest floor elevation (LFE) estimation algorithm based on computer vision techniques to leverage the latent information in street view images. Flood depth-damage models use a combination of LFE and flood depth for determining flood risk and extent of damage to properties. We used image segmentation for detecting door bottoms and roadside edges from Google Street View images. The characteristic of equirectangular projection with constant spacing representation of horizontal and vertical angles allows extraction of the pitch angle from the camera to the door bottom. The depth from the camera to the door bottom was obtained from the depthmap paired with the Google Street View image. LFEs were calculated from the pitch angle and the depth. The testbed for application of the proposed method is Meyerland (Harris County, Texas). The results show that the proposed method achieved mean absolute error of 0.190 m (1.18 %) in estimating LFE. The height difference between the street and the lowest floor (HDSL) was estimated to provide information for flood damage estimation. The proposed automatic LFE estimation algorithm using Street View images and image segmentation provides a rapid and cost-effective method for LFE estimation compared with the surveys using total station theodolite and unmanned aerial systems. By obtaining more accurate and up-to-date LFE data using the proposed method, city planners, emergency planners and insurance companies could make a more precise estimation of flood damage.

40.Of Mice and Mates: Automated Classification and Modelling of Mouse Behaviour in Groups using a Single Model across Cages

Authors:Michael P. J. Camilleri, Rasneer S. Bains, Christopher K. I. Williams

Abstract: Behavioural experiments often happen in specialised arenas, but this may confound the analysis. To address this issue, we provide tools to study mice in the homecage environment, equipping biologists with the possibility to capture the temporal aspect of the individual's behaviour and model the interaction and interdependence between cage-mates with minimal human intervention. We develop the Activity Labelling Module (ALM) to automatically classify mouse behaviour from video, and a novel Group Behaviour Model (GBM) for summarising their joint behaviour across cages, using a permutation matrix to match the mouse identities in each cage to the model. We also release two datasets, ABODe for training behaviour classifiers and IMADGE for modelling behaviour.

41.Brain Diffusion for Visual Exploration: Cortical Discovery using Large Scale Generative Models

Authors:Andrew F. Luo, Margaret M. Henderson, Leila Wehbe, Michael J. Tarr

Abstract: A long standing goal in neuroscience has been to elucidate the functional organization of the brain. Within higher visual cortex, functional accounts have remained relatively coarse, focusing on regions of interest (ROIs) and taking the form of selectivity for broad categories such as faces, places, bodies, food, or words. Because the identification of such ROIs has typically relied on manually assembled stimulus sets consisting of isolated objects in non-ecological contexts, exploring functional organization without robust a priori hypotheses has been challenging. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a data-driven approach in which we synthesize images predicted to activate a given brain region using paired natural images and fMRI recordings, bypassing the need for category-specific stimuli. Our approach -- Brain Diffusion for Visual Exploration ("BrainDiVE") -- builds on recent generative methods by combining large-scale diffusion models with brain-guided image synthesis. Validating our method, we demonstrate the ability to synthesize preferred images with appropriate semantic specificity for well-characterized category-selective ROIs. We then show that BrainDiVE can characterize differences between ROIs selective for the same high-level category. Finally we identify novel functional subdivisions within these ROIs, validated with behavioral data. These results advance our understanding of the fine-grained functional organization of human visual cortex, and provide well-specified constraints for further examination of cortical organization using hypothesis-driven methods.

42.Neuralangelo: High-Fidelity Neural Surface Reconstruction

Authors:Zhaoshuo Li, Thomas Müller, Alex Evans, Russell H. Taylor, Mathias Unberath, Ming-Yu Liu, Chen-Hsuan Lin

Abstract: Neural surface reconstruction has been shown to be powerful for recovering dense 3D surfaces via image-based neural rendering. However, current methods struggle to recover detailed structures of real-world scenes. To address the issue, we present Neuralangelo, which combines the representation power of multi-resolution 3D hash grids with neural surface rendering. Two key ingredients enable our approach: (1) numerical gradients for computing higher-order derivatives as a smoothing operation and (2) coarse-to-fine optimization on the hash grids controlling different levels of details. Even without auxiliary inputs such as depth, Neuralangelo can effectively recover dense 3D surface structures from multi-view images with fidelity significantly surpassing previous methods, enabling detailed large-scale scene reconstruction from RGB video captures.