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Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)

Thu, 01 Jun 2023

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1.CALICO: Self-Supervised Camera-LiDAR Contrastive Pre-training for BEV Perception

Authors:Jiachen Sun, Haizhong Zheng, Qingzhao Zhang, Atul Prakash, Z. Morley Mao, Chaowei Xiao

Abstract: Perception is crucial in the realm of autonomous driving systems, where bird's eye view (BEV)-based architectures have recently reached state-of-the-art performance. The desirability of self-supervised representation learning stems from the expensive and laborious process of annotating 2D and 3D data. Although previous research has investigated pretraining methods for both LiDAR and camera-based 3D object detection, a unified pretraining framework for multimodal BEV perception is missing. In this study, we introduce CALICO, a novel framework that applies contrastive objectives to both LiDAR and camera backbones. Specifically, CALICO incorporates two stages: point-region contrast (PRC) and region-aware distillation (RAD). PRC better balances the region- and scene-level representation learning on the LiDAR modality and offers significant performance improvement compared to existing methods. RAD effectively achieves contrastive distillation on our self-trained teacher model. CALICO's efficacy is substantiated by extensive evaluations on 3D object detection and BEV map segmentation tasks, where it delivers significant performance improvements. Notably, CALICO outperforms the baseline method by 10.5% and 8.6% on NDS and mAP. Moreover, CALICO boosts the robustness of multimodal 3D object detection against adversarial attacks and corruption. Additionally, our framework can be tailored to different backbones and heads, positioning it as a promising approach for multimodal BEV perception.

2.Addressing Negative Transfer in Diffusion Models

Authors:Hyojun Go, JinYoung Kim, Yunsung Lee, Seunghyun Lee, Shinhyeok Oh, Hyeongdon Moon, Seungtaek Choi

Abstract: Diffusion-based generative models have achieved remarkable success in various domains. It trains a model on denoising tasks that encompass different noise levels simultaneously, representing a form of multi-task learning (MTL). However, analyzing and improving diffusion models from an MTL perspective remains under-explored. In particular, MTL can sometimes lead to the well-known phenomenon of $\textit{negative transfer}$, which results in the performance degradation of certain tasks due to conflicts between tasks. In this paper, we aim to analyze diffusion training from an MTL standpoint, presenting two key observations: $\textbf{(O1)}$ the task affinity between denoising tasks diminishes as the gap between noise levels widens, and $\textbf{(O2)}$ negative transfer can arise even in the context of diffusion training. Building upon these observations, our objective is to enhance diffusion training by mitigating negative transfer. To achieve this, we propose leveraging existing MTL methods, but the presence of a huge number of denoising tasks makes this computationally expensive to calculate the necessary per-task loss or gradient. To address this challenge, we propose clustering the denoising tasks into small task clusters and applying MTL methods to them. Specifically, based on $\textbf{(O2)}$, we employ interval clustering to enforce temporal proximity among denoising tasks within clusters. We show that interval clustering can be solved with dynamic programming and utilize signal-to-noise ratio, timestep, and task affinity for clustering objectives. Through this, our approach addresses the issue of negative transfer in diffusion models by allowing for efficient computation of MTL methods. We validate the proposed clustering and its integration with MTL methods through various experiments, demonstrating improved sample quality of diffusion models.

3.How Do ConvNets Understand Image Intensity?

Authors:Jackson Kaunismaa, Michael Guerzhoy

Abstract: Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) usually rely on edge/shape information to classify images. Visualization methods developed over the last decade confirm that ConvNets rely on edge information. We investigate situations where the ConvNet needs to rely on image intensity in addition to shape. We show that the ConvNet relies on image intensity information using visualization.

4.Graph Switching Dynamical Systems

Authors:Yongtuo Liu, Sara Magliacane, Miltiadis Kofinas, Efstratios Gavves

Abstract: Dynamical systems with complex behaviours, e.g. immune system cells interacting with a pathogen, are commonly modelled by splitting the behaviour into different regimes, or modes, each with simpler dynamics, and then learning the switching behaviour from one mode to another. Switching Dynamical Systems (SDS) are a powerful tool that automatically discovers these modes and mode-switching behaviour from time series data. While effective, these methods focus on independent objects, where the modes of one object are independent of the modes of the other objects. In this paper, we focus on the more general interacting object setting for switching dynamical systems, where the per-object dynamics also depends on an unknown and dynamically changing subset of other objects and their modes. To this end, we propose a novel graph-based approach for switching dynamical systems, GRAph Switching dynamical Systems (GRASS), in which we use a dynamic graph to characterize interactions between objects and learn both intra-object and inter-object mode-switching behaviour. We introduce two new datasets for this setting, a synthesized ODE-driven particles dataset and a real-world Salsa Couple Dancing dataset. Experiments show that GRASS can consistently outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.

5.Large Scale Generative Multimodal Attribute Extraction for E-commerce Attributes

Authors:Anant Khandelwal, Happy Mittal, Shreyas Sunil Kulkarni, Deepak Gupta

Abstract: E-commerce websites (e.g. Amazon) have a plethora of structured and unstructured information (text and images) present on the product pages. Sellers often either don't label or mislabel values of the attributes (e.g. color, size etc.) for their products. Automatically identifying these attribute values from an eCommerce product page that contains both text and images is a challenging task, especially when the attribute value is not explicitly mentioned in the catalog. In this paper, we present a scalable solution for this problem where we pose attribute extraction problem as a question-answering task, which we solve using \textbf{MXT}, consisting of three key components: (i) \textbf{M}AG (Multimodal Adaptation Gate), (ii) \textbf{X}ception network, and (iii) \textbf{T}5 encoder-decoder. Our system consists of a generative model that \emph{generates} attribute-values for a given product by using both textual and visual characteristics (e.g. images) of the product. We show that our system is capable of handling zero-shot attribute prediction (when attribute value is not seen in training data) and value-absent prediction (when attribute value is not mentioned in the text) which are missing in traditional classification-based and NER-based models respectively. We have trained our models using distant supervision, removing dependency on human labeling, thus making them practical for real-world applications. With this framework, we are able to train a single model for 1000s of (product-type, attribute) pairs, thus reducing the overhead of training and maintaining separate models. Extensive experiments on two real world datasets show that our framework improves the absolute recall@90P by 10.16\% and 6.9\% from the existing state of the art models. In a popular e-commerce store, we have deployed our models for 1000s of (product-type, attribute) pairs.

6.HySpecNet-11k: A Large-Scale Hyperspectral Dataset for Benchmarking Learning-Based Hyperspectral Image Compression Methods

Authors:Martin Hermann Paul Fuchs, Begüm Demir

Abstract: The development of learning-based hyperspectral image compression methods has recently attracted great attention in remote sensing. Such methods require a high number of hyperspectral images to be used during training to optimize all parameters and reach a high compression performance. However, existing hyperspectral datasets are not sufficient to train and evaluate learning-based compression methods, which hinders the research in this field. To address this problem, in this paper we present HySpecNet-11k that is a large-scale hyperspectral benchmark dataset made up of 11,483 nonoverlapping image patches. Each patch is a portion of 128 $\times$ 128 pixels with 224 spectral bands and a ground sample distance of 30 m. We exploit HySpecNet-11k to benchmark the current state of the art in learning-based hyperspectral image compression by focussing our attention on various 1D, 2D and 3D convolutional autoencoder architectures. Nevertheless, HySpecNet-11k can be used for any unsupervised learning task in the framework of hyperspectral image analysis. The dataset, our code and the pre-trained weights are publicly available at

7.Symmetric Uncertainty-Aware Feature Transmission for Depth Super-Resolution

Authors:Wuxuan Shi, Mang Ye, Bo Du

Abstract: Color-guided depth super-resolution (DSR) is an encouraging paradigm that enhances a low-resolution (LR) depth map guided by an extra high-resolution (HR) RGB image from the same scene. Existing methods usually use interpolation to upscale the depth maps before feeding them into the network and transfer the high-frequency information extracted from HR RGB images to guide the reconstruction of depth maps. However, the extracted high-frequency information usually contains textures that are not present in depth maps in the existence of the cross-modality gap, and the noises would be further aggravated by interpolation due to the resolution gap between the RGB and depth images. To tackle these challenges, we propose a novel Symmetric Uncertainty-aware Feature Transmission (SUFT) for color-guided DSR. (1) For the resolution gap, SUFT builds an iterative up-and-down sampling pipeline, which makes depth features and RGB features spatially consistent while suppressing noise amplification and blurring by replacing common interpolated pre-upsampling. (2) For the cross-modality gap, we propose a novel Symmetric Uncertainty scheme to remove parts of RGB information harmful to the recovery of HR depth maps. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets and challenging real-world settings suggest that our method achieves superior performance compared to state-of-the-art methods. Our code and models are available at

8.Teacher Agent: A Non-Knowledge Distillation Method for Rehearsal-based Video Incremental Learning

Authors:Shengqin Jiang, Yaoyu Fang, Haokui Zhang, Peng Wang, Yuankai Qi, Qingshan Liu

Abstract: With the rise in popularity of video-based social media, new categories of videos are constantly being generated, creating an urgent need for robust incremental learning techniques for video understanding. One of the biggest challenges in this task is catastrophic forgetting, where the network tends to forget previously learned data while learning new categories. To overcome this issue, knowledge distillation is a widely used technique for rehearsal-based video incremental learning that involves transferring important information on similarities among different categories to enhance the student model. Therefore, it is preferable to have a strong teacher model to guide the students. However, the limited performance of the network itself and the occurrence of catastrophic forgetting can result in the teacher network making inaccurate predictions for some memory exemplars, ultimately limiting the student network's performance. Based on these observations, we propose a teacher agent capable of generating stable and accurate soft labels to replace the output of the teacher model. This method circumvents the problem of knowledge misleading caused by inaccurate predictions of the teacher model and avoids the computational overhead of loading the teacher model for knowledge distillation. Extensive experiments demonstrate the advantages of our method, yielding significant performance improvements while utilizing only half the resolution of video clips in the incremental phases as input compared to recent state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, our method surpasses the performance of joint training when employing four times the number of samples in episodic memory.

9.Lightweight Vision Transformer with Bidirectional Interaction

Authors:Qihang Fan, Huaibo Huang, Xiaoqiang Zhou, Ran He

Abstract: Recent advancements in vision backbones have significantly improved their performance by simultaneously modeling images' local and global contexts. However, the bidirectional interaction between these two contexts has not been well explored and exploited, which is important in the human visual system. This paper proposes a Fully Adaptive Self-Attention (FASA) mechanism for vision transformer to model the local and global information as well as the bidirectional interaction between them in context-aware ways. Specifically, FASA employs self-modulated convolutions to adaptively extract local representation while utilizing self-attention in down-sampled space to extract global representation. Subsequently, it conducts a bidirectional adaptation process between local and global representation to model their interaction. In addition, we introduce a fine-grained downsampling strategy to enhance the down-sampled self-attention mechanism for finer-grained global perception capability. Based on FASA, we develop a family of lightweight vision backbones, Fully Adaptive Transformer (FAT) family. Extensive experiments on multiple vision tasks demonstrate that FAT achieves impressive performance. Notably, FAT accomplishes a 77.6% accuracy on ImageNet-1K using only 4.5M parameters and 0.7G FLOPs, which surpasses the most advanced ConvNets and Transformers with similar model size and computational costs. Moreover, our model exhibits faster speed on modern GPU compared to other models. Code will be available at

10.Discriminative Deep Feature Visualization for Explainable Face Recognition

Authors:Zewei Xu, Yuhang Lu, Touradj Ebrahimi

Abstract: Despite the huge success of deep convolutional neural networks in face recognition (FR) tasks, current methods lack explainability for their predictions because of their "black-box" nature. In recent years, studies have been carried out to give an interpretation of the decision of a deep FR system. However, the affinity between the input facial image and the extracted deep features has not been explored. This paper contributes to the problem of explainable face recognition by first conceiving a face reconstruction-based explanation module, which reveals the correspondence between the deep feature and the facial regions. To further interpret the decision of an FR model, a novel visual saliency explanation algorithm has been proposed. It provides insightful explanation by producing visual saliency maps that represent similar and dissimilar regions between input faces. A detailed analysis has been presented for the generated visual explanation to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

11.Towards Interactive Image Inpainting via Sketch Refinement

Authors:Chang Liu, Shunxin Xu, Jialun Peng, Kaidong Zhang, Dong Liu

Abstract: One tough problem of image inpainting is to restore complex structures in the corrupted regions. It motivates interactive image inpainting which leverages additional hints, e.g., sketches, to assist the inpainting process. Sketch is simple and intuitive to end users, but meanwhile has free forms with much randomness. Such randomness may confuse the inpainting models, and incur severe artifacts in completed images. To address this problem, we propose a two-stage image inpainting method termed SketchRefiner. In the first stage, we propose using a cross-correlation loss function to robustly calibrate and refine the user-provided sketches in a coarse-to-fine fashion. In the second stage, we learn to extract informative features from the abstracted sketches in the feature space and modulate the inpainting process. We also propose an algorithm to simulate real sketches automatically and build a test protocol with different applications. Experimental results on public datasets demonstrate that SketchRefiner effectively utilizes sketch information and eliminates the artifacts due to the free-form sketches. Our method consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art ones both qualitatively and quantitatively, meanwhile revealing great potential in real-world applications. Our code and dataset are available.

12.Adapting Pre-trained Language Models to Vision-Language Tasks via Dynamic Visual Prompting

Authors:Shubin Huang, Qiong Wu, Yiyi Zhou, Weijie Chen, Rongsheng Zhang, Xiaoshuai Sun, Rongrong Ji

Abstract: Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have played an increasing role in multimedia research. In terms of vision-language (VL) tasks, they often serve as a language encoder and still require an additional fusion network for VL reasoning, resulting in excessive memory overhead. In this paper, we focus on exploring PLMs as a stand-alone model for VL reasoning tasks. Inspired by the recently popular prompt tuning, we first prove that the processed visual features can be also projected onto the semantic space of PLMs and act as prompt tokens to bridge the gap between single- and multi-modal learning. However, this solution exhibits obvious redundancy in visual information and model inference, and the placement of prompt tokens also greatly affects the final performance. Based on these observations, we further propose a novel transfer learning approach for PLMs, termed Dynamic Visual Prompting (DVP). Concretely, DVP first deploys a cross-attention module to obtain text-related and compact visual prompt tokens, thereby greatly reducing the input length of PLMs. To obtain the optimal placement, we also equip DVP with a reinforcement-learning based search algorithm, which can automatically merge DVP with PLMs for different VL tasks via a very short search process. In addition, we also experiment DVP with the recently popular adapter approach to keep the most parameters of PLMs intact when adapting to VL tasks, helping PLMs achieve a quick shift between single- and multi-modal tasks. We apply DVP to two representative PLMs, namely BERT and T5, and conduct extensive experiments on a set of VL reasoning benchmarks including VQA2.0, GQA and SNLIVE. The experimental results not only show the advantage of DVP on efficiency and performance, but also confirm its superiority in adapting pre-trained language models to VL tasks.

13.Controllable Motion Diffusion Model

Authors:Yi Shi, Jingbo Wang, Xuekun Jiang, Bo Dai

Abstract: Generating realistic and controllable motions for virtual characters is a challenging task in computer animation, and its implications extend to games, simulations, and virtual reality. Recent studies have drawn inspiration from the success of diffusion models in image generation, demonstrating the potential for addressing this task. However, the majority of these studies have been limited to offline applications that target at sequence-level generation that generates all steps simultaneously. To enable real-time motion synthesis with diffusion models in response to time-varying control signals, we propose the framework of the Controllable Motion Diffusion Model (COMODO). Our framework begins with an auto-regressive motion diffusion model (A-MDM), which generates motion sequences step by step. In this way, simply using the standard DDPM algorithm without any additional complexity, our framework is able to generate high-fidelity motion sequences over extended periods with different types of control signals. Then, we propose our reinforcement learning-based controller and controlling strategies on top of the A-MDM model, so that our framework can steer the motion synthesis process across multiple tasks, including target reaching, joystick-based control, goal-oriented control, and trajectory following. The proposed framework enables the real-time generation of diverse motions that react adaptively to user commands on-the-fly, thereby enhancing the overall user experience. Besides, it is compatible with the inpainting-based editing methods and can predict much more diverse motions without additional fine-tuning of the basic motion generation models. We conduct comprehensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our framework in performing various tasks and compare its performance against state-of-the-art methods.

14.Edge-guided Representation Learning for Underwater Object Detection

Authors:Linhui Dai, Hong Liu, Pinhao Song, Hao Tang, Runwei Ding, Shengquan Li

Abstract: Underwater object detection (UOD) is crucial for marine economic development, environmental protection, and the planet's sustainable development. The main challenges of this task arise from low-contrast, small objects, and mimicry of aquatic organisms. The key to addressing these challenges is to focus the model on obtaining more discriminative information. We observe that the edges of underwater objects are highly unique and can be distinguished from low-contrast or mimicry environments based on their edges. Motivated by this observation, we propose an Edge-guided Representation Learning Network, termed ERL-Net, that aims to achieve discriminative representation learning and aggregation under the guidance of edge cues. Firstly, we introduce an edge-guided attention module to model the explicit boundary information, which generates more discriminative features. Secondly, a feature aggregation module is proposed to aggregate the multi-scale discriminative features by regrouping them into three levels, effectively aggregating global and local information for locating and recognizing underwater objects. Finally, we propose a wide and asymmetric receptive field block to enable features to have a wider receptive field, allowing the model to focus on more small object information. Comprehensive experiments on three challenging underwater datasets show that our method achieves superior performance on the UOD task.

15.Exploring Open-Vocabulary Semantic Segmentation without Human Labels

Authors:Jun Chen, Deyao Zhu, Guocheng Qian, Bernard Ghanem, Zhicheng Yan, Chenchen Zhu, Fanyi Xiao, Mohamed Elhoseiny, Sean Chang Culatana

Abstract: Semantic segmentation is a crucial task in computer vision that involves segmenting images into semantically meaningful regions at the pixel level. However, existing approaches often rely on expensive human annotations as supervision for model training, limiting their scalability to large, unlabeled datasets. To address this challenge, we present ZeroSeg, a novel method that leverages the existing pretrained vision-language (VL) model (e.g. CLIP) to train open-vocabulary zero-shot semantic segmentation models. Although acquired extensive knowledge of visual concepts, it is non-trivial to exploit knowledge from these VL models to the task of semantic segmentation, as they are usually trained at an image level. ZeroSeg overcomes this by distilling the visual concepts learned by VL models into a set of segment tokens, each summarizing a localized region of the target image. We evaluate ZeroSeg on multiple popular segmentation benchmarks, including PASCAL VOC 2012, PASCAL Context, and COCO, in a zero-shot manner (i.e., no training or adaption on target segmentation datasets). Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance when compared to other zero-shot segmentation methods under the same training data, while also performing competitively compared to strongly supervised methods. Finally, we also demonstrated the effectiveness of ZeroSeg on open-vocabulary segmentation, through both human studies and qualitative visualizations.

16.Overcoming Language Bias in Remote Sensing Visual Question Answering via Adversarial Training

Authors:Zhenghang Yuan, Lichao Mou, Xiao Xiang Zhu

Abstract: The Visual Question Answering (VQA) system offers a user-friendly interface and enables human-computer interaction. However, VQA models commonly face the challenge of language bias, resulting from the learned superficial correlation between questions and answers. To address this issue, in this study, we present a novel framework to reduce the language bias of the VQA for remote sensing data (RSVQA). Specifically, we add an adversarial branch to the original VQA framework. Based on the adversarial branch, we introduce two regularizers to constrain the training process against language bias. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance in terms of language bias, we propose a new metric that combines standard accuracy with the performance drop when incorporating question and random image information. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. We believe that our method can shed light on future work for reducing language bias on the RSVQA task.

17.Image generation with shortest path diffusion

Authors:Ayan Das, Stathi Fotiadis, Anil Batra, Farhang Nabiei, FengTing Liao, Sattar Vakili, Da-shan Shiu, Alberto Bernacchia

Abstract: The field of image generation has made significant progress thanks to the introduction of Diffusion Models, which learn to progressively reverse a given image corruption. Recently, a few studies introduced alternative ways of corrupting images in Diffusion Models, with an emphasis on blurring. However, these studies are purely empirical and it remains unclear what is the optimal procedure for corrupting an image. In this work, we hypothesize that the optimal procedure minimizes the length of the path taken when corrupting an image towards a given final state. We propose the Fisher metric for the path length, measured in the space of probability distributions. We compute the shortest path according to this metric, and we show that it corresponds to a combination of image sharpening, rather than blurring, and noise deblurring. While the corruption was chosen arbitrarily in previous work, our Shortest Path Diffusion (SPD) determines uniquely the entire spatiotemporal structure of the corruption. We show that SPD improves on strong baselines without any hyperparameter tuning, and outperforms all previous Diffusion Models based on image blurring. Furthermore, any small deviation from the shortest path leads to worse performance, suggesting that SPD provides the optimal procedure to corrupt images. Our work sheds new light on observations made in recent works and provides a new approach to improve diffusion models on images and other types of data.

18.DiffRoom: Diffusion-based High-Quality 3D Room Reconstruction and Generation

Authors:Xiaoliang Ju, Zhaoyang Huang, Yijin Li, Guofeng Zhang, Yu Qiao, Hongsheng Li

Abstract: We present DiffRoom, a novel framework for tackling the problem of high-quality 3D indoor room reconstruction and generation, both of which are challenging due to the complexity and diversity of the room geometry. Although diffusion-based generative models have previously demonstrated impressive performance in image generation and object-level 3D generation, they have not yet been applied to room-level 3D generation due to their computationally intensive costs. In DiffRoom, we propose a sparse 3D diffusion network that is efficient and possesses strong generative performance for Truncated Signed Distance Field (TSDF), based on a rough occupancy prior. Inspired by KinectFusion's incremental alignment and fusion of local SDFs, we propose a diffusion-based TSDF fusion approach that iteratively diffuses and fuses TSDFs, facilitating the reconstruction and generation of an entire room environment. Additionally, to ease training, we introduce a curriculum diffusion learning paradigm that speeds up the training convergence process and enables high-quality reconstruction. According to the user study, the mesh quality generated by our DiffRoom can even outperform the ground truth mesh provided by ScanNet.

19.A Novel Driver Distraction Behavior Detection Based on Self-Supervised Learning Framework with Masked Image Modeling

Authors:Yingzhi Zhang, Taiguo Li, Chao Li, Xinghong Zhou

Abstract: Driver distraction causes a significant number of traffic accidents every year, resulting in economic losses and casualties. Currently, the level of automation in commercial vehicles is far from completely unmanned, and drivers still play an important role in operating and controlling the vehicle. Therefore, driver distraction behavior detection is crucial for road safety. At present, driver distraction detection primarily relies on traditional Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and supervised learning methods. However, there are still challenges such as the high cost of labeled datasets, limited ability to capture high-level semantic information, and weak generalization performance. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a new self-supervised learning method based on masked image modeling for driver distraction behavior detection. Firstly, a self-supervised learning framework for masked image modeling (MIM) is introduced to solve the serious human and material consumption issues caused by dataset labeling. Secondly, the Swin Transformer is employed as an encoder. Performance is enhanced by reconfiguring the Swin Transformer block and adjusting the distribution of the number of window multi-head self-attention (W-MSA) and shifted window multi-head self-attention (SW-MSA) detection heads across all stages, which leads to model more lightening. Finally, various data augmentation strategies are used along with the best random masking strategy to strengthen the model's recognition and generalization ability. Test results on a large-scale driver distraction behavior dataset show that the self-supervised learning method proposed in this paper achieves an accuracy of 99.60%, approximating the excellent performance of advanced supervised learning methods.

20.AvatarStudio: Text-driven Editing of 3D Dynamic Human Head Avatars

Authors:Mohit Mendiratta. Xingang Pan, Mohamed Elgharib, Kartik Teotia, Mallikarjun B R, Ayush Tewari, Vladislav Golyanik, Adam Kortylewski, Christian Theobalt

Abstract: Capturing and editing full head performances enables the creation of virtual characters with various applications such as extended reality and media production. The past few years witnessed a steep rise in the photorealism of human head avatars. Such avatars can be controlled through different input data modalities, including RGB, audio, depth, IMUs and others. While these data modalities provide effective means of control, they mostly focus on editing the head movements such as the facial expressions, head pose and/or camera viewpoint. In this paper, we propose AvatarStudio, a text-based method for editing the appearance of a dynamic full head avatar. Our approach builds on existing work to capture dynamic performances of human heads using neural radiance field (NeRF) and edits this representation with a text-to-image diffusion model. Specifically, we introduce an optimization strategy for incorporating multiple keyframes representing different camera viewpoints and time stamps of a video performance into a single diffusion model. Using this personalized diffusion model, we edit the dynamic NeRF by introducing view-and-time-aware Score Distillation Sampling (VT-SDS) following a model-based guidance approach. Our method edits the full head in a canonical space, and then propagates these edits to remaining time steps via a pretrained deformation network. We evaluate our method visually and numerically via a user study, and results show that our method outperforms existing approaches. Our experiments validate the design choices of our method and highlight that our edits are genuine, personalized, as well as 3D- and time-consistent.

21.Unleash the Potential of 3D Point Cloud Modeling with A Calibrated Local Geometry-driven Distance Metric

Authors:Siyu Ren, Junhui Hou

Abstract: Quantifying the dissimilarity between two unstructured 3D point clouds is a challenging task, with existing metrics often relying on measuring the distance between corresponding points that can be either inefficient or ineffective. In this paper, we propose a novel distance metric called Calibrated Local Geometry Distance (CLGD), which computes the difference between the underlying 3D surfaces calibrated and induced by a set of reference points. By associating each reference point with two given point clouds through computing its directional distances to them, the difference in directional distances of an identical reference point characterizes the geometric difference between a typical local region of the two point clouds. Finally, CLGD is obtained by averaging the directional distance differences of all reference points. We evaluate CLGD on various optimization and unsupervised learning-based tasks, including shape reconstruction, rigid registration, scene flow estimation, and feature representation. Extensive experiments show that CLGD achieves significantly higher accuracy under all tasks in a memory and computationally efficient manner, compared with existing metrics. As a generic metric, CLGD has the potential to advance 3D point cloud modeling. The source code is publicly available at

22.We never go out of Style: Motion Disentanglement by Subspace Decomposition of Latent Space

Authors:Rishubh Parihar, Raghav Magazine, Piyush Tiwari, R. Venkatesh Babu

Abstract: Real-world objects perform complex motions that involve multiple independent motion components. For example, while talking, a person continuously changes their expressions, head, and body pose. In this work, we propose a novel method to decompose motion in videos by using a pretrained image GAN model. We discover disentangled motion subspaces in the latent space of widely used style-based GAN models that are semantically meaningful and control a single explainable motion component. The proposed method uses only a few $(\approx10)$ ground truth video sequences to obtain such subspaces. We extensively evaluate the disentanglement properties of motion subspaces on face and car datasets, quantitatively and qualitatively. Further, we present results for multiple downstream tasks such as motion editing, and selective motion transfer, e.g. transferring only facial expressions without training for it.

23.MammalNet: A Large-scale Video Benchmark for Mammal Recognition and Behavior Understanding

Authors:Jun Chen, Ming Hu, Darren J. Coker, Michael L. Berumen, Blair Costelloe, Sara Beery, Anna Rohrbach, Mohamed Elhoseiny

Abstract: Monitoring animal behavior can facilitate conservation efforts by providing key insights into wildlife health, population status, and ecosystem function. Automatic recognition of animals and their behaviors is critical for capitalizing on the large unlabeled datasets generated by modern video devices and for accelerating monitoring efforts at scale. However, the development of automated recognition systems is currently hindered by a lack of appropriately labeled datasets. Existing video datasets 1) do not classify animals according to established biological taxonomies; 2) are too small to facilitate large-scale behavioral studies and are often limited to a single species; and 3) do not feature temporally localized annotations and therefore do not facilitate localization of targeted behaviors within longer video sequences. Thus, we propose MammalNet, a new large-scale animal behavior dataset with taxonomy-guided annotations of mammals and their common behaviors. MammalNet contains over 18K videos totaling 539 hours, which is ~10 times larger than the largest existing animal behavior dataset. It covers 17 orders, 69 families, and 173 mammal categories for animal categorization and captures 12 high-level animal behaviors that received focus in previous animal behavior studies. We establish three benchmarks on MammalNet: standard animal and behavior recognition, compositional low-shot animal and behavior recognition, and behavior detection. Our dataset and code have been made available at:

24.FMapping: Factorized Efficient Neural Field Mapping for Real-Time Dense RGB SLAM

Authors:Tongyan Hua, Haotian Bai, Zidong Cao, Lin Wang

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce FMapping, an efficient neural field mapping framework that facilitates the continuous estimation of a colorized point cloud map in real-time dense RGB SLAM. To achieve this challenging goal without depth, a hurdle is how to improve efficiency and reduce the mapping uncertainty of the RGB SLAM system. To this end, we first build up a theoretical analysis by decomposing the SLAM system into tracking and mapping parts, and the mapping uncertainty is explicitly defined within the frame of neural representations. Based on the analysis, we then propose an effective factorization scheme for scene representation and introduce a sliding window strategy to reduce the uncertainty for scene reconstruction. Specifically, we leverage the factorized neural field to decompose uncertainty into a lower-dimensional space, which enhances robustness to noise and improves training efficiency. We then propose the sliding window sampler to reduce uncertainty by incorporating coherent geometric cues from observed frames during map initialization to enhance convergence. Our factorized neural mapping approach enjoys some advantages, such as low memory consumption, more efficient computation, and fast convergence during map initialization. Experiments on two benchmark datasets show that our method can update the map of high-fidelity colorized point clouds around 2 seconds in real time while requiring no customized CUDA kernels. Additionally, it utilizes x20 fewer parameters than the most concise neural implicit mapping of prior methods for SLAM, e.g., iMAP [ 31] and around x1000 fewer parameters than the state-of-the-art approach, e.g., NICE-SLAM [ 42]. For more details, please refer to our project homepage:

25.Revisit Weakly-Supervised Audio-Visual Video Parsing from the Language Perspective

Authors:Yingying Fan, Yu Wu, Yutian Lin, Bo Du

Abstract: We focus on the weakly-supervised audio-visual video parsing task (AVVP), which aims to identify and locate all the events in audio/visual modalities. Previous works only concentrate on video-level overall label denoising across modalities, but overlook the segment-level label noise, where adjacent video segments (i.e., 1-second video clips) may contain different events. However, recognizing events in the segment is challenging because its label could be any combination of events that occur in the video. To address this issue, we consider tackling AVVP from the language perspective, since language could freely describe how various events appear in each segment beyond fixed labels. Specifically, we design language prompts to describe all cases of event appearance for each video. Then, the similarity between language prompts and segments is calculated, where the event of the most similar prompt is regarded as the segment-level label. In addition, to deal with the mislabeled segments, we propose to perform dynamic re-weighting on the unreliable segments to adjust their labels. Experiments show that our simple yet effective approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a large margin.

26.AD-PT: Autonomous Driving Pre-Training with Large-scale Point Cloud Dataset

Authors:Jiakang Yuan, Bo Zhang, Xiangchao Yan, Tao Chen, Botian Shi, Yikang Li, Yu Qiao

Abstract: It is a long-term vision for Autonomous Driving (AD) community that the perception models can learn from a large-scale point cloud dataset, to obtain unified representations that can achieve promising results on different tasks or benchmarks. Previous works mainly focus on the self-supervised pre-training pipeline, meaning that they perform the pre-training and fine-tuning on the same benchmark, which is difficult to attain the performance scalability and cross-dataset application for the pre-training checkpoint. In this paper, for the first time, we are committed to building a large-scale pre-training point-cloud dataset with diverse data distribution, and meanwhile learning generalizable representations from such a diverse pre-training dataset. We formulate the point-cloud pre-training task as a semi-supervised problem, which leverages the few-shot labeled and massive unlabeled point-cloud data to generate the unified backbone representations that can be directly applied to many baseline models and benchmarks, decoupling the AD-related pre-training process and downstream fine-tuning task. During the period of backbone pre-training, by enhancing the scene- and instance-level distribution diversity and exploiting the backbone's ability to learn from unknown instances, we achieve significant performance gains on a series of downstream perception benchmarks including Waymo, nuScenes, and KITTI, under different baseline models like PV-RCNN++, SECOND, CenterPoint.

27.Class Anchor Margin Loss for Content-Based Image Retrieval

Authors:Alexandru Ghita, Radu Tudor Ionescu

Abstract: The performance of neural networks in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is highly influenced by the chosen loss (objective) function. The majority of objective functions for neural models can be divided into metric learning and statistical learning. Metric learning approaches require a pair mining strategy that often lacks efficiency, while statistical learning approaches are not generating highly compact features due to their indirect feature optimization. To this end, we propose a novel repeller-attractor loss that falls in the metric learning paradigm, yet directly optimizes for the L2 metric without the need of generating pairs. Our loss is formed of three components. One leading objective ensures that the learned features are attracted to each designated learnable class anchor. The second loss component regulates the anchors and forces them to be separable by a margin, while the third objective ensures that the anchors do not collapse to zero. Furthermore, we develop a more efficient two-stage retrieval system by harnessing the learned class anchors during the first stage of the retrieval process, eliminating the need of comparing the query with every image in the database. We establish a set of four datasets (CIFAR-100, Food-101, SVHN, and Tiny ImageNet) and evaluate the proposed objective in the context of few-shot and full-set training on the CBIR task, by using both convolutional and transformer architectures. Compared to existing objective functions, our empirical evidence shows that the proposed objective is generating superior and more consistent results.

28.Wuerstchen: Efficient Pretraining of Text-to-Image Models

Authors:Pablo Pernias, Dominic Rampas, Marc Aubreville

Abstract: We introduce Wuerstchen, a novel technique for text-to-image synthesis that unites competitive performance with unprecedented cost-effectiveness and ease of training on constrained hardware. Building on recent advancements in machine learning, our approach, which utilizes latent diffusion strategies at strong latent image compression rates, significantly reduces the computational burden, typically associated with state-of-the-art models, while preserving, if not enhancing, the quality of generated images. Wuerstchen achieves notable speed improvements at inference time, thereby rendering real-time applications more viable. One of the key advantages of our method lies in its modest training requirements of only 9,200 GPU hours, slashing the usual costs significantly without compromising the end performance. In a comparison against the state-of-the-art, we found the approach to yield strong competitiveness. This paper opens the door to a new line of research that prioritizes both performance and computational accessibility, hence democratizing the use of sophisticated AI technologies. Through Wuerstchen, we demonstrate a compelling stride forward in the realm of text-to-image synthesis, offering an innovative path to explore in future research.

29.Multi-Modal Deep Learning for Multi-Temporal Urban Mapping With a Partly Missing Optical Modality

Authors:Sebastian Hafner, Yifang Ban

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel multi-temporal urban mapping approach using multi-modal satellite data from the Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Sentinel-2 MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) missions. In particular, it focuses on the problem of a partly missing optical modality due to clouds. The proposed model utilizes two networks to extract features from each modality separately. In addition, a reconstruction network is utilized to approximate the optical features based on the SAR data in case of a missing optical modality. Our experiments on a multi-temporal urban mapping dataset with Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 MSI data demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms a multi-modal approach that uses zero values as a replacement for missing optical data, as well as a uni-modal SAR-based approach. Therefore, the proposed method is effective in exploiting multi-modal data, if available, but it also retains its effectiveness in case the optical modality is missing.

30.Universal Test-time Adaptation through Weight Ensembling, Diversity Weighting, and Prior Correction

Authors:Robert A. Marsden, Mario Döbler, Bin Yang

Abstract: Since distribution shifts are likely to occur during test-time and can drastically decrease the model's performance, online test-time adaptation (TTA) continues to update the model after deployment, leveraging the current test data. Clearly, a method proposed for online TTA has to perform well for all kinds of environmental conditions. By introducing the variable factors 'domain non-stationarity' and 'temporal correlation', we first unfold all practically relevant settings and define the entity as universal TTA. To tackle the problem of universal TTA, we identify and highlight several challenges a self-training based method has to deal with, including: 1) model bias and the occurrence of trivial solutions when performing entropy minimization on varying sequence lengths with and without multiple domain shifts, 2) loss of generalization which exacerbates the adaptation to future domain shifts and the occurrence of catastrophic forgetting, and 3) performance degradation due to shifts in label prior. To prevent the model from becoming biased, we leverage a dataset and model-agnostic certainty and diversity weighting. In order to maintain generalization and prevent catastrophic forgetting, we propose to continually weight-average the source and adapted model. To compensate for disparities in the label prior during test-time, we propose an adaptive additive prior correction scheme. We evaluate our approach, named ROID, on a wide range of settings, datasets, and models, setting new standards in the field of universal TTA.

31.NeuroGF: A Neural Representation for Fast Geodesic Distance and Path Queries

Authors:Qijian Zhang, Junhui Hou, Yohanes Yudhi Adikusuma, Wenping Wang, Ying He

Abstract: Geodesics are essential in many geometry processing applications. However, traditional algorithms for computing geodesic distances and paths on 3D mesh models are often inefficient and slow. This makes them impractical for scenarios that require extensive querying of arbitrary point-to-point geodesics. Although neural implicit representations have emerged as a popular way of representing 3D shape geometries, there is still no research on representing geodesics with deep implicit functions. To bridge this gap, this paper presents the first attempt to represent geodesics on 3D mesh models using neural implicit functions. Specifically, we introduce neural geodesic fields (NeuroGFs), which are learned to represent the all-pairs geodesics of a given mesh. By using NeuroGFs, we can efficiently and accurately answer queries of arbitrary point-to-point geodesic distances and paths, overcoming the limitations of traditional algorithms. Evaluations on common 3D models show that NeuroGFs exhibit exceptional performance in solving the single-source all-destination (SSAD) and point-to-point geodesics, and achieve high accuracy consistently. Moreover, NeuroGFs offer the unique advantage of encoding both 3D geometry and geodesics in a unified representation. Code is made available at

32.Hyperspectral Target Detection Based on Low-Rank Background Subspace Learning and Graph Laplacian Regularization

Authors:Dunbin Shen, Xiaorui Ma, Wenfeng Kong, Jiacheng Tian, Hongyu Wang

Abstract: Hyperspectral target detection is good at finding dim and small objects based on spectral characteristics. However, existing representation-based methods are hindered by the problem of the unknown background dictionary and insufficient utilization of spatial information. To address these issues, this paper proposes an efficient optimizing approach based on low-rank representation (LRR) and graph Laplacian regularization (GLR). Firstly, to obtain a complete and pure background dictionary, we propose a LRR-based background subspace learning method by jointly mining the low-dimensional structure of all pixels. Secondly, to fully exploit local spatial relationships and capture the underlying geometric structure, a local region-based GLR is employed to estimate the coefficients. Finally, the desired detection map is generated by computing the ratio of representation errors from binary hypothesis testing. The experiments conducted on two benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness and superiority of the approach. For reproduction, the accompanying code is available at

33.Can Large Pre-trained Models Help Vision Models on Perception Tasks?

Authors:Ning Ding, Yehui Tang, Zhongqian Fu, Chao Xu, Kai Han, Yunhe Wang

Abstract: The recent upsurge in pre-trained large models (e.g. GPT-4) has swept across the entire deep learning community. Such powerful large language models (LLMs) demonstrate advanced generative ability and multimodal understanding capability, which quickly achieve new state-of-the-art performances on a variety of benchmarks. The pre-trained LLM usually plays the role as a universal AI model that can conduct various tasks, including context reasoning, article analysis and image content comprehension. However, considering the prohibitively high memory and computational cost for implementing such a large model, the conventional models (such as CNN and ViT), are still essential for many visual perception tasks. In this paper, we propose to enhance the representation ability of ordinary vision models for perception tasks (e.g. image classification) by taking advantage of large pre-trained models. We present a new learning paradigm in which the knowledge extracted from large pre-trained models are utilized to help models like CNN and ViT learn enhanced representations and achieve better performance. Firstly, we curate a high quality description set by prompting a multimodal LLM to generate descriptive text for all training images. Furthermore, we feed these detailed descriptions into a pre-trained encoder to extract text embeddings with rich semantic information that encodes the content of images. During training, text embeddings will serve as extra supervising signals and be aligned with image representations learned by vision models. The alignment process helps vision models learn better and achieve higher accuracy with the assistance of pre-trained LLMs. We conduct extensive experiments to verify that the proposed algorithm consistently improves the performance for various vision models with heterogeneous architectures.

34.Analyzing the Internals of Neural Radiance Fields

Authors:Lukas Radl, Andreas Kurz, Markus Steinberger

Abstract: Modern Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) learn a mapping from position to volumetric density via proposal network samplers. In contrast to the coarse-to-fine sampling approach with two NeRFs, this offers significant potential for speedups using lower network capacity as the task of mapping spatial coordinates to volumetric density involves no view-dependent effects and is thus much easier to learn. Given that most of the network capacity is utilized to estimate radiance, NeRFs could store valuable density information in their parameters or their deep features. To this end, we take one step back and analyze large, trained ReLU-MLPs used in coarse-to-fine sampling. We find that trained NeRFs, Mip-NeRFs and proposal network samplers map samples with high density to local minima along a ray in activation feature space. We show how these large MLPs can be accelerated by transforming the intermediate activations to a weight estimate, without any modifications to the parameters post-optimization. With our approach, we can reduce the computational requirements of trained NeRFs by up to 50% with only a slight hit in rendering quality and no changes to the training protocol or architecture. We evaluate our approach on a variety of architectures and datasets, showing that our proposition holds in various settings.

35.DAM-Net: Global Flood Detection from SAR Imagery Using Differential Attention Metric-Based Vision Transformers

Authors:Tamer Saleh, Xingxing Weng, Shimaa Holail, Chen Hao, Gui-Song Xia

Abstract: The detection of flooded areas using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is a critical task with applications in crisis and disaster management, as well as environmental resource planning. However, the complex nature of SAR images presents a challenge that often leads to an overestimation of the flood extent. To address this issue, we propose a novel differential attention metric-based network (DAM-Net) in this study. The DAM-Net comprises two key components: a weight-sharing Siamese backbone to obtain multi-scale change features of multi-temporal images and tokens containing high-level semantic information of water-body changes, and a temporal differential fusion (TDF) module that integrates semantic tokens and change features to generate flood maps with reduced speckle noise. Specifically, the backbone is split into multiple stages. In each stage, we design three modules, namely, temporal-wise feature extraction (TWFE), cross-temporal change attention (CTCA), and temporal-aware change enhancement (TACE), to effectively extract the change features. In TACE of the last stage, we introduce a class token to record high-level semantic information of water-body changes via the attention mechanism. Another challenge faced by data-driven deep learning algorithms is the limited availability of flood detection datasets. To overcome this, we have created the S1GFloods open-source dataset, a global-scale high-resolution Sentinel-1 SAR image pairs dataset covering 46 global flood events between 2015 and 2022. The experiments on the S1GFloods dataset using the proposed DAM-Net showed top results compared to state-of-the-art methods in terms of overall accuracy, F1-score, and IoU, which reached 97.8%, 96.5%, and 93.2%, respectively. Our dataset and code will be available online at

36.Dissecting Arbitrary-scale Super-resolution Capability from Pre-trained Diffusion Generative Models

Authors:Ruibin Li, Qihua Zhou, Song Guo, Jie Zhang, Jingcai Guo, Xinyang Jiang, Yifei Shen, Zhenhua Han

Abstract: Diffusion-based Generative Models (DGMs) have achieved unparalleled performance in synthesizing high-quality visual content, opening up the opportunity to improve image super-resolution (SR) tasks. Recent solutions for these tasks often train architecture-specific DGMs from scratch, or require iterative fine-tuning and distillation on pre-trained DGMs, both of which take considerable time and hardware investments. More seriously, since the DGMs are established with a discrete pre-defined upsampling scale, they cannot well match the emerging requirements of arbitrary-scale super-resolution (ASSR), where a unified model adapts to arbitrary upsampling scales, instead of preparing a series of distinct models for each case. These limitations beg an intriguing question: can we identify the ASSR capability of existing pre-trained DGMs without the need for distillation or fine-tuning? In this paper, we take a step towards resolving this matter by proposing Diff-SR, a first ASSR attempt based solely on pre-trained DGMs, without additional training efforts. It is motivated by an exciting finding that a simple methodology, which first injects a specific amount of noise into the low-resolution images before invoking a DGM's backward diffusion process, outperforms current leading solutions. The key insight is determining a suitable amount of noise to inject, i.e., small amounts lead to poor low-level fidelity, while over-large amounts degrade the high-level signature. Through a finely-grained theoretical analysis, we propose the Perceptual Recoverable Field (PRF), a metric that achieves the optimal trade-off between these two factors. Extensive experiments verify the effectiveness, flexibility, and adaptability of Diff-SR, demonstrating superior performance to state-of-the-art solutions under diverse ASSR environments.

37.Robust T-Loss for Medical Image Segmentation

Authors:Alvaro Gonzalez-Jimenez, Simone Lionetti, Philippe Gottfrois, Fabian Gröger, Marc Pouly, Alexander Navarini

Abstract: This paper presents a new robust loss function, the T-Loss, for medical image segmentation. The proposed loss is based on the negative log-likelihood of the Student-t distribution and can effectively handle outliers in the data by controlling its sensitivity with a single parameter. This parameter is updated during the backpropagation process, eliminating the need for additional computation or prior information about the level and spread of noisy labels. Our experiments show that the T-Loss outperforms traditional loss functions in terms of dice scores on two public medical datasets for skin lesion and lung segmentation. We also demonstrate the ability of T-Loss to handle different types of simulated label noise, resembling human error. Our results provide strong evidence that the T-Loss is a promising alternative for medical image segmentation where high levels of noise or outliers in the dataset are a typical phenomenon in practice. The project website can be found at

38.LiT-4-RSVQA: Lightweight Transformer-based Visual Question Answering in Remote Sensing

Authors:Leonard Hackel Technische Universität Berlin Berlin Institute for the Foundations of Learning and Data, Kai Norman Clasen Technische Universität Berlin, Mahdyar Ravanbakhsh Zalando SE Berlin, Beg/"um Demir Technische Universität Berlin Berlin Institute for the Foundations of Learning and Data

Abstract: Visual question answering (VQA) methods in remote sensing (RS) aim to answer natural language questions with respect to an RS image. Most of the existing methods require a large amount of computational resources, which limits their application in operational scenarios in RS. To address this issue, in this paper we present an effective lightweight transformer-based VQA in RS (LiT-4-RSVQA) architecture for efficient and accurate VQA in RS. Our architecture consists of: i) a lightweight text encoder module; ii) a lightweight image encoder module; iii) a fusion module; and iv) a classification module. The experimental results obtained on a VQA benchmark dataset demonstrate that our proposed LiT-4-RSVQA architecture provides accurate VQA results while significantly reducing the computational requirements on the executing hardware. Our code is publicly available at

39.Learning Disentangled Prompts for Compositional Image Synthesis

Authors:Kihyuk Sohn, Albert Shaw, Yuan Hao, Han Zhang, Luisa Polania, Huiwen Chang, Lu Jiang, Irfan Essa

Abstract: We study domain-adaptive image synthesis, the problem of teaching pretrained image generative models a new style or concept from as few as one image to synthesize novel images, to better understand the compositional image synthesis. We present a framework that leverages a pretrained class-conditional generation model and visual prompt tuning. Specifically, we propose a novel source class distilled visual prompt that learns disentangled prompts of semantic (e.g., class) and domain (e.g., style) from a few images. Learned domain prompt is then used to synthesize images of any classes in the style of target domain. We conduct studies on various target domains with the number of images ranging from one to a few to many, and show qualitative results which show the compositional generalization of our method. Moreover, we show that our method can help improve zero-shot domain adaptation classification accuracy.

40.Object pop-up: Can we infer 3D objects and their poses from human interactions alone?

Authors:Ilya A. Petrov, Riccardo Marin, Julian Chibane, Gerard Pons-Moll

Abstract: The intimate entanglement between objects affordances and human poses is of large interest, among others, for behavioural sciences, cognitive psychology, and Computer Vision communities. In recent years, the latter has developed several object-centric approaches: starting from items, learning pipelines synthesizing human poses and dynamics in a realistic way, satisfying both geometrical and functional expectations. However, the inverse perspective is significantly less explored: Can we infer 3D objects and their poses from human interactions alone? Our investigation follows this direction, showing that a generic 3D human point cloud is enough to pop up an unobserved object, even when the user is just imitating a functionality (e.g., looking through a binocular) without involving a tangible counterpart. We validate our method qualitatively and quantitatively, with synthetic data and sequences acquired for the task, showing applicability for XR/VR. The code is available at

41.FDNeRF: Semantics-Driven Face Reconstruction, Prompt Editing and Relighting with Diffusion Models

Authors:Hao Zhang, Yanbo Xu, Tianyuan Dai, Yu-Wing, Tai Chi-Keung Tang

Abstract: The ability to create high-quality 3D faces from a single image has become increasingly important with wide applications in video conferencing, AR/VR, and advanced video editing in movie industries. In this paper, we propose Face Diffusion NeRF (FDNeRF), a new generative method to reconstruct high-quality Face NeRFs from single images, complete with semantic editing and relighting capabilities. FDNeRF utilizes high-resolution 3D GAN inversion and expertly trained 2D latent-diffusion model, allowing users to manipulate and construct Face NeRFs in zero-shot learning without the need for explicit 3D data. With carefully designed illumination and identity preserving loss, as well as multi-modal pre-training, FD-NeRF offers users unparalleled control over the editing process enabling them to create and edit face NeRFs using just single-view images, text prompts, and explicit target lighting. The advanced features of FDNeRF have been designed to produce more impressive results than existing 2D editing approaches that rely on 2D segmentation maps for editable attributes. Experiments show that our FDNeRF achieves exceptionally realistic results and unprecedented flexibility in editing compared with state-of-the-art 3D face reconstruction and editing methods. Our code will be available at

42.Learning Across Decentralized Multi-Modal Remote Sensing Archives with Federated Learning

Authors:Barış Büyüktaş, Gencer Sumbul, Begüm Demir

Abstract: The development of federated learning (FL) methods, which aim to learn from distributed databases (i.e., clients) without accessing data on clients, has recently attracted great attention. Most of these methods assume that the clients are associated with the same data modality. However, remote sensing (RS) images in different clients can be associated with different data modalities that can improve the classification performance when jointly used. To address this problem, in this paper we introduce a novel multi-modal FL framework that aims to learn from decentralized multi-modal RS image archives for RS image classification problems. The proposed framework is made up of three modules: 1) multi-modal fusion (MF); 2) feature whitening (FW); and 3) mutual information maximization (MIM). The MF module performs iterative model averaging to learn without accessing data on clients in the case that clients are associated with different data modalities. The FW module aligns the representations learned among the different clients. The MIM module maximizes the similarity of images from different modalities. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework compared to iterative model averaging, which is a widely used algorithm in FL. The code of the proposed framework is publicly available at

43.FigGen: Text to Scientific Figure Generation

Authors:Juan A. Rodriguez, David Vazquez, Issam Laradji, Marco Pedersoli, Pau Rodriguez

Abstract: The generative modeling landscape has experienced tremendous growth in recent years, particularly in generating natural images and art. Recent techniques have shown impressive potential in creating complex visual compositions while delivering impressive realism and quality. However, state-of-the-art methods have been focusing on the narrow domain of natural images, while other distributions remain unexplored. In this paper, we introduce the problem of text-to-figure generation, that is creating scientific figures of papers from text descriptions. We present FigGen, a diffusion-based approach for text-to-figure as well as the main challenges of the proposed task. Code and models are available at

44.UniDiff: Advancing Vision-Language Models with Generative and Discriminative Learning

Authors:Xiao Dong, Runhui Huang, Xiaoyong Wei, Zequn Jie, Jianxing Yu, Jian Yin, Xiaodan Liang

Abstract: Recent advances in vision-language pre-training have enabled machines to perform better in multimodal object discrimination (e.g., image-text semantic alignment) and image synthesis (e.g., text-to-image generation). On the other hand, fine-tuning pre-trained models with discriminative or generative capabilities such as CLIP and Stable Diffusion on domain-specific datasets has shown to be effective in various tasks by adapting to specific domains. However, few studies have explored the possibility of learning both discriminative and generative capabilities and leveraging their synergistic effects to create a powerful and personalized multimodal model during fine-tuning. This paper presents UniDiff, a unified multi-modal model that integrates image-text contrastive learning (ITC), text-conditioned image synthesis learning (IS), and reciprocal semantic consistency modeling (RSC). UniDiff effectively learns aligned semantics and mitigates the issue of semantic collapse during fine-tuning on small datasets by leveraging RSC on visual features from CLIP and diffusion models, without altering the pre-trained model's basic architecture. UniDiff demonstrates versatility in both multi-modal understanding and generative tasks. Experimental results on three datasets (Fashion-man, Fashion-woman, and E-commercial Product) showcase substantial enhancements in vision-language retrieval and text-to-image generation, illustrating the advantages of combining discriminative and generative fine-tuning. The proposed UniDiff model establishes a robust pipeline for personalized modeling and serves as a benchmark for future comparisons in the field.

45.Robust Backdoor Attack with Visible, Semantic, Sample-Specific, and Compatible Triggers

Authors:Ruotong Wang, Hongrui Chen, Zihao Zhu, Li Liu, Yong Zhang, Yanbo Fan, Baoyuan Wu

Abstract: Deep neural networks (DNNs) can be manipulated to exhibit specific behaviors when exposed to specific trigger patterns, without affecting their performance on normal samples. This type of attack is known as a backdoor attack. Recent research has focused on designing invisible triggers for backdoor attacks to ensure visual stealthiness. These triggers have demonstrated strong attack performance even under backdoor defense, which aims to eliminate or suppress the backdoor effect in the model. However, through experimental observations, we have noticed that these carefully designed invisible triggers are often susceptible to visual distortion during inference, such as Gaussian blurring or environmental variations in real-world scenarios. This phenomenon significantly undermines the effectiveness of attacks in practical applications. Unfortunately, this issue has not received sufficient attention and has not been thoroughly investigated. To address this limitation, we propose a novel approach called the Visible, Semantic, Sample-Specific, and Compatible trigger (VSSC-trigger), which leverages a recent powerful image method known as the stable diffusion model. In this approach, a text trigger is utilized as a prompt and combined with a benign image. The resulting combination is then processed by a pre-trained stable diffusion model, generating a corresponding semantic object. This object is seamlessly integrated with the original image, resulting in a new realistic image, referred to as the poisoned image. Extensive experimental results and analysis validate the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed attack method, even in the presence of visual distortion. We believe that the new trigger proposed in this work, along with the proposed idea to address the aforementioned issues, will have significant prospective implications for further advancements in this direction.

46.Dilated Convolution with Learnable Spacings: beyond bilinear interpolation

Authors:Ismail Khalfaoui-Hassani, Thomas Pellegrini, Timothée Masquelier

Abstract: Dilated Convolution with Learnable Spacings (DCLS) is a recently proposed variation of the dilated convolution in which the spacings between the non-zero elements in the kernel, or equivalently their positions, are learnable. Non-integer positions are handled via interpolation. Thanks to this trick, positions have well-defined gradients. The original DCLS used bilinear interpolation, and thus only considered the four nearest pixels. Yet here we show that longer range interpolations, and in particular a Gaussian interpolation, allow improving performance on ImageNet1k classification on two state-of-the-art convolutional architectures (ConvNeXt and Conv\-Former), without increasing the number of parameters. The method code is based on PyTorch and is available at

47.Geo-Tiles for Semantic Segmentation of Earth Observation Imagery

Authors:Sebastian Bullinger, Florian Fevers, Christoph Bodensteiner, Michael Arens

Abstract: To cope with the high requirements during the computation of semantic segmentations of earth observation imagery, current state-of-the-art pipelines divide the corresponding data into smaller images. Existing methods and benchmark datasets oftentimes rely on pixel-based tiling schemes or on geo-tiling schemes employed by web mapping applications. The selection of the subimages (comprising size, location and orientation) is crucial since it affects the available context information of each pixel, defines the number of tiles during training, and influences the degree of information degradation while down- and up-sampling the tile contents to the size required by the segmentation model. In this paper we propose a new segmentation pipeline for earth observation imagery relying on a tiling scheme that creates geo-tiles based on the geo-information of the raster data. This approach exhibits several beneficial properties compared to pixel-based or common web mapping approaches. For instance, the proposed tiling scheme shows flexible customization properties regarding tile granularity, tile stride and image boundary alignment, which allows us to perform a tile specific data augmentation during training and a substitution of pixel predictions with limited context information using data of overlapping tiles during inference. Furthermore, the generated tiles show a consistent spatial tile extent w.r.t. heterogeneous sensors, varying recording distances and different latitudes. In our experiments we demonstrate how the proposed tiling system allows to improve the results of current state-of-the-art semantic segmentation models. To foster future research we make the source code publicly available.

48.Deformable Convolutions and LSTM-based Flexible Event Frame Fusion Network for Motion Deblurring

Authors:Dan Yang, Mehmet Yamac

Abstract: Event cameras differ from conventional RGB cameras in that they produce asynchronous data sequences. While RGB cameras capture every frame at a fixed rate, event cameras only capture changes in the scene, resulting in sparse and asynchronous data output. Despite the fact that event data carries useful information that can be utilized in motion deblurring of RGB cameras, integrating event and image information remains a challenge. Recent state-of-the-art CNN-based deblurring solutions produce multiple 2-D event frames based on the accumulation of event data over a time period. In most of these techniques, however, the number of event frames is fixed and predefined, which reduces temporal resolution drastically, particularly for scenarios when fast-moving objects are present or when longer exposure times are required. It is also important to note that recent modern cameras (e.g., cameras in mobile phones) dynamically set the exposure time of the image, which presents an additional problem for networks developed for a fixed number of event frames. A Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM)-based event feature extraction module has been developed for addressing these challenges, which enables us to use a dynamically varying number of event frames. Using these modules, we constructed a state-of-the-art deblurring network, Deformable Convolutions and LSTM-based Flexible Event Frame Fusion Network (DLEFNet). It is particularly useful for scenarios in which exposure times vary depending on factors such as lighting conditions or the presence of fast-moving objects in the scene. It has been demonstrated through evaluation results that the proposed method can outperform the existing state-of-the-art networks for deblurring task in synthetic and real-world data sets.

49.A deep-learning approach to early identification of suggested sexual harassment from videos

Authors:Shreya Shetye, Anwita Maiti, Tannistha Maiti, Tarry Singh

Abstract: Sexual harassment, sexual abuse, and sexual violence are prevalent problems in this day and age. Women's safety is an important issue that needs to be highlighted and addressed. Given this issue, we have studied each of these concerns and the factors that affect it based on images generated from movies. We have classified the three terms (harassment, abuse, and violence) based on the visual attributes present in images depicting these situations. We identified that factors such as facial expression of the victim and perpetrator and unwanted touching had a direct link to identifying the scenes containing sexual harassment, abuse and violence. We also studied and outlined how state-of-the-art explicit content detectors such as Google Cloud Vision API and Clarifai API fail to identify and categorise these images. Based on these definitions and characteristics, we have developed a first-of-its-kind dataset from various Indian movie scenes. These scenes are classified as sexual harassment, sexual abuse, or sexual violence and exported in the PASCAL VOC 1.1 format. Our dataset is annotated on the identified relevant features and can be used to develop and train a deep-learning computer vision model to identify these issues. The dataset is publicly available for research and development.

50.DeepFake-Adapter: Dual-Level Adapter for DeepFake Detection

Authors:Rui Shao, Tianxing Wu, Liqiang Nie, Ziwei Liu

Abstract: Existing deepfake detection methods fail to generalize well to unseen or degraded samples, which can be attributed to the over-fitting of low-level forgery patterns. Here we argue that high-level semantics are also indispensable recipes for generalizable forgery detection. Recently, large pre-trained Vision Transformers (ViTs) have shown promising generalization capability. In this paper, we propose the first parameter-efficient tuning approach for deepfake detection, namely DeepFake-Adapter, to effectively and efficiently adapt the generalizable high-level semantics from large pre-trained ViTs to aid deepfake detection. Given large pre-trained models but limited deepfake data, DeepFake-Adapter introduces lightweight yet dedicated dual-level adapter modules to a ViT while keeping the model backbone frozen. Specifically, to guide the adaptation process to be aware of both global and local forgery cues of deepfake data, 1) we not only insert Globally-aware Bottleneck Adapters in parallel to MLP layers of ViT, 2) but also actively cross-attend Locally-aware Spatial Adapters with features from ViT. Unlike existing deepfake detection methods merely focusing on low-level forgery patterns, the forgery detection process of our model can be regularized by generalizable high-level semantics from a pre-trained ViT and adapted by global and local low-level forgeries of deepfake data. Extensive experiments on several standard deepfake detection benchmarks validate the effectiveness of our approach. Notably, DeepFake-Adapter demonstrates a convincing advantage under cross-dataset and cross-manipulation settings. The source code is released at

51.A Transformer-based representation-learning model with unified processing of multimodal input for clinical diagnostics

Authors:Hong-Yu Zhou, Yizhou Yu, Chengdi Wang, Shu Zhang, Yuanxu Gao, Jia Pan, Jun Shao, Guangming Lu, Kang Zhang, Weimin Li

Abstract: During the diagnostic process, clinicians leverage multimodal information, such as chief complaints, medical images, and laboratory-test results. Deep-learning models for aiding diagnosis have yet to meet this requirement. Here we report a Transformer-based representation-learning model as a clinical diagnostic aid that processes multimodal input in a unified manner. Rather than learning modality-specific features, the model uses embedding layers to convert images and unstructured and structured text into visual tokens and text tokens, and bidirectional blocks with intramodal and intermodal attention to learn a holistic representation of radiographs, the unstructured chief complaint and clinical history, structured clinical information such as laboratory-test results and patient demographic information. The unified model outperformed an image-only model and non-unified multimodal diagnosis models in the identification of pulmonary diseases (by 12% and 9%, respectively) and in the prediction of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 (by 29% and 7%, respectively). Leveraging unified multimodal Transformer-based models may help streamline triage of patients and facilitate the clinical decision process.

52.LLaVA-Med: Training a Large Language-and-Vision Assistant for Biomedicine in One Day

Authors:Chunyuan Li, Cliff Wong, Sheng Zhang, Naoto Usuyama, Haotian Liu, Jianwei Yang, Tristan Naumann, Hoifung Poon, Jianfeng Gao

Abstract: Conversational generative AI has demonstrated remarkable promise for empowering biomedical practitioners, but current investigations focus on unimodal text. Multimodal conversational AI has seen rapid progress by leveraging billions of image-text pairs from the public web, but such general-domain vision-language models still lack sophistication in understanding and conversing about biomedical images. In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient approach for training a vision-language conversational assistant that can answer open-ended research questions of biomedical images. The key idea is to leverage a large-scale, broad-coverage biomedical figure-caption dataset extracted from PubMed Central, use GPT-4 to self-instruct open-ended instruction-following data from the captions, and then fine-tune a large general-domain vision-language model using a novel curriculum learning method. Specifically, the model first learns to align biomedical vocabulary using the figure-caption pairs as is, then learns to master open-ended conversational semantics using GPT-4 generated instruction-following data, broadly mimicking how a layperson gradually acquires biomedical knowledge. This enables us to train a Large Language and Vision Assistant for BioMedicine (LLaVA-Med) in less than 15 hours (with eight A100s). LLaVA-Med exhibits excellent multimodal conversational capability and can follow open-ended instruction to assist with inquiries about a biomedical image. On three standard biomedical visual question answering datasets, LLaVA-Med outperforms previous supervised state-of-the-art on certain metrics. To facilitate biomedical multimodal research, we will release our instruction-following data and the LLaVA-Med model.

53.MOSAIC: Masked Optimisation with Selective Attention for Image Reconstruction

Authors:Pamuditha Somarathne, Tharindu Wickremasinghe, Amashi Niwarthana, A. Thieshanthan, Chamira U. S. Edussooriya, Dushan N. Wadduwage

Abstract: Compressive sensing (CS) reconstructs images from sub-Nyquist measurements by solving a sparsity-regularized inverse problem. Traditional CS solvers use iterative optimizers with hand crafted sparsifiers, while early data-driven methods directly learn an inverse mapping from the low-dimensional measurement space to the original image space. The latter outperforms the former, but is restrictive to a pre-defined measurement domain. More recent, deep unrolling methods combine traditional proximal gradient methods and data-driven approaches to iteratively refine an image approximation. To achieve higher accuracy, it has also been suggested to learn both the sampling matrix, and the choice of measurement vectors adaptively. Contrary to the current trend, in this work we hypothesize that a general inverse mapping from a random set of compressed measurements to the image domain exists for a given measurement basis, and can be learned. Such a model is single-shot, non-restrictive and does not parametrize the sampling process. To this end, we propose MOSAIC, a novel compressive sensing framework to reconstruct images given any random selection of measurements, sampled using a fixed basis. Motivated by the uneven distribution of information across measurements, MOSAIC incorporates an embedding technique to efficiently apply attention mechanisms on an encoded sequence of measurements, while dispensing the need to use unrolled deep networks. A range of experiments validate our proposed architecture as a promising alternative for existing CS reconstruction methods, by achieving the state-of-the-art for metrics of reconstruction accuracy on standard datasets.

54.Conditioning Diffusion Models via Attributes and Semantic Masks for Face Generation

Authors:Nico Giambi, Giuseppe Lisanti

Abstract: Deep generative models have shown impressive results in generating realistic images of faces. GANs managed to generate high-quality, high-fidelity images when conditioned on semantic masks, but they still lack the ability to diversify their output. Diffusion models partially solve this problem and are able to generate diverse samples given the same condition. In this paper, we propose a multi-conditioning approach for diffusion models via cross-attention exploiting both attributes and semantic masks to generate high-quality and controllable face images. We also studied the impact of applying perceptual-focused loss weighting into the latent space instead of the pixel space. Our method extends the previous approaches by introducing conditioning on more than one set of features, guaranteeing a more fine-grained control over the generated face images. We evaluate our approach on the CelebA-HQ dataset, and we show that it can generate realistic and diverse samples while allowing for fine-grained control over multiple attributes and semantic regions. Additionally, we perform an ablation study to evaluate the impact of different conditioning strategies on the quality and diversity of the generated images.

55.Vocabulary-free Image Classification

Authors:Alessandro Conti, Enrico Fini, Massimiliano Mancini, Paolo Rota, Yiming Wang, Elisa Ricci

Abstract: Recent advances in large vision-language models have revolutionized the image classification paradigm. Despite showing impressive zero-shot capabilities, a pre-defined set of categories, a.k.a. the vocabulary, is assumed at test time for composing the textual prompts. However, such assumption can be impractical when the semantic context is unknown and evolving. We thus formalize a novel task, termed as Vocabulary-free Image Classification (VIC), where we aim to assign to an input image a class that resides in an unconstrained language-induced semantic space, without the prerequisite of a known vocabulary. VIC is a challenging task as the semantic space is extremely large, containing millions of concepts, with hard-to-discriminate fine-grained categories. In this work, we first empirically verify that representing this semantic space by means of an external vision-language database is the most effective way to obtain semantically relevant content for classifying the image. We then propose Category Search from External Databases (CaSED), a method that exploits a pre-trained vision-language model and an external vision-language database to address VIC in a training-free manner. CaSED first extracts a set of candidate categories from captions retrieved from the database based on their semantic similarity to the image, and then assigns to the image the best matching candidate category according to the same vision-language model. Experiments on benchmark datasets validate that CaSED outperforms other complex vision-language frameworks, while being efficient with much fewer parameters, paving the way for future research in this direction.

56.Inserting Anybody in Diffusion Models via Celeb Basis

Authors:Ge Yuan, Xiaodong Cun, Yong Zhang, Maomao Li, Chenyang Qi, Xintao Wang, Ying Shan, Huicheng Zheng

Abstract: Exquisite demand exists for customizing the pretrained large text-to-image model, $\textit{e.g.}$, Stable Diffusion, to generate innovative concepts, such as the users themselves. However, the newly-added concept from previous customization methods often shows weaker combination abilities than the original ones even given several images during training. We thus propose a new personalization method that allows for the seamless integration of a unique individual into the pre-trained diffusion model using just $\textbf{one facial photograph}$ and only $\textbf{1024 learnable parameters}$ under $\textbf{3 minutes}$. So as we can effortlessly generate stunning images of this person in any pose or position, interacting with anyone and doing anything imaginable from text prompts. To achieve this, we first analyze and build a well-defined celeb basis from the embedding space of the pre-trained large text encoder. Then, given one facial photo as the target identity, we generate its own embedding by optimizing the weight of this basis and locking all other parameters. Empowered by the proposed celeb basis, the new identity in our customized model showcases a better concept combination ability than previous personalization methods. Besides, our model can also learn several new identities at once and interact with each other where the previous customization model fails to. The code will be released.

57."Let's not Quote out of Context": Unified Vision-Language Pretraining for Context Assisted Image Captioning

Authors:Abisek Rajakumar Kalarani, Pushpak Bhattacharyya, Niyati Chhaya, Sumit Shekhar

Abstract: Well-formed context aware image captions and tags in enterprise content such as marketing material are critical to ensure their brand presence and content recall. Manual creation and updates to ensure the same is non trivial given the scale and the tedium towards this task. We propose a new unified Vision-Language (VL) model based on the One For All (OFA) model, with a focus on context-assisted image captioning where the caption is generated based on both the image and its context. Our approach aims to overcome the context-independent (image and text are treated independently) nature of the existing approaches. We exploit context by pretraining our model with datasets of three tasks: news image captioning where the news article is the context, contextual visual entailment, and keyword extraction from the context. The second pretraining task is a new VL task, and we construct and release two datasets for the task with 1.1M and 2.2K data instances. Our system achieves state-of-the-art results with an improvement of up to 8.34 CIDEr score on the benchmark news image captioning datasets. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first effort at incorporating contextual information in pretraining the models for the VL tasks.

58.Make-Your-Video: Customized Video Generation Using Textual and Structural Guidance

Authors:Jinbo Xing, Menghan Xia, Yuxin Liu, Yuechen Zhang, Yong Zhang, Yingqing He, Hanyuan Liu, Haoxin Chen, Xiaodong Cun, Xintao Wang, Ying Shan, Tien-Tsin Wong

Abstract: Creating a vivid video from the event or scenario in our imagination is a truly fascinating experience. Recent advancements in text-to-video synthesis have unveiled the potential to achieve this with prompts only. While text is convenient in conveying the overall scene context, it may be insufficient to control precisely. In this paper, we explore customized video generation by utilizing text as context description and motion structure (e.g. frame-wise depth) as concrete guidance. Our method, dubbed Make-Your-Video, involves joint-conditional video generation using a Latent Diffusion Model that is pre-trained for still image synthesis and then promoted for video generation with the introduction of temporal modules. This two-stage learning scheme not only reduces the computing resources required, but also improves the performance by transferring the rich concepts available in image datasets solely into video generation. Moreover, we use a simple yet effective causal attention mask strategy to enable longer video synthesis, which mitigates the potential quality degradation effectively. Experimental results show the superiority of our method over existing baselines, particularly in terms of temporal coherence and fidelity to users' guidance. In addition, our model enables several intriguing applications that demonstrate potential for practical usage.

59.Differential Diffusion: Giving Each Pixel Its Strength

Authors:Eran Levin, Ohad Fried

Abstract: Text-based image editing has advanced significantly in recent years. With the rise of diffusion models, image editing via textual instructions has become ubiquitous. Unfortunately, current models lack the ability to customize the quantity of the change per pixel or per image fragment, resorting to changing the entire image in an equal amount, or editing a specific region using a binary mask. In this paper, we suggest a new framework which enables the user to customize the quantity of change for each image fragment, thereby enhancing the flexibility and verbosity of modern diffusion models. Our framework does not require model training or fine-tuning, but instead performs everything at inference time, making it easily applicable to an existing model. We show both qualitatively and quantitatively that our method allows better controllability and can produce results which are unattainable by existing models. Our code is available at:

60.The ObjectFolder Benchmark: Multisensory Learning with Neural and Real Objects

Authors:Ruohan Gao, Yiming Dou, Hao Li, Tanmay Agarwal, Jeannette Bohg, Yunzhu Li, Li Fei-Fei, Jiajun Wu

Abstract: We introduce the ObjectFolder Benchmark, a benchmark suite of 10 tasks for multisensory object-centric learning, centered around object recognition, reconstruction, and manipulation with sight, sound, and touch. We also introduce the ObjectFolder Real dataset, including the multisensory measurements for 100 real-world household objects, building upon a newly designed pipeline for collecting the 3D meshes, videos, impact sounds, and tactile readings of real-world objects. We conduct systematic benchmarking on both the 1,000 multisensory neural objects from ObjectFolder, and the real multisensory data from ObjectFolder Real. Our results demonstrate the importance of multisensory perception and reveal the respective roles of vision, audio, and touch for different object-centric learning tasks. By publicly releasing our dataset and benchmark suite, we hope to catalyze and enable new research in multisensory object-centric learning in computer vision, robotics, and beyond. Project page:

61.Cocktail: Mixing Multi-Modality Controls for Text-Conditional Image Generation

Authors:Minghui Hu, Jianbin Zheng, Daqing Liu, Chuanxia Zheng, Chaoyue Wang, Dacheng Tao, Tat-Jen Cham

Abstract: Text-conditional diffusion models are able to generate high-fidelity images with diverse contents. However, linguistic representations frequently exhibit ambiguous descriptions of the envisioned objective imagery, requiring the incorporation of additional control signals to bolster the efficacy of text-guided diffusion models. In this work, we propose Cocktail, a pipeline to mix various modalities into one embedding, amalgamated with a generalized ControlNet (gControlNet), a controllable normalisation (ControlNorm), and a spatial guidance sampling method, to actualize multi-modal and spatially-refined control for text-conditional diffusion models. Specifically, we introduce a hyper-network gControlNet, dedicated to the alignment and infusion of the control signals from disparate modalities into the pre-trained diffusion model. gControlNet is capable of accepting flexible modality signals, encompassing the simultaneous reception of any combination of modality signals, or the supplementary fusion of multiple modality signals. The control signals are then fused and injected into the backbone model according to our proposed ControlNorm. Furthermore, our advanced spatial guidance sampling methodology proficiently incorporates the control signal into the designated region, thereby circumventing the manifestation of undesired objects within the generated image. We demonstrate the results of our method in controlling various modalities, proving high-quality synthesis and fidelity to multiple external signals.

62.BUOL: A Bottom-Up Framework with Occupancy-aware Lifting for Panoptic 3D Scene Reconstruction From A Single Image

Authors:Tao Chu, Pan Zhang, Qiong Liu, Jiaqi Wang

Abstract: Understanding and modeling the 3D scene from a single image is a practical problem. A recent advance proposes a panoptic 3D scene reconstruction task that performs both 3D reconstruction and 3D panoptic segmentation from a single image. Although having made substantial progress, recent works only focus on top-down approaches that fill 2D instances into 3D voxels according to estimated depth, which hinders their performance by two ambiguities. (1) instance-channel ambiguity: The variable ids of instances in each scene lead to ambiguity during filling voxel channels with 2D information, confusing the following 3D refinement. (2) voxel-reconstruction ambiguity: 2D-to-3D lifting with estimated single view depth only propagates 2D information onto the surface of 3D regions, leading to ambiguity during the reconstruction of regions behind the frontal view surface. In this paper, we propose BUOL, a Bottom-Up framework with Occupancy-aware Lifting to address the two issues for panoptic 3D scene reconstruction from a single image. For instance-channel ambiguity, a bottom-up framework lifts 2D information to 3D voxels based on deterministic semantic assignments rather than arbitrary instance id assignments. The 3D voxels are then refined and grouped into 3D instances according to the predicted 2D instance centers. For voxel-reconstruction ambiguity, the estimated multi-plane occupancy is leveraged together with depth to fill the whole regions of things and stuff. Our method shows a tremendous performance advantage over state-of-the-art methods on synthetic dataset 3D-Front and real-world dataset Matterport3D. Code and models are available in

63.The Hidden Language of Diffusion Models

Authors:Hila Chefer, Oran Lang, Mor Geva, Volodymyr Polosukhin, Assaf Shocher, Michal Irani, Inbar Mosseri, Lior Wolf

Abstract: Text-to-image diffusion models have demonstrated an unparalleled ability to generate high-quality, diverse images from a textual concept (e.g., "a doctor", "love"). However, the internal process of mapping text to a rich visual representation remains an enigma. In this work, we tackle the challenge of understanding concept representations in text-to-image models by decomposing an input text prompt into a small set of interpretable elements. This is achieved by learning a pseudo-token that is a sparse weighted combination of tokens from the model's vocabulary, with the objective of reconstructing the images generated for the given concept. Applied over the state-of-the-art Stable Diffusion model, this decomposition reveals non-trivial and surprising structures in the representations of concepts. For example, we find that some concepts such as "a president" or "a composer" are dominated by specific instances (e.g., "Obama", "Biden") and their interpolations. Other concepts, such as "happiness" combine associated terms that can be concrete ("family", "laughter") or abstract ("friendship", "emotion"). In addition to peering into the inner workings of Stable Diffusion, our method also enables applications such as single-image decomposition to tokens, bias detection and mitigation, and semantic image manipulation. Our code will be available at:

64.GRES: Generalized Referring Expression Segmentation

Authors:Chang Liu, Henghui Ding, Xudong Jiang

Abstract: Referring Expression Segmentation (RES) aims to generate a segmentation mask for the object described by a given language expression. Existing classic RES datasets and methods commonly support single-target expressions only, i.e., one expression refers to one target object. Multi-target and no-target expressions are not considered. This limits the usage of RES in practice. In this paper, we introduce a new benchmark called Generalized Referring Expression Segmentation (GRES), which extends the classic RES to allow expressions to refer to an arbitrary number of target objects. Towards this, we construct the first large-scale GRES dataset called gRefCOCO that contains multi-target, no-target, and single-target expressions. GRES and gRefCOCO are designed to be well-compatible with RES, facilitating extensive experiments to study the performance gap of the existing RES methods on the GRES task. In the experimental study, we find that one of the big challenges of GRES is complex relationship modeling. Based on this, we propose a region-based GRES baseline ReLA that adaptively divides the image into regions with sub-instance clues, and explicitly models the region-region and region-language dependencies. The proposed approach ReLA achieves new state-of-the-art performance on the both newly proposed GRES and classic RES tasks. The proposed gRefCOCO dataset and method are available at

65.ViCo: Detail-Preserving Visual Condition for Personalized Text-to-Image Generation

Authors:Shaozhe Hao, Kai Han, Shihao Zhao, Kwan-Yee K. Wong

Abstract: Personalized text-to-image generation using diffusion models has recently been proposed and attracted lots of attention. Given a handful of images containing a novel concept (e.g., a unique toy), we aim to tune the generative model to capture fine visual details of the novel concept and generate photorealistic images following a text condition. We present a plug-in method, named ViCo, for fast and lightweight personalized generation. Specifically, we propose an image attention module to condition the diffusion process on the patch-wise visual semantics. We introduce an attention-based object mask that comes almost at no cost from the attention module. In addition, we design a simple regularization based on the intrinsic properties of text-image attention maps to alleviate the common overfitting degradation. Unlike many existing models, our method does not finetune any parameters of the original diffusion model. This allows more flexible and transferable model deployment. With only light parameter training (~6% of the diffusion U-Net), our method achieves comparable or even better performance than all state-of-the-art models both qualitatively and quantitatively.

66.Intelligent Grimm -- Open-ended Visual Storytelling via Latent Diffusion Models

Authors:Chang Liu, Haoning Wu, Yujie Zhong, Xiaoyun Zhang, Weidi Xie

Abstract: Generative models have recently exhibited exceptional capabilities in various scenarios, for example, image generation based on text description. In this work, we focus on the task of generating a series of coherent image sequence based on a given storyline, denoted as open-ended visual storytelling. We make the following three contributions: (i) to fulfill the task of visual storytelling, we introduce two modules into a pre-trained stable diffusion model, and construct an auto-regressive image generator, termed as StoryGen, that enables to generate the current frame by conditioning on both a text prompt and a preceding frame; (ii) to train our proposed model, we collect paired image and text samples by sourcing from various online sources, such as videos, E-books, and establish a data processing pipeline for constructing a diverse dataset, named StorySalon, with a far larger vocabulary than existing animation-specific datasets; (iii) we adopt a three-stage curriculum training strategy, that enables style transfer, visual context conditioning, and human feedback alignment, respectively. Quantitative experiments and human evaluation have validated the superiority of our proposed model, in terms of image quality, style consistency, content consistency, and visual-language alignment. We will make the code, model, and dataset publicly available to the research community.

67.Intriguing Properties of Text-guided Diffusion Models

Authors:Qihao Liu, Adam Kortylewski, Yutong Bai, Song Bai, Alan Yuille

Abstract: Text-guided diffusion models (TDMs) are widely applied but can fail unexpectedly. Common failures include: (i) natural-looking text prompts generating images with the wrong content, or (ii) different random samples of the latent variables that generate vastly different, and even unrelated, outputs despite being conditioned on the same text prompt. In this work, we aim to study and understand the failure modes of TDMs in more detail. To achieve this, we propose SAGE, an adversarial attack on TDMs that uses image classifiers as surrogate loss functions, to search over the discrete prompt space and the high-dimensional latent space of TDMs to automatically discover unexpected behaviors and failure cases in the image generation. We make several technical contributions to ensure that SAGE finds failure cases of the diffusion model, rather than the classifier, and verify this in a human study. Our study reveals four intriguing properties of TDMs that have not been systematically studied before: (1) We find a variety of natural text prompts producing images that fail to capture the semantics of input texts. We categorize these failures into ten distinct types based on the underlying causes. (2) We find samples in the latent space (which are not outliers) that lead to distorted images independent of the text prompt, suggesting that parts of the latent space are not well-structured. (3) We also find latent samples that lead to natural-looking images which are unrelated to the text prompt, implying a potential misalignment between the latent and prompt spaces. (4) By appending a single adversarial token embedding to an input prompt we can generate a variety of specified target objects, while only minimally affecting the CLIP score. This demonstrates the fragility of language representations and raises potential safety concerns.

68.AGILE3D: Attention Guided Interactive Multi-object 3D Segmentation

Authors:Yuanwen Yue, Sabarinath Mahadevan, Jonas Schult, Francis Engelmann, Bastian Leibe, Konrad Schindler, Theodora Kontogianni

Abstract: During interactive segmentation, a model and a user work together to delineate objects of interest in a 3D point cloud. In an iterative process, the model assigns each data point to an object (or the background), while the user corrects errors in the resulting segmentation and feeds them back into the model. From a machine learning perspective the goal is to design the model and the feedback mechanism in a way that minimizes the required user input. The current best practice segments objects one at a time, and asks the user to provide positive clicks to indicate regions wrongly assigned to the background and negative clicks to indicate regions wrongly assigned to the object (foreground). Sequentially visiting objects is wasteful, since it disregards synergies between objects: a positive click for a given object can, by definition, serve as a negative click for nearby objects, moreover a direct competition between adjacent objects can speed up the identification of their common boundary. We introduce AGILE3D, an efficient, attention-based model that (1) supports simultaneous segmentation of multiple 3D objects, (2) yields more accurate segmentation masks with fewer user clicks, and (3) offers faster inference. We encode the point cloud into a latent feature representation, and view user clicks as queries and employ cross-attention to represent contextual relations between different click locations as well as between clicks and the 3D point cloud features. Every time new clicks are added, we only need to run a lightweight decoder that produces updated segmentation masks. In experiments with four different point cloud datasets, AGILE3D sets a new state of the art, moreover, we also verify its practicality in real-world setups with a real user study.

69.Building Rearticulable Models for Arbitrary 3D Objects from 4D Point Clouds

Authors:Shaowei Liu, Saurabh Gupta, Shenlong Wang

Abstract: We build rearticulable models for arbitrary everyday man-made objects containing an arbitrary number of parts that are connected together in arbitrary ways via 1 degree-of-freedom joints. Given point cloud videos of such everyday objects, our method identifies the distinct object parts, what parts are connected to what other parts, and the properties of the joints connecting each part pair. We do this by jointly optimizing the part segmentation, transformation, and kinematics using a novel energy minimization framework. Our inferred animatable models, enables retargeting to novel poses with sparse point correspondences guidance. We test our method on a new articulating robot dataset, and the Sapiens dataset with common daily objects, as well as real-world scans. Experiments show that our method outperforms two leading prior works on various metrics.

70.SnapFusion: Text-to-Image Diffusion Model on Mobile Devices within Two Seconds

Authors:Yanyu Li, Huan Wang, Qing Jin, Ju Hu, Pavlo Chemerys, Yun Fu, Yanzhi Wang, Sergey Tulyakov, Jian Ren

Abstract: Text-to-image diffusion models can create stunning images from natural language descriptions that rival the work of professional artists and photographers. However, these models are large, with complex network architectures and tens of denoising iterations, making them computationally expensive and slow to run. As a result, high-end GPUs and cloud-based inference are required to run diffusion models at scale. This is costly and has privacy implications, especially when user data is sent to a third party. To overcome these challenges, we present a generic approach that, for the first time, unlocks running text-to-image diffusion models on mobile devices in less than $2$ seconds. We achieve so by introducing efficient network architecture and improving step distillation. Specifically, we propose an efficient UNet by identifying the redundancy of the original model and reducing the computation of the image decoder via data distillation. Further, we enhance the step distillation by exploring training strategies and introducing regularization from classifier-free guidance. Our extensive experiments on MS-COCO show that our model with $8$ denoising steps achieves better FID and CLIP scores than Stable Diffusion v$1.5$ with $50$ steps. Our work democratizes content creation by bringing powerful text-to-image diffusion models to the hands of users.

71.StableRep: Synthetic Images from Text-to-Image Models Make Strong Visual Representation Learners

Authors:Yonglong Tian, Lijie Fan, Phillip Isola, Huiwen Chang, Dilip Krishnan

Abstract: We investigate the potential of learning visual representations using synthetic images generated by text-to-image models. This is a natural question in the light of the excellent performance of such models in generating high-quality images. We consider specifically the Stable Diffusion, one of the leading open source text-to-image models. We show that (1) when the generative model is configured with proper classifier-free guidance scale, training self-supervised methods on synthetic images can match or beat the real image counterpart; (2) by treating the multiple images generated from the same text prompt as positives for each other, we develop a multi-positive contrastive learning method, which we call StableRep. With solely synthetic images, the representations learned by StableRep surpass the performance of representations learned by SimCLR and CLIP using the same set of text prompts and corresponding real images, on large scale datasets. When we further add language supervision, StableRep trained with 20M synthetic images achieves better accuracy than CLIP trained with 50M real images.

72.StyleDrop: Text-to-Image Generation in Any Style

Authors:Kihyuk Sohn, Nataniel Ruiz, Kimin Lee, Daniel Castro Chin, Irina Blok, Huiwen Chang, Jarred Barber, Lu Jiang, Glenn Entis, Yuanzhen Li, Yuan Hao, Irfan Essa, Michael Rubinstein, Dilip Krishnan

Abstract: Pre-trained large text-to-image models synthesize impressive images with an appropriate use of text prompts. However, ambiguities inherent in natural language and out-of-distribution effects make it hard to synthesize image styles, that leverage a specific design pattern, texture or material. In this paper, we introduce StyleDrop, a method that enables the synthesis of images that faithfully follow a specific style using a text-to-image model. The proposed method is extremely versatile and captures nuances and details of a user-provided style, such as color schemes, shading, design patterns, and local and global effects. It efficiently learns a new style by fine-tuning very few trainable parameters (less than $1\%$ of total model parameters) and improving the quality via iterative training with either human or automated feedback. Better yet, StyleDrop is able to deliver impressive results even when the user supplies only a single image that specifies the desired style. An extensive study shows that, for the task of style tuning text-to-image models, StyleDrop implemented on Muse convincingly outperforms other methods, including DreamBooth and textual inversion on Imagen or Stable Diffusion. More results are available at our project website:

73.Diffusion Self-Guidance for Controllable Image Generation

Authors:Dave Epstein, Allan Jabri, Ben Poole, Alexei A. Efros, Aleksander Holynski

Abstract: Large-scale generative models are capable of producing high-quality images from detailed text descriptions. However, many aspects of an image are difficult or impossible to convey through text. We introduce self-guidance, a method that provides greater control over generated images by guiding the internal representations of diffusion models. We demonstrate that properties such as the shape, location, and appearance of objects can be extracted from these representations and used to steer sampling. Self-guidance works similarly to classifier guidance, but uses signals present in the pretrained model itself, requiring no additional models or training. We show how a simple set of properties can be composed to perform challenging image manipulations, such as modifying the position or size of objects, merging the appearance of objects in one image with the layout of another, composing objects from many images into one, and more. We also show that self-guidance can be used to edit real images. For results and an interactive demo, see our project page at

74.StyleGAN knows Normal, Depth, Albedo, and More

Authors:Anand Bhattad, Daniel McKee, Derek Hoiem, D. A. Forsyth

Abstract: Intrinsic images, in the original sense, are image-like maps of scene properties like depth, normal, albedo or shading. This paper demonstrates that StyleGAN can easily be induced to produce intrinsic images. The procedure is straightforward. We show that, if StyleGAN produces $G({w})$ from latents ${w}$, then for each type of intrinsic image, there is a fixed offset ${d}_c$ so that $G({w}+{d}_c)$ is that type of intrinsic image for $G({w})$. Here ${d}_c$ is {\em independent of ${w}$}. The StyleGAN we used was pretrained by others, so this property is not some accident of our training regime. We show that there are image transformations StyleGAN will {\em not} produce in this fashion, so StyleGAN is not a generic image regression engine. It is conceptually exciting that an image generator should ``know'' and represent intrinsic images. There may also be practical advantages to using a generative model to produce intrinsic images. The intrinsic images obtained from StyleGAN compare well both qualitatively and quantitatively with those obtained by using SOTA image regression techniques; but StyleGAN's intrinsic images are robust to relighting effects, unlike SOTA methods.

75.Hiera: A Hierarchical Vision Transformer without the Bells-and-Whistles

Authors:Chaitanya Ryali, Yuan-Ting Hu, Daniel Bolya, Chen Wei, Haoqi Fan, Po-Yao Huang, Vaibhav Aggarwal, Arkabandhu Chowdhury, Omid Poursaeed, Judy Hoffman, Jitendra Malik, Yanghao Li, Christoph Feichtenhofer

Abstract: Modern hierarchical vision transformers have added several vision-specific components in the pursuit of supervised classification performance. While these components lead to effective accuracies and attractive FLOP counts, the added complexity actually makes these transformers slower than their vanilla ViT counterparts. In this paper, we argue that this additional bulk is unnecessary. By pretraining with a strong visual pretext task (MAE), we can strip out all the bells-and-whistles from a state-of-the-art multi-stage vision transformer without losing accuracy. In the process, we create Hiera, an extremely simple hierarchical vision transformer that is more accurate than previous models while being significantly faster both at inference and during training. We evaluate Hiera on a variety of tasks for image and video recognition. Our code and models are available at