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Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)

Wed, 31 May 2023

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1.Neural Kernel Surface Reconstruction

Authors:Jiahui Huang, Zan Gojcic, Matan Atzmon, Or Litany, Sanja Fidler, Francis Williams

Abstract: We present a novel method for reconstructing a 3D implicit surface from a large-scale, sparse, and noisy point cloud. Our approach builds upon the recently introduced Neural Kernel Fields (NKF) representation. It enjoys similar generalization capabilities to NKF, while simultaneously addressing its main limitations: (a) We can scale to large scenes through compactly supported kernel functions, which enable the use of memory-efficient sparse linear solvers. (b) We are robust to noise, through a gradient fitting solve. (c) We minimize training requirements, enabling us to learn from any dataset of dense oriented points, and even mix training data consisting of objects and scenes at different scales. Our method is capable of reconstructing millions of points in a few seconds, and handling very large scenes in an out-of-core fashion. We achieve state-of-the-art results on reconstruction benchmarks consisting of single objects, indoor scenes, and outdoor scenes.

2.Dense and Aligned Captions (DAC) Promote Compositional Reasoning in VL Models

Authors:Sivan Doveh, Assaf Arbelle, Sivan Harary, Amit Alfassy, Roei Herzig, Donghyun Kim, Raja Giryes, Rogerio Feris, Rameswar Panda, Shimon Ullman, Leonid Karlinsky

Abstract: Vision and Language (VL) models offer an effective method for aligning representation spaces of images and text, leading to numerous applications such as cross-modal retrieval, visual question answering, captioning, and more. However, the aligned image-text spaces learned by all the popular VL models are still suffering from the so-called `object bias' - their representations behave as `bags of nouns', mostly ignoring or downsizing the attributes, relations, and states of objects described/appearing in texts/images. Although some great attempts at fixing these `compositional reasoning' issues were proposed in the recent literature, the problem is still far from being solved. In this paper, we uncover two factors limiting the VL models' compositional reasoning performance. These two factors are properties of the paired VL dataset used for finetuning and pre-training the VL model: (i) the caption quality, or in other words `image-alignment', of the texts; and (ii) the `density' of the captions in the sense of mentioning all the details appearing on the image. We propose a fine-tuning approach for automatically treating these factors leveraging a standard VL dataset (CC3M). Applied to CLIP, we demonstrate its significant compositional reasoning performance increase of up to $\sim27\%$ over the base model, up to $\sim20\%$ over the strongest baseline, and by $6.7\%$ on average.

3.Boosting Text-to-Image Diffusion Models with Fine-Grained Semantic Rewards

Authors:Guian Fang, Zutao Jiang, Jianhua Han, Guangsong Lu, Hang Xu, Xiaodan Liang

Abstract: Recent advances in text-to-image diffusion models have achieved remarkable success in generating high-quality, realistic images from given text prompts. However, previous methods fail to perform accurate modality alignment between text concepts and generated images due to the lack of fine-level semantic guidance that successfully diagnoses the modality discrepancy. In this paper, we propose FineRewards to improve the alignment between text and images in text-to-image diffusion models by introducing two new fine-grained semantic rewards: the caption reward and the Semantic Segment Anything (SAM) reward. From the global semantic view, the caption reward generates a corresponding detailed caption that depicts all important contents in the synthetic image via a BLIP-2 model and then calculates the reward score by measuring the similarity between the generated caption and the given prompt. From the local semantic view, the SAM reward segments the generated images into local parts with category labels, and scores the segmented parts by measuring the likelihood of each category appearing in the prompted scene via a large language model, i.e., Vicuna-7B. Additionally, we adopt an assemble reward-ranked learning strategy to enable the integration of multiple reward functions to jointly guide the model training. Adapting results of text-to-image models on the MS-COCO benchmark show that the proposed semantic reward outperforms other baseline reward functions with a considerable margin on both visual quality and semantic similarity with the input prompt. Moreover, by adopting the assemble reward-ranked learning strategy, we further demonstrate that model performance is further improved when adapting under the unifying of the proposed semantic reward with the current image rewards.

4.Point-GCC: Universal Self-supervised 3D Scene Pre-training via Geometry-Color Contrast

Authors:Guofan Fan, Zekun Qi, Wenkai Shi, Kaisheng Ma

Abstract: Geometry and color information provided by the point clouds are both crucial for 3D scene understanding. Two pieces of information characterize the different aspects of point clouds, but existing methods lack an elaborate design for the discrimination and relevance. Hence we explore a 3D self-supervised paradigm that can better utilize the relations of point cloud information. Specifically, we propose a universal 3D scene pre-training framework via Geometry-Color Contrast (Point-GCC), which aligns geometry and color information using a Siamese network. To take care of actual application tasks, we design (i) hierarchical supervision with point-level contrast and reconstruct and object-level contrast based on the novel deep clustering module to close the gap between pre-training and downstream tasks; (ii) architecture-agnostic backbone to adapt for various downstream models. Benefiting from the object-level representation associated with downstream tasks, Point-GCC can directly evaluate model performance and the result demonstrates the effectiveness of our methods. Transfer learning results on a wide range of tasks also show consistent improvements across all datasets. e.g., new state-of-the-art object detection results on SUN RGB-D and S3DIS datasets. Codes will be released at

5.A Multi-Modal Transformer Network for Action Detection

Authors:Matthew Korban, Scott T. Acton, Peter Youngs

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel multi-modal transformer network for detecting actions in untrimmed videos. To enrich the action features, our transformer network utilizes a new multi-modal attention mechanism that computes the correlations between different spatial and motion modalities combinations. Exploring such correlations for actions has not been attempted previously. To use the motion and spatial modality more effectively, we suggest an algorithm that corrects the motion distortion caused by camera movement. Such motion distortion, common in untrimmed videos, severely reduces the expressive power of motion features such as optical flow fields. Our proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on two public benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet. We also conducted comparative experiments on our new instructional activity dataset, including a large set of challenging classroom videos captured from elementary schools.

6.Mask, Stitch, and Re-Sample: Enhancing Robustness and Generalizability in Anomaly Detection through Automatic Diffusion Models

Authors:Cosmin I. Bercea, Michael Neumayr, Daniel Rueckert, Julia A. Schnabel

Abstract: The introduction of diffusion models in anomaly detection has paved the way for more effective and accurate image reconstruction in pathologies. However, the current limitations in controlling noise granularity hinder diffusion models' ability to generalize across diverse anomaly types and compromise the restoration of healthy tissues. To overcome these challenges, we propose AutoDDPM, a novel approach that enhances the robustness of diffusion models. AutoDDPM utilizes diffusion models to generate initial likelihood maps of potential anomalies and seamlessly integrates them with the original image. Through joint noised distribution re-sampling, AutoDDPM achieves harmonization and in-painting effects. Our study demonstrates the efficacy of AutoDDPM in replacing anomalous regions while preserving healthy tissues, considerably surpassing diffusion models' limitations. It also contributes valuable insights and analysis on the limitations of current diffusion models, promoting robust and interpretable anomaly detection in medical imaging - an essential aspect of building autonomous clinical decision systems with higher interpretability.

7.Unveiling Cross Modality Bias in Visual Question Answering: A Causal View with Possible Worlds VQA

Authors:Ali Vosoughi, Shijian Deng, Songyang Zhang, Yapeng Tian, Chenliang Xu, Jiebo Luo

Abstract: To increase the generalization capability of VQA systems, many recent studies have tried to de-bias spurious language or vision associations that shortcut the question or image to the answer. Despite these efforts, the literature fails to address the confounding effect of vision and language simultaneously. As a result, when they reduce bias learned from one modality, they usually increase bias from the other. In this paper, we first model a confounding effect that causes language and vision bias simultaneously, then propose a counterfactual inference to remove the influence of this effect. The model trained in this strategy can concurrently and efficiently reduce vision and language bias. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to reduce biases resulting from confounding effects of vision and language in VQA, leveraging causal explain-away relations. We accompany our method with an explain-away strategy, pushing the accuracy of the questions with numerical answers results compared to existing methods that have been an open problem. The proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in VQA-CP v2 datasets.

8.VIPriors 3: Visual Inductive Priors for Data-Efficient Deep Learning Challenges

Authors:Robert-Jan Bruintjes, Attila Lengyel, Marcos Baptista Rios, Osman Semih Kayhan, Davide Zambrano, Nergis Tomen, Jan van Gemert

Abstract: The third edition of the "VIPriors: Visual Inductive Priors for Data-Efficient Deep Learning" workshop featured four data-impaired challenges, focusing on addressing the limitations of data availability in training deep learning models for computer vision tasks. The challenges comprised of four distinct data-impaired tasks, where participants were required to train models from scratch using a reduced number of training samples. The primary objective was to encourage novel approaches that incorporate relevant inductive biases to enhance the data efficiency of deep learning models. To foster creativity and exploration, participants were strictly prohibited from utilizing pre-trained checkpoints and other transfer learning techniques. Significant advancements were made compared to the provided baselines, where winning solutions surpassed the baselines by a considerable margin in all four tasks. These achievements were primarily attributed to the effective utilization of extensive data augmentation policies, model ensembling techniques, and the implementation of data-efficient training methods, including self-supervised representation learning. This report highlights the key aspects of the challenges and their outcomes.

9.GaitGS: Temporal Feature Learning in Granularity and Span Dimension for Gait Recognition

Authors:Haijun Xiong, Yunze Deng, Xiaohu Huang, Xinggang Wang, Wenyu Liu, Bin Feng

Abstract: Gait recognition is an emerging biological recognition technology that identifies and verifies individuals based on their walking patterns. However, many current methods are limited in their use of temporal information. In order to fully harness the potential of gait recognition, it is crucial to consider temporal features at various granularities and spans. Hence, in this paper, we propose a novel framework named GaitGS, which aggregates temporal features in the granularity dimension and span dimension simultaneously. Specifically, Multi-Granularity Feature Extractor (MGFE) is proposed to focus on capturing the micro-motion and macro-motion information at the frame level and unit level respectively. Moreover, we present Multi-Span Feature Learning (MSFL) module to generate global and local temporal representations. On three popular gait datasets, extensive experiments demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of our method. Our method achieves the Rank-1 accuracies of 92.9% (+0.5%), 52.0% (+1.4%), and 97.5% (+0.8%) on CASIA-B, GREW, and OU-MVLP respectively. The source code will be released soon.

10.Direct Learning-Based Deep Spiking Neural Networks: A Review

Authors:Yufei Guo, Xuhui Huang, Zhe Ma

Abstract: The spiking neural network (SNN), as a promising brain-inspired computational model with binary spike information transmission mechanism, rich spatially-temporal dynamics, and event-driven characteristics, has received extensive attention. However, its intricately discontinuous spike mechanism brings difficulty to the optimization of the deep SNN. Since the surrogate gradient method can greatly mitigate the optimization difficulty and shows great potential in directly training deep SNNs, a variety of direct learning-based deep SNN works have been proposed and achieved satisfying progress in recent years. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of these direct learning-based deep SNN works, mainly categorized into accuracy improvement methods, efficiency improvement methods, and temporal dynamics utilization methods. In addition, we also divide these categorizations into finer granularities further to better organize and introduce them. Finally, the challenges and trends that may be faced in future research are prospected.

11.Towards Monocular Shape from Refraction

Authors:Antonin Sulc, Imari Sato, Bastian Goldluecke, Tali Treibitz

Abstract: Refraction is a common physical phenomenon and has long been researched in computer vision. Objects imaged through a refractive object appear distorted in the image as a function of the shape of the interface between the media. This hinders many computer vision applications, but can be utilized for obtaining the geometry of the refractive interface. Previous approaches for refractive surface recovery largely relied on various priors or additional information like multiple images of the analyzed surface. In contrast, we claim that a simple energy function based on Snell's law enables the reconstruction of an arbitrary refractive surface geometry using just a single image and known background texture and geometry. In the case of a single point, Snell's law has two degrees of freedom, therefore to estimate a surface depth, we need additional information. We show that solving for an entire surface at once introduces implicit parameter-free spatial regularization and yields convincing results when an intelligent initial guess is provided. We demonstrate our approach through simulations and real-world experiments, where the reconstruction shows encouraging results in the single-frame monocular setting.

12.Analytical reconstructions of multiple source-translation computed tomography with extended field of views: a research study

Authors:Zhisheng Wang, Yue Liu, Shunli Wang, Xingyuan Bian, Zongfeng Li, Junning Cui

Abstract: This paper is to investigate the high-quality analytical reconstructions of multiple source-translation computed tomography (mSTCT) under an extended field of view (FOV). Under the larger FOVs, the previously proposed backprojection filtration (BPF) algorithms for mSTCT, including D-BPF and S-BPF, make some intolerable errors in the image edges due to an unstable backprojection weighting factor and the half-scan mode, which deviates from the intention of mSTCT imaging. In this paper, to achieve reconstruction with as little error as possible under the extremely extended FOV, we propose two strategies, including deriving a no-weighting D-BPF (NWD-BPF) for mSTCT and introducing BPFs into a special full-scan mSTCT (F-mSTCT) to balance errors, i.e., abbreviated as FD-BPF and FS-BPF. For the first strategy, we eliminate this unstable backprojection weighting factor by introducing a special variable relationship in D-BPF. For the second strategy, we combine the F-mSTCT geometry with BPFs to study the performance and derive a suitable redundant weighting function for F-mSTCT. The experiments demonstrate our proposed methods for these strategies. Among them, NWD-BPF can weaken the instability at the image edges but blur the details, and FS-BPF can get high-quality stable images under the extremely extended FOV imaging a large object but requires more projections than FD-BPF. For different practical requirements in extending FOV imaging, we give suggestions on algorithm selection.

13.Ambiguity in solving imaging inverse problems with deep learning based operators

Authors:Davide Evangelista, Elena Morotti, Elena Loli Piccolomini, James Nagy

Abstract: In recent years, large convolutional neural networks have been widely used as tools for image deblurring, because of their ability in restoring images very precisely. It is well known that image deblurring is mathematically modeled as an ill-posed inverse problem and its solution is difficult to approximate when noise affects the data. Really, one limitation of neural networks for deblurring is their sensitivity to noise and other perturbations, which can lead to instability and produce poor reconstructions. In addition, networks do not necessarily take into account the numerical formulation of the underlying imaging problem, when trained end-to-end. In this paper, we propose some strategies to improve stability without losing to much accuracy to deblur images with deep-learning based methods. First, we suggest a very small neural architecture, which reduces the execution time for training, satisfying a green AI need, and does not extremely amplify noise in the computed image. Second, we introduce a unified framework where a pre-processing step balances the lack of stability of the following, neural network-based, step. Two different pre-processors are presented: the former implements a strong parameter-free denoiser, and the latter is a variational model-based regularized formulation of the latent imaging problem. This framework is also formally characterized by mathematical analysis. Numerical experiments are performed to verify the accuracy and stability of the proposed approaches for image deblurring when unknown or not-quantified noise is present; the results confirm that they improve the network stability with respect to noise. In particular, the model-based framework represents the most reliable trade-off between visual precision and robustness.

14.A technique to jointly estimate depth and depth uncertainty for unmanned aerial vehicles

Authors:Michaël Fonder, Marc Van Droogenbroeck

Abstract: When used by autonomous vehicles for trajectory planning or obstacle avoidance, depth estimation methods need to be reliable. Therefore, estimating the quality of the depth outputs is critical. In this paper, we show how M4Depth, a state-of-the-art depth estimation method designed for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications, can be enhanced to perform joint depth and uncertainty estimation. For that, we present a solution to convert the uncertainty estimates related to parallax generated by M4Depth into uncertainty estimates related to depth, and show that it outperforms the standard probabilistic approach. Our experiments on various public datasets demonstrate that our method performs consistently, even in zero-shot transfer. Besides, our method offers a compelling value when compared to existing multi-view depth estimation methods as it performs similarly on a multi-view depth estimation benchmark despite being 2.5 times faster and causal, as opposed to other methods. The code of our method is publicly available at .

15.DeepMerge: Deep Learning-Based Region-Merging for Image Segmentation

Authors:Xianwei Lv, Claudio Persello, Xiao Huang, Dongping Ming, Alfred Stein

Abstract: Accurate segmentation of large areas from very high spatial-resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery remains a challenging issue in image analysis. Existing supervised and unsupervised methods both suffer from the large variance of object sizes and the difficulty in scale selection, which often result in poor segmentation accuracies. To address the above challenges, we propose a deep learning-based region-merging method (DeepMerge) to handle the segmentation in large VHR images by integrating a Transformer with a multi-level embedding module, a segment-based feature embedding module and a region-adjacency graph model. In addition, we propose a modified binary tree sampling method to generate multi-level inputs from initial segmentation results, serving as inputs for the DeepMerge model. To our best knowledge, the proposed method is the first to use deep learning to learn the similarity between adjacent segments for region-merging. The proposed DeepMerge method is validated using a remote sensing image of 0.55m resolution covering an area of 5,660 km^2 acquired from Google Earth. The experimental results show that the proposed DeepMerge with the highest F value (0.9446) and the lowest TE (0.0962) and ED2 (0.8989) is able to correctly segment objects of different sizes and outperforms all selected competing segmentation methods from both quantitative and qualitative assessments.

16.Direct Diffusion Bridge using Data Consistency for Inverse Problems

Authors:Hyungjin Chung, Jeongsol Kim, Jong Chul Ye

Abstract: Diffusion model-based inverse problem solvers have shown impressive performance, but are limited in speed, mostly as they require reverse diffusion sampling starting from noise. Several recent works have tried to alleviate this problem by building a diffusion process, directly bridging the clean and the corrupted for specific inverse problems. In this paper, we first unify these existing works under the name Direct Diffusion Bridges (DDB), showing that while motivated by different theories, the resulting algorithms only differ in the choice of parameters. Then, we highlight a critical limitation of the current DDB framework, namely that it does not ensure data consistency. To address this problem, we propose a modified inference procedure that imposes data consistency without the need for fine-tuning. We term the resulting method data Consistent DDB (CDDB), which outperforms its inconsistent counterpart in terms of both perception and distortion metrics, thereby effectively pushing the Pareto-frontier toward the optimum. Our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results on both evaluation criteria, showcasing its superiority over existing methods.

17.A Survey of Label-Efficient Deep Learning for 3D Point Clouds

Authors:Aoran Xiao, Xiaoqin Zhang, Ling Shao, Shijian Lu

Abstract: In the past decade, deep neural networks have achieved significant progress in point cloud learning. However, collecting large-scale precisely-annotated training data is extremely laborious and expensive, which hinders the scalability of existing point cloud datasets and poses a bottleneck for efficient exploration of point cloud data in various tasks and applications. Label-efficient learning offers a promising solution by enabling effective deep network training with much-reduced annotation efforts. This paper presents the first comprehensive survey of label-efficient learning of point clouds. We address three critical questions in this emerging research field: i) the importance and urgency of label-efficient learning in point cloud processing, ii) the subfields it encompasses, and iii) the progress achieved in this area. To achieve this, we propose a taxonomy that organizes label-efficient learning methods based on the data prerequisites provided by different types of labels. We categorize four typical label-efficient learning approaches that significantly reduce point cloud annotation efforts: data augmentation, domain transfer learning, weakly-supervised learning, and pretrained foundation models. For each approach, we outline the problem setup and provide an extensive literature review that showcases relevant progress and challenges. Finally, we share insights into current research challenges and potential future directions. A project associated with this survey has been built at \url{}.

18.Learning Task-preferred Inference Routes for Gradient De-conflict in Multi-output DNNs

Authors:Yi Sun, Xin Xu, Jian Li, Xiaochang Hu, Yifei Shi, Ling-Li Zeng

Abstract: Multi-output deep neural networks(MONs) contain multiple task branches, and these tasks usually share partial network filters that lead to the entanglement of different task inference routes. Due to the inconsistent optimization objectives, the task gradients used for training MONs will interfere with each other on the shared routes, which will decrease the overall model performance. To address this issue, we propose a novel gradient de-conflict algorithm named DR-MGF(Dynamic Routes and Meta-weighted Gradient Fusion) in this work. Different from existing de-conflict methods, DR-MGF achieves gradient de-conflict in MONs by learning task-preferred inference routes. The proposed method is motivated by our experimental findings: the shared filters are not equally important to different tasks. By designing the learnable task-specific importance variables, DR-MGF evaluates the importance of filters for different tasks. Through making the dominances of tasks over filters be proportional to the task-specific importance of filters, DR-MGF can effectively reduce the inter-task interference. The task-specific importance variables ultimately determine task-preferred inference routes at the end of training iterations. Extensive experimental results on CIFAR, ImageNet, and NYUv2 illustrate that DR-MGF outperforms the existing de-conflict methods both in prediction accuracy and convergence speed of MONs. Furthermore, DR-MGF can be extended to general MONs without modifying the overall network structures.

19.Enhancing image quality prediction with self-supervised visual masking

Authors:Uğur Çoğalan, Mojtaba Bemana, Hans-Peter Seidel, Karol Myszkowski

Abstract: Full-reference image quality metrics (FR-IQMs) aim to measure the visual differences between a pair of reference and distorted images, with the goal of accurately predicting human judgments. However, existing FR-IQMs, including traditional ones like PSNR and SSIM and even perceptual ones such as HDR-VDP, LPIPS, and DISTS, still fall short in capturing the complexities and nuances of human perception. In this work, rather than devising a novel IQM model, we seek to improve upon the perceptual quality of existing FR-IQM methods. We achieve this by considering visual masking, an important characteristic of the human visual system that changes its sensitivity to distortions as a function of local image content. Specifically, for a given FR-IQM metric, we propose to predict a visual masking model that modulates reference and distorted images in a way that penalizes the visual errors based on their visibility. Since the ground truth visual masks are difficult to obtain, we demonstrate how they can be derived in a self-supervised manner solely based on mean opinion scores (MOS) collected from an FR-IQM dataset. Our approach results in enhanced FR-IQM metrics that are more in line with human prediction both visually and quantitatively.

20.Self-supervised Learning to Bring Dual Reversed Rolling Shutter Images Alive

Authors:Wei Shang, Dongwei Ren, Chaoyu Feng, Xiaotao Wang, Lei Lei, Wangmeng Zuo

Abstract: Modern consumer cameras usually employ the rolling shutter (RS) mechanism, where images are captured by scanning scenes row-by-row, yielding RS distortions for dynamic scenes. To correct RS distortions, existing methods adopt a fully supervised learning manner, where high framerate global shutter (GS) images should be collected as ground-truth supervision. In this paper, we propose a Self-supervised learning framework for Dual reversed RS distortions Correction (SelfDRSC), where a DRSC network can be learned to generate a high framerate GS video only based on dual RS images with reversed distortions. In particular, a bidirectional distortion warping module is proposed for reconstructing dual reversed RS images, and then a self-supervised loss can be deployed to train DRSC network by enhancing the cycle consistency between input and reconstructed dual reversed RS images. Besides start and end RS scanning time, GS images at arbitrary intermediate scanning time can also be supervised in SelfDRSC, thus enabling the learned DRSC network to generate a high framerate GS video. Moreover, a simple yet effective self-distillation strategy is introduced in self-supervised loss for mitigating boundary artifacts in generated GS images. On synthetic dataset, SelfDRSC achieves better or comparable quantitative metrics in comparison to state-of-the-art methods trained in the full supervision manner. On real-world RS cases, our SelfDRSC can produce high framerate GS videos with finer correction textures and better temporary consistency. The source code and trained models are made publicly available at

21.RaSP: Relation-aware Semantic Prior for Weakly Supervised Incremental Segmentation

Authors:Subhankar Roy, Riccardo Volpi, Gabriela Csurka, Diane Larlus

Abstract: Class-incremental semantic image segmentation assumes multiple model updates, each enriching the model to segment new categories. This is typically carried out by providing expensive pixel-level annotations to the training algorithm for all new objects, limiting the adoption of such methods in practical applications. Approaches that solely require image-level labels offer an attractive alternative, yet, such coarse annotations lack precise information about the location and boundary of the new objects. In this paper we argue that, since classes represent not just indices but semantic entities, the conceptual relationships between them can provide valuable information that should be leveraged. We propose a weakly supervised approach that exploits such semantic relations to transfer objectness prior from the previously learned classes into the new ones, complementing the supervisory signal from image-level labels. We validate our approach on a number of continual learning tasks, and show how even a simple pairwise interaction between classes can significantly improve the segmentation mask quality of both old and new classes. We show these conclusions still hold for longer and, hence, more realistic sequences of tasks and for a challenging few-shot scenario.

22.Neural LerPlane Representations for Fast 4D Reconstruction of Deformable Tissues

Authors:Chen Yang, Kailing Wang, Yuehao Wang, Xiaokang Yang, Wei Shen

Abstract: Reconstructing deformable tissues from endoscopic stereo videos in robotic surgery is crucial for various clinical applications. However, existing methods relying only on implicit representations are computationally expensive and require dozens of hours, which limits further practical applications. To address this challenge, we introduce LerPlane, a novel method for fast and accurate reconstruction of surgical scenes under a single-viewpoint setting. LerPlane treats surgical procedures as 4D volumes and factorizes them into explicit 2D planes of static and dynamic fields, leading to a compact memory footprint and significantly accelerated optimization. The efficient factorization is accomplished by fusing features obtained through linear interpolation of each plane and enables using lightweight neural networks to model surgical scenes. Besides, LerPlane shares static fields, significantly reducing the workload of dynamic tissue modeling. We also propose a novel sample scheme to boost optimization and improve performance in regions with tool occlusion and large motions. Experiments on DaVinci robotic surgery videos demonstrate that LerPlane accelerates optimization by over 100$\times$ while maintaining high quality across various non-rigid deformations, showing significant promise for future intraoperative surgery applications.

23.MSKdeX: Musculoskeletal (MSK) decomposition from an X-ray image for fine-grained estimation of lean muscle mass and muscle volume

Authors:Yi Gu, Yoshito Otake, Keisuke Uemura, Masaki Takao, Mazen Soufi, Yuta Hiasa, Hugues Talbot, Seiji Okata, Nobuhiko Sugano, Yoshinobu Sato

Abstract: Musculoskeletal diseases such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis are major obstacles to health during aging. Although dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT) can be used to evaluate musculoskeletal conditions, frequent monitoring is difficult due to the cost and accessibility (as well as high radiation exposure in the case of CT). We propose a method (named MSKdeX) to estimate fine-grained muscle properties from a plain X-ray image, a low-cost, low-radiation, and highly accessible imaging modality, through musculoskeletal decomposition leveraging fine-grained segmentation in CT. We train a multi-channel quantitative image translation model to decompose an X-ray image into projections of CT of individual muscles to infer the lean muscle mass and muscle volume. We propose the object-wise intensity-sum loss, a simple yet surprisingly effective metric invariant to muscle deformation and projection direction, utilizing information in CT and X-ray images collected from the same patient. While our method is basically an unpaired image-to-image translation, we also exploit the nature of the bone's rigidity, which provides the paired data through 2D-3D rigid registration, adding strong pixel-wise supervision in unpaired training. Through the evaluation using a 539-patient dataset, we showed that the proposed method significantly outperformed conventional methods. The average Pearson correlation coefficient between the predicted and CT-derived ground truth metrics was increased from 0.460 to 0.863. We believe our method opened up a new musculoskeletal diagnosis method and has the potential to be extended to broader applications in multi-channel quantitative image translation tasks. Our source code will be released soon.

24.Joint Adaptive Representations for Image-Language Learning

Authors:AJ Piergiovanni, Anelia Angelova

Abstract: Image-language learning has made unprecedented progress in visual understanding. These developments have come at high costs, as contemporary vision-language models require large model scales and amounts of data. We here propose a much easier recipe for image-language learning, which produces effective models, outperforming bigger and more expensive ones, often trained on orders of magnitude larger datasets. Our key finding is the joint learning of a compact vision and language representation, which adaptively and iteratively fuses the multi-modal features. This results in a more effective image-language learning, greatly lowering the FLOPs by combining and reducing the number of tokens for both text and images, e.g. a 33\% reduction in FLOPs is achieved, compared to baseline fusion techniques used by popular image-language models, while improving performance. This also allows the model to scale without a large increase in FLOPs or memory. In addition, we propose adaptive pre-training data sampling which improves the data efficiency. The proposed approach achieves competitive performance compared to much larger models, and does so with significantly less data and FLOPs. With only 40M training examples and with 39 GFLOPs our lightweight model outperforms many times larger state-of-the-art models of 2-20x more FLOPs and using bigger datasets some of which with close to 1B training examples.

25.Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis: A comparative study of state-of-the-arts deep learning architectures

Authors:Brennon Maistry, Absalom E. Ezugwu

Abstract: Breast cancer is a prevalent form of cancer among women, with over 1.5 million women being diagnosed each year. Unfortunately, the survival rates for breast cancer patients in certain third-world countries, like South Africa, are alarmingly low, with only 40% of diagnosed patients surviving beyond five years. The inadequate availability of resources, including qualified pathologists, delayed diagnoses, and ineffective therapy planning, contribute to this low survival rate. To address this pressing issue, medical specialists and researchers have turned to domain-specific AI approaches, specifically deep learning models, to develop end-to-end solutions that can be integrated into computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. By improving the workflow of pathologists, these AI models have the potential to enhance the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. This research focuses on evaluating the performance of various cutting-edge convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures in comparison to a relatively new model called the Vision Trans-former (ViT). The objective is to determine the superiority of these models in terms of their accuracy and effectiveness. The experimental results reveal that the ViT models outperform the other selected state-of-the-art CNN architectures, achieving an impressive accuracy rate of 95.15%. This study signifies a significant advancement in the field, as it explores the utilization of data augmentation and other relevant preprocessing techniques in conjunction with deep learning models for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer using datasets of Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

26.Image Registration of In Vivo Micro-Ultrasound and Ex Vivo Pseudo-Whole Mount Histopathology Images of the Prostate: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Authors:Muhammad Imran, Brianna Nguyen, Jake Pensa, Sara M. Falzarano, Anthony E. Sisk, Muxua Liang, John Michael DiBianco, Li-Ming Su, Yuyin Zhou, Wayne G. Brisbane, Wei Shao

Abstract: Early diagnosis of prostate cancer significantly improves a patient's 5-year survival rate. Biopsy of small prostate cancers is improved with image-guided biopsy. MRI-ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy is sensitive to smaller tumors but is underutilized due to the high cost of MRI and fusion equipment. Micro-ultrasound (micro-US), a novel high-resolution ultrasound technology, provides a cost-effective alternative to MRI while delivering comparable diagnostic accuracy. However, the interpretation of micro-US is challenging due to subtle gray scale changes indicating cancer vs normal tissue. This challenge can be addressed by training urologists with a large dataset of micro-US images containing the ground truth cancer outlines. Such a dataset can be mapped from surgical specimens (histopathology) onto micro-US images via image registration. In this paper, we present a semi-automated pipeline for registering in vivo micro-US images with ex vivo whole-mount histopathology images. Our pipeline begins with the reconstruction of pseudo-whole-mount histopathology images and a 3D micro-US volume. Each pseudo-whole-mount histopathology image is then registered with the corresponding axial micro-US slice using a two-stage approach that estimates an affine transformation followed by a deformable transformation. We evaluated our registration pipeline using micro-US and histopathology images from 18 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The results showed a Dice coefficient of 0.94 and a landmark error of 2.7 mm, indicating the accuracy of our registration pipeline. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of accurately aligning micro-US and histopathology images. To promote transparency and collaboration in research, we will make our code and dataset publicly available.

27.A Geometric Perspective on Diffusion Models

Authors:Defang Chen, Zhenyu Zhou, Jian-Ping Mei, Chunhua Shen, Chun Chen, Can Wang

Abstract: Recent years have witnessed significant progress in developing efficient training and fast sampling approaches for diffusion models. A recent remarkable advancement is the use of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) to describe data perturbation and generative modeling in a unified mathematical framework. In this paper, we reveal several intriguing geometric structures of diffusion models and contribute a simple yet powerful interpretation to their sampling dynamics. Through carefully inspecting a popular variance-exploding SDE and its marginal-preserving ordinary differential equation (ODE) for sampling, we discover that the data distribution and the noise distribution are smoothly connected with an explicit, quasi-linear sampling trajectory, and another implicit denoising trajectory, which even converges faster in terms of visual quality. We also establish a theoretical relationship between the optimal ODE-based sampling and the classic mean-shift (mode-seeking) algorithm, with which we can characterize the asymptotic behavior of diffusion models and identify the score deviation. These new geometric observations enable us to improve previous sampling algorithms, re-examine latent interpolation, as well as re-explain the working principles of distillation-based fast sampling techniques.

28.Treasure in Distribution: A Domain Randomization based Multi-Source Domain Generalization for 2D Medical Image Segmentation

Authors:Ziyang Chen, Yongsheng Pan, Yiwen Ye, Hengfei Cui, Yong Xia

Abstract: Although recent years have witnessed the great success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in medical image segmentation, the domain shift issue caused by the highly variable image quality of medical images hinders the deployment of CNNs in real-world clinical applications. Domain generalization (DG) methods aim to address this issue by training a robust model on the source domain, which has a strong generalization ability. Previously, many DG methods based on feature-space domain randomization have been proposed, which, however, suffer from the limited and unordered search space of feature styles. In this paper, we propose a multi-source DG method called Treasure in Distribution (TriD), which constructs an unprecedented search space to obtain the model with strong robustness by randomly sampling from a uniform distribution. To learn the domain-invariant representations explicitly, we further devise a style-mixing strategy in our TriD, which mixes the feature styles by randomly mixing the augmented and original statistics along the channel wise and can be extended to other DG methods. Extensive experiments on two medical segmentation tasks with different modalities demonstrate that our TriD achieves superior generalization performance on unseen target-domain data. Code is available at

29.MicroSegNet: A Deep Learning Approach for Prostate Segmentation on Micro-Ultrasound Images

Authors:Hongxu Jiang, Muhammad Imran, Preethika Muralidharan, Anjali Patel, Jake Pensa, Muxuan Liang, Tarik Benidir, Joseph R. Grajo, Jason P. Joseph, Russell Terry, John Michael DiBianco, Li-Ming Su, Yuyin Zhou, Wayne G. Brisbane, Wei Shao

Abstract: Micro-ultrasound (micro-US) is a novel 29-MHz ultrasound technique that provides 3-4 times higher resolution than traditional ultrasound, delivering comparable accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer to MRI but at a lower cost. Accurate prostate segmentation is crucial for prostate volume measurement, cancer diagnosis, prostate biopsy, and treatment planning. This paper proposes a deep learning approach for automated, fast, and accurate prostate segmentation on micro-US images. Prostate segmentation on micro-US is challenging due to artifacts and indistinct borders between the prostate, bladder, and urethra in the midline. We introduce MicroSegNet, a multi-scale annotation-guided Transformer UNet model to address this challenge. During the training process, MicroSegNet focuses more on regions that are hard to segment (challenging regions), where expert and non-expert annotations show discrepancies. We achieve this by proposing an annotation-guided cross entropy loss that assigns larger weight to pixels in hard regions and lower weight to pixels in easy regions. We trained our model using micro-US images from 55 patients, followed by evaluation on 20 patients. Our MicroSegNet model achieved a Dice coefficient of 0.942 and a Hausdorff distance of 2.11 mm, outperforming several state-of-the-art segmentation methods, as well as three human annotators with different experience levels. We will make our code and dataset publicly available to promote transparency and collaboration in research.

30.DeepSolo++: Let Transformer Decoder with Explicit Points Solo for Text Spotting

Authors:Maoyuan Ye, Jing Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Juhua Liu, Tongliang Liu, Bo Du, Dacheng Tao

Abstract: End-to-end text spotting aims to integrate scene text detection and recognition into a unified framework. Dealing with the relationship between the two sub-tasks plays a pivotal role in designing effective spotters. Although Transformer-based methods eliminate the heuristic post-processing, they still suffer from the synergy issue between the sub-tasks and low training efficiency. In this paper, we present DeepSolo, a simple DETR-like baseline that lets a single decoder with explicit points solo for text detection and recognition simultaneously and efficiently. Technically, for each text instance, we represent the character sequence as ordered points and model them with learnable explicit point queries. After passing a single decoder, the point queries have encoded requisite text semantics and locations. Furthermore, we show the surprisingly good extensibility of our method, in terms of character class, language type, and task. On the one hand, DeepSolo not only performs well in English scenes but also masters the Chinese transcription with complex font structure and a thousand-level character classes. On the other hand, based on the extensibility of DeepSolo, we launch DeepSolo++ for multilingual text spotting, making a further step to let Transformer decoder with explicit points solo for multilingual text detection, recognition, and script identification all at once. Extensive experiments on public benchmarks demonstrate that our simple approach achieves better training efficiency compared with Transformer-based models and outperforms the previous state-of-the-art. In addition, DeepSolo and DeepSolo++ are also compatible with line annotations, which require much less annotation cost than polygons. The code is available at \url{}.

31.GANDiffFace: Controllable Generation of Synthetic Datasets for Face Recognition with Realistic Variations

Authors:Pietro Melzi, Christian Rathgeb, Ruben Tolosana, Ruben Vera-Rodriguez, Dominik Lawatsch, Florian Domin, Maxim Schaubert

Abstract: Face recognition systems have significantly advanced in recent years, driven by the availability of large-scale datasets. However, several issues have recently came up, including privacy concerns that have led to the discontinuation of well-established public datasets. Synthetic datasets have emerged as a solution, even though current synthesis methods present other drawbacks such as limited intra-class variations, lack of realism, and unfair representation of demographic groups. This study introduces GANDiffFace, a novel framework for the generation of synthetic datasets for face recognition that combines the power of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and Diffusion models to overcome the limitations of existing synthetic datasets. In GANDiffFace, we first propose the use of GANs to synthesize highly realistic identities and meet target demographic distributions. Subsequently, we fine-tune Diffusion models with the images generated with GANs, synthesizing multiple images of the same identity with a variety of accessories, poses, expressions, and contexts. We generate multiple synthetic datasets by changing GANDiffFace settings, and compare their mated and non-mated score distributions with the distributions provided by popular real-world datasets for face recognition, i.e. VGG2 and IJB-C. Our results show the feasibility of the proposed GANDiffFace, in particular the use of Diffusion models to enhance the (limited) intra-class variations provided by GANs towards the level of real-world datasets.

32.LOWA: Localize Objects in the Wild with Attributes

Authors:Xiaoyuan Guo, Kezhen Chen, Jinmeng Rao, Yawen Zhang, Baochen Sun, Jie Yang

Abstract: We present LOWA, a novel method for localizing objects with attributes effectively in the wild. It aims to address the insufficiency of current open-vocabulary object detectors, which are limited by the lack of instance-level attribute classification and rare class names. To train LOWA, we propose a hybrid vision-language training strategy to learn object detection and recognition with class names as well as attribute information. With LOWA, users can not only detect objects with class names, but also able to localize objects by attributes. LOWA is built on top of a two-tower vision-language architecture and consists of a standard vision transformer as the image encoder and a similar transformer as the text encoder. To learn the alignment between visual and text inputs at the instance level, we train LOWA with three training steps: object-level training, attribute-aware learning, and free-text joint training of objects and attributes. This hybrid training strategy first ensures correct object detection, then incorporates instance-level attribute information, and finally balances the object class and attribute sensitivity. We evaluate our model performance of attribute classification and attribute localization on the Open-Vocabulary Attribute Detection (OVAD) benchmark and the Visual Attributes in the Wild (VAW) dataset, and experiments indicate strong zero-shot performance. Ablation studies additionally demonstrate the effectiveness of each training step of our approach.

33.FD: On understanding the role of deep feature spaces on face generation evaluation

Authors:Krish Kabra, Guha Balakrishnan

Abstract: Perceptual metrics, like the Fr\'echet Inception Distance (FID), are widely used to assess the similarity between synthetically generated and ground truth (real) images. The key idea behind these metrics is to compute errors in a deep feature space that captures perceptually and semantically rich image features. Despite their popularity, the effect that different deep features and their design choices have on a perceptual metric has not been well studied. In this work, we perform a causal analysis linking differences in semantic attributes and distortions between face image distributions to Fr\'echet distances (FD) using several popular deep feature spaces. A key component of our analysis is the creation of synthetic counterfactual faces using deep face generators. Our experiments show that the FD is heavily influenced by its feature space's training dataset and objective function. For example, FD using features extracted from ImageNet-trained models heavily emphasize hats over regions like the eyes and mouth. Moreover, FD using features from a face gender classifier emphasize hair length more than distances in an identity (recognition) feature space. Finally, we evaluate several popular face generation models across feature spaces and find that StyleGAN2 consistently ranks higher than other face generators, except with respect to identity (recognition) features. This suggests the need for considering multiple feature spaces when evaluating generative models and using feature spaces that are tuned to nuances of the domain of interest.

34.A Unified Conditional Framework for Diffusion-based Image Restoration

Authors:Yi Zhang, Xiaoyu Shi, Dasong Li, Xiaogang Wang, Jian Wang, Hongsheng Li

Abstract: Diffusion Probabilistic Models (DPMs) have recently shown remarkable performance in image generation tasks, which are capable of generating highly realistic images. When adopting DPMs for image restoration tasks, the crucial aspect lies in how to integrate the conditional information to guide the DPMs to generate accurate and natural output, which has been largely overlooked in existing works. In this paper, we present a unified conditional framework based on diffusion models for image restoration. We leverage a lightweight UNet to predict initial guidance and the diffusion model to learn the residual of the guidance. By carefully designing the basic module and integration module for the diffusion model block, we integrate the guidance and other auxiliary conditional information into every block of the diffusion model to achieve spatially-adaptive generation conditioning. To handle high-resolution images, we propose a simple yet effective inter-step patch-splitting strategy to produce arbitrary-resolution images without grid artifacts. We evaluate our conditional framework on three challenging tasks: extreme low-light denoising, deblurring, and JPEG restoration, demonstrating its significant improvements in perceptual quality and the generalization to restoration tasks.

35.Cross-Domain Car Detection Model with Integrated Convolutional Block Attention Mechanism

Authors:Haoxuan Xu, Songning Lai, Yang Yang

Abstract: Car detection, particularly through camera vision, has become a major focus in the field of computer vision and has gained widespread adoption. While current car detection systems are capable of good detection, reliable detection can still be challenging due to factors such as proximity between the car, light intensity, and environmental visibility. To address these issues, we propose a cross-domain car detection model that we apply to car recognition for autonomous driving and other areas. Our model includes several novelties: 1)Building a complete cross-domain target detection framework. 2)Developing an unpaired target domain picture generation module with an integrated convolutional attention mechanism. 3)Adopting Generalized Intersection over Union (GIOU) as the loss function of the target detection framework. 4)Designing an object detection model integrated with two-headed Convolutional Block Attention Module(CBAM). 5)Utilizing an effective data enhancement method. To evaluate the model's effectiveness, we performed a reduced will resolution process on the data in the SSLAD dataset and used it as the benchmark dataset for our task. Experimental results show that the performance of the cross-domain car target detection model improves by 40% over the model without our framework, and our improvements have a significant impact on cross-domain car recognition.

36.Exploring Regions of Interest: Visualizing Histological Image Classification for Breast Cancer using Deep Learning

Authors:Imane Nedjar, Mohammed Brahimi, Said Mahmoudi, Khadidja Abi Ayad, Mohammed Amine Chikh

Abstract: Computer aided detection and diagnosis systems based on deep learning have shown promising performance in breast cancer detection. However, there are cases where the obtained results lack justification. In this study, our objective is to highlight the regions of interest used by a convolutional neural network (CNN) for classifying histological images as benign or malignant. We compare these regions with the regions identified by pathologists. To achieve this, we employed the VGG19 architecture and tested three visualization methods: Gradient, LRP Z, and LRP Epsilon. Additionally, we experimented with three pixel selection methods: Bins, K-means, and MeanShift. Based on the results obtained, the Gradient visualization method and the MeanShift selection method yielded satisfactory outcomes for visualizing the images.

37.Chatting Makes Perfect -- Chat-based Image Retrieval

Authors:Matan Levy, Rami Ben-Ari, Nir Darshan, Dani Lischinski

Abstract: Chats emerge as an effective user-friendly approach for information retrieval, and are successfully employed in many domains, such as customer service, healthcare, and finance. However, existing image retrieval approaches typically address the case of a single query-to-image round, and the use of chats for image retrieval has been mostly overlooked. In this work, we introduce ChatIR: a chat-based image retrieval system that engages in a conversation with the user to elicit information, in addition to an initial query, in order to clarify the user's search intent. Motivated by the capabilities of today's foundation models, we leverage Large Language Models to generate follow-up questions to an initial image description. These questions form a dialog with the user in order to retrieve the desired image from a large corpus. In this study, we explore the capabilities of such a system tested on a large dataset and reveal that engaging in a dialog yields significant gains in image retrieval. We start by building an evaluation pipeline from an existing manually generated dataset and explore different modules and training strategies for ChatIR. Our comparison includes strong baselines derived from related applications trained with Reinforcement Learning. Our system is capable of retrieving the target image from a pool of 50K images with over 78% success rate after 5 dialogue rounds, compared to 75% when questions are asked by humans, and 64% for a single shot text-to-image retrieval. Extensive evaluations reveal the strong capabilities and examine the limitations of CharIR under different settings.

38.Feature Learning in Image Hierarchies using Functional Maximal Correlation

Authors:Bo Hu, Yuheng Bu, José C. Príncipe

Abstract: This paper proposes the Hierarchical Functional Maximal Correlation Algorithm (HFMCA), a hierarchical methodology that characterizes dependencies across two hierarchical levels in multiview systems. By framing view similarities as dependencies and ensuring contrastivity by imposing orthonormality, HFMCA achieves faster convergence and increased stability in self-supervised learning. HFMCA defines and measures dependencies within image hierarchies, from pixels and patches to full images. We find that the network topology for approximating orthonormal basis functions aligns with a vanilla CNN, enabling the decomposition of density ratios between neighboring layers of feature maps. This approach provides powerful interpretability, revealing the resemblance between supervision and self-supervision through the lens of internal representations.

39.Control4D: Dynamic Portrait Editing by Learning 4D GAN from 2D Diffusion-based Editor

Authors:Ruizhi Shao, Jingxiang Sun, Cheng Peng, Zerong Zheng, Boyao Zhou, Hongwen Zhang, Yebin Liu

Abstract: Recent years have witnessed considerable achievements in editing images with text instructions. When applying these editors to dynamic scene editing, the new-style scene tends to be temporally inconsistent due to the frame-by-frame nature of these 2D editors. To tackle this issue, we propose Control4D, a novel approach for high-fidelity and temporally consistent 4D portrait editing. Control4D is built upon an efficient 4D representation with a 2D diffusion-based editor. Instead of using direct supervisions from the editor, our method learns a 4D GAN from it and avoids the inconsistent supervision signals. Specifically, we employ a discriminator to learn the generation distribution based on the edited images and then update the generator with the discrimination signals. For more stable training, multi-level information is extracted from the edited images and used to facilitate the learning of the generator. Experimental results show that Control4D surpasses previous approaches and achieves more photo-realistic and consistent 4D editing performances. The link to our project website is

40.Too Large; Data Reduction for Vision-Language Pre-Training

Authors:Alex Jinpeng Wang, Kevin Qinghong Lin, David Junhao Zhang, Stan Weixian Lei, Mike Zheng Shou

Abstract: This paper examines the problems of severe image-text misalignment and high redundancy in the widely-used large-scale Vision-Language Pre-Training (VLP) datasets. To address these issues, we propose an efficient and straightforward Vision-Language learning algorithm called TL;DR, which aims to compress the existing large VLP data into a small, high-quality set. Our approach consists of two major steps. First, a codebook-based encoder-decoder captioner is developed to select representative samples. Second, a new caption is generated to complement the original captions for selected samples, mitigating the text-image misalignment problem while maintaining uniqueness. As the result, TL;DR enables us to reduce the large dataset into a small set of high-quality data, which can serve as an alternative pre-training dataset. This algorithm significantly speeds up the time-consuming pretraining process. Specifically, TL;DR can compress the mainstream VLP datasets at a high ratio, e.g., reduce well-cleaned CC3M dataset from 2.82M to 0.67M ($\sim$24\%) and noisy YFCC15M from 15M to 2.5M ($\sim$16.7\%). Extensive experiments with three popular VLP models over seven downstream tasks show that VLP model trained on the compressed dataset provided by TL;DR can perform similar or even better results compared with training on the full-scale dataset. The code will be made available at \url{}.

41.Improving CLIP Training with Language Rewrites

Authors:Lijie Fan, Dilip Krishnan, Phillip Isola, Dina Katabi, Yonglong Tian

Abstract: Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) stands as one of the most effective and scalable methods for training transferable vision models using paired image and text data. CLIP models are trained using contrastive loss, which typically relies on data augmentations to prevent overfitting and shortcuts. However, in the CLIP training paradigm, data augmentations are exclusively applied to image inputs, while language inputs remain unchanged throughout the entire training process, limiting the exposure of diverse texts to the same image. In this paper, we introduce Language augmented CLIP (LaCLIP), a simple yet highly effective approach to enhance CLIP training through language rewrites. Leveraging the in-context learning capability of large language models, we rewrite the text descriptions associated with each image. These rewritten texts exhibit diversity in sentence structure and vocabulary while preserving the original key concepts and meanings. During training, LaCLIP randomly selects either the original texts or the rewritten versions as text augmentations for each image. Extensive experiments on CC3M, CC12M, RedCaps and LAION-400M datasets show that CLIP pre-training with language rewrites significantly improves the transfer performance without computation or memory overhead during training. Specifically for ImageNet zero-shot accuracy, LaCLIP outperforms CLIP by 8.2% on CC12M and 2.4% on LAION-400M. Code is available at

42.Learning Explicit Contact for Implicit Reconstruction of Hand-held Objects from Monocular Images

Authors:Junxing Hu, Hongwen Zhang, Zerui Chen, Mengcheng Li, Yunlong Wang, Yebin Liu, Zhenan Sun

Abstract: Reconstructing hand-held objects from monocular RGB images is an appealing yet challenging task. In this task, contacts between hands and objects provide important cues for recovering the 3D geometry of the hand-held objects. Though recent works have employed implicit functions to achieve impressive progress, they ignore formulating contacts in their frameworks, which results in producing less realistic object meshes. In this work, we explore how to model contacts in an explicit way to benefit the implicit reconstruction of hand-held objects. Our method consists of two components: explicit contact prediction and implicit shape reconstruction. In the first part, we propose a new subtask of directly estimating 3D hand-object contacts from a single image. The part-level and vertex-level graph-based transformers are cascaded and jointly learned in a coarse-to-fine manner for more accurate contact probabilities. In the second part, we introduce a novel method to diffuse estimated contact states from the hand mesh surface to nearby 3D space and leverage diffused contact probabilities to construct the implicit neural representation for the manipulated object. Benefiting from estimating the interaction patterns between the hand and the object, our method can reconstruct more realistic object meshes, especially for object parts that are in contact with hands. Extensive experiments on challenging benchmarks show that the proposed method outperforms the current state of the arts by a great margin.

43.Humans in 4D: Reconstructing and Tracking Humans with Transformers

Authors:Shubham Goel, Georgios Pavlakos, Jathushan Rajasegaran, Angjoo Kanazawa, Jitendra Malik

Abstract: We present an approach to reconstruct humans and track them over time. At the core of our approach, we propose a fully "transformerized" version of a network for human mesh recovery. This network, HMR 2.0, advances the state of the art and shows the capability to analyze unusual poses that have in the past been difficult to reconstruct from single images. To analyze video, we use 3D reconstructions from HMR 2.0 as input to a tracking system that operates in 3D. This enables us to deal with multiple people and maintain identities through occlusion events. Our complete approach, 4DHumans, achieves state-of-the-art results for tracking people from monocular video. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effectiveness of HMR 2.0 on the downstream task of action recognition, achieving significant improvements over previous pose-based action recognition approaches. Our code and models are available on the project website: