arXiv daily: Artificial Intelligence

arXiv daily: Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI)

1.Towards Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) in the Internet of Things (IoT): Opportunities and Challenges

Authors:Fei Dou, Jin Ye, Geng Yuan, Qin Lu, Wei Niu, Haijian Sun, Le Guan, Guoyu Lu, Gengchen Mai, Ninghao Liu, Jin Lu, Zhengliang Liu, Zihao Wu, Chenjiao Tan, Shaochen Xu, Xianqiao Wang, Guoming Li, Lilong Chai, Sheng Li, Jin Sun, Hongyue Sun, Yunli Shao, Changying Li, Tianming Liu, Wenzhan Song

Abstract: Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), possessing the capacity to comprehend, learn, and execute tasks with human cognitive abilities, engenders significant anticipation and intrigue across scientific, commercial, and societal arenas. This fascination extends particularly to the Internet of Things (IoT), a landscape characterized by the interconnection of countless devices, sensors, and systems, collectively gathering and sharing data to enable intelligent decision-making and automation. This research embarks on an exploration of the opportunities and challenges towards achieving AGI in the context of the IoT. Specifically, it starts by outlining the fundamental principles of IoT and the critical role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in IoT systems. Subsequently, it delves into AGI fundamentals, culminating in the formulation of a conceptual framework for AGI's seamless integration within IoT. The application spectrum for AGI-infused IoT is broad, encompassing domains ranging from smart grids, residential environments, manufacturing, and transportation to environmental monitoring, agriculture, healthcare, and education. However, adapting AGI to resource-constrained IoT settings necessitates dedicated research efforts. Furthermore, the paper addresses constraints imposed by limited computing resources, intricacies associated with large-scale IoT communication, as well as the critical concerns pertaining to security and privacy.

2.Neuro-Symbolic Recommendation Model based on Logic Query

Authors:Maonian Wu, Bang Chen, Shaojun Zhu, Bo Zheng, Wei Peng, Mingyi Zhang

Abstract: A recommendation system assists users in finding items that are relevant to them. Existing recommendation models are primarily based on predicting relationships between users and items and use complex matching models or incorporate extensive external information to capture association patterns in data. However, recommendation is not only a problem of inductive statistics using data; it is also a cognitive task of reasoning decisions based on knowledge extracted from information. Hence, a logic system could naturally be incorporated for the reasoning in a recommendation task. However, although hard-rule approaches based on logic systems can provide powerful reasoning ability, they struggle to cope with inconsistent and incomplete knowledge in real-world tasks, especially for complex tasks such as recommendation. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a neuro-symbolic recommendation model, which transforms the user history interactions into a logic expression and then transforms the recommendation prediction into a query task based on this logic expression. The logic expressions are then computed based on the modular logic operations of the neural network. We also construct an implicit logic encoder to reasonably reduce the complexity of the logic computation. Finally, a user's interest items can be queried in the vector space based on the computation results. Experiments on three well-known datasets verified that our method performs better compared to state of the art shallow, deep, session, and reasoning models.

3.Assessing the nature of large language models: A caution against anthropocentrism

Authors:Ann Speed

Abstract: Generative AI models garnered a large amount of public attention and speculation with the release of OpenAIs chatbot, ChatGPT. At least two opinion camps exist: one excited about possibilities these models offer for fundamental changes to human tasks, and another highly concerned about power these models seem to have. To address these concerns, we assessed GPT3.5 using standard, normed, and validated cognitive and personality measures. For this seedling project, we developed a battery of tests that allowed us to estimate the boundaries of some of these models capabilities, how stable those capabilities are over a short period of time, and how they compare to humans. Our results indicate that GPT 3.5 is unlikely to have developed sentience, although its ability to respond to personality inventories is interesting. It did display large variability in both cognitive and personality measures over repeated observations, which is not expected if it had a human-like personality. Variability notwithstanding, GPT3.5 displays what in a human would be considered poor mental health, including low self-esteem and marked dissociation from reality despite upbeat and helpful responses.

4.The Rise and Potential of Large Language Model Based Agents: A Survey

Authors:Zhiheng Xi, Wenxiang Chen, Xin Guo, Wei He, Yiwen Ding, Boyang Hong, Ming Zhang, Junzhe Wang, Senjie Jin, Enyu Zhou, Rui Zheng, Xiaoran Fan, Xiao Wang, Limao Xiong, Qin Liu, Yuhao Zhou, Weiran Wang, Changhao Jiang, Yicheng Zou, Xiangyang Liu, Zhangyue Yin, Shihan Dou, Rongxiang Weng, Wensen Cheng, Qi Zhang, Wenjuan Qin, Yongyan Zheng, Xipeng Qiu, Xuanjing Huan, Tao Gui

Abstract: For a long time, humanity has pursued artificial intelligence (AI) equivalent to or surpassing the human level, with AI agents considered a promising vehicle for this pursuit. AI agents are artificial entities that sense their environment, make decisions, and take actions. Many efforts have been made to develop intelligent AI agents since the mid-20th century. However, these efforts have mainly focused on advancement in algorithms or training strategies to enhance specific capabilities or performance on particular tasks. Actually, what the community lacks is a sufficiently general and powerful model to serve as a starting point for designing AI agents that can adapt to diverse scenarios. Due to the versatile and remarkable capabilities they demonstrate, large language models (LLMs) are regarded as potential sparks for Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), offering hope for building general AI agents. Many research efforts have leveraged LLMs as the foundation to build AI agents and have achieved significant progress. We start by tracing the concept of agents from its philosophical origins to its development in AI, and explain why LLMs are suitable foundations for AI agents. Building upon this, we present a conceptual framework for LLM-based agents, comprising three main components: brain, perception, and action, and the framework can be tailored to suit different applications. Subsequently, we explore the extensive applications of LLM-based agents in three aspects: single-agent scenarios, multi-agent scenarios, and human-agent cooperation. Following this, we delve into agent societies, exploring the behavior and personality of LLM-based agents, the social phenomena that emerge when they form societies, and the insights they offer for human society. Finally, we discuss a range of key topics and open problems within the field.

1.When Geoscience Meets Foundation Models: Towards General Geoscience Artificial Intelligence System

Authors:Hao Zhang, Jin-Jian Xu

Abstract: Geoscience foundation models represent a revolutionary approach in the field of Earth sciences by integrating massive cross-disciplinary data to simulate and understand the Earth systems dynamics. As a data-centric artificial intelligence (AI) paradigm, they uncover insights from petabytes of structured and unstructured data. Flexible task specification, diverse inputs and outputs and multi-modal knowledge representation enable comprehensive analysis infeasible with individual data sources. Critically, the scalability and generalizability of geoscience models allow for tackling diverse prediction, simulation, and decision challenges related to Earth systems interactions. Collaboration between domain experts and computer scientists leads to innovations in these invaluable tools for understanding the past, present, and future of our planet. However, challenges remain in validation and verification, scale, interpretability, knowledge representation, and social bias. Going forward, enhancing model integration, resolution, accuracy, and equity through cross-disciplinary teamwork is key. Despite current limitations, geoscience foundation models show promise for providing critical insights into pressing issues including climate change, natural hazards, and sustainability through their ability to probe scenarios and quantify uncertainties. Their continued evolution toward integrated, data-driven modeling holds paradigm-shifting potential for Earth science.

2.OWL Reasoners still useable in 2023

Authors:Konrad Abicht

Abstract: In a systematic literature and software review over 100 OWL reasoners/systems were analyzed to see if they would still be usable in 2023. This has never been done in this capacity. OWL reasoners still play an important role in knowledge organisation and management, but the last comprehensive surveys/studies are more than 8 years old. The result of this work is a comprehensive list of 95 standalone OWL reasoners and systems using an OWL reasoner. For each item, information on project pages, source code repositories and related documentation was gathered. The raw research data is provided in a Github repository for anyone to use.

3.Collectionless Artificial Intelligence

Authors:Marco Gori, Stefano Melacci

Abstract: By and large, the professional handling of huge data collections is regarded as a fundamental ingredient of the progress of machine learning and of its spectacular results in related disciplines, with a growing agreement on risks connected to the centralization of such data collections. This paper sustains the position that the time has come for thinking of new learning protocols where machines conquer cognitive skills in a truly human-like context centered on environmental interactions. This comes with specific restrictions on the learning protocol according to the collectionless principle, which states that, at each time instant, data acquired from the environment is processed with the purpose of contributing to update the current internal representation of the environment, and that the agent is not given the privilege of recording the temporal stream. Basically, there is neither permission to store the temporal information coming from the sensors, thus promoting the development of self-organized memorization skills at a more abstract level, instead of relying on bare storage to simulate learning dynamics that are typical of offline learning algorithms. This purposely extreme position is intended to stimulate the development of machines that learn to dynamically organize the information by following human-based schemes. The proposition of this challenge suggests developing new foundations on computational processes of learning and reasoning that might open the doors to a truly orthogonal competitive track on AI technologies that avoid data accumulation by design, thus offering a framework which is better suited concerning privacy issues, control and customizability. Finally, pushing towards massively distributed computation, the collectionless approach to AI will likely reduce the concentration of power in companies and governments, thus better facing geopolitical issues.

1.Life-inspired Interoceptive Artificial Intelligence for Autonomous and Adaptive Agents

Authors:Sungwoo Lee, Younghyun Oh, Hyunhoe An, Hyebhin Yoon, Karl J. Friston, Seok Jun Hong, Choong-Wan Woo

Abstract: Building autonomous --- i.e., choosing goals based on one's needs -- and adaptive -- i.e., surviving in ever-changing environments -- agents has been a holy grail of artificial intelligence (AI). A living organism is a prime example of such an agent, offering important lessons about adaptive autonomy. Here, we focus on interoception, a process of monitoring one's internal environment to keep it within certain bounds, which underwrites the survival of an organism. To develop AI with interoception, we need to factorize the state variables representing internal environments from external environments and adopt life-inspired mathematical properties of internal environment states. This paper offers a new perspective on how interoception can help build autonomous and adaptive agents by integrating the legacy of cybernetics with recent advances in theories of life, reinforcement learning, and neuroscience.

2.Update Monte Carlo tree search (UMCTS) algorithm for heuristic global search of sizing optimization problems for truss structures

Authors:Fu-Yao Ko, Katsuyuki Suzuki, Kazuo Yonekura

Abstract: Sizing optimization of truss structures is a complex computational problem, and the reinforcement learning (RL) is suitable for dealing with multimodal problems without gradient computations. In this paper, a new efficient optimization algorithm called update Monte Carlo tree search (UMCTS) is developed to obtain the appropriate design for truss structures. UMCTS is an RL-based method that combines the novel update process and Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) with the upper confidence bound (UCB). Update process means that in each round, the optimal cross-sectional area of each member is determined by search tree, and its initial state is the final state in the previous round. In the UMCTS algorithm, an accelerator for the number of selections for member area and iteration number is introduced to reduce the computation time. Moreover, for each state, the average reward is replaced by the best reward collected on the simulation process to determine the optimal solution. The proposed optimization method is examined on some benchmark problems of planar and spatial trusses with discrete sizing variables to demonstrate the efficiency and validity. It is shown that the computation time for the proposed approach is at least ten times faster than the branch and bound (BB) method. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method stably achieves better solution than other conventional methods.

3.Fidelity-Induced Interpretable Policy Extraction for Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Xiao Liu, Wubing Chen, Mao Tan

Abstract: Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has achieved remarkable success in sequential decision-making problems. However, existing DRL agents make decisions in an opaque fashion, hindering the user from establishing trust and scrutinizing weaknesses of the agents. While recent research has developed Interpretable Policy Extraction (IPE) methods for explaining how an agent takes actions, their explanations are often inconsistent with the agent's behavior and thus, frequently fail to explain. To tackle this issue, we propose a novel method, Fidelity-Induced Policy Extraction (FIPE). Specifically, we start by analyzing the optimization mechanism of existing IPE methods, elaborating on the issue of ignoring consistency while increasing cumulative rewards. We then design a fidelity-induced mechanism by integrate a fidelity measurement into the reinforcement learning feedback. We conduct experiments in the complex control environment of StarCraft II, an arena typically avoided by current IPE methods. The experiment results demonstrate that FIPE outperforms the baselines in terms of interaction performance and consistency, meanwhile easy to understand.

4.Transferability analysis of data-driven additive manufacturing knowledge: a case study between powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition

Authors:Mutahar Safdar, Jiarui Xie, Hyunwoong Ko, Yan Lu, Guy Lamouche, Yaoyao Fiona Zhao

Abstract: Data-driven research in Additive Manufacturing (AM) has gained significant success in recent years. This has led to a plethora of scientific literature to emerge. The knowledge in these works consists of AM and Artificial Intelligence (AI) contexts that have not been mined and formalized in an integrated way. Moreover, no tools or guidelines exist to support data-driven knowledge transfer from one context to another. As a result, data-driven solutions using specific AI techniques are being developed and validated only for specific AM process technologies. There is a potential to exploit the inherent similarities across various AM technologies and adapt the existing solutions from one process or problem to another using AI, such as Transfer Learning. We propose a three-step knowledge transferability analysis framework in AM to support data-driven AM knowledge transfer. As a prerequisite to transferability analysis, AM knowledge is featurized into identified knowledge components. The framework consists of pre-transfer, transfer, and post-transfer steps to accomplish knowledge transfer. A case study is conducted between flagship metal AM processes. Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is the source of knowledge motivated by its relative matureness in applying AI over Directed Energy Deposition (DED), which drives the need for knowledge transfer as the less explored target process. We show successful transfer at different levels of the data-driven solution, including data representation, model architecture, and model parameters. The pipeline of AM knowledge transfer can be automated in the future to allow efficient cross-context or cross-process knowledge exchange.

1.UniKG: A Benchmark and Universal Embedding for Large-Scale Knowledge Graphs

Authors:Yide Qiu, Shaoxiang Ling, Tong Zhang, Bo Huang, Zhen Cui

Abstract: Irregular data in real-world are usually organized as heterogeneous graphs (HGs) consisting of multiple types of nodes and edges. To explore useful knowledge from real-world data, both the large-scale encyclopedic HG datasets and corresponding effective learning methods are crucial, but haven't been well investigated. In this paper, we construct a large-scale HG benchmark dataset named UniKG from Wikidata to facilitate knowledge mining and heterogeneous graph representation learning. Overall, UniKG contains more than 77 million multi-attribute entities and 2000 diverse association types, which significantly surpasses the scale of existing HG datasets. To perform effective learning on the large-scale UniKG, two key measures are taken, including (i) the semantic alignment strategy for multi-attribute entities, which projects the feature description of multi-attribute nodes into a common embedding space to facilitate node aggregation in a large receptive field; (ii) proposing a novel plug-and-play anisotropy propagation module (APM) to learn effective multi-hop anisotropy propagation kernels, which extends methods of large-scale homogeneous graphs to heterogeneous graphs. These two strategies enable efficient information propagation among a tremendous number of multi-attribute entities and meantimes adaptively mine multi-attribute association through the multi-hop aggregation in large-scale HGs. We set up a node classification task on our UniKG dataset, and evaluate multiple baseline methods which are constructed by embedding our APM into large-scale homogenous graph learning methods. Our UniKG dataset and the baseline codes have been released at

2.Exploring Minecraft Settlement Generators with Generative Shift Analysis

Authors:Jean-Baptiste Hervé, Oliver Withington, Marion Hervé, Laurissa Tokarchuk, Christoph Salge

Abstract: With growing interest in Procedural Content Generation (PCG) it becomes increasingly important to develop methods and tools for evaluating and comparing alternative systems. There is a particular lack regarding the evaluation of generative pipelines, where a set of generative systems work in series to make iterative changes to an artifact. We introduce a novel method called Generative Shift for evaluating the impact of individual stages in a PCG pipeline by quantifying the impact that a generative process has when it is applied to a pre-existing artifact. We explore this technique by applying it to a very rich dataset of Minecraft game maps produced by a set of alternative settlement generators developed as part of the Generative Design in Minecraft Competition (GDMC), all of which are designed to produce appropriate settlements for a pre-existing map. While this is an early exploration of this technique we find it to be a promising lens to apply to PCG evaluation, and we are optimistic about the potential of Generative Shift to be a domain-agnostic method for evaluating generative pipelines.

3.Steps Towards Satisficing Distributed Dynamic Team Trust

Authors:Edmund R. Hunt, Chris Baber, Mehdi Sobhani, Sanja Milivojevic, Sagir Yusuf, Mirco Musolesi, Patrick Waterson, Sally Maynard

Abstract: Defining and measuring trust in dynamic, multiagent teams is important in a range of contexts, particularly in defense and security domains. Team members should be trusted to work towards agreed goals and in accordance with shared values. In this paper, our concern is with the definition of goals and values such that it is possible to define 'trust' in a way that is interpretable, and hence usable, by both humans and robots. We argue that the outcome of team activity can be considered in terms of 'goal', 'individual/team values', and 'legal principles'. We question whether alignment is possible at the level of 'individual/team values', or only at the 'goal' and 'legal principles' levels. We argue for a set of metrics to define trust in human-robot teams that are interpretable by human or robot team members, and consider an experiment that could demonstrate the notion of 'satisficing trust' over the course of a simulated mission.

4.NExT-GPT: Any-to-Any Multimodal LLM

Authors:Shengqiong Wu, Hao Fei, Leigang Qu, Wei Ji, Tat-Seng Chua

Abstract: While recently Multimodal Large Language Models (MM-LLMs) have made exciting strides, they mostly fall prey to the limitation of only input-side multimodal understanding, without the ability to produce content in multiple modalities. As we humans always perceive the world and communicate with people through various modalities, developing any-to-any MM-LLMs capable of accepting and delivering content in any modality becomes essential to human-level AI. To fill the gap, we present an end-to-end general-purpose any-to-any MM-LLM system, NExT-GPT. We connect an LLM with multimodal adaptors and different diffusion decoders, enabling NExT-GPT to perceive inputs and generate outputs in arbitrary combinations of text, images, videos, and audio. By leveraging the existing well-trained highly-performing encoders and decoders, NExT-GPT is tuned with only a small amount of parameter (1%) of certain projection layers, which not only benefits low-cost training and also facilitates convenient expansion to more potential modalities. Moreover, we introduce a modality-switching instruction tuning (MosIT) and manually curate a high-quality dataset for MosIT, based on which NExT-GPT is empowered with complex cross-modal semantic understanding and content generation. Overall, our research showcases the promising possibility of building an AI agent capable of modeling universal modalities, paving the way for more human-like AI research in the community.

5.On the meaning of uncertainty for ethical AI: philosophy and practice

Authors:Cassandra Bird University of Exeter, Daniel Williamson University of Exeter, Sabina Leonelli University of Exeter

Abstract: Whether and how data scientists, statisticians and modellers should be accountable for the AI systems they develop remains a controversial and highly debated topic, especially given the complexity of AI systems and the difficulties in comparing and synthesising competing claims arising from their deployment for data analysis. This paper proposes to address this issue by decreasing the opacity and heightening the accountability of decision making using AI systems, through the explicit acknowledgement of the statistical foundations that underpin their development and the ways in which these dictate how their results should be interpreted and acted upon by users. In turn, this enhances (1) the responsiveness of the models to feedback, (2) the quality and meaning of uncertainty on their outputs and (3) their transparency to evaluation. To exemplify this approach, we extend Posterior Belief Assessment to offer a route to belief ownership from complex and competing AI structures. We argue that this is a significant way to bring ethical considerations into mathematical reasoning, and to implement ethical AI in statistical practice. We demonstrate these ideas within the context of competing models used to advise the UK government on the spread of the Omicron variant of COVID-19 during December 2021.

6.Combinative Cumulative Knowledge Processes

Authors:Anna Brandenberger, Cassandra Marcussen, Elchanan Mossel, Madhu Sudan

Abstract: We analyze Cumulative Knowledge Processes, introduced by Ben-Eliezer, Mikulincer, Mossel, and Sudan (ITCS 2023), in the setting of "directed acyclic graphs", i.e., when new units of knowledge may be derived by combining multiple previous units of knowledge. The main considerations in this model are the role of errors (when new units may be erroneous) and local checking (where a few antecedent units of knowledge are checked when a new unit of knowledge is discovered). The aforementioned work defined this model but only analyzed an idealized and simplified "tree-like" setting, i.e., a setting where new units of knowledge only depended directly on one previously generated unit of knowledge. The main goal of our work is to understand when the general process is safe, i.e., when the effect of errors remains under control. We provide some necessary and some sufficient conditions for safety. As in the earlier work, we demonstrate that the frequency of checking as well as the depth of the checks play a crucial role in determining safety. A key new parameter in the current work is the $\textit{combination factor}$ which is the distribution of the number of units $M$ of old knowledge that a new unit of knowledge depends on. Our results indicate that a large combination factor can compensate for a small depth of checking. The dependency of the safety on the combination factor is far from trivial. Indeed some of our main results are stated in terms of $\mathbb{E}\{1/M\}$ while others depend on $\mathbb{E}\{M\}$.

1.FIMO: A Challenge Formal Dataset for Automated Theorem Proving

Authors:Chengwu Liu, Jianhao Shen, Huajian Xin, Zhengying Liu, Ye Yuan, Haiming Wang, Wei Ju, Chuanyang Zheng, Yichun Yin, Lin Li, Ming Zhang, Qun Liu

Abstract: We present FIMO, an innovative dataset comprising formal mathematical problem statements sourced from the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) Shortlisted Problems. Designed to facilitate advanced automated theorem proving at the IMO level, FIMO is currently tailored for the Lean formal language. It comprises 149 formal problem statements, accompanied by both informal problem descriptions and their corresponding LaTeX-based informal proofs. Through initial experiments involving GPT-4, our findings underscore the existing limitations in current methodologies, indicating a substantial journey ahead before achieving satisfactory IMO-level automated theorem proving outcomes.

1.A Survey on Interpretable Cross-modal Reasoning

Authors:Dizhan Xue, Shengsheng Qian, Zuyi Zhou, Changsheng Xu

Abstract: In recent years, cross-modal reasoning (CMR), the process of understanding and reasoning across different modalities, has emerged as a pivotal area with applications spanning from multimedia analysis to healthcare diagnostics. As the deployment of AI systems becomes more ubiquitous, the demand for transparency and comprehensibility in these systems' decision-making processes has intensified. This survey delves into the realm of interpretable cross-modal reasoning (I-CMR), where the objective is not only to achieve high predictive performance but also to provide human-understandable explanations for the results. This survey presents a comprehensive overview of the typical methods with a three-level taxonomy for I-CMR. Furthermore, this survey reviews the existing CMR datasets with annotations for explanations. Finally, this survey summarizes the challenges for I-CMR and discusses potential future directions. In conclusion, this survey aims to catalyze the progress of this emerging research area by providing researchers with a panoramic and comprehensive perspective, illuminating the state of the art and discerning the opportunities.

2.Belief revision and incongruity: is it a joke?

Authors:Florence Dupin de Saint Cyr - Bannay IRIT-ADRIA, Henri Prade IRIT-ADRIA

Abstract: Incongruity often makes people laugh. You have to be smart to say stupid things. It requires to be even smarter for understanding them. This paper is a shameless attempt to formalize this intelligent behavior in the case of an agent listening to a joke. All this is a matter of revision of beliefs, surprise and violation of norms.

3.Optimal Observation-Intervention Trade-Off in Optimisation Problems with Causal Structure

Authors:Kim Hammar, Neil Dhir

Abstract: We consider the problem of optimising an expensive-to-evaluate grey-box objective function, within a finite budget, where known side-information exists in the form of the causal structure between the design variables. Standard black-box optimisation ignores the causal structure, often making it inefficient and expensive. The few existing methods that consider the causal structure are myopic and do not fully accommodate the observation-intervention trade-off that emerges when estimating causal effects. In this paper, we show that the observation-intervention trade-off can be formulated as a non-myopic optimal stopping problem which permits an efficient solution. We give theoretical results detailing the structure of the optimal stopping times and demonstrate the generality of our approach by showing that it can be integrated with existing causal Bayesian optimisation algorithms. Experimental results show that our formulation can enhance existing algorithms on real and synthetic benchmarks.

4.Cognitive Architectures for Language Agents

Authors:Theodore Sumers, Shunyu Yao, Karthik Narasimhan, Thomas L. Griffiths

Abstract: Recent efforts have incorporated large language models (LLMs) with external resources (e.g., the Internet) or internal control flows (e.g., prompt chaining) for tasks requiring grounding or reasoning. However, these efforts have largely been piecemeal, lacking a systematic framework for constructing a fully-fledged language agent. To address this challenge, we draw on the rich history of agent design in symbolic artificial intelligence to develop a blueprint for a new wave of cognitive language agents. We first show that LLMs have many of the same properties as production systems, and recent efforts to improve their grounding or reasoning mirror the development of cognitive architectures built around production systems. We then propose Cognitive Architectures for Language Agents (CoALA), a conceptual framework to systematize diverse methods for LLM-based reasoning, grounding, learning, and decision making as instantiations of language agents in the framework. Finally, we use the CoALA framework to highlight gaps and propose actionable directions toward more capable language agents in the future.

1.Identifiable Cognitive Diagnosis with Encoder-decoder for Modelling Students' Performance

Authors:Jiatong Li, Qi Liu, Fei Wang, Jiayu Liu, Zhenya Huang, Enhong Chen

Abstract: Cognitive diagnosis aims to diagnose students' knowledge proficiencies based on their response scores on exam questions, which is the basis of many domains such as computerized adaptive testing. Existing cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) follow a proficiency-response paradigm, which views diagnostic results as learnable embeddings that are the cause of students' responses and learns the diagnostic results through optimization. However, such a paradigm can easily lead to unidentifiable diagnostic results and the explainability overfitting problem, which is harmful to the quantification of students' learning performance. To address these problems, we propose a novel identifiable cognitive diagnosis framework. Specifically, we first propose a flexible diagnostic module which directly diagnose identifiable and explainable examinee traits and question features from response logs. Next, we leverage a general predictive module to reconstruct response logs from the diagnostic results to ensure the preciseness of the latter. We furthermore propose an implementation of the framework, i.e., ID-CDM, to demonstrate the availability of the former. Finally, we demonstrate the identifiability, explainability and preciseness of diagnostic results of ID-CDM through experiments on four public real-world datasets.

2.On the Aggregation of Rules for Knowledge Graph Completion

Authors:Patrick Betz, Stefan Lüdtke, Christian Meilicke, Heiner Stuckenschmidt

Abstract: Rule learning approaches for knowledge graph completion are efficient, interpretable and competitive to purely neural models. The rule aggregation problem is concerned with finding one plausibility score for a candidate fact which was simultaneously predicted by multiple rules. Although the problem is ubiquitous, as data-driven rule learning can result in noisy and large rulesets, it is underrepresented in the literature and its theoretical foundations have not been studied before in this context. In this work, we demonstrate that existing aggregation approaches can be expressed as marginal inference operations over the predicting rules. In particular, we show that the common Max-aggregation strategy, which scores candidates based on the rule with the highest confidence, has a probabilistic interpretation. Finally, we propose an efficient and overlooked baseline which combines the previous strategies and is competitive to computationally more expensive approaches.

3.A Text-based Approach For Link Prediction on Wikipedia Articles

Authors:Anh Hoang Tran, Tam Minh Nguyen, Son T. Luu

Abstract: This paper present our work in the DSAA 2023 Challenge about Link Prediction for Wikipedia Articles. We use traditional machine learning models with POS tags (part-of-speech tags) features extracted from text to train the classification model for predicting whether two nodes has the link. Then, we use these tags to test on various machine learning models. We obtained the results by F1 score at 0.99999 and got 7th place in the competition. Our source code is publicly available at this link:

4.Discrete Versus Continuous Algorithms in Dynamics of Affective Decision Making

Authors:V. I. Yukalov, E. P. Yukalova

Abstract: The dynamics of affective decision making is considered for an intelligent network composed of agents with different types of memory: long-term and short-term memory. The consideration is based on probabilistic affective decision theory, which takes into account the rational utility of alternatives as well as the emotional alternative attractiveness. The objective of this paper is the comparison of two multistep operational algorithms of the intelligent network: one based on discrete dynamics and the other on continuous dynamics. By means of numerical analysis, it is shown that, depending on the network parameters, the characteristic probabilities for continuous and discrete operations can exhibit either close or drastically different behavior. Thus, depending on which algorithm is employed, either discrete or continuous, theoretical predictions can be rather different, which does not allow for a uniquely defined description of practical problems. This finding is important for understanding which of the algorithms is more appropriate for the correct analysis of decision-making tasks. A discussion is given, revealing that the discrete operation seems to be more realistic for describing intelligent networks as well as affective artificial intelligence.

5.Declarative Reasoning on Explanations Using Constraint Logic Programming

Authors:Laura State, Salvatore Ruggieri, Franco Turini

Abstract: Explaining opaque Machine Learning (ML) models is an increasingly relevant problem. Current explanation in AI (XAI) methods suffer several shortcomings, among others an insufficient incorporation of background knowledge, and a lack of abstraction and interactivity with the user. We propose REASONX, an explanation method based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP). REASONX can provide declarative, interactive explanations for decision trees, which can be the ML models under analysis or global/local surrogate models of any black-box model. Users can express background or common sense knowledge using linear constraints and MILP optimization over features of factual and contrastive instances, and interact with the answer constraints at different levels of abstraction through constraint projection. We present here the architecture of REASONX, which consists of a Python layer, closer to the user, and a CLP layer. REASONX's core execution engine is a Prolog meta-program with declarative semantics in terms of logic theories.

1.Expanding Frozen Vision-Language Models without Retraining: Towards Improved Robot Perception

Authors:Riley Tavassoli, Mani Amani, Reza Akhavian

Abstract: Vision-language models (VLMs) have shown powerful capabilities in visual question answering and reasoning tasks by combining visual representations with the abstract skill set large language models (LLMs) learn during pretraining. Vision, while the most popular modality to augment LLMs with, is only one representation of a scene. In human-robot interaction scenarios, robot perception requires accurate scene understanding by the robot. In this paper, we define and demonstrate a method of aligning the embedding spaces of different modalities (in this case, inertial measurement unit (IMU) data) to the vision embedding space through a combination of supervised and contrastive training, enabling the VLM to understand and reason about these additional modalities without retraining. We opt to give the model IMU embeddings directly over using a separate human activity recognition model that feeds directly into the prompt to allow for any nonlinear interactions between the query, image, and IMU signal that would be lost by mapping the IMU data to a discrete activity label. Further, we demonstrate our methodology's efficacy through experiments involving human activity recognition using IMU data and visual inputs. Our results show that using multiple modalities as input improves the VLM's scene understanding and enhances its overall performance in various tasks, thus paving the way for more versatile and capable language models in multi-modal contexts.

2.The AI Revolution: Opportunities and Challenges for the Finance Sector

Authors:Carsten Maple, Lukasz Szpruch, Gregory Epiphaniou, Kalina Staykova, Simran Singh, William Penwarden, Yisi Wen, Zijian Wang, Jagdish Hariharan, Pavle Avramovic

Abstract: This report examines Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the financial sector, outlining its potential to revolutionise the industry and identify its challenges. It underscores the criticality of a well-rounded understanding of AI, its capabilities, and its implications to effectively leverage its potential while mitigating associated risks. The potential of AI potential extends from augmenting existing operations to paving the way for novel applications in the finance sector. The application of AI in the financial sector is transforming the industry. Its use spans areas from customer service enhancements, fraud detection, and risk management to credit assessments and high-frequency trading. However, along with these benefits, AI also presents several challenges. These include issues related to transparency, interpretability, fairness, accountability, and trustworthiness. The use of AI in the financial sector further raises critical questions about data privacy and security. A further issue identified in this report is the systemic risk that AI can introduce to the financial sector. Being prone to errors, AI can exacerbate existing systemic risks, potentially leading to financial crises. Regulation is crucial to harnessing the benefits of AI while mitigating its potential risks. Despite the global recognition of this need, there remains a lack of clear guidelines or legislation for AI use in finance. This report discusses key principles that could guide the formation of effective AI regulation in the financial sector, including the need for a risk-based approach, the inclusion of ethical considerations, and the importance of maintaining a balance between innovation and consumer protection. The report provides recommendations for academia, the finance industry, and regulators.

3.The Quest of Finding the Antidote to Sparse Double Descent

Authors:Victor Quétu, Marta Milovanović

Abstract: In energy-efficient schemes, finding the optimal size of deep learning models is very important and has a broad impact. Meanwhile, recent studies have reported an unexpected phenomenon, the sparse double descent: as the model's sparsity increases, the performance first worsens, then improves, and finally deteriorates. Such a non-monotonic behavior raises serious questions about the optimal model's size to maintain high performance: the model needs to be sufficiently over-parametrized, but having too many parameters wastes training resources. In this paper, we aim to find the best trade-off efficiently. More precisely, we tackle the occurrence of the sparse double descent and present some solutions to avoid it. Firstly, we show that a simple $\ell_2$ regularization method can help to mitigate this phenomenon but sacrifices the performance/sparsity compromise. To overcome this problem, we then introduce a learning scheme in which distilling knowledge regularizes the student model. Supported by experimental results achieved using typical image classification setups, we show that this approach leads to the avoidance of such a phenomenon.

4.High Accuracy Location Information Extraction from Social Network Texts Using Natural Language Processing

Authors:Lossan Bonde, Severin Dembele

Abstract: Terrorism has become a worldwide plague with severe consequences for the development of nations. Besides killing innocent people daily and preventing educational activities from taking place, terrorism is also hindering economic growth. Machine Learning (ML) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) can contribute to fighting terrorism by predicting in real-time future terrorist attacks if accurate data is available. This paper is part of a research project that uses text from social networks to extract necessary information to build an adequate dataset for terrorist attack prediction. We collected a set of 3000 social network texts about terrorism in Burkina Faso and used a subset to experiment with existing NLP solutions. The experiment reveals that existing solutions have poor accuracy for location recognition, which our solution resolves. We will extend the solution to extract dates and action information to achieve the project's goal.

5.Developing a Scalable Benchmark for Assessing Large Language Models in Knowledge Graph Engineering

Authors:Lars-Peter Meyer, Johannes Frey, Kurt Junghanns, Felix Brei, Kirill Bulert, Sabine Gründer-Fahrer, Michael Martin

Abstract: As the field of Large Language Models (LLMs) evolves at an accelerated pace, the critical need to assess and monitor their performance emerges. We introduce a benchmarking framework focused on knowledge graph engineering (KGE) accompanied by three challenges addressing syntax and error correction, facts extraction and dataset generation. We show that while being a useful tool, LLMs are yet unfit to assist in knowledge graph generation with zero-shot prompting. Consequently, our LLM-KG-Bench framework provides automatic evaluation and storage of LLM responses as well as statistical data and visualization tools to support tracking of prompt engineering and model performance.

6.Socratis: Are large multimodal models emotionally aware?

Authors:Katherine Deng, Arijit Ray, Reuben Tan, Saadia Gabriel, Bryan A. Plummer, Kate Saenko

Abstract: Existing emotion prediction benchmarks contain coarse emotion labels which do not consider the diversity of emotions that an image and text can elicit in humans due to various reasons. Learning diverse reactions to multimodal content is important as intelligent machines take a central role in generating and delivering content to society. To address this gap, we propose Socratis, a \underline{soc}ietal \underline{r}e\underline{a}c\underline{ti}on\underline{s} benchmark, where each image-caption (IC) pair is annotated with multiple emotions and the reasons for feeling them. Socratis contains 18K free-form reactions for 980 emotions on 2075 image-caption pairs from 5 widely-read news and image-caption (IC) datasets. We benchmark the capability of state-of-the-art multimodal large language models to generate the reasons for feeling an emotion given an IC pair. Based on a preliminary human study, we observe that humans prefer human-written reasons over 2 times more often than machine-generated ones. This shows our task is harder than standard generation tasks because it starkly contrasts recent findings where humans cannot tell apart machine vs human-written news articles, for instance. We further see that current captioning metrics based on large vision-language models also fail to correlate with human preferences. We hope that these findings and our benchmark will inspire further research on training emotionally aware models.

7.StratMed: Relevance Stratification for Low-resource Medication Recommendation

Authors:Xiang Li

Abstract: With the growing imbalance between limited medical resources and escalating demands, AI-based clinical tasks have become paramount. Medication recommendation, as a sub-domain, aims to amalgamate longitudinal patient history with medical knowledge, assisting physicians in prescribing safer and more accurate medication combinations. Existing methods overlook the inherent long-tail distribution in medical data, lacking balanced representation between head and tail data, which leads to sub-optimal model performance. To address this challenge, we introduce StratMed, a model that incorporates an innovative relevance stratification mechanism. It harmonizes discrepancies in data long-tail distribution and strikes a balance between the safety and accuracy of medication combinations. Specifically, we first construct a pre-training method using deep learning networks to obtain entity representation. After that, we design a pyramid-like data stratification method to obtain more generalized entity relationships by reinforcing the features of unpopular entities. Based on this relationship, we designed two graph structures to express medication precision and safety at the same level to obtain visit representations. Finally, the patient's historical clinical information is fitted to generate medication combinations for the current health condition. Experiments on the MIMIC-III dataset demonstrate that our method has outperformed current state-of-the-art methods in four evaluation metrics (including safety and accuracy).

8.Agent Teaming Situation Awareness (ATSA): A Situation Awareness Framework for Human-AI Teaming

Authors:Qi Gao, Wei Xu, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao

Abstract: The rapid advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) have led to a growing trend of human-AI teaming (HAT) in various fields. As machines continue to evolve from mere automation to a state of autonomy, they are increasingly exhibiting unexpected behaviors and human-like cognitive/intelligent capabilities, including situation awareness (SA). This shift has the potential to enhance the performance of mixed human-AI teams over all-human teams, underscoring the need for a better understanding of the dynamic SA interactions between humans and machines. To this end, we provide a review of leading SA theoretical models and a new framework for SA in the HAT context based on the key features and processes of HAT. The Agent Teaming Situation Awareness (ATSA) framework unifies human and AI behavior, and involves bidirectional, and dynamic interaction. The framework is based on the individual and team SA models and elaborates on the cognitive mechanisms for modeling HAT. Similar perceptual cycles are adopted for the individual (including both human and AI) and the whole team, which is tailored to the unique requirements of the HAT context. ATSA emphasizes cohesive and effective HAT through structures and components, including teaming understanding, teaming control, and the world, as well as adhesive transactive part. We further propose several future research directions to expand on the distinctive contributions of ATSA and address the specific and pressing next steps.

9.Adaptation Speed Analysis for Fairness-aware Causal Models

Authors:Yujie Lin, Chen Zhao, Minglai Shao, Xujiang Zhao, Haifeng Chen

Abstract: For example, in machine translation tasks, to achieve bidirectional translation between two languages, the source corpus is often used as the target corpus, which involves the training of two models with opposite directions. The question of which one can adapt most quickly to a domain shift is of significant importance in many fields. Specifically, consider an original distribution p that changes due to an unknown intervention, resulting in a modified distribution p*. In aligning p with p*, several factors can affect the adaptation rate, including the causal dependencies between variables in p. In real-life scenarios, however, we have to consider the fairness of the training process, and it is particularly crucial to involve a sensitive variable (bias) present between a cause and an effect variable. To explore this scenario, we examine a simple structural causal model (SCM) with a cause-bias-effect structure, where variable A acts as a sensitive variable between cause (X) and effect (Y). The two models, respectively, exhibit consistent and contrary cause-effect directions in the cause-bias-effect SCM. After conducting unknown interventions on variables within the SCM, we can simulate some kinds of domain shifts for analysis. We then compare the adaptation speeds of two models across four shift scenarios. Additionally, we prove the connection between the adaptation speeds of the two models across all interventions.

1.Benchmarking Robustness and Generalization in Multi-Agent Systems: A Case Study on Neural MMO

Authors:Yangkun Chen, Joseph Suarez, Junjie Zhang, Chenghui Yu, Bo Wu, Hanmo Chen, Hengman Zhu, Rui Du, Shanliang Qian, Shuai Liu, Weijun Hong, Jinke He, Yibing Zhang, Liang Zhao, Clare Zhu, Julian Togelius, Sharada Mohanty, Jiaxin Chen, Xiu Li, Xiaolong Zhu, Phillip Isola

Abstract: We present the results of the second Neural MMO challenge, hosted at IJCAI 2022, which received 1600+ submissions. This competition targets robustness and generalization in multi-agent systems: participants train teams of agents to complete a multi-task objective against opponents not seen during training. The competition combines relatively complex environment design with large numbers of agents in the environment. The top submissions demonstrate strong success on this task using mostly standard reinforcement learning (RL) methods combined with domain-specific engineering. We summarize the competition design and results and suggest that, as an academic community, competitions may be a powerful approach to solving hard problems and establishing a solid benchmark for algorithms. We will open-source our benchmark including the environment wrapper, baselines, a visualization tool, and selected policies for further research.

2.SharpSAT-TD in Model Counting Competitions 2021-2023

Authors:Tuukka Korhonen, Matti Järvisalo

Abstract: We describe SharpSAT-TD, our submission to the unweighted and weighted tracks of the Model Counting Competition in 2021-2023, which has won in total $6$ first places in different tracks of the competition. SharpSAT-TD is based on SharpSAT [Thurley, SAT 2006], with the primary novel modification being the use of tree decompositions in the variable selection heuristic as introduced by the authors in [CP 2021]. Unlike the version of SharpSAT-TD evaluated in [CP 2021], the current version that is available in features also other significant modifications compared to the original SharpSAT, for example, a new preprocessor.

3.Depth analysis of battery performance based on a data-driven approach

Authors:Zhen Zhang, Hongrui Sun, Hui Sun

Abstract: Capacity attenuation is one of the most intractable issues in the current of application of the cells. The disintegration mechanism is well known to be very complex across the system. It is a great challenge to fully comprehend this process and predict the process accurately. Thus, the machine learning (ML) technology is employed to predict the specific capacity change of the cell throughout the cycle and grasp this intricate procedure. Different from the previous work, according to the WOA-ELM model proposed in this work (R2 = 0.9999871), the key factors affecting the specific capacity of the battery are determined, and the defects in the machine learning black box are overcome by the interpretable model. Their connection with the structural damage of electrode materials and battery failure during battery cycling is comprehensively explained, revealing their essentiality to battery performance, which is conducive to superior research on contemporary batteries and modification.

4.Inductive Learning of Declarative Domain-Specific Heuristics for ASP

Authors:Richard Comploi-Taupe Siemens AG Österreich, Vienna, Austria

Abstract: Domain-specific heuristics are a crucial technique for the efficient solving of problems that are large or computationally hard. Answer Set Programming (ASP) systems support declarative specifications of domain-specific heuristics to improve solving performance. However, such heuristics must be invented manually so far. Inventing domain-specific heuristics for answer-set programs requires expertise with the domain under consideration and familiarity with ASP syntax, semantics, and solving technology. The process of inventing useful heuristics would highly profit from automatic support. This paper presents a novel approach to the automatic learning of such heuristics. We use Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to learn declarative domain-specific heuristics from examples stemming from (near-)optimal answer sets of small but representative problem instances. Our experimental results indicate that the learned heuristics can improve solving performance and solution quality when solving larger, harder instances of the same problem.

5.ABA Learning via ASP

Authors:Emanuele De Angelis IASI-CNR, Rome, Italy, Maurizio Proietti IASI-CNR, Rome, Italy, Francesca Toni Department of Computing, Imperial College London, UK

Abstract: Recently, ABA Learning has been proposed as a form of symbolic machine learning for drawing Assumption-Based Argumentation frameworks from background knowledge and positive and negative examples. We propose a novel method for implementing ABA Learning using Answer Set Programming as a way to help guide Rote Learning and generalisation in ABA Learning.

6.Explanations for Answer Set Programming

Authors:Mario Alviano University of Calabria, Ly Ly Trieu New Mexico State Universty, Tran Cao Son New Mexico State Universty, Marcello Balduccini Saint Joseph's University

Abstract: The paper presents an enhancement of xASP, a system that generates explanation graphs for Answer Set Programming (ASP). Different from xASP, the new system, xASP2, supports different clingo constructs like the choice rules, the constraints, and the aggregates such as #sum, #min. This work formalizes and presents an explainable artificial intelligence system for a broad fragment of ASP, capable of shrinking as much as possible the set of assumptions and presenting explanations in terms of directed acyclic graphs.

7.On the Potential of CLIP for Compositional Logical Reasoning

Authors:Justin Brody Franklin and Marshall College

Abstract: In this paper we explore the possibility of using OpenAI's CLIP to perform logically coherent grounded visual reasoning. To that end, we formalize our terms and give a geometric analysis of how embeddings in CLIP's latent space would need to be configured in order for the system to be logically coherent. Our main conclusion is that, as usually configured, CLIP cannot perform such reasoning.

8.Natlog: Embedding Logic Programming into the Python Deep-Learning Ecosystem

Authors:Paul Tarau University of North Texas

Abstract: Driven by expressiveness commonalities of Python and our Python-based embedded logic-based language Natlog, we design high-level interaction patterns between equivalent language constructs and data types on the two sides. By directly connecting generators and backtracking, nested tuples and terms, coroutines and first-class logic engines, reflection and meta-interpretation, we enable logic-based language constructs to access the full power of the Python ecosystem. We show the effectiveness of our design via Natlog apps working as orchestrators for JAX and Pytorch pipelines and as DCG-driven GPT3 and DALL.E prompt generators. Keyphrases: embedding of logic programming in the Python ecosystem, high-level inter-paradigm data exchanges, coroutining with logic engines, logic-based neuro-symbolic computing, logic grammars as prompt-generators for Large Language Models, logic-based neural network configuration and training.

9.Understanding ProbLog as Probabilistic Argumentation

Authors:Francesca Toni Department of Computing, Imperial College London, UK, Nico Potyka Department of Computing, Imperial College London, UK, Markus Ulbricht Department of Computer Science, Leipzig University, Germany, Pietro Totis Department of Computer Science, KU Leuven, Belgium

Abstract: ProbLog is a popular probabilistic logic programming language/tool, widely used for applications requiring to deal with inherent uncertainties in structured domains. In this paper we study connections between ProbLog and a variant of another well-known formalism combining symbolic reasoning and reasoning under uncertainty, i.e. probabilistic argumentation. Specifically, we show that ProbLog is an instance of a form of Probabilistic Abstract Argumentation (PAA) that builds upon Assumption-Based Argumentation (ABA). The connections pave the way towards equipping ProbLog with alternative semantics, inherited from PAA/PABA, as well as obtaining novel argumentation semantics for PAA/PABA, leveraging on prior connections between ProbLog and argumentation. Further, the connections pave the way towards novel forms of argumentative explanations for ProbLog's outputs.

10.A Logic Programming Approach to Global Logistics in a Co-Design Environment

Authors:Emmanuelle Dietz Airbus Central Research & Technology, Hein-Sass-Weg 22, 21129 Hamburg, Germany, Tobias Philipp secunet Security Networks AG, Germany, Gerrit Schramm Airbus Central Research & Technology, Hein-Sass-Weg 22, 21129 Hamburg, Germany, Andreas Zindel Airbus Central Research & Technology, Hein-Sass-Weg 22, 21129 Hamburg, Germany

Abstract: In a co-design environment changes need to be integrated quickly and in an automated manner. This paper considers the challenge of creating and optimizing a global logistics system for the construction of a passenger aircraft within a co-design approach with respect to key performance indicators (like cost, time or resilience). The product in question is an aircraft, comprised of multiple components, manufactured at multiple sites worldwide. The goal is to find an optimal way to build the aircraft taking into consideration the requirements for its industrial system. The main motivation for approaching this challenge is to develop the industrial system in tandem with the product and making it more resilient against unforeseen events, reducing the risks of bottlenecks in the supply chain. This risk reduction ensures continued efficiency and operational success. To address this challenging and complex task we have chosen Answer Set Programming (ASP) as the modeling language, formalizing the relevant requirements of the investigated industrial system. The approach presented in this paper covers three main aspects: the extraction of the relevant information from a knowledge graph, the translation into logic programs and the computation of existing configurations guided by optimization criteria. Finally we visualize the results for an effortless evaluation of these models. Internal results seem promising and yielded several new research questions for future improvements of the discussed use case.

11.Assessing Drivers' Situation Awareness in Semi-Autonomous Vehicles: ASP based Characterisations of Driving Dynamics for Modelling Scene Interpretation and Projection

Authors:Jakob Suchan German Aerospace Center, Jan-Patrick Osterloh German Aerospace Center

Abstract: Semi-autonomous driving, as it is already available today and will eventually become even more accessible, implies the need for driver and automation system to reliably work together in order to ensure safe driving. A particular challenge in this endeavour are situations in which the vehicle's automation is no longer able to drive and is thus requesting the human to take over. In these situations the driver has to quickly build awareness for the traffic situation to be able to take over control and safely drive the car. Within this context we present a software and hardware framework to asses how aware the driver is about the situation and to provide human-centred assistance to help in building situation awareness. The framework is developed as a modular system within the Robot Operating System (ROS) with modules for sensing the environment and the driver state, modelling the driver's situation awareness, and for guiding the driver's attention using specialized Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs). A particular focus of this paper is on an Answer Set Programming (ASP) based approach for modelling and reasoning about the driver's interpretation and projection of the scene. This is based on scene data, as well as eye-tracking data reflecting the scene elements observed by the driver. We present the overall application and discuss the role of semantic reasoning and modelling cognitive functions based on logic programming in such applications. Furthermore we present the ASP approach for interpretation and projection of the driver's situation awareness and its integration within the overall system in the context of a real-world use-case in simulated as well as in real driving.

12.Nemo: First Glimpse of a New Rule Engine

Authors:Alex Ivliev, Stefan Ellmauthaler, Lukas Gerlach, Maximilian Marx, Matthias Meißner, Simon Meusel, Markus Krötzsch

Abstract: This system demonstration presents Nemo, a new logic programming engine with a focus on reliability and performance. Nemo is built for data-centric analytic computations, modelled in a fully declarative Datalog dialect. Its scalability for these tasks matches or exceeds that of leading Datalog systems. We demonstrate uses in reasoning with knowledge graphs and ontologies with 10^5 to 10^8 input facts, all on a laptop. Nemo is written in Rust and available as a free and open source tool.

13.An xAI Approach for Data-to-Text Processing with ASP

Authors:Alessandro Dal Palù Università di Parma, Italy, Agostino Dovier Università di Udine, Italy, Andrea Formisano Università di Udine, Italy

Abstract: The generation of natural language text from data series gained renewed interest among AI research goals. Not surprisingly, the few proposals in the state of the art are based on training some system, in order to produce a text that describes and that is coherent to the data provided as input. Main challenges of such approaches are the proper identification of "what" to say (the key descriptive elements to be addressed in the data) and "how" to say: the correspondence and accuracy between data and text, the presence of contradictions/redundancy in the text, the control of the amount of synthesis. This paper presents a framework that is compliant with xAI requirements. In particular we model ASP/Python programs that enable an explicit control of accuracy errors and amount of synthesis, with proven optimal solutions. The text description is hierarchically organized, in a top-down structure where text is enriched with further details, according to logic rules. The generation of natural language descriptions' structure is also managed by logic rules.

14.Beyond Traditional Neural Networks: Toward adding Reasoning and Learning Capabilities through Computational Logic Techniques

Authors:Andrea Rafanelli University of Pisa, Italy, University of L'Aquila, Italy

Abstract: Deep Learning (DL) models have become popular for solving complex problems, but they have limitations such as the need for high-quality training data, lack of transparency, and robustness issues. Neuro-Symbolic AI has emerged as a promising approach combining the strengths of neural networks and symbolic reasoning. Symbolic knowledge injection (SKI) techniques are a popular method to incorporate symbolic knowledge into sub-symbolic systems. This work proposes solutions to improve the knowledge injection process and integrate elements of ML and logic into multi-agent systems (MAS).

15.Explainable Answer-set Programming

Authors:Tobias Geibinger TU Wien

Abstract: The interest in explainability in artificial intelligence (AI) is growing vastly due to the near ubiquitous state of AI in our lives and the increasing complexity of AI systems. Answer-set Programming (ASP) is used in many areas, among them are industrial optimisation, knowledge management or life sciences, and thus of great interest in the context of explainability. To ensure the successful application of ASP as a problem-solving paradigm in the future, it is thus crucial to investigate explanations for ASP solutions. Such an explanation generally tries to give an answer to the question of why something is, respectively is not, part of the decision produced or solution to the formulated problem. Although several explanation approaches for ASP exist, almost all of them lack support for certain language features that are used in practice. Most notably, this encompasses the various ASP extensions that have been developed in the recent years to enable reasoning over theories, external computations, or neural networks. This project aims to fill some of these gaps and contribute to the state of the art in explainable ASP. We tackle this by extending the language support of existing approaches but also by the development of novel explanation formalisms, like contrastive explanations.

16.IDVT: Interest-aware Denoising and View-guided Tuning for Social Recommendation

Authors:Dezhao Yang, Jianghong Ma, Shanshan Feng, Haijun Zhang, Zhao Zhang

Abstract: In the information age, recommendation systems are vital for efficiently filtering information and identifying user preferences. Online social platforms have enriched these systems by providing valuable auxiliary information. Socially connected users are assumed to share similar preferences, enhancing recommendation accuracy and addressing cold start issues. However, empirical findings challenge the assumption, revealing that certain social connections can actually harm system performance. Our statistical analysis indicates a significant amount of noise in the social network, where many socially connected users do not share common interests. To address this issue, we propose an innovative \underline{I}nterest-aware \underline{D}enoising and \underline{V}iew-guided \underline{T}uning (IDVT) method for the social recommendation. The first ID part effectively denoises social connections. Specifically, the denoising process considers both social network structure and user interaction interests in a global view. Moreover, in this global view, we also integrate denoised social information (social domain) into the propagation of the user-item interactions (collaborative domain) and aggregate user representations from two domains using a gating mechanism. To tackle potential user interest loss and enhance model robustness within the global view, our second VT part introduces two additional views (local view and dropout-enhanced view) for fine-tuning user representations in the global view through contrastive learning. Extensive evaluations on real-world datasets with varying noise ratios demonstrate the superiority of IDVT over state-of-the-art social recommendation methods.

17.Review of Parameter Tuning Methods for Nature-Inspired Algorithms

Authors:Geethu Joy, Christian Huyck, Xin-She Yang

Abstract: Almost all optimization algorithms have algorithm-dependent parameters, and the setting of such parameter values can largely influence the behaviour of the algorithm under consideration. Thus, proper parameter tuning should be carried out to ensure the algorithm used for optimization may perform well and can be sufficiently robust for solving different types of optimization problems. This chapter reviews some of the main methods for parameter tuning and then highlights the important issues concerning the latest development in parameter tuning. A few open problems are also discussed with some recommendations for future research.

18.Iterative Reward Shaping using Human Feedback for Correcting Reward Misspecification

Authors:Jasmina Gajcin, James McCarthy, Rahul Nair, Radu Marinescu, Elizabeth Daly, Ivana Dusparic

Abstract: A well-defined reward function is crucial for successful training of an reinforcement learning (RL) agent. However, defining a suitable reward function is a notoriously challenging task, especially in complex, multi-objective environments. Developers often have to resort to starting with an initial, potentially misspecified reward function, and iteratively adjusting its parameters, based on observed learned behavior. In this work, we aim to automate this process by proposing ITERS, an iterative reward shaping approach using human feedback for mitigating the effects of a misspecified reward function. Our approach allows the user to provide trajectory-level feedback on agent's behavior during training, which can be integrated as a reward shaping signal in the following training iteration. We also allow the user to provide explanations of their feedback, which are used to augment the feedback and reduce user effort and feedback frequency. We evaluate ITERS in three environments and show that it can successfully correct misspecified reward functions.

19.Vision-Based Traffic Accident Detection and Anticipation: A Survey

Authors:Jianwu Fang, iahuan Qiao, Jianru Xue, Zhengguo Li

Abstract: Traffic accident detection and anticipation is an obstinate road safety problem and painstaking efforts have been devoted. With the rapid growth of video data, Vision-based Traffic Accident Detection and Anticipation (named Vision-TAD and Vision-TAA) become the last one-mile problem for safe driving and surveillance safety. However, the long-tailed, unbalanced, highly dynamic, complex, and uncertain properties of traffic accidents form the Out-of-Distribution (OOD) feature for Vision-TAD and Vision-TAA. Current AI development may focus on these OOD but important problems. What has been done for Vision-TAD and Vision-TAA? What direction we should focus on in the future for this problem? A comprehensive survey is important. We present the first survey on Vision-TAD in the deep learning era and the first-ever survey for Vision-TAA. The pros and cons of each research prototype are discussed in detail during the investigation. In addition, we also provide a critical review of 31 publicly available benchmarks and related evaluation metrics. Through this survey, we want to spawn new insights and open possible trends for Vision-TAD and Vision-TAA tasks.

1.Serving MoE Models on Resource-constrained Edge Devices via Dynamic Expert Swapping

Authors:Rui Kong, Yuanchun Li, Qingtian Feng, Weijun Wang, Linghe Kong, Yunxin Liu

Abstract: Mixture of experts (MoE) is a popular technique in deep learning that improves model capacity with conditionally-activated parallel neural network modules (experts). However, serving MoE models in resource-constrained latency-critical edge scenarios is challenging due to the significantly increased model size and complexity. In this paper, we first analyze the behavior pattern of MoE models in continuous inference scenarios, which leads to three key observations about the expert activations, including temporal locality, exchangeability, and skippable computation. Based on these observations, we introduce PC-MoE, an inference framework for resource-constrained continuous MoE model serving. The core of PC-MoE is a new data structure, Parameter Committee, that intelligently maintains a subset of important experts in use to reduce resource consumption. The optimal configuration of Parameter Committee is found offline by a profiling-guided committee planner, and expert swapping and request handling at runtime are managed by an adaptive committee scheduler. To evaluate the effectiveness of PC-MoE, we conduct experiments using state-of-the-art MoE models on common computer vision and natural language processing tasks. The results demonstrate optimal trade-offs between resource consumption and model accuracy achieved by PC-MoE. For instance, on object detection tasks with the Swin-MoE model, our approach can reduce memory usage and latency by 42.34% and 18.63% with only 0.10% accuracy degradation.

2.A Comprehensive Augmentation Framework for Anomaly Detection

Authors:Jiang Lin, Yaping Yan

Abstract: Data augmentation methods are commonly integrated into the training of anomaly detection models. Previous approaches have primarily focused on replicating real-world anomalies or enhancing diversity, without considering that the standard of anomaly varies across different classes, potentially leading to a biased training distribution.This paper analyzes crucial traits of simulated anomalies that contribute to the training of reconstructive networks and condenses them into several methods, thus creating a comprehensive framework by selectively utilizing appropriate combinations.Furthermore, we integrate this framework with a reconstruction-based approach and concurrently propose a split training strategy that alleviates the issue of overfitting while avoiding introducing interference to the reconstruction process. The evaluations conducted on the MVTec anomaly detection dataset demonstrate that our method outperforms the previous state-of-the-art approach, particularly in terms of object classes.To evaluate generalizability, we generate a simulated dataset comprising anomalies with diverse characteristics since the original test samples only include specific types of anomalies and may lead to biased evaluations. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach exhibits promising potential for generalizing effectively to various unforeseen anomalies encountered in real-world scenarios.

3.LAMBO: Large Language Model Empowered Edge Intelligence

Authors:Li Dong, Feibo Jiang, Yubo Peng, Kezhi Wang, Kun Yang, Cunhua Pan, Robert Schober

Abstract: Next-generation edge intelligence is anticipated to bring huge benefits to various applications, e.g., offloading systems. However, traditional deep offloading architectures face several issues, including heterogeneous constraints, partial perception, uncertain generalization, and lack of tractability. In this context, the integration of offloading with large language models (LLMs) presents numerous advantages. Therefore, we propose an LLM-Based Offloading (LAMBO) framework for mobile edge computing (MEC), which comprises four components: (i) Input embedding (IE), which is used to represent the information of the offloading system with constraints and prompts through learnable vectors with high quality; (ii) Asymmetric encoderdecoder (AED) model, which is a decision-making module with a deep encoder and a shallow decoder. It can achieve high performance based on multi-head self-attention schemes; (iii) Actor-critic reinforcement learning (ACRL) module, which is employed to pre-train the whole AED for different optimization tasks under corresponding prompts; and (iv) Active learning from expert feedback (ALEF), which can be used to finetune the decoder part of the AED while adapting to dynamic environmental changes. Our simulation results corroborate the advantages of the proposed LAMBO framework.

4.Sequential annotations for naturally-occurring HRI: first insights

Authors:Lucien Tisserand ICAR, Frédéric Armetta SyCoSMA, LIRIS, Heike Baldauf-Quilliatre ICAR, Antoine Bouquin SyCoSMA, LIRIS, Salima Hassas SyCoSMA, LIRIS, Mathieu Lefort LIRIS, SyCoSMA

Abstract: We explain the methodology we developed for improving the interactions accomplished by an embedded conversational agent, drawing from Conversation Analytic sequential and multimodal analysis. The use case is a Pepper robot that is expected to inform and orient users in a library. In order to propose and learn better interactive schema, we are creating a corpus of naturally-occurring interactions that will be made available to the community. To do so, we propose an annotation practice based on some theoretical underpinnings about the use of language and multimodal resources in human-robot interaction. CCS CONCEPTS $\bullet$ Computing methodologies $\rightarrow$ Discourse, dialogue and pragmatics; $\bullet$ Human-centered computing $\rightarrow$ Text input; HCI theory, concepts and models; Field studies.

5.Probabilistic Dataset Reconstruction from Interpretable Models

Authors:Julien Ferry LAAS-ROC, Ulrich Aïvodji ETS, Sébastien Gambs UQAM, Marie-José Huguet LAAS-ROC, Mohamed Siala LAAS-ROC

Abstract: Interpretability is often pointed out as a key requirement for trustworthy machine learning. However, learning and releasing models that are inherently interpretable leaks information regarding the underlying training data. As such disclosure may directly conflict with privacy, a precise quantification of the privacy impact of such breach is a fundamental problem. For instance, previous work have shown that the structure of a decision tree can be leveraged to build a probabilistic reconstruction of its training dataset, with the uncertainty of the reconstruction being a relevant metric for the information leak. In this paper, we propose of a novel framework generalizing these probabilistic reconstructions in the sense that it can handle other forms of interpretable models and more generic types of knowledge. In addition, we demonstrate that under realistic assumptions regarding the interpretable models' structure, the uncertainty of the reconstruction can be computed efficiently. Finally, we illustrate the applicability of our approach on both decision trees and rule lists, by comparing the theoretical information leak associated to either exact or heuristic learning algorithms. Our results suggest that optimal interpretable models are often more compact and leak less information regarding their training data than greedily-built ones, for a given accuracy level.

6.AI-Based Facial Emotion Recognition Solutions for Education: A Study of Teacher-User and Other Categories

Authors:R. Yamamoto Ravenor

Abstract: Existing information on AI-based facial emotion recognition (FER) is not easily comprehensible by those outside the field of computer science, requiring cross-disciplinary effort to determine a categorisation framework that promotes the understanding of this technology, and its impact on users. Most proponents classify FER in terms of methodology, implementation and analysis; relatively few by its application in education; and none by its users. This paper is concerned primarily with (potential) teacher-users of FER tools for education. It proposes a three-part classification of these teachers, by orientation, condition and preference, based on a classical taxonomy of affective educational objectives, and related theories. It also compiles and organises the types of FER solutions found in or inferred from the literature into "technology" and "applications" categories, as a prerequisite for structuring the proposed "teacher-user" category. This work has implications for proponents', critics', and users' understanding of the relationship between teachers and FER.

7.Ontologies in Digital Twins: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors:Erkan Karabulut, Salvatore F. Pileggi, Paul Groth, Victoria Degeler

Abstract: Digital Twins (DT) facilitate monitoring and reasoning processes in cyber-physical systems. They have progressively gained popularity over the past years because of intense research activity and industrial advancements. Cognitive Twins is a novel concept, recently coined to refer to the involvement of Semantic Web technology in DTs. Recent studies address the relevance of ontologies and knowledge graphs in the context of DTs, in terms of knowledge representation, interoperability and automatic reasoning. However, there is no comprehensive analysis of how semantic technologies, and specifically ontologies, are utilized within DTs. This Systematic Literature Review (SLR) is based on the analysis of 82 research articles, that either propose or benefit from ontologies with respect to DT. The paper uses different analysis perspectives, including a structural analysis based on a reference DT architecture, and an application-specific analysis to specifically address the different domains, such as Manufacturing and Infrastructure. The review also identifies open issues and possible research directions on the usage of ontologies and knowledge graphs in DTs.

8.Symbolic LTLf Best-Effort Synthesis

Authors:Giuseppe De Giacomo, Gianmarco Parretti, Shufang Zhu

Abstract: We consider an agent acting to fulfil tasks in a nondeterministic environment. When a strategy that fulfills the task regardless of how the environment acts does not exist, the agent should at least avoid adopting strategies that prevent from fulfilling its task. Best-effort synthesis captures this intuition. In this paper, we devise and compare various symbolic approaches for best-effort synthesis in Linear Temporal Logic on finite traces (LTLf). These approaches are based on the same basic components, however they change in how these components are combined, and this has a significant impact on the performance of the approaches as confirmed by our empirical evaluations.

9.LTLf Best-Effort Synthesis in Nondeterministic Planning Domains

Authors:Giuseppe De Giacomo, Gianmarco Parretti, Shufang Zhu

Abstract: We study best-effort strategies (aka plans) in fully observable nondeterministic domains (FOND) for goals expressed in Linear Temporal Logic on Finite Traces (LTLf). The notion of best-effort strategy has been introduced to also deal with the scenario when no agent strategy exists that fulfills the goal against every possible nondeterministic environment reaction. Such strategies fulfill the goal if possible, and do their best to do so otherwise. We present a game-theoretic technique for synthesizing best-effort strategies that exploit the specificity of nondeterministic planning domains. We formally show its correctness and demonstrate its effectiveness experimentally, exhibiting a much greater scalability with respect to a direct best-effort synthesis approach based on re-expressing the planning domain as generic environment specifications.

10.Enhancing Psychological Counseling with Large Language Model: A Multifaceted Decision-Support System for Non-Professionals

Authors:Guanghui Fu, Qing Zhao, Jianqiang Li, Dan Luo, Changwei Song, Wei Zhai, Shuo Liu, Fan Wang, Yan Wang, Lijuan Cheng, Juan Zhang, Bing Xiang Yang

Abstract: In the contemporary landscape of social media, an alarming number of users express negative emotions, some of which manifest as strong suicidal intentions. This situation underscores a profound need for trained psychological counselors who can enact effective mental interventions. However, the development of these professionals is often an imperative but time-consuming task. Consequently, the mobilization of non-professionals or volunteers in this capacity emerges as a pressing concern. Leveraging the capabilities of artificial intelligence, and in particular, the recent advances in large language models, offers a viable solution to this challenge. This paper introduces a novel model constructed on the foundation of large language models to fully assist non-professionals in providing psychological interventions on online user discourses. This framework makes it plausible to harness the power of non-professional counselors in a meaningful way. A comprehensive study was conducted involving ten professional psychological counselors of varying expertise, evaluating the system across five critical dimensions. The findings affirm that our system is capable of analyzing patients' issues with relative accuracy and proffering professional-level strategies recommendations, thereby enhancing support for non-professionals. This research serves as a compelling validation of the application of large language models in the field of psychology and lays the groundwork for a new paradigm of community-based mental health support.

11.Ensemble of Counterfactual Explainers

Authors:Riccardo Guidotti, Salvatore Ruggieri

Abstract: In eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), several counterfactual explainers have been proposed, each focusing on some desirable properties of counterfactual instances: minimality, actionability, stability, diversity, plausibility, discriminative power. We propose an ensemble of counterfactual explainers that boosts weak explainers, which provide only a subset of such properties, to a powerful method covering all of them. The ensemble runs weak explainers on a sample of instances and of features, and it combines their results by exploiting a diversity-driven selection function. The method is model-agnostic and, through a wrapping approach based on autoencoders, it is also data-agnostic.

12.Where Would I Go Next? Large Language Models as Human Mobility Predictors

Authors:Xinglei Wang, Meng Fang, Zichao Zeng, Tao Cheng

Abstract: Accurate human mobility prediction underpins many important applications across a variety of domains, including epidemic modelling, transport planning, and emergency responses. Due to the sparsity of mobility data and the stochastic nature of people's daily activities, achieving precise predictions of people's locations remains a challenge. While recently developed large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated superior performance across numerous language-related tasks, their applicability to human mobility studies remains unexplored. Addressing this gap, this article delves into the potential of LLMs for human mobility prediction tasks. We introduce a novel method, LLM-Mob, which leverages the language understanding and reasoning capabilities of LLMs for analysing human mobility data. We present concepts of historical stays and context stays to capture both long-term and short-term dependencies in human movement and enable time-aware prediction by using time information of the prediction target. Additionally, we design context-inclusive prompts that enable LLMs to generate more accurate predictions. Comprehensive evaluations of our method reveal that LLM-Mob excels in providing accurate and interpretable predictions, highlighting the untapped potential of LLMs in advancing human mobility prediction techniques. We posit that our research marks a significant paradigm shift in human mobility modelling, transitioning from building complex domain-specific models to harnessing general-purpose LLMs that yield accurate predictions through language instructions. The code for this work is available at

13.Natural language to SQL in low-code platforms

Authors:Sofia Aparicio, Samuel Arcadinho, João Nadkarni, David Aparício, João Lages, Mariana Lourenço, Bartłomiej Matejczyk, Filipe Assunção

Abstract: One of the developers' biggest challenges in low-code platforms is retrieving data from a database using SQL queries. Here, we propose a pipeline allowing developers to write natural language (NL) to retrieve data. In this study, we collect, label, and validate data covering the SQL queries most often performed by OutSystems users. We use that data to train a NL model that generates SQL. Alongside this, we describe the entire pipeline, which comprises a feedback loop that allows us to quickly collect production data and use it to retrain our SQL generation model. Using crowd-sourcing, we collect 26k NL and SQL pairs and obtain an additional 1k pairs from production data. Finally, we develop a UI that allows developers to input a NL query in a prompt and receive a user-friendly representation of the resulting SQL query. We use A/B testing to compare four different models in production and observe a 240% improvement in terms of adoption of the feature, 220% in terms of engagement rate, and a 90% decrease in failure rate when compared against the first model that we put into production, showcasing the effectiveness of our pipeline in continuously improving our feature.

14.Empowering LLM to use Smartphone for Intelligent Task Automation

Authors:Hao Wen, Yuanchun Li, Guohong Liu, Shanhui Zhao, Tao Yu, Toby Jia-Jun Li, Shiqi Jiang, Yunhao Liu, Yaqin Zhang, Yunxin Liu

Abstract: Mobile task automation is an attractive technique that aims to enable voice-based hands-free user interaction with smartphones. However, existing approaches suffer from poor scalability due to the limited language understanding ability and the non-trivial manual efforts required from developers or end-users. The recent advance of large language models (LLMs) in language understanding and reasoning inspires us to rethink the problem from a model-centric perspective, where task preparation, comprehension, and execution are handled by a unified language model. In this work, we introduce AutoDroid, a mobile task automation system that can handle arbitrary tasks on any Android application without manual efforts. The key insight is to combine the commonsense knowledge of LLMs and domain-specific knowledge of apps through automated dynamic analysis. The main components include a functionality-aware UI representation method that bridges the UI with the LLM, exploration-based memory injection techniques that augment the app-specific domain knowledge of LLM, and a multi-granularity query optimization module that reduces the cost of model inference. We integrate AutoDroid with off-the-shelf LLMs including online GPT-4/GPT-3.5 and on-device Vicuna, and evaluate its performance on a new benchmark for memory-augmented Android task automation with 158 common tasks. The results demonstrated that AutoDroid is able to precisely generate actions with an accuracy of 90.9%, and complete tasks with a success rate of 71.3%, outperforming the GPT-4-powered baselines by 36.4% and 39.7%. The demo, benchmark suites, and source code of AutoDroid will be released at

15.FedLogic: Interpretable Federated Multi-Domain Chain-of-Thought Prompt Selection for Large Language Models

Authors:Pengwei Xing, Songtao Lu, Han Yu

Abstract: Leveraging ``chain-of-thought (CoT)'' reasoning to elicit rapid and precise responses from large language models (LLMs) is rapidly attracting research interest. A notable challenge here is how to design or select optimal prompts. The process of prompt selection relies on trial and error, involving continuous adjustments and combinations of input prompts by users based on the corresponding new responses generated from LLMs. Furthermore, minimal research has been conducted to explore how LLMs employ the mathematical problem-solving capabilities learned from user interactions to address issues in narrative writing. To improve interpretability and explore the balance principle between generality and personalization under a multi-domain CoT prompt selection scenario, we propose the Federated Logic rule learning approach (FedLogic). We introduce a theoretical formalization and interactive emulation of the multi-domain CoT prompt selection dilemma in the context of federated LLMs. We cast the problem of joint probability modeling as a bilevel program, where the CoT prompt selection intricacy can be likened to a fuzzy score-based rule selection with the LLMs function as rule generators. FedLogic solves this problem through variational expectation maximization (V-EM). In addition, we incorporate two KL-divergence constraints within this probabilistic modeling framework to surmount the intricacies of managing extensive search spaces and accomplishing cross-domain personalization of CoTs. To the best of our knowledge, FedLogic is the first interpretable and principled federated multi-domain CoT prompt selection approach for LLMs.

16.AI Framework for Early Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Integration of Borderline SMOTE, Autoencoders and Convolutional Neural Networks Approach

Authors:Elham Nasarian, Danial Sharifrazi, Saman Mohsenirad, Kwok Tsui, Roohallah Alizadehsani

Abstract: The accuracy of coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis is dependent on a variety of factors, including demographic, symptom, and medical examination, ECG, and echocardiography data, among others. In this context, artificial intelligence (AI) can help clinicians identify high-risk patients early in the diagnostic process, by synthesizing information from multiple factors. To this aim, Machine Learning algorithms are used to classify patients based on their CAD disease risk. In this study, we contribute to this research filed by developing a methodology for balancing and augmenting data for more accurate prediction when the data is imbalanced and the sample size is small. The methodology can be used in a variety of other situations, particularly when data collection is expensive and the sample size is small. The experimental results revealed that the average accuracy of our proposed method for CAD prediction was 95.36, and was higher than random forest (RF), decision tree (DT), support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression (LR), and artificial neural network (ANN).

17.Bayesian Integration of Information Using Top-Down Modulated WTA Networks

Authors:Otto van der Himst, Leila Bagheriye, Johan Kwisthout

Abstract: Winner Take All (WTA) circuits a type of Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) have been suggested as facilitating the brain's ability to process information in a Bayesian manner. Research has shown that WTA circuits are capable of approximating hierarchical Bayesian models via Expectation Maximization (EM). So far, research in this direction has focused on bottom up processes. This is contrary to neuroscientific evidence that shows that, besides bottom up processes, top down processes too play a key role in information processing by the human brain. Several functions ascribed to top down processes include direction of attention, adjusting for expectations, facilitation of encoding and recall of learned information, and imagery. This paper explores whether WTA circuits are suitable for further integrating information represented in separate WTA networks. Furthermore, it explores whether, and under what circumstances, top down processes can improve WTA network performance with respect to inference and learning. The results show that WTA circuits are capable of integrating the probabilistic information represented by other WTA networks, and that top down processes can improve a WTA network's inference and learning performance. Notably, it is able to do this according to key neuromorphic principles, making it ideal for low-latency and energy efficient implementation on neuromorphic hardware.

18.Decentralized Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning based State-of-Charge Balancing Strategy for Distributed Energy Storage System

Authors:Zheng Xiong, Biao Luo, Bing-Chuan Wang, Xiaodong Xu, Xiaodong Liu, Tingwen Huang

Abstract: This paper develops a Decentralized Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (Dec-MARL) method to solve the SoC balancing problem in the distributed energy storage system (DESS). First, the SoC balancing problem is formulated into a finite Markov decision process with action constraints derived from demand balance, which can be solved by Dec-MARL. Specifically, the first-order average consensus algorithm is utilized to expand the observations of the DESS state in a fully-decentralized way, and the initial actions (i.e., output power) are decided by the agents (i.e., energy storage units) according to these observations. In order to get the final actions in the allowable range, a counterfactual demand balance algorithm is proposed to balance the total demand and the initial actions. Next, the agents execute the final actions and get local rewards from the environment, and the DESS steps into the next state. Finally, through the first-order average consensus algorithm, the agents get the average reward and the expended observation of the next state for later training. By the above procedure, Dec-MARL reveals outstanding performance in a fully-decentralized system without any expert experience or constructing any complicated model. Besides, it is flexible and can be extended to other decentralized multi-agent systems straightforwardly. Extensive simulations have validated the effectiveness and efficiency of Dec-MARL.

1.Spread Control Method on Unknown Networks Based on Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Wenxiang Dong, H. Vicky Zhao

Abstract: The spread of infectious diseases, rumors, and harmful speech in networks can result in substantial losses, underscoring the significance of studying how to suppress such hazardous events. However, previous studies often assume full knowledge of the network structure, which is often not the case in real-world scenarios. In this paper, we address the challenge of controlling the propagation of hazardous events by removing nodes when the network structure is unknown. To tackle this problem, we propose a hierarchical reinforcement learning method that drastically reduces the action space, making the problem feasible to solve. Simulation experiments demonstrate the superiority of our method over the baseline methods. Remarkably, even though the baseline methods possess extensive knowledge of the network structure, while our method has no prior information about it, our approach still achieves better results.

2.Towards solving ontological dissonance using network graphs

Authors:Maximilian Staebler, Frank Koester, Christoph Schlueter-Langdon

Abstract: Data Spaces are an emerging concept for the trusted implementation of data-based applications and business models, offering a high degree of flexibility and sovereignty to all stakeholders. As Data Spaces are currently emerging in different domains such as mobility, health or food, semantic interfaces need to be identified and implemented to ensure the technical interoperability of these Data Spaces. This paper consolidates data models from 13 different domains and analyzes the ontological dissonance of these domains. Using a network graph, central data models and ontology attributes are identified, while the semantic heterogeneity of these domains is described qualitatively. The research outlook describes how these results help to connect different Data Spaces across domains.

3.Cognitive Effects in Large Language Models

Authors:Jonathan Shaki, Sarit Kraus, Michael Wooldridge

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT have received enormous attention over the past year and are now used by hundreds of millions of people every day. The rapid adoption of this technology naturally raises questions about the possible biases such models might exhibit. In this work, we tested one of these models (GPT-3) on a range of cognitive effects, which are systematic patterns that are usually found in human cognitive tasks. We found that LLMs are indeed prone to several human cognitive effects. Specifically, we show that the priming, distance, SNARC, and size congruity effects were presented with GPT-3, while the anchoring effect is absent. We describe our methodology, and specifically the way we converted real-world experiments to text-based experiments. Finally, we speculate on the possible reasons why GPT-3 exhibits these effects and discuss whether they are imitated or reinvented.

4.Effect of Attention and Self-Supervised Speech Embeddings on Non-Semantic Speech Tasks

Authors:Payal Mohapatra, Akash Pandey, Yueyuan Sui, Qi Zhu

Abstract: Human emotion understanding is pivotal in making conversational technology mainstream. We view speech emotion understanding as a perception task which is a more realistic setting. With varying contexts (languages, demographics, etc.) different share of people perceive the same speech segment as a non-unanimous emotion. As part of the ACM Multimedia 2023 Computational Paralinguistics ChallengE (ComParE) in the EMotion Share track, we leverage their rich dataset of multilingual speakers and multi-label regression target of 'emotion share' or perception of that emotion. We demonstrate that the training scheme of different foundation models dictates their effectiveness for tasks beyond speech recognition, especially for non-semantic speech tasks like emotion understanding. This is a very complex task due to multilingual speakers, variability in the target labels, and inherent imbalance in the regression dataset. Our results show that HuBERT-Large with a self-attention-based light-weight sequence model provides 4.6% improvement over the reported baseline.

5.Rethinking Mobile AI Ecosystem in the LLM Era

Authors:Jinliang Yuan, Chen Yang, Dongqi Cai, Shihe Wang, Xin Yuan, Zeling Zhang, Xiang Li, Dingge Zhang, Hanzi Mei, Xianqing Jia, Shangguang Wang, Mengwei Xu

Abstract: In today's landscape, smartphones have evolved into hubs for hosting a multitude of deep learning models aimed at local execution. A key realization driving this work is the notable fragmentation among these models, characterized by varied architectures, operators, and implementations. This fragmentation imposes a significant burden on the comprehensive optimization of hardware, system settings, and algorithms. Buoyed by the recent strides in large foundation models, this work introduces a pioneering paradigm for mobile AI: a collaborative management approach between the mobile OS and hardware, overseeing a foundational model capable of serving a broad spectrum of mobile AI tasks, if not all. This foundational model resides within the NPU and remains impervious to app or OS revisions, akin to firmware. Concurrently, each app contributes a concise, offline fine-tuned "adapter" tailored to distinct downstream tasks. From this concept emerges a concrete instantiation known as \sys. It amalgamates a curated selection of publicly available Large Language Models (LLMs) and facilitates dynamic data flow. This concept's viability is substantiated through the creation of an exhaustive benchmark encompassing 38 mobile AI tasks spanning 50 datasets, including domains such as Computer Vision (CV), Natural Language Processing (NLP), audio, sensing, and multimodal inputs. Spanning this benchmark, \sys unveils its impressive performance. It attains accuracy parity in 85\% of tasks, demonstrates improved scalability in terms of storage and memory, and offers satisfactory inference speed on Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) mobile devices fortified with NPU support. This stands in stark contrast to task-specific models tailored for individual applications.

6.Model-based learning for location-to-channel mapping

Authors:Baptiste Chatelier IETR, MERCE-France, INSA Rennes, Luc Le Magoarou IETR, INSA Rennes, Vincent Corlay MERCE-France, Matthieu Crussière IETR, INSA Rennes

Abstract: Modern communication systems rely on accurate channel estimation to achieve efficient and reliable transmission of information. As the communication channel response is highly related to the user's location, one can use a neural network to map the user's spatial coordinates to the channel coefficients. However, these latter are rapidly varying as a function of the location, on the order of the wavelength. Classical neural architectures being biased towards learning low frequency functions (spectral bias), such mapping is therefore notably difficult to learn. In order to overcome this limitation, this paper presents a frugal, model-based network that separates the low frequency from the high frequency components of the target mapping function. This yields an hypernetwork architecture where the neural network only learns low frequency sparse coefficients in a dictionary of high frequency components. Simulation results show that the proposed neural network outperforms standard approaches on realistic synthetic data.

7.ASCAPE: An open AI ecosystem to support the quality of life of cancer patients

Authors:Konstantinos Lampropoulos, Thanos Kosmidis, Serge Autexier, Milos Savic, Manos Athanatos, Miltiadis Kokkonidis, Tzortzia Koutsouri, Anamaria Vizitiu, Antonios Valachis, Miriam Quintero Padron

Abstract: The latest cancer statistics indicate a decrease in cancer-related mortality. However, due to the growing and ageing population, the absolute number of people living with cancer is set to keep increasing. This paper presents ASCAPE, an open AI infrastructure that takes advantage of the recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) to support cancer patients quality of life (QoL). With ASCAPE health stakeholders (e.g. hospitals) can locally process their private medical data and then share the produced knowledge (ML models) through the open AI infrastructure.

8.Causality-Based Feature Importance Quantifying Methods:PN-FI, PS-FI and PNS-FI

Authors:Shuxian Du, Yaxiu Sun, Changyi Du

Abstract: In current ML field models are getting larger and more complex, data we use are also getting larger in quantity and higher in dimension, so in order to train better models, save training time and computational resources, a good Feature Selection (FS) method in preprocessing stage is necessary. Feature importance (FI) is of great importance since it is the basis of feature selection. This paper creatively introduces the calculation of PNS(the probability of Necessity and Sufficiency) in Causality into quantifying feature importance and creates new FI measuring methods: PN-FI, which means how much importance a feature has in image recognition tasks, PS_FI that means how much importance a feature has in image generating tasks, and PNS_FI which measures both. The main body of this paper is three RCTs, with whose results we show how PS_FI, PN_FI and PNS_FI of three features: dog nose, dog eyes and dog mouth are calculated. The FI values are intervals with tight upper and lower bounds.

9.Interactive Multi Interest Process Pattern Discovery

Authors:Mozhgan Vazifehdoostirani, Laura Genga, Xixi Lu, Rob Verhoeven, Hanneke van Laarhoven, Remco Dijkman

Abstract: Process pattern discovery methods (PPDMs) aim at identifying patterns of interest to users. Existing PPDMs typically are unsupervised and focus on a single dimension of interest, such as discovering frequent patterns. We present an interactive multi interest driven framework for process pattern discovery aimed at identifying patterns that are optimal according to a multi-dimensional analysis goal. The proposed approach is iterative and interactive, thus taking experts knowledge into account during the discovery process. The paper focuses on a concrete analysis goal, i.e., deriving process patterns that affect the process outcome. We evaluate the approach on real world event logs in both interactive and fully automated settings. The approach extracted meaningful patterns validated by expert knowledge in the interactive setting. Patterns extracted in the automated settings consistently led to prediction performance comparable to or better than patterns derived considering single interest dimensions without requiring user defined thresholds.

10.Context-Aware Composition of Agent Policies by Markov Decision Process Entity Embeddings and Agent Ensembles

Authors:Nicole Merkle, Ralf Mikut

Abstract: Computational agents support humans in many areas of life and are therefore found in heterogeneous contexts. This means that agents operate in rapidly changing environments and can be confronted with huge state and action spaces. In order to perform services and carry out activities in a goal-oriented manner, agents require prior knowledge and therefore have to develop and pursue context-dependent policies. The problem is that prescribing policies in advance is limited and inflexible, especially in dynamically changing environments. Moreover, the context of an agent determines its choice of actions. Since the environments in which agents operate can be stochastic and complex in terms of the number of states and feasible actions, activities are usually modelled in a simplified way by Markov decision processes so that agents with reinforcement learning are able to learn policies that help to capture the context and act accordingly to optimally perform activities. However, training policies for all possible contexts using reinforcement learning is time-consuming. A requirement and challenge for agents is to learn strategies quickly and respond immediately in cross-context environments and applications. In this work, we propose a novel simulation-based approach that enables a) the representation of heterogeneous contexts through knowledge graphs and entity embeddings and b) the context-aware composition of policies on demand by ensembles of agents running in parallel. The evaluation we performed on the "Virtual Home" dataset indicates that agents that need to seamlessly switch between different contexts, can request on-the-fly composed policies that lead to the successful completion of context-appropriate activities without having to learn these policies in lengthy training steps and episodes, in contrast to agents that apply reinforcement learning.

11.ReMAV: Reward Modeling of Autonomous Vehicles for Finding Likely Failure Events

Authors:Aizaz Sharif, Dusica Marijan

Abstract: Autonomous vehicles are advanced driving systems that are well known for being vulnerable to various adversarial attacks, compromising the vehicle's safety, and posing danger to other road users. Rather than actively training complex adversaries by interacting with the environment, there is a need to first intelligently find and reduce the search space to only those states where autonomous vehicles are found less confident. In this paper, we propose a blackbox testing framework ReMAV using offline trajectories first to analyze the existing behavior of autonomous vehicles and determine appropriate thresholds for finding the probability of failure events. Our reward modeling technique helps in creating a behavior representation that allows us to highlight regions of likely uncertain behavior even when the baseline autonomous vehicle is performing well. This approach allows for more efficient testing without the need for computational and inefficient active adversarial learning techniques. We perform our experiments in a high-fidelity urban driving environment using three different driving scenarios containing single and multi-agent interactions. Our experiment shows 35%, 23%, 48%, and 50% increase in occurrences of vehicle collision, road objects collision, pedestrian collision, and offroad steering events respectively by the autonomous vehicle under test, demonstrating a significant increase in failure events. We also perform a comparative analysis with prior testing frameworks and show that they underperform in terms of training-testing efficiency, finding total infractions, and simulation steps to identify the first failure compared to our approach. The results show that the proposed framework can be used to understand existing weaknesses of the autonomous vehicles under test in order to only attack those regions, starting with the simplistic perturbation models.

12.Learning Visual Tracking and Reaching with Deep Reinforcement Learning on a UR10e Robotic Arm

Authors:Colin Bellinger, Laurence Lamarche-Cliche

Abstract: As technology progresses, industrial and scientific robots are increasingly being used in diverse settings. In many cases, however, programming the robot to perform such tasks is technically complex and costly. To maximize the utility of robots in industrial and scientific settings, they require the ability to quickly shift from one task to another. Reinforcement learning algorithms provide the potential to enable robots to learn optimal solutions to complete new tasks without directly reprogramming them. The current state-of-the-art in reinforcement learning, however, generally relies on fast simulations and parallelization to achieve optimal performance. These are often not possible in robotics applications. Thus, a significant amount of research is required to facilitate the efficient and safe, training and deployment of industrial and scientific reinforcement learning robots. This technical report outlines our initial research into the application of deep reinforcement learning on an industrial UR10e robot. The report describes the reinforcement learning environments created to facilitate policy learning with the UR10e, a robotic arm from Universal Robots, and presents our initial results in training deep Q-learning and proximal policy optimization agents on the developed reinforcement learning environments. Our results show that proximal policy optimization learns a better, more stable policy with less data than deep Q-learning. The corresponding code for this work is available at \url{}

13.DeepHealthNet: Adolescent Obesity Prediction System Based on a Deep Learning Framework

Authors:Ji-Hoon Jeong, In-Gyu Lee, Sung-Kyung Kim, Tae-Eui Kam, Seong-Whan Lee, Euijong Lee

Abstract: Childhood and adolescent obesity rates are a global concern because obesity is associated with chronic diseases and long-term health risks. Artificial intelligence technology has emerged as a promising solution to accurately predict obesity rates and provide personalized feedback to adolescents. This study emphasizes the importance of early identification and prevention of obesity-related health issues. Factors such as height, weight, waist circumference, calorie intake, physical activity levels, and other relevant health information need to be considered for developing robust algorithms for obesity rate prediction and delivering personalized feedback. Hence, by collecting health datasets from 321 adolescents, we proposed an adolescent obesity prediction system that provides personalized predictions and assists individuals in making informed health decisions. Our proposed deep learning framework, DeepHealthNet, effectively trains the model using data augmentation techniques, even when daily health data are limited, resulting in improved prediction accuracy (acc: 0.8842). Additionally, the study revealed variations in the prediction of the obesity rate between boys (acc: 0.9320) and girls (acc: 0.9163), allowing the identification of disparities and the determination of the optimal time to provide feedback. The proposed system shows significant potential in effectively addressing childhood and adolescent obesity.

14.Hierarchical Time Series Forecasting with Bayesian Modeling

Authors:Gal Elgavish

Abstract: We encounter time series data in many domains such as finance, physics, business, and weather. One of the main tasks of time series analysis, one that helps to take informed decisions under uncertainty, is forecasting. Time series are often hierarchically structured, e.g., a company sales might be broken down into different regions, and each region into different stores. In some cases the number of series in the hierarchy is too big to fit in a single model to produce forecasts in relevant time, and a decentralized approach is beneficial. One way to do this is to train independent forecasting models for each series and for some summary statistics series implied by the hierarchy (e.g. the sum of all series) and to pass those models to a reconciliation algorithm to improve those forecasts by sharing information between the series. In this work we focus on the reconciliation step, and propose a method to do so from a Bayesian perspective - Bayesian forecast reconciliation. We also define the common case of linear Gaussian reconciliation, where the forecasts are Gaussian and the hierarchy has linear structure, and show that we can compute reconciliation in closed form. We evaluate these methods on synthetic and real data sets, and compare them to other work in this field.

15.Bayesian artificial brain with ChatGPT

Authors:Renato A. Krohling

Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the mathematical problem-solving capabilities of Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (ChatGPT) in case of Bayesian reasoning. The study draws inspiration from Zhu & Gigerenzer's research in 2006, which posed the question: Can children reason the Bayesian way? In the pursuit of answering this question, a set of 10 Bayesian reasoning problems were presented. The results of their work revealed that children's ability to reason effectively using Bayesian principles is contingent upon a well-structured information representation. In this paper, we present the same set of 10 Bayesian reasoning problems to ChatGPT. Remarkably, the results demonstrate that ChatGPT provides the right solutions to all problems.

1.Formalising Natural Language Quantifiers for Human-Robot Interactions

Authors:Stefan Morar, Adrian Groza, Mihai Pomarlan

Abstract: We present a method for formalising quantifiers in natural language in the context of human-robot interactions. The solution is based on first-order logic extended with capabilities to represent the cardinality of variables, operating similarly to generalised quantifiers. To demonstrate the method, we designed an end-to-end system able to receive input as natural language, convert it into a formal logical representation, evaluate it, and return a result or send a command to a simulated robot.

2.Transforming the Output of Generative Pre-trained Transformer: The Influence of the PGI Framework on Attention Dynamics

Authors:Aline Ioste

Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach named Persona-Grouping-Intelligence (PGI), which has been crafted to tackle the challenges posed by GPT models when applied to real-world business issues. PGI leverages the inherent capabilities of the GPT model to comprehend intricate language structures and generate responses that are contextually relevant. The experiment occurred in a business scenario where human intelligence was being underutilized due to less optimized business processes. The primary objective of this approach is to leverage GPT models to reduce the workload on humans in tasks that are extensive, monotonous, and repetitive. Instead, the focus is redirected toward decision-making activities. Remarkably, the experiment yielded an accuracy rate of 93.81% in validating 4,000 responses generated by the model, underscoring the effectiveness of the PGI strategies. Effectively addressing the issue of underutilized human intelligence, this paradigm shift aligns business environments with dynamic machine intelligence, enabling them to navigate the intricacies of real-world challenges. This approach facilitates the practical utilization of these models to tackle actual problems. The methodology offers an opportunity to reshape the fundamental structure of business processes by seamlessly integrating human decision-making with adaptable machine intelligence. Consequently, this optimization enhances operational efficiency and elevates strategic decision-making across diverse business contexts.

3.Representing Timed Automata and Timing Anomalies of Cyber-Physical Production Systems in Knowledge Graphs

Authors:Tom Westermann, Milapji Singh Gill, Alexander Fay

Abstract: Model-Based Anomaly Detection has been a successful approach to identify deviations from the expected behavior of Cyber-Physical Production Systems. Since manual creation of these models is a time-consuming process, it is advantageous to learn them from data and represent them in a generic formalism like timed automata. However, these models - and by extension, the detected anomalies - can be challenging to interpret due to a lack of additional information about the system. This paper aims to improve model-based anomaly detection in CPPS by combining the learned timed automaton with a formal knowledge graph about the system. Both the model and the detected anomalies are described in the knowledge graph in order to allow operators an easier interpretation of the model and the detected anomalies. The authors additionally propose an ontology of the necessary concepts. The approach was validated on a five-tank mixing CPPS and was able to formally define both automata model as well as timing anomalies in automata execution.

1.LR-XFL: Logical Reasoning-based Explainable Federated Learning

Authors:Yanci Zhang, Han Yu

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) is an emerging approach for training machine learning models collaboratively while preserving data privacy. The need for privacy protection makes it difficult for FL models to achieve global transparency and explainability. To address this limitation, we incorporate logic-based explanations into FL by proposing the Logical Reasoning-based eXplainable Federated Learning (LR-XFL) approach. Under LR-XFL, FL clients create local logic rules based on their local data and send them, along with model updates, to the FL server. The FL server connects the local logic rules through a proper logical connector that is derived based on properties of client data, without requiring access to the raw data. In addition, the server also aggregates the local model updates with weight values determined by the quality of the clients' local data as reflected by their uploaded logic rules. The results show that LR-XFL outperforms the most relevant baseline by 1.19%, 5.81% and 5.41% in terms of classification accuracy, rule accuracy and rule fidelity, respectively. The explicit rule evaluation and expression under LR-XFL enable human experts to validate and correct the rules on the server side, hence improving the global FL model's robustness to errors. It has the potential to enhance the transparency of FL models for areas like healthcare and finance where both data privacy and explainability are important.

2.SayCanPay: Heuristic Planning with Large Language Models using Learnable Domain Knowledge

Authors:Rishi Hazra, Pedro Zuidberg Dos Martires, Luc De Raedt

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive planning abilities due to their vast "world knowledge". Yet, obtaining plans that are both feasible (grounded in affordances) and cost-effective (in plan length), remains a challenge, despite recent progress. This contrasts with heuristic planning methods that employ domain knowledge (formalized in action models such as PDDL) and heuristic search to generate feasible, optimal plans. Inspired by this, we propose to combine the power of LLMs and heuristic planning by leveraging the world knowledge of LLMs and the principles of heuristic search. Our approach, SayCanPay, employs LLMs to generate actions (Say) guided by learnable domain knowledge, that evaluates actions' feasibility (Can) and long-term reward/payoff (Pay), and heuristic search to select the best sequence of actions. Our contributions are (1) a novel framing of the LLM planning problem in the context of heuristic planning, (2) integrating grounding and cost-effective elements into the generated plans, and (3) using heuristic search over actions. Our extensive evaluations show that our model surpasses other LLM planning approaches.

3.Human Comprehensible Active Learning of Genome-Scale Metabolic Networks

Authors:Lun Ai, Shi-Shun Liang, Wang-Zhou Dai, Liam Hallett, Stephen H. Muggleton, Geoff S. Baldwin

Abstract: An important application of Synthetic Biology is the engineering of the host cell system to yield useful products. However, an increase in the scale of the host system leads to huge design space and requires a large number of validation trials with high experimental costs. A comprehensible machine learning approach that efficiently explores the hypothesis space and guides experimental design is urgently needed for the Design-Build-Test-Learn (DBTL) cycle of the host cell system. We introduce a novel machine learning framework ILP-iML1515 based on Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) that performs abductive logical reasoning and actively learns from training examples. In contrast to numerical models, ILP-iML1515 is built on comprehensible logical representations of a genome-scale metabolic model and can update the model by learning new logical structures from auxotrophic mutant trials. The ILP-iML1515 framework 1) allows high-throughput simulations and 2) actively selects experiments that reduce the experimental cost of learning gene functions in comparison to randomly selected experiments.

4.Acquiring Qualitative Explainable Graphs for Automated Driving Scene Interpretation

Authors:Nassim Belmecheri, Arnaud Gotlieb, Nadjib Lazaar, Helge Spieker

Abstract: The future of automated driving (AD) is rooted in the development of robust, fair and explainable artificial intelligence methods. Upon request, automated vehicles must be able to explain their decisions to the driver and the car passengers, to the pedestrians and other vulnerable road users and potentially to external auditors in case of accidents. However, nowadays, most explainable methods still rely on quantitative analysis of the AD scene representations captured by multiple sensors. This paper proposes a novel representation of AD scenes, called Qualitative eXplainable Graph (QXG), dedicated to qualitative spatiotemporal reasoning of long-term scenes. The construction of this graph exploits the recent Qualitative Constraint Acquisition paradigm. Our experimental results on NuScenes, an open real-world multi-modal dataset, show that the qualitative eXplainable graph of an AD scene composed of 40 frames can be computed in real-time and light in space storage which makes it a potentially interesting tool for improved and more trustworthy perception and control processes in AD.

5.Job Shop Scheduling Benchmark: Environments and Instances for Learning and Non-learning Methods

Authors:Robbert Reijnen, Kjell van Straaten, Zaharah Bukhsh, Yingqian Zhang

Abstract: We introduce an open-source GitHub repository containing comprehensive benchmarks for a wide range of machine scheduling problems, including Job Shop Scheduling (JSP), Flow Shop Scheduling (FSP), Flexible Job Shop Scheduling (FJSP), FJSP with Assembly constraints (FAJSP), FJSP with Sequence-Dependent Setup Times (FJSP-SDST), and the online FJSP (with online job arrivals). Our primary goal is to provide a centralized hub for researchers, practitioners, and enthusiasts interested in tackling machine scheduling challenges.

6.Short Run Transit Route Planning Decision Support System Using a Deep Learning-Based Weighted Graph

Authors:Nadav Shalit, Michael Fire, Dima Kagan, Eran Ben-Elia

Abstract: Public transport routing plays a crucial role in transit network design, ensuring a satisfactory level of service for passengers. However, current routing solutions rely on traditional operational research heuristics, which can be time-consuming to implement and lack the ability to provide quick solutions. Here, we propose a novel deep learning-based methodology for a decision support system that enables public transport (PT) planners to identify short-term route improvements rapidly. By seamlessly adjusting specific sections of routes between two stops during specific times of the day, our method effectively reduces times and enhances PT services. Leveraging diverse data sources such as GTFS and smart card data, we extract features and model the transportation network as a directed graph. Using self-supervision, we train a deep learning model for predicting lateness values for road segments. These lateness values are then utilized as edge weights in the transportation graph, enabling efficient path searching. Through evaluating the method on Tel Aviv, we are able to reduce times on more than 9\% of the routes. The improved routes included both intraurban and suburban routes showcasing a fact highlighting the model's versatility. The findings emphasize the potential of our data-driven decision support system to enhance public transport and city logistics, promoting greater efficiency and reliability in PT services.

1.Towards CausalGPT: A Multi-Agent Approach for Faithful Knowledge Reasoning via Promoting Causal Consistency in LLMs

Authors:Ziyi Tang, Ruilin Wang, Weixing Chen, Keze Wang, Yang Liu, Tianshui Chen, Liang Lin

Abstract: Despite advancements in LLMs, knowledge-based reasoning remains a longstanding issue due to the fragility of knowledge recall and inference. Existing methods primarily encourage LLMs to autonomously plan and solve problems or to extensively sample reasoning chains without addressing the conceptual and inferential fallacies. Attempting to alleviate inferential fallacies and drawing inspiration from multi-agent collaboration, we present a framework to increase faithfulness and causality for knowledge-based reasoning. Specifically, we propose to employ multiple intelligent agents (i.e., reasoner and causal evaluator) to work collaboratively in a reasoning-and-consensus paradigm for elevated reasoning faithfulness. The reasoners focus on providing solutions with human-like causality to solve open-domain problems. On the other hand, the causal evaluator agent scrutinizes if the answer in a solution is causally deducible from the question and vice versa, with a counterfactual answer replacing the original. According to the extensive and comprehensive evaluations on a variety of knowledge reasoning tasks (e.g., science question answering and commonsense reasoning), our framework outperforms all compared state-of-the-art approaches by large margins.

2.From Instructions to Intrinsic Human Values -- A Survey of Alignment Goals for Big Models

Authors:Jing Yao, Xiaoyuan Yi, Xiting Wang, Jindong Wang, Xing Xie

Abstract: Big models, exemplified by Large Language Models (LLMs), are models typically pre-trained on massive data and comprised of enormous parameters, which not only obtain significantly improved performance across diverse tasks but also present emergent capabilities absent in smaller models. However, the growing intertwining of big models with everyday human lives poses potential risks and might cause serious social harm. Therefore, many efforts have been made to align LLMs with humans to make them better follow user instructions and satisfy human preferences. Nevertheless, `what to align with' has not been fully discussed, and inappropriate alignment goals might even backfire. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of different alignment goals in existing work and trace their evolution paths to help identify the most essential goal. Particularly, we investigate related works from two perspectives: the definition of alignment goals and alignment evaluation. Our analysis encompasses three distinct levels of alignment goals and reveals a goal transformation from fundamental abilities to value orientation, indicating the potential of intrinsic human values as the alignment goal for enhanced LLMs. Based on such results, we further discuss the challenges of achieving such intrinsic value alignment and provide a collection of available resources for future research on the alignment of big models.

1.Evaluating Large Language Models on Graphs: Performance Insights and Comparative Analysis

Authors:Chang Liu, Bo Wu

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) have garnered considerable interest within both academic and industrial. Yet, the application of LLMs to graph data remains under-explored. In this study, we evaluate the capabilities of four LLMs in addressing several analytical problems with graph data. We employ four distinct evaluation metrics: Comprehension, Correctness, Fidelity, and Rectification. Our results show that: 1) LLMs effectively comprehend graph data in natural language and reason with graph topology. 2) GPT models can generate logical and coherent results, outperforming alternatives in correctness. 3) All examined LLMs face challenges in structural reasoning, with techniques like zero-shot chain-of-thought and few-shot prompting showing diminished efficacy. 4) GPT models often produce erroneous answers in multi-answer tasks, raising concerns in fidelity. 5) GPT models exhibit elevated confidence in their outputs, potentially hindering their rectification capacities. Notably, GPT-4 has demonstrated the capacity to rectify responses from GPT-3.5-turbo and its own previous iterations. The code is available at:

2.Traffic Flow Optimisation for Lifelong Multi-Agent Path Finding

Authors:Zhe Chen, Daniel Harabor, Jioyang Li, Peter J. Stuckey

Abstract: Multi-Agent Path Finding (MAPF) is a fundamental problem in robotics that asks us to compute collision-free paths for a team of agents, all moving across a shared map. Although many works appear on this topic, all current algorithms struggle as the number of agents grows. The principal reason is that existing approaches typically plan free-flow optimal paths, which creates congestion. To tackle this issue we propose a new approach for MAPF where agents are guided to their destination by following congestion-avoiding paths. We evaluate the idea in two large-scale settings: one-shot MAPF, where each agent has a single destination, and lifelong MAPF, where agents are continuously assigned new tasks. For one-shot MAPF we show that our approach substantially improves solution quality. For Lifelong MAPF we report large improvements in overall throughput.

3.ProAgent: Building Proactive Cooperative AI with Large Language Models

Authors:Ceyao Zhang, Kaijie Yang, Siyi Hu, Zihao Wang, Guanghe Li, Yihang Sun, Cheng Zhang, Zhaowei Zhang, Anji Liu, Song-Chun Zhu, Xiaojun Chang, Junge Zhang, Feng Yin, Yitao Liang, Yaodong Yang

Abstract: Building AIs with adaptive behaviors in human-AI cooperation stands as a pivotal focus in AGI research. Current methods for developing cooperative agents predominantly rely on learning-based methods, where policy generalization heavily hinges on past interactions with specific teammates. These approaches constrain the agent's capacity to recalibrate its strategy when confronted with novel teammates. We propose \textbf{ProAgent}, a novel framework that harnesses large language models (LLMs) to fashion a \textit{pro}active \textit{agent} empowered with the ability to anticipate teammates' forthcoming decisions and formulate enhanced plans for itself. ProAgent excels at cooperative reasoning with the capacity to dynamically adapt its behavior to enhance collaborative efforts with teammates. Moreover, the ProAgent framework exhibits a high degree of modularity and interpretability, facilitating seamless integration to address a wide array of coordination scenarios. Experimental evaluations conducted within the framework of \textit{Overcook-AI} unveil the remarkable performance superiority of ProAgent, outperforming five methods based on self-play and population-based training in cooperation with AI agents. Further, when cooperating with human proxy models, its performance exhibits an average improvement exceeding 10\% compared to the current state-of-the-art, COLE. The advancement was consistently observed across diverse scenarios involving interactions with both AI agents of varying characteristics and human counterparts. These findings inspire future research for human-robot collaborations. For a hands-on demonstration, please visit \url{}.

4.A Survey on Large Language Model based Autonomous Agents

Authors:Lei Wang, Chen Ma, Xueyang Feng, Zeyu Zhang, Hao Yang, Jingsen Zhang, Zhiyuan Chen, Jiakai Tang, Xu Chen, Yankai Lin, Wayne Xin Zhao, Zhewei Wei, Ji-Rong Wen

Abstract: Autonomous agents have long been a prominent research topic in the academic community. Previous research in this field often focuses on training agents with limited knowledge within isolated environments, which diverges significantly from the human learning processes, and thus makes the agents hard to achieve human-like decisions. Recently, through the acquisition of vast amounts of web knowledge, large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable potential in achieving human-level intelligence. This has sparked an upsurge in studies investigating autonomous agents based on LLMs. To harness the full potential of LLMs, researchers have devised diverse agent architectures tailored to different applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of these studies, delivering a systematic review of the field of autonomous agents from a holistic perspective. More specifically, our focus lies in the construction of LLM-based agents, for which we propose a unified framework that encompasses a majority of the previous work. Additionally, we provide a summary of the various applications of LLM-based AI agents in the domains of social science, natural science, and engineering. Lastly, we discuss the commonly employed evaluation strategies for LLM-based AI agents. Based on the previous studies, we also present several challenges and future directions in this field. To keep track of this field and continuously update our survey, we maintain a repository for the related references at

1.Deciphering Raw Data in Neuro-Symbolic Learning with Provable Guarantees

Authors:Lue Tao, Yu-Xuan Huang, Wang-Zhou Dai, Yuan Jiang

Abstract: Neuro-symbolic hybrid systems are promising for integrating machine learning and symbolic reasoning, where perception models are facilitated with information inferred from a symbolic knowledge base through logical reasoning. Despite empirical evidence showing the ability of hybrid systems to learn accurate perception models, the theoretical understanding of learnability is still lacking. Hence, it remains unclear why a hybrid system succeeds for a specific task and when it may fail given a different knowledge base. In this paper, we introduce a novel way of characterising supervision signals from a knowledge base, and establish a criterion for determining the knowledge's efficacy in facilitating successful learning. This, for the first time, allows us to address the two questions above by inspecting the knowledge base under investigation. Our analysis suggests that many knowledge bases satisfy the criterion, thus enabling effective learning, while some fail to satisfy it, indicating potential failures. Comprehensive experiments confirm the utility of our criterion on benchmark tasks.

2.KGrEaT: A Framework to Evaluate Knowledge Graphs via Downstream Tasks

Authors:Nicolas Heist, Sven Hertling, Heiko Paulheim

Abstract: In recent years, countless research papers have addressed the topics of knowledge graph creation, extension, or completion in order to create knowledge graphs that are larger, more correct, or more diverse. This research is typically motivated by the argumentation that using such enhanced knowledge graphs to solve downstream tasks will improve performance. Nonetheless, this is hardly ever evaluated. Instead, the predominant evaluation metrics - aiming at correctness and completeness - are undoubtedly valuable but fail to capture the complete picture, i.e., how useful the created or enhanced knowledge graph actually is. Further, the accessibility of such a knowledge graph is rarely considered (e.g., whether it contains expressive labels, descriptions, and sufficient context information to link textual mentions to the entities of the knowledge graph). To better judge how well knowledge graphs perform on actual tasks, we present KGrEaT - a framework to estimate the quality of knowledge graphs via actual downstream tasks like classification, clustering, or recommendation. Instead of comparing different methods of processing knowledge graphs with respect to a single task, the purpose of KGrEaT is to compare various knowledge graphs as such by evaluating them on a fixed task setup. The framework takes a knowledge graph as input, automatically maps it to the datasets to be evaluated on, and computes performance metrics for the defined tasks. It is built in a modular way to be easily extendable with additional tasks and datasets.

3.Giraffe: Adventures in Expanding Context Lengths in LLMs

Authors:Arka Pal, Deep Karkhanis, Manley Roberts, Samuel Dooley, Arvind Sundararajan, Siddartha Naidu

Abstract: Modern large language models (LLMs) that rely on attention mechanisms are typically trained with fixed context lengths which enforce upper limits on the length of input sequences that they can handle at evaluation time. To use these models on sequences longer than the train-time context length, one might employ techniques from the growing family of context length extrapolation methods -- most of which focus on modifying the system of positional encodings used in the attention mechanism to indicate where tokens or activations are located in the input sequence. We conduct a wide survey of existing methods of context length extrapolation on a base LLaMA or LLaMA 2 model, and introduce some of our own design as well -- in particular, a new truncation strategy for modifying the basis for the position encoding. We test these methods using three new evaluation tasks (FreeFormQA, AlteredNumericQA, and LongChat-Lines) as well as perplexity, which we find to be less fine-grained as a measure of long context performance of LLMs. We release the three tasks publicly as datasets on HuggingFace. We discover that linear scaling is the best method for extending context length, and show that further gains can be achieved by using longer scales at evaluation time. We also discover promising extrapolation capabilities in the truncated basis. To support further research in this area, we release three new 13B parameter long-context models which we call Giraffe: 4k and 16k context models trained from base LLaMA-13B, and a 32k context model trained from base LLaMA2-13B. We also release the code to replicate our results.

4.TADA! Text to Animatable Digital Avatars

Authors:Tingting Liao, Hongwei Yi, Yuliang Xiu, Jiaxaing Tang, Yangyi Huang, Justus Thies, Michael J. Black

Abstract: We introduce TADA, a simple-yet-effective approach that takes textual descriptions and produces expressive 3D avatars with high-quality geometry and lifelike textures, that can be animated and rendered with traditional graphics pipelines. Existing text-based character generation methods are limited in terms of geometry and texture quality, and cannot be realistically animated due to inconsistent alignment between the geometry and the texture, particularly in the face region. To overcome these limitations, TADA leverages the synergy of a 2D diffusion model and an animatable parametric body model. Specifically, we derive an optimizable high-resolution body model from SMPL-X with 3D displacements and a texture map, and use hierarchical rendering with score distillation sampling (SDS) to create high-quality, detailed, holistic 3D avatars from text. To ensure alignment between the geometry and texture, we render normals and RGB images of the generated character and exploit their latent embeddings in the SDS training process. We further introduce various expression parameters to deform the generated character during training, ensuring that the semantics of our generated character remain consistent with the original SMPL-X model, resulting in an animatable character. Comprehensive evaluations demonstrate that TADA significantly surpasses existing approaches on both qualitative and quantitative measures. TADA enables creation of large-scale digital character assets that are ready for animation and rendering, while also being easily editable through natural language. The code will be public for research purposes.

1.Learning in Cooperative Multiagent Systems Using Cognitive and Machine Models

Authors:Thuy Ngoc Nguyen, Duy Nhat Phan, Cleotilde Gonzalez

Abstract: Developing effective Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) is critical for many applications requiring collaboration and coordination with humans. Despite the rapid advance of Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning (MADRL) in cooperative MAS, one major challenge is the simultaneous learning and interaction of independent agents in dynamic environments in the presence of stochastic rewards. State-of-the-art MADRL models struggle to perform well in Coordinated Multi-agent Object Transportation Problems (CMOTPs), wherein agents must coordinate with each other and learn from stochastic rewards. In contrast, humans often learn rapidly to adapt to nonstationary environments that require coordination among people. In this paper, motivated by the demonstrated ability of cognitive models based on Instance-Based Learning Theory (IBLT) to capture human decisions in many dynamic decision making tasks, we propose three variants of Multi-Agent IBL models (MAIBL). The idea of these MAIBL algorithms is to combine the cognitive mechanisms of IBLT and the techniques of MADRL models to deal with coordination MAS in stochastic environments from the perspective of independent learners. We demonstrate that the MAIBL models exhibit faster learning and achieve better coordination in a dynamic CMOTP task with various settings of stochastic rewards compared to current MADRL models. We discuss the benefits of integrating cognitive insights into MADRL models.

2.Enhancing Reasoning Capabilities of Large Language Models: A Graph-Based Verification Approach

Authors:Lang Cao

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) have showcased impressive reasoning capabilities, particularly when guided by specifically designed prompts in complex reasoning tasks such as math word problems. These models typically solve tasks using a chain-of-thought approach, which not only bolsters their reasoning abilities but also provides valuable insights into their problem-solving process. However, there is still significant room for enhancing the reasoning abilities of LLMs. Some studies suggest that the integration of an LLM output verifier can boost reasoning accuracy without necessitating additional model training. In this paper, we follow these studies and introduce a novel graph-based method to further augment the reasoning capabilities of LLMs. We posit that multiple solutions to a reasoning task, generated by an LLM, can be represented as a reasoning graph due to the logical connections between intermediate steps from different reasoning paths. Therefore, we propose the Reasoning Graph Verifier (RGV) to analyze and verify the solutions generated by LLMs. By evaluating these graphs, models can yield more accurate and reliable results.Our experimental results show that our graph-based verification method not only significantly enhances the reasoning abilities of LLMs but also outperforms existing verifier methods in terms of improving these models' reasoning performance.

3.Preference-conditioned Pixel-based AI Agent For Game Testing

Authors:Sherif Abdelfattah, Adrian Brown, Pushi Zhang

Abstract: The game industry is challenged to cope with increasing growth in demand and game complexity while maintaining acceptable quality standards for released games. Classic approaches solely depending on human efforts for quality assurance and game testing do not scale effectively in terms of time and cost. Game-testing AI agents that learn by interaction with the environment have the potential to mitigate these challenges with good scalability properties on time and costs. However, most recent work in this direction depends on game state information for the agent's state representation, which limits generalization across different game scenarios. Moreover, game test engineers usually prefer exploring a game in a specific style, such as exploring the golden path. However, current game testing AI agents do not provide an explicit way to satisfy such a preference. This paper addresses these limitations by proposing an agent design that mainly depends on pixel-based state observations while exploring the environment conditioned on a user's preference specified by demonstration trajectories. In addition, we propose an imitation learning method that couples self-supervised and supervised learning objectives to enhance the quality of imitation behaviors. Our agent significantly outperforms state-of-the-art pixel-based game testing agents over exploration coverage and test execution quality when evaluated on a complex open-world environment resembling many aspects of real AAA games.

4.Enhancing Agent Communication and Learning through Action and Language

Authors:Caselles-Dupré Hugo, Sigaud Olivier, Chetouani Mohamed

Abstract: We introduce a novel category of GC-agents capable of functioning as both teachers and learners. Leveraging action-based demonstrations and language-based instructions, these agents enhance communication efficiency. We investigate the incorporation of pedagogy and pragmatism, essential elements in human communication and goal achievement, enhancing the agents' teaching and learning capabilities. Furthermore, we explore the impact of combining communication modes (action and language) on learning outcomes, highlighting the benefits of a multi-modal approach.

5.AI Hilbert: From Data and Background Knowledge to Automated Scientific Discovery

Authors:Ryan Cory-Wright, Bachir El Khadir, Cristina Cornelio, Sanjeeb Dash, Lior Horesh

Abstract: The discovery of scientific formulae that parsimoniously explain natural phenomena and align with existing background theory is a key goal in science. Historically, scientists have derived natural laws by manipulating equations based on existing knowledge, forming new equations, and verifying them experimentally. In recent years, data-driven scientific discovery has emerged as a viable competitor in settings with large amounts of experimental data. Unfortunately, data-driven methods often fail to discover valid laws when data is noisy or scarce. Accordingly, recent works combine regression and reasoning to eliminate formulae inconsistent with background theory. However, the problem of searching over the space of formulae consistent with background theory to find one that fits the data best is not well solved. We propose a solution to this problem when all axioms and scientific laws are expressible via polynomial equalities and inequalities and argue that our approach is widely applicable. We further model notions of minimal complexity using binary variables and logical constraints, solve polynomial optimization problems via mixed-integer linear or semidefinite optimization, and automatically prove the validity of our scientific discoveries via Positivestellensatz certificates. Remarkably, the optimization techniques leveraged in this paper allow our approach to run in polynomial time with fully correct background theory, or non-deterministic polynomial (NP) time with partially correct background theory. We experimentally demonstrate that some famous scientific laws, including Kepler's Third Law of Planetary Motion, the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation, and the Radiated Gravitational Wave Power equation, can be automatically derived from sets of partially correct background axioms.

6.Modelling Electricity Consumption in Irish Dairy Farms Using Agent-Based Modelling

Authors:Hossein Khaleghy, Abdul Wahid, Eoghan Clifford, Karl Mason

Abstract: Dairy farming can be an energy intensive form of farming. Understanding the factors affecting electricity consumption on dairy farms is crucial for farm owners and energy providers. In order to accurately estimate electricity demands in dairy farms, it is necessary to develop a model. In this research paper, an agent-based model is proposed to model the electricity consumption of Irish dairy farms. The model takes into account various factors that affect the energy consumption of dairy farms, including herd size, number of milking machines, and time of year. The outputs are validated using existing state-of-the-art dairy farm modelling frameworks. The proposed agent-based model is fully explainable, which is an advantage over other Artificial Intelligence techniques, e.g. deep learning.

7.Semantic relatedness in DBpedia: A comparative and experimental assessment

Authors:Anna Formica, Francesco Taglino

Abstract: Evaluating semantic relatedness of Web resources is still an open challenge. This paper focuses on knowledge-based methods, which represent an alternative to corpus-based approaches, and rely in general on the availability of knowledge graphs. In particular, we have selected 10 methods from the existing literature, that have been organized according to it adjacent resources, triple patterns, and triple weights-based methods. They have been implemented and evaluated by using DBpedia as reference RDF knowledge graph. Since DBpedia is continuously evolving, the experimental results provided by these methods in the literature are not comparable. For this reason, in this work, such methods have been experimented by running them all at once on the same DBpedia release and against 14 well-known golden datasets. On the basis of the correlation values with human judgment obtained according to the experimental results, weighting the RDF triples in combination with evaluating all the directed paths linking the compared resources is the best strategy in order to compute semantic relatedness in DBpedia.

8.Minimum Coverage Sets for Training Robust Ad Hoc Teamwork Agents

Authors:Arrasy Rahman, Jiaxun Cui, Peter Stone

Abstract: Robustly cooperating with unseen agents and human partners presents significant challenges due to the diverse cooperative conventions these partners may adopt. Existing Ad Hoc Teamwork (AHT) methods address this challenge by training an agent with a population of diverse teammate policies obtained through maximizing specific diversity metrics. However, these heuristic diversity metrics do not always maximize the agent's robustness in all cooperative problems. In this work, we first propose that maximizing an AHT agent's robustness requires it to emulate policies in the minimum coverage set (MCS), the set of best-response policies to any partner policies in the environment. We then introduce the L-BRDiv algorithm that generates a set of teammate policies that, when used for AHT training, encourage agents to emulate policies from the MCS. L-BRDiv works by solving a constrained optimization problem to jointly train teammate policies for AHT training and approximating AHT agent policies that are members of the MCS. We empirically demonstrate that L-BRDiv produces more robust AHT agents than state-of-the-art methods in a broader range of two-player cooperative problems without the need for extensive hyperparameter tuning for its objectives. Our study shows that L-BRDiv outperforms the baseline methods by prioritizing discovering distinct members of the MCS instead of repeatedly finding redundant policies.

9.Synergistic Integration of Large Language Models and Cognitive Architectures for Robust AI: An Exploratory Analysis

Authors:Oscar J. Romero, John Zimmerman, Aaron Steinfeld, Anthony Tomasic

Abstract: This paper explores alternatives for integrating two subdisciplines of AI in the construction of artificial agents that exhibit intelligent behavior: Large Language Models (LLMs) and Cognitive Architectures (CAs). Guided by theoretical models and supported by preliminary empirical data, we hypothesize how diverse synergistic approaches can mutually compensate for their respective weaknesses and limitations, ultimately fostering more robust and sophisticated artificial intelligence systems. Additionally, we discuss the tradeoffs and challenges associated with each approach.

1.Lifted Algorithms for Symmetric Weighted First-Order Model Sampling

Authors:Yuanhong Wang, Juhua Pu, Yuyi Wang, Ondřej Kuželka

Abstract: Weighted model counting (WMC) is the task of computing the weighted sum of all satisfying assignments (i.e., models) of a propositional formula. Similarly, weighted model sampling (WMS) aims to randomly generate models with probability proportional to their respective weights. Both WMC and WMS are hard to solve exactly, falling under the $\#\mathsf{P}$-hard complexity class. However, it is known that the counting problem may sometimes be tractable, if the propositional formula can be compactly represented and expressed in first-order logic. In such cases, model counting problems can be solved in time polynomial in the domain size, and are known as domain-liftable. The following question then arises: Is it also the case for weighted model sampling? This paper addresses this question and answers it affirmatively. Specifically, we prove the domain-liftability under sampling for the two-variables fragment of first-order logic with counting quantifiers in this paper, by devising an efficient sampling algorithm for this fragment that runs in time polynomial in the domain size. We then further show that this result continues to hold even in the presence of cardinality constraints. To empirically verify our approach, we conduct experiments over various first-order formulas designed for the uniform generation of combinatorial structures and sampling in statistical-relational models. The results demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms a start-of-the-art WMS sampler by a substantial margin, confirming the theoretical results.

2.MindMap: Knowledge Graph Prompting Sparks Graph of Thoughts in Large Language Models

Authors:Yilin Wen, Zifeng Wang, Jimeng Sun

Abstract: LLMs usually exhibit limitations in their ability to incorporate new knowledge, the generation of hallucinations, and the transparency of their decision-making process. In this paper, we explore how to prompt LLMs with knowledge graphs (KG), working as a remedy to engage LLMs with up-to-date knowledge and elicit the reasoning pathways from LLMs. Specifically, we build a prompting pipeline that endows LLMs with the capability of comprehending KG inputs and inferring with a combined implicit knowledge and the retrieved external knowledge. In addition, we investigate eliciting the mind map on which LLMs perform the reasoning and generate the answers. It is identified that the produced mind map exhibits the reasoning pathways of LLMs grounded on the ontology of knowledge, hence bringing the prospects of probing and gauging LLM inference in production. The experiments on three question & answering datasets also show that MindMap prompting leads to a striking empirical gain. For instance, prompting a GPT-3.5 with MindMap yields an overwhelming performance over GPT-4 consistently. We also demonstrate that with structured facts retrieved from KG, MindMap can outperform a series of prompting-with-document-retrieval methods, benefiting from more accurate, concise, and comprehensive knowledge from KGs.

3.Diversifying AI: Towards Creative Chess with AlphaZero

Authors:Tom Zahavy, Vivek Veeriah, Shaobo Hou, Kevin Waugh, Matthew Lai, Edouard Leurent, Nenad Tomasev, Lisa Schut, Demis Hassabis, Satinder Singh

Abstract: In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems have surpassed human intelligence in a variety of computational tasks. However, AI systems, like humans, make mistakes, have blind spots, hallucinate, and struggle to generalize to new situations. This work explores whether AI can benefit from creative decision-making mechanisms when pushed to the limits of its computational rationality. In particular, we investigate whether a team of diverse AI systems can outperform a single AI in challenging tasks by generating more ideas as a group and then selecting the best ones. We study this question in the game of chess, the so-called drosophila of AI. We build on AlphaZero (AZ) and extend it to represent a league of agents via a latent-conditioned architecture, which we call AZ_db. We train AZ_db to generate a wider range of ideas using behavioral diversity techniques and select the most promising ones with sub-additive planning. Our experiments suggest that AZ_db plays chess in diverse ways, solves more puzzles as a group and outperforms a more homogeneous team. Notably, AZ_db solves twice as many challenging puzzles as AZ, including the challenging Penrose positions. When playing chess from different openings, we notice that players in AZ_db specialize in different openings, and that selecting a player for each opening using sub-additive planning results in a 50 Elo improvement over AZ. Our findings suggest that diversity bonuses emerge in teams of AI agents, just as they do in teams of humans and that diversity is a valuable asset in solving computationally hard problems.

4.ChatGPT-HealthPrompt. Harnessing the Power of XAI in Prompt-Based Healthcare Decision Support using ChatGPT

Authors:Fatemeh Nazary, Yashar Deldjoo, Tommaso Di Noia

Abstract: This study presents an innovative approach to the application of large language models (LLMs) in clinical decision-making, focusing on OpenAI's ChatGPT. Our approach introduces the use of contextual prompts-strategically designed to include task description, feature description, and crucially, integration of domain knowledge-for high-quality binary classification tasks even in data-scarce scenarios. The novelty of our work lies in the utilization of domain knowledge, obtained from high-performing interpretable ML models, and its seamless incorporation into prompt design. By viewing these ML models as medical experts, we extract key insights on feature importance to aid in decision-making processes. This interplay of domain knowledge and AI holds significant promise in creating a more insightful diagnostic tool. Additionally, our research explores the dynamics of zero-shot and few-shot prompt learning based on LLMs. By comparing the performance of OpenAI's ChatGPT with traditional supervised ML models in different data conditions, we aim to provide insights into the effectiveness of prompt engineering strategies under varied data availability. In essence, this paper bridges the gap between AI and healthcare, proposing a novel methodology for LLMs application in clinical decision support systems. It highlights the transformative potential of effective prompt design, domain knowledge integration, and flexible learning approaches in enhancing automated decision-making.

1.AutoGen: Enabling Next-Gen LLM Applications via Multi-Agent Conversation Framework

Authors:Qingyun Wu, Gagan Bansal, Jieyu Zhang, Yiran Wu, Shaokun Zhang, Erkang Zhu, Beibin Li, Li Jiang, Xiaoyun Zhang, Chi Wang

Abstract: This technical report presents AutoGen, a new framework that enables development of LLM applications using multiple agents that can converse with each other to solve tasks. AutoGen agents are customizable, conversable, and seamlessly allow human participation. They can operate in various modes that employ combinations of LLMs, human inputs, and tools. AutoGen's design offers multiple advantages: a) it gracefully navigates the strong but imperfect generation and reasoning abilities of these LLMs; b) it leverages human understanding and intelligence, while providing valuable automation through conversations between agents; c) it simplifies and unifies the implementation of complex LLM workflows as automated agent chats. We provide many diverse examples of how developers can easily use AutoGen to effectively solve tasks or build applications, ranging from coding, mathematics, operations research, entertainment, online decision-making, question answering, etc.

2.Modelling the Spread of COVID-19 in Indoor Spaces using Automated Probabilistic Planning

Authors:Mohamed Harmanani

Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been ongoing for around 3 years, and has infected over 750 million people and caused over 6 million deaths worldwide at the time of writing. Throughout the pandemic, several strategies for controlling the spread of the disease have been debated by healthcare professionals, government authorities, and international bodies. To anticipate the potential impact of the disease, and to simulate the effectiveness of different mitigation strategies, a robust model of disease spread is needed. In this work, we explore a novel approach based on probabilistic planning and dynamic graph analysis to model the spread of COVID-19 in indoor spaces. We endow the planner with means to control the spread of the disease through non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as mandating masks and vaccines, and we compare the impact of crowds and capacity limits on the spread of COVID-19 in these settings. We demonstrate that the use of probabilistic planning is effective in predicting the amount of infections that are likely to occur in shared spaces, and that automated planners have the potential to design competent interventions to limit the spread of the disease. Our code is fully open-source and is available at: .

3.Towards Ontology-Mediated Planning with OWL DL Ontologies (Extended Version)

Authors:Tobias John, Patrick Koopmann

Abstract: While classical planning languages make the closed-domain and closed-world assumption, there have been various approaches to extend those with DL reasoning, which is then interpreted under the usual open-world semantics. Current approaches for planning with DL ontologies integrate the DL directly into the planning language, and practical approaches have been developed based on first-order rewritings or rewritings into datalog. We present here a new approach in which the planning specification and ontology are kept separate, and are linked together using an interface. This allows planning experts to work in a familiar formalism, while existing ontologies can be easily integrated and extended by ontology experts. Our approach for planning with those ontology-mediated planning problems is optimized for cases with comparatively small domains, and supports the whole OWL DL fragment. The idea is to rewrite the ontology-mediated planning problem into a classical planning problem to be processed by existing planning tools. Different to other approaches, our rewriting is data-dependent. A first experimental evaluation of our approach shows the potential and limitations of this approach.

4.Integrating cognitive map learning and active inference for planning in ambiguous environments

Authors:Toon Van de Maele, Bart Dhoedt, Tim Verbelen, Giovanni Pezzulo

Abstract: Living organisms need to acquire both cognitive maps for learning the structure of the world and planning mechanisms able to deal with the challenges of navigating ambiguous environments. Although significant progress has been made in each of these areas independently, the best way to integrate them is an open research question. In this paper, we propose the integration of a statistical model of cognitive map formation within an active inference agent that supports planning under uncertainty. Specifically, we examine the clone-structured cognitive graph (CSCG) model of cognitive map formation and compare a naive clone graph agent with an active inference-driven clone graph agent, in three spatial navigation scenarios. Our findings demonstrate that while both agents are effective in simple scenarios, the active inference agent is more effective when planning in challenging scenarios, in which sensory observations provide ambiguous information about location.

5.PDPK: A Framework to Synthesise Process Data and Corresponding Procedural Knowledge for Manufacturing

Authors:Richard Nordsieck, André Schweizer, Michael Heider, Jörg Hähner

Abstract: Procedural knowledge describes how to accomplish tasks and mitigate problems. Such knowledge is commonly held by domain experts, e.g. operators in manufacturing who adjust parameters to achieve quality targets. To the best of our knowledge, no real-world datasets containing process data and corresponding procedural knowledge are publicly available, possibly due to corporate apprehensions regarding the loss of knowledge advances. Therefore, we provide a framework to generate synthetic datasets that can be adapted to different domains. The design choices are inspired by two real-world datasets of procedural knowledge we have access to. Apart from containing representations of procedural knowledge in Resource Description Framework (RDF)-compliant knowledge graphs, the framework simulates parametrisation processes and provides consistent process data. We compare established embedding methods on the resulting knowledge graphs, detailing which out-of-the-box methods have the potential to represent procedural knowledge. This provides a baseline which can be used to increase the comparability of future work. Furthermore, we validate the overall characteristics of a synthesised dataset by comparing the results to those achievable on a real-world dataset. The framework and evaluation code, as well as the dataset used in the evaluation, are available open source.

1.Flashpoints Signal Hidden Inherent Instabilities in Land-Use Planning

Authors:Hazhir Aliahmadi, Maeve Beckett, Sam Connolly, Dongmei Chen, Greg van Anders

Abstract: Land-use decision-making processes have a long history of producing globally pervasive systemic equity and sustainability concerns. Quantitative, optimization-based planning approaches, e.g. Multi-Objective Land Allocation (MOLA), seemingly open the possibility to improve objectivity and transparency by explicitly evaluating planning priorities by the type, amount, and location of land uses. Here, we show that optimization-based planning approaches with generic planning criteria generate a series of unstable "flashpoints" whereby tiny changes in planning priorities produce large-scale changes in the amount of land use by type. We give quantitative arguments that the flashpoints we uncover in MOLA models are examples of a more general family of instabilities that occur whenever planning accounts for factors that coordinate use on- and between-sites, regardless of whether these planning factors are formulated explicitly or implicitly. We show that instabilities lead to regions of ambiguity in land-use type that we term "gray areas". By directly mapping gray areas between flashpoints, we show that quantitative methods retain utility by reducing combinatorially large spaces of possible land-use patterns to a small, characteristic set that can engage stakeholders to arrive at more efficient and just outcomes.

2.Formally-Sharp DAgger for MCTS: Lower-Latency Monte Carlo Tree Search using Data Aggregation with Formal Methods

Authors:Debraj Chakraborty, Damien Busatto-Gaston, Jean-François Raskin, Guillermo A. Pérez

Abstract: We study how to efficiently combine formal methods, Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS), and deep learning in order to produce high-quality receding horizon policies in large Markov Decision processes (MDPs). In particular, we use model-checking techniques to guide the MCTS algorithm in order to generate offline samples of high-quality decisions on a representative set of states of the MDP. Those samples can then be used to train a neural network that imitates the policy used to generate them. This neural network can either be used as a guide on a lower-latency MCTS online search, or alternatively be used as a full-fledged policy when minimal latency is required. We use statistical model checking to detect when additional samples are needed and to focus those additional samples on configurations where the learnt neural network policy differs from the (computationally-expensive) offline policy. We illustrate the use of our method on MDPs that model the Frozen Lake and Pac-Man environments -- two popular benchmarks to evaluate reinforcement-learning algorithms.

3.Do We Fully Understand Students' Knowledge States? Identifying and Mitigating Answer Bias in Knowledge Tracing

Authors:Chaoran Cui, Hebo Ma, Chen Zhang, Chunyun Zhang, Yumo Yao, Meng Chen, Yuling Ma

Abstract: Knowledge tracing (KT) aims to monitor students' evolving knowledge states through their learning interactions with concept-related questions, and can be indirectly evaluated by predicting how students will perform on future questions. In this paper, we observe that there is a common phenomenon of answer bias, i.e., a highly unbalanced distribution of correct and incorrect answers for each question. Existing models tend to memorize the answer bias as a shortcut for achieving high prediction performance in KT, thereby failing to fully understand students' knowledge states. To address this issue, we approach the KT task from a causality perspective. A causal graph of KT is first established, from which we identify that the impact of answer bias lies in the direct causal effect of questions on students' responses. A novel COunterfactual REasoning (CORE) framework for KT is further proposed, which separately captures the total causal effect and direct causal effect during training, and mitigates answer bias by subtracting the latter from the former in testing. The CORE framework is applicable to various existing KT models, and we implement it based on the prevailing DKT, DKVMN, and AKT models, respectively. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of CORE in making the debiased inference for KT.

4.Brain-Inspired Computational Intelligence via Predictive Coding

Authors:Tommaso Salvatori, Ankur Mali, Christopher L. Buckley, Thomas Lukasiewicz, Rajesh P. N. Rao, Karl Friston, Alexander Ororbia

Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly becoming one of the key technologies of this century. The majority of results in AI thus far have been achieved using deep neural networks trained with the error backpropagation learning algorithm. However, the ubiquitous adoption of this approach has highlighted some important limitations such as substantial computational cost, difficulty in quantifying uncertainty, lack of robustness, unreliability, and biological implausibility. It is possible that addressing these limitations may require schemes that are inspired and guided by neuroscience theories. One such theory, called predictive coding (PC), has shown promising performance in machine intelligence tasks, exhibiting exciting properties that make it potentially valuable for the machine learning community: PC can model information processing in different brain areas, can be used in cognitive control and robotics, and has a solid mathematical grounding in variational inference, offering a powerful inversion scheme for a specific class of continuous-state generative models. With the hope of foregrounding research in this direction, we survey the literature that has contributed to this perspective, highlighting the many ways that PC might play a role in the future of machine learning and computational intelligence at large.

5.A Comprehensive Study on Knowledge Graph Embedding over Relational Patterns Based on Rule Learning

Authors:Long Jin, Zhen Yao, Mingyang Chen, Huajun Chen, Wen Zhang

Abstract: Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) has proven to be an effective approach to solving the Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) task. Relational patterns which refer to relations with specific semantics exhibiting graph patterns are an important factor in the performance of KGE models. Though KGE models' capabilities are analyzed over different relational patterns in theory and a rough connection between better relational patterns modeling and better performance of KGC has been built, a comprehensive quantitative analysis on KGE models over relational patterns remains absent so it is uncertain how the theoretical support of KGE to a relational pattern contributes to the performance of triples associated to such a relational pattern. To address this challenge, we evaluate the performance of 7 KGE models over 4 common relational patterns on 2 benchmarks, then conduct an analysis in theory, entity frequency, and part-to-whole three aspects and get some counterintuitive conclusions. Finally, we introduce a training-free method Score-based Patterns Adaptation (SPA) to enhance KGE models' performance over various relational patterns. This approach is simple yet effective and can be applied to KGE models without additional training. Our experimental results demonstrate that our method generally enhances performance over specific relational patterns. Our source code is available from GitHub at

6.EduSAT: A Pedagogical Tool for Theory and Applications of Boolean Satisfiability

Authors:Yiqi Zhao, Ziyan An, Meiyi Ma, Taylor Johnson

Abstract: Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) are widely used in automated verification, but there is a lack of interactive tools designed for educational purposes in this field. To address this gap, we present EduSAT, a pedagogical tool specifically developed to support learning and understanding of SAT and SMT solving. EduSAT offers implementations of key algorithms such as the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) algorithm and the Reduced Order Binary Decision Diagram (ROBDD) for SAT solving. Additionally, EduSAT provides solver abstractions for five NP-complete problems beyond SAT and SMT. Users can benefit from EduSAT by experimenting, analyzing, and validating their understanding of SAT and SMT solving techniques. Our tool is accompanied by comprehensive documentation and tutorials, extensive testing, and practical features such as a natural language interface and SAT and SMT formula generators, which also serve as a valuable opportunity for learners to deepen their understanding. Our evaluation of EduSAT demonstrates its high accuracy, achieving 100% correctness across all the implemented SAT and SMT solvers. We release EduSAT as a python package in .whl file, and the source can be identified at

1.Approximating Human-Like Few-shot Learning with GPT-based Compression

Authors:Cynthia Huang, Yuqing Xie, Zhiying Jiang, Jimmy Lin, Ming Li

Abstract: In this work, we conceptualize the learning process as information compression. We seek to equip generative pre-trained models with human-like learning capabilities that enable data compression during inference. We present a novel approach that utilizes the Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) to approximate Kolmogorov complexity, with the aim of estimating the optimal Information Distance for few-shot learning. We first propose using GPT as a prior for lossless text compression, achieving a noteworthy compression ratio. Experiment with LLAMA2-7B backbone achieves a compression ratio of 15.5 on enwik9. We justify the pre-training objective of GPT models by demonstrating its equivalence to the compression length, and, consequently, its ability to approximate the information distance for texts. Leveraging the approximated information distance, our method allows the direct application of GPT models in quantitative text similarity measurements. Experiment results show that our method overall achieves superior performance compared to embedding and prompt baselines on challenging NLP tasks, including semantic similarity, zero and one-shot text classification, and zero-shot text ranking.

2.Graph Structural Residuals: A Learning Approach to Diagnosis

Authors:Jan Lukas Augustin, Oliver Niggemann

Abstract: Traditional model-based diagnosis relies on constructing explicit system models, a process that can be laborious and expertise-demanding. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that combines concepts of model-based diagnosis with deep graph structure learning. This data-driven approach leverages data to learn the system's underlying structure and provide dynamic observations, represented by two distinct graph adjacency matrices. Our work facilitates a seamless integration of graph structure learning with model-based diagnosis by making three main contributions: (i) redefining the constructs of system representation, observations, and faults (ii) introducing two distinct versions of a self-supervised graph structure learning model architecture and (iii) demonstrating the potential of our data-driven diagnostic method through experiments on a system of coupled oscillators.

3.Distinguishing Risk Preferences using Repeated Gambles

Authors:James Price, Colm Connaughton

Abstract: Sequences of repeated gambles provide an experimental tool to characterize the risk preferences of humans or artificial decision-making agents. The difficulty of this inference depends on factors including the details of the gambles offered and the number of iterations of the game played. In this paper we explore in detail the practical challenges of inferring risk preferences from the observed choices of artificial agents who are presented with finite sequences of repeated gambles. We are motivated by the fact that the strategy to maximize long-run wealth for sequences of repeated additive gambles (where gains and losses are independent of current wealth) is different to the strategy for repeated multiplicative gambles (where gains and losses are proportional to current wealth.) Accurate measurement of risk preferences would be needed to tell whether an agent is employing the optimal strategy or not. To generalize the types of gambles our agents face we use the Yeo-Johnson transformation, a tool borrowed from feature engineering for time series analysis, to construct a family of gambles that interpolates smoothly between the additive and multiplicative cases. We then analyze the optimal strategy for this family, both analytically and numerically. We find that it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish the risk preferences of agents as their wealth increases. This is because agents with different risk preferences eventually make the same decisions for sufficiently high wealth. We believe that these findings are informative for the effective design of experiments to measure risk preferences in humans.

4.Why Not? Explaining Missing Entailments with $\rm E{\scriptsize VEE}$ (Technical Report)

Authors:Christian Alrabbaa, Stefan Borgwardt, Tom Friese, Patrick Koopmann, Mikhail Kotlov

Abstract: Understanding logical entailments derived by a description logic reasoner is not always straight-forward for ontology users. For this reason, various methods for explaining entailments using justifications and proofs have been developed and implemented as plug-ins for the ontology editor Prot\'eg\'e. However, when the user expects a missing consequence to hold, it is equally important to explain why it does not follow from the ontology. In this paper, we describe a new version of $\rm E{\scriptsize VEE}$, a Prot\'eg\'e plugin that now also provides explanations for missing consequences, via existing and new techniques based on abduction and counterexamples.

5.Extend Wave Function Collapse to Large-Scale Content Generation

Authors:Yuhe Nie, Shaoming Zheng, Zhan Zhuang, Xuan Song

Abstract: Wave Function Collapse (WFC) is a widely used tile-based algorithm in procedural content generation, including textures, objects, and scenes. However, the current WFC algorithm and related research lack the ability to generate commercialized large-scale or infinite content due to constraint conflict and time complexity costs. This paper proposes a Nested WFC (N-WFC) algorithm framework to reduce time complexity. To avoid conflict and backtracking problems, we offer a complete and sub-complete tileset preparation strategy, which requires only a small number of tiles to generate aperiodic and deterministic infinite content. We also introduce the weight-brush system that combines N-WFC and sub-complete tileset, proving its suitability for game design. Our contribution addresses WFC's challenge in massive content generation and provides a theoretical basis for implementing concrete games.

1.BOLAA: Benchmarking and Orchestrating LLM-augmented Autonomous Agents

Authors:Zhiwei Liu, Weiran Yao, Jianguo Zhang, Le Xue, Shelby Heinecke, Rithesh Murthy, Yihao Feng, Zeyuan Chen, Juan Carlos Niebles, Devansh Arpit, Ran Xu, Phil Mui, Huan Wang, Caiming Xiong, Silvio Savarese

Abstract: The massive successes of large language models (LLMs) encourage the emerging exploration of LLM-augmented Autonomous Agents (LAAs). An LAA is able to generate actions with its core LLM and interact with environments, which facilitates the ability to resolve complex tasks by conditioning on past interactions such as observations and actions. Since the investigation of LAA is still very recent, limited explorations are available. Therefore, we provide a comprehensive comparison of LAA in terms of both agent architectures and LLM backbones. Additionally, we propose a new strategy to orchestrate multiple LAAs such that each labor LAA focuses on one type of action, \textit{i.e.} BOLAA, where a controller manages the communication among multiple agents. We conduct simulations on both decision-making and multi-step reasoning environments, which comprehensively justify the capacity of LAAs. Our performance results provide quantitative suggestions for designing LAA architectures and the optimal choice of LLMs, as well as the compatibility of both. We release our implementation code of LAAs to the public at \url{}.

2.Tweet Sentiment Extraction using Viterbi Algorithm with Transfer Learning

Authors:Zied Baklouti UPCité, ENIT

Abstract: Tweet sentiment extraction extracts the most significant portion of the sentence, determining whether the sentiment is positive or negative. This research aims to identify the part of tweet sentences that strikes any emotion. To reach this objective, we continue improving the Viterbi algorithm previously modified by the author to make it able to receive pre-trained model parameters. We introduce the confidence score and vector as two indicators responsible for evaluating the model internally before assessing the final results. We then present a method to fine-tune this nonparametric model. We found that the model gets highly explainable as the confidence score vector reveals precisely where the least confidence predicted states are and if the modifications approved ameliorate the confidence score or if the tuning is going in the wrong direction.

3.Contrastive Explanations of Multi-agent Optimization Solutions

Authors:Parisa Zehtabi, Alberto Pozanco, Ayala Bloch, Daniel Borrajo, Sarit Kraus

Abstract: In many real-world scenarios, agents are involved in optimization problems. Since most of these scenarios are over-constrained, optimal solutions do not always satisfy all agents. Some agents might be unhappy and ask questions of the form ``Why does solution $S$ not satisfy property $P$?''. In this paper, we propose MAoE, a domain-independent approach to obtain contrastive explanations by (i) generating a new solution $S^\prime$ where the property $P$ is enforced, while also minimizing the differences between $S$ and $S^\prime$; and (ii) highlighting the differences between the two solutions. Such explanations aim to help agents understanding why the initial solution is better than what they expected. We have carried out a computational evaluation that shows that MAoE can generate contrastive explanations for large multi-agent optimization problems. We have also performed an extensive user study in four different domains that shows that, after being presented with these explanations, humans' satisfaction with the original solution increases.

4.TrajPAC: Towards Robustness Verification of Pedestrian Trajectory Prediction Models

Authors:Liang Zhang, Nathaniel Xu, Pengfei Yang, Gaojie Jin, Cheng-Chao Huang, Lijun Zhang

Abstract: Robust pedestrian trajectory forecasting is crucial to developing safe autonomous vehicles. Although previous works have studied adversarial robustness in the context of trajectory forecasting, some significant issues remain unaddressed. In this work, we try to tackle these crucial problems. Firstly, the previous definitions of robustness in trajectory prediction are ambiguous. We thus provide formal definitions for two kinds of robustness, namely label robustness and pure robustness. Secondly, as previous works fail to consider robustness about all points in a disturbance interval, we utilise a probably approximately correct (PAC) framework for robustness verification. Additionally, this framework can not only identify potential counterexamples, but also provides interpretable analyses of the original methods. Our approach is applied using a prototype tool named TrajPAC. With TrajPAC, we evaluate the robustness of four state-of-the-art trajectory prediction models -- Trajectron++, MemoNet, AgentFormer, and MID -- on trajectories from five scenes of the ETH/UCY dataset and scenes of the Stanford Drone Dataset. Using our framework, we also experimentally study various factors that could influence robustness performance.

5.Deep Task-specific Bottom Representation Network for Multi-Task Recommendation

Authors:Qi Liu, Zhilong Zhou, Gangwei Jiang, Tiezheng Ge, Defu Lian

Abstract: Neural-based multi-task learning (MTL) has gained significant improvement, and it has been successfully applied to recommendation system (RS). Recent deep MTL methods for RS (e.g. MMoE, PLE) focus on designing soft gating-based parameter-sharing networks that implicitly learn a generalized representation for each task. However, MTL methods may suffer from performance degeneration when dealing with conflicting tasks, as negative transfer effects can occur on the task-shared bottom representation. This can result in a reduced capacity for MTL methods to capture task-specific characteristics, ultimately impeding their effectiveness and hindering the ability to generalize well on all tasks. In this paper, we focus on the bottom representation learning of MTL in RS and propose the Deep Task-specific Bottom Representation Network (DTRN) to alleviate the negative transfer problem. DTRN obtains task-specific bottom representation explicitly by making each task has its own representation learning network in the bottom representation modeling stage. Specifically, it extracts the user's interests from multiple types of behavior sequences for each task through the parameter-efficient hypernetwork. To further obtain the dedicated representation for each task, DTRN refines the representation of each feature by employing a SENet-like network for each task. The two proposed modules can achieve the purpose of getting task-specific bottom representation to relieve tasks' mutual interference. Moreover, the proposed DTRN is flexible to combine with existing MTL methods. Experiments on one public dataset and one industrial dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed DTRN. Furthermore, we deploy DTRN in an industrial recommender system and gain remarkable improvements in multiple tasks.

6.Controlling Character Motions without Observable Driving Source

Authors:Weiyuan Li, Bin Dai, Ziyi Zhou, Qi Yao, Baoyuan Wang

Abstract: How to generate diverse, life-like, and unlimited long head/body sequences without any driving source? We argue that this under-investigated research problem is non-trivial at all, and has unique technical challenges behind it. Without semantic constraints from the driving sources, using the standard autoregressive model to generate infinitely long sequences would easily result in 1) out-of-distribution (OOD) issue due to the accumulated error, 2) insufficient diversity to produce natural and life-like motion sequences and 3) undesired periodic patterns along the time. To tackle the above challenges, we propose a systematic framework that marries the benefits of VQ-VAE and a novel token-level control policy trained with reinforcement learning using carefully designed reward functions. A high-level prior model can be easily injected on top to generate unlimited long and diverse sequences. Although we focus on no driving sources now, our framework can be generalized for controlled synthesis with explicit driving sources. Through comprehensive evaluations, we conclude that our proposed framework can address all the above-mentioned challenges and outperform other strong baselines very significantly.

7.Large Language Models in Cryptocurrency Securities Cases: Can ChatGPT Replace Lawyers?

Authors:Arianna Trozze, Toby Davies, Bennett Kleinberg

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) could enhance access to the legal system. However, empirical research on their effectiveness in conducting legal tasks is scant. We study securities cases involving cryptocurrencies as one of numerous contexts where AI could support the legal process, studying LLMs' legal reasoning and drafting capabilities. We examine whether a) an LLM can accurately determine which laws are potentially being violated from a fact pattern, and b) whether there is a difference in juror decision-making based on complaints written by a lawyer compared to an LLM. We feed fact patterns from real-life cases to GPT-3.5 and evaluate its ability to determine correct potential violations from the scenario and exclude spurious violations. Second, we had mock jurors assess complaints written by the LLM and lawyers. GPT-3.5's legal reasoning skills proved weak, though we expect improvement in future models, particularly given the violations it suggested tended to be correct (it merely missed additional, correct violations). GPT-3.5 performed better at legal drafting, and jurors' decisions were not statistically significantly associated with the author of the document upon which they based their decisions. Because LLMs cannot satisfactorily conduct legal reasoning tasks, they would be unable to replace lawyers at this stage. However, their drafting skills (though, perhaps, still inferior to lawyers), could provide access to justice for more individuals by reducing the cost of legal services. Our research is the first to systematically study LLMs' legal drafting and reasoning capabilities in litigation, as well as in securities law and cryptocurrency-related misconduct.

8.Evidence of Human-Like Visual-Linguistic Integration in Multimodal Large Language Models During Predictive Language Processing

Authors:Viktor Kewenig, Christopher Edwards, Quitterie Lacome DEstalenx, Akilles Rechardt, Jeremy I Skipper, Gabriella Vigliocco

Abstract: The advanced language processing abilities of large language models (LLMs) have stimulated debate over their capacity to replicate human-like cognitive processes. One differentiating factor between language processing in LLMs and humans is that language input is often grounded in more than one perceptual modality, whereas most LLMs process solely text-based information. Multimodal grounding allows humans to integrate - e.g. visual context with linguistic information and thereby place constraints on the space of upcoming words, reducing cognitive load and improving perception and comprehension. Recent multimodal LLMs (mLLMs) combine visual and linguistic embedding spaces with a transformer type attention mechanism for next-word prediction. To what extent does predictive language processing based on multimodal input align in mLLMs and humans? To answer this question, 200 human participants watched short audio-visual clips and estimated the predictability of an upcoming verb or noun. The same clips were processed by the mLLM CLIP, with predictability scores based on a comparison of image and text feature vectors. Eye-tracking was used to estimate what visual features participants attended to, and CLIP's visual attention weights were recorded. We find that human estimates of predictability align significantly with CLIP scores, but not for a unimodal LLM of comparable parameter size. Further, alignment vanished when CLIP's visual attention weights were perturbed, and when the same input was fed to a multimodal model without attention. Analysing attention patterns, we find a significant spatial overlap between CLIP's visual attention weights and human eye-tracking data. Results suggest that comparable processes of integrating multimodal information, guided by attention to relevant visual features, supports predictive language processing in mLLMs and humans.

9.Learning to Guide Human Experts via Personalized Large Language Models

Authors:Debodeep Banerjee, Stefano Teso, Andrea Passerini

Abstract: In learning to defer, a predictor identifies risky decisions and defers them to a human expert. One key issue with this setup is that the expert may end up over-relying on the machine's decisions, due to anchoring bias. At the same time, whenever the machine chooses the deferral option the expert has to take decisions entirely unassisted. As a remedy, we propose learning to guide (LTG), an alternative framework in which -- rather than suggesting ready-made decisions -- the machine provides guidance useful to guide decision-making, and the human is entirely responsible for coming up with a decision. We also introduce SLOG, an LTG implementation that leverages (a small amount of) human supervision to convert a generic large language model into a module capable of generating textual guidance, and present preliminary but promising results on a medical diagnosis task.

10.Assessing Student Errors in Experimentation Using Artificial Intelligence and Large Language Models: A Comparative Study with Human Raters

Authors:Arne Bewersdorff, Kathrin Seßler, Armin Baur, Enkelejda Kasneci, Claudia Nerdel

Abstract: Identifying logical errors in complex, incomplete or even contradictory and overall heterogeneous data like students' experimentation protocols is challenging. Recognizing the limitations of current evaluation methods, we investigate the potential of Large Language Models (LLMs) for automatically identifying student errors and streamlining teacher assessments. Our aim is to provide a foundation for productive, personalized feedback. Using a dataset of 65 student protocols, an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system based on the GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 series was developed and tested against human raters. Our results indicate varying levels of accuracy in error detection between the AI system and human raters. The AI system can accurately identify many fundamental student errors, for instance, the AI system identifies when a student is focusing the hypothesis not on the dependent variable but solely on an expected observation (acc. = 0.90), when a student modifies the trials in an ongoing investigation (acc. = 1), and whether a student is conducting valid test trials (acc. = 0.82) reliably. The identification of other, usually more complex errors, like whether a student conducts a valid control trial (acc. = .60), poses a greater challenge. This research explores not only the utility of AI in educational settings, but also contributes to the understanding of the capabilities of LLMs in error detection in inquiry-based learning like experimentation.

11.A Game-Theoretic Framework for Joint Forecasting and Planning

Authors:Kushal Kedia, Prithwish Dan, Sanjiban Choudhury

Abstract: Planning safe robot motions in the presence of humans requires reliable forecasts of future human motion. However, simply predicting the most likely motion from prior interactions does not guarantee safety. Such forecasts fail to model the long tail of possible events, which are rarely observed in limited datasets. On the other hand, planning for worst-case motions leads to overtly conservative behavior and a ``frozen robot''. Instead, we aim to learn forecasts that predict counterfactuals that humans guard against. We propose a novel game-theoretic framework for joint planning and forecasting with the payoff being the performance of the planner against the demonstrator, and present practical algorithms to train models in an end-to-end fashion. We demonstrate that our proposed algorithm results in safer plans in a crowd navigation simulator and real-world datasets of pedestrian motion. We release our code at

1.Multimodal Pretrained Models for Sequential Decision-Making: Synthesis, Verification, Grounding, and Perception

Authors:Yunhao Yang, Cyrus Neary, Ufuk Topcu

Abstract: Recently developed pretrained models can encode rich world knowledge expressed in multiple modalities, such as text and images. However, the outputs of these models cannot be integrated into algorithms to solve sequential decision-making tasks. We develop an algorithm that utilizes the knowledge from pretrained models to construct and verify controllers for sequential decision-making tasks, and to ground these controllers to task environments through visual observations. In particular, the algorithm queries a pretrained model with a user-provided, text-based task description and uses the model's output to construct an automaton-based controller that encodes the model's task-relevant knowledge. It then verifies whether the knowledge encoded in the controller is consistent with other independently available knowledge, which may include abstract information on the environment or user-provided specifications. If this verification step discovers any inconsistency, the algorithm automatically refines the controller to resolve the inconsistency. Next, the algorithm leverages the vision and language capabilities of pretrained models to ground the controller to the task environment. It collects image-based observations from the task environment and uses the pretrained model to link these observations to the text-based control logic encoded in the controller (e.g., actions and conditions that trigger the actions). We propose a mechanism to ensure the controller satisfies the user-provided specification even when perceptual uncertainties are present. We demonstrate the algorithm's ability to construct, verify, and ground automaton-based controllers through a suite of real-world tasks, including daily life and robot manipulation tasks.

1.A Hierarchical Destroy and Repair Approach for Solving Very Large-Scale Travelling Salesman Problem

Authors:Zhang-Hua Fu, Sipeng Sun, Jintong Ren, Tianshu Yu, Haoyu Zhang, Yuanyuan Liu, Lingxiao Huang, Xiang Yan, Pinyan Lu

Abstract: For prohibitively large-scale Travelling Salesman Problems (TSPs), existing algorithms face big challenges in terms of both computational efficiency and solution quality. To address this issue, we propose a hierarchical destroy-and-repair (HDR) approach, which attempts to improve an initial solution by applying a series of carefully designed destroy-and-repair operations. A key innovative concept is the hierarchical search framework, which recursively fixes partial edges and compresses the input instance into a small-scale TSP under some equivalence guarantee. This neat search framework is able to deliver highly competitive solutions within a reasonable time. Fair comparisons based on nineteen famous large-scale instances (with 10,000 to 10,000,000 cities) show that HDR is highly competitive against existing state-of-the-art TSP algorithms, in terms of both efficiency and solution quality. Notably, on two large instances with 3,162,278 and 10,000,000 cities, HDR breaks the world records (i.e., best-known results regardless of computation time), which were previously achieved by LKH and its variants, while HDR is completely independent of LKH. Finally, ablation studies are performed to certify the importance and validity of the hierarchical search framework.

2.web crawler strategies for web pages under robot.txt restriction

Authors:Piyush Vyas, Akhilesh Chauhan, Tushar Mandge, Surbhi Hardikar

Abstract: In the present time, all know about World Wide Web and work over the Internet daily. In this paper, we introduce the search engines working for keywords that are entered by users to find something. The search engine uses different search algorithms for convenient results for providing to the net surfer. Net surfers go with the top search results but how did the results of web pages get higher ranks over search engines? how the search engine got that all the web pages in the database? This paper gives the answers to all these kinds of basic questions. Web crawlers working for search engines and robot exclusion protocol rules for web crawlers are also addressed in this research paper. Webmaster uses different restriction facts in robot.txt file to instruct web crawler, some basic formats of robot.txt are also mentioned in this paper.

3.Explainable AI in Orthopedics: Challenges, Opportunities, and Prospects

Authors:Soheyla Amirian, Luke A. Carlson, Matthew F. Gong, Ines Lohse, Kurt R. Weiss, Johannes F. Plate, Ahmad P. Tafti

Abstract: While artificial intelligence (AI) has made many successful applications in various domains, its adoption in healthcare lags a little bit behind other high-stakes settings. Several factors contribute to this slower uptake, including regulatory frameworks, patient privacy concerns, and data heterogeneity. However, one significant challenge that impedes the implementation of AI in healthcare, particularly in orthopedics, is the lack of explainability and interpretability around AI models. Addressing the challenge of explainable AI (XAI) in orthopedics requires developing AI models and algorithms that prioritize transparency and interpretability, allowing clinicians, surgeons, and patients to understand the contributing factors behind any AI-powered predictive or descriptive models. The current contribution outlines several key challenges and opportunities that manifest in XAI in orthopedic practice. This work emphasizes the need for interdisciplinary collaborations between AI practitioners, orthopedic specialists, and regulatory entities to establish standards and guidelines for the adoption of XAI in orthopedics.

1.NEOLAF, an LLM-powered neural-symbolic cognitive architecture

Authors:Richard Jiarui Tong, Cassie Chen Cao, Timothy Xueqian Lee, Guodong Zhao, Ray Wan, Feiyue Wang, Xiangen Hu, Robin Schmucker, Jinsheng Pan, Julian Quevedo, Yu Lu

Abstract: This paper presents the Never Ending Open Learning Adaptive Framework (NEOLAF), an integrated neural-symbolic cognitive architecture that models and constructs intelligent agents. The NEOLAF framework is a superior approach to constructing intelligent agents than both the pure connectionist and pure symbolic approaches due to its explainability, incremental learning, efficiency, collaborative and distributed learning, human-in-the-loop enablement, and self-improvement. The paper further presents a compelling experiment where a NEOLAF agent, built as a problem-solving agent, is fed with complex math problems from the open-source MATH dataset. The results demonstrate NEOLAF's superior learning capability and its potential to revolutionize the field of cognitive architectures and self-improving adaptive instructional systems.

2.AI Chatbots as Multi-Role Pedagogical Agents: Transforming Engagement in CS Education

Authors:Cassie Chen Cao, Zijian Ding, Jionghao Lin, Frank Hopfgartner

Abstract: This study investigates the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI)-powered, multi-role chatbots as a means to enhance learning experiences and foster engagement in computer science education. Leveraging a design-based research approach, we develop, implement, and evaluate a novel learning environment enriched with four distinct chatbot roles: Instructor Bot, Peer Bot, Career Advising Bot, and Emotional Supporter Bot. These roles, designed around the tenets of Self-Determination Theory, cater to the three innate psychological needs of learners - competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Additionally, the system embraces an inquiry-based learning paradigm, encouraging students to ask questions, seek solutions, and explore their curiosities. We test this system in a higher education context over a period of one month with 200 participating students, comparing outcomes with conditions involving a human tutor and a single chatbot. Our research utilizes a mixed-methods approach, encompassing quantitative measures such as chat log sequence analysis, and qualitative methods including surveys and focus group interviews. By integrating cutting-edge Natural Language Processing techniques such as topic modelling and sentiment analysis, we offer an in-depth understanding of the system's impact on learner engagement, motivation, and inquiry-based learning. This study, through its rigorous design and innovative approach, provides significant insights into the potential of AI-empowered, multi-role chatbots in reshaping the landscape of computer science education and fostering an engaging, supportive, and motivating learning environment.

3.AgentSims: An Open-Source Sandbox for Large Language Model Evaluation

Authors:Jiaju Lin, Haoran Zhao, Aochi Zhang, Yiting Wu, Huqiuyue Ping, Qin Chen

Abstract: With ChatGPT-like large language models (LLM) prevailing in the community, how to evaluate the ability of LLMs is an open question. Existing evaluation methods suffer from following shortcomings: (1) constrained evaluation abilities, (2) vulnerable benchmarks, (3) unobjective metrics. We suggest that task-based evaluation, where LLM agents complete tasks in a simulated environment, is a one-for-all solution to solve above problems. We present AgentSims, an easy-to-use infrastructure for researchers from all disciplines to test the specific capacities they are interested in. Researchers can build their evaluation tasks by adding agents and buildings on an interactive GUI or deploy and test new support mechanisms, i.e. memory, planning and tool-use systems, by a few lines of codes. Our demo is available at .

4.Gentopia: A Collaborative Platform for Tool-Augmented LLMs

Authors:Binfeng Xu, Xukun Liu, Hua Shen, Zeyu Han, Yuhan Li, Murong Yue, Zhiyuan Peng, Yuchen Liu, Ziyu Yao, Dongkuan Xu

Abstract: Augmented Language Models (ALMs) empower large language models with the ability to use tools, transforming them into intelligent agents for real-world interactions. However, most existing frameworks for ALMs, to varying degrees, are deficient in the following critical features: flexible customization, collaborative democratization, and holistic evaluation. We present gentopia, an ALM framework enabling flexible customization of agents through simple configurations, seamlessly integrating various language models, task formats, prompting modules, and plugins into a unified paradigm. Furthermore, we establish gentpool, a public platform enabling the registration and sharing of user-customized agents. Agents registered in gentpool are composable such that they can be assembled together for agent collaboration, advancing the democratization of artificial intelligence. To ensure high-quality agents, gentbench, an integral component of gentpool, is designed to thoroughly evaluate user-customized agents across diverse aspects such as safety, robustness, efficiency, etc. We release gentopia on Github and will continuously move forward.

5.Measure of Uncertainty in Human Emotions

Authors:Etienne Naude The University of Auckland, Henry Gann The University of Auckland, Balaram Panda The University of Auckland, Lance Zhang The University of Auckland, Raina Song The University of Auckland, Yuwei Shen The University of Auckland

Abstract: Many research explore how well computers are able to examine emotions displayed by humans and use that data to perform different tasks. However, there have been very few research which evaluate the computers ability to generate emotion classification information in an attempt to help the user make decisions or perform tasks. This is a crucial area to explore as it is paramount to the two way communication between humans and computers. This research conducted an experiment to investigate the impact of different uncertainty information displays of emotion classification on the human decision making process. Results show that displaying more uncertainty information can help users to be more confident when making decisions.

6.InfeRE: Step-by-Step Regex Generation via Chain of Inference

Authors:Shuai Zhang, Xiaodong Gu, Yuting Chen, Beijun Shen

Abstract: Automatically generating regular expressions (abbrev. regexes) from natural language description (NL2RE) has been an emerging research area. Prior studies treat regex as a linear sequence of tokens and generate the final expressions autoregressively in a single pass. They did not take into account the step-by-step internal text-matching processes behind the final results. This significantly hinders the efficacy and interpretability of regex generation by neural language models. In this paper, we propose a new paradigm called InfeRE, which decomposes the generation of regexes into chains of step-by-step inference. To enhance the robustness, we introduce a self-consistency decoding mechanism that ensembles multiple outputs sampled from different models. We evaluate InfeRE on two publicly available datasets, NL-RX-Turk and KB13, and compare the results with state-of-the-art approaches and the popular tree-based generation approach TRANX. Experimental results show that InfeRE substantially outperforms previous baselines, yielding 16.3% and 14.7% improvement in DFA@5 accuracy on two datasets, respectively. Particularly, InfeRE outperforms the popular tree-based generation approach by 18.1% and 11.3% on both datasets, respectively, in terms of DFA@5 accuracy.

1.What has ChatGPT read? The origins of archaeological citations used by a generative artificial intelligence application

Authors:Dirk HR Spennemann

Abstract: The public release of ChatGPT has resulted in considerable publicity and has led to wide-spread discussion of the usefulness and capabilities of generative AI language models. Its ability to extract and summarise data from textual sources and present them as human-like contextual responses makes it an eminently suitable tool to answer questions users might ask. This paper tested what archaeological literature appears to have been included in ChatGPT's training phase. While ChatGPT offered seemingly pertinent references, a large percentage proved to be fictitious. Using cloze analysis to make inferences on the sources 'memorised' by a generative AI model, this paper was unable to prove that ChatGPT had access to the full texts of the genuine references. It can be shown that all references provided by ChatGPT that were found to be genuine have also been cited on Wikipedia pages. This strongly indicates that the source base for at least some of the data is found in those pages. The implications of this in relation to data quality are discussed.

2.Generative AI trial for nonviolent communication mediation

Authors:Takeshi Kato

Abstract: Aiming for a mixbiotic society that combines freedom and solidarity among people with diverse values, I focused on nonviolent communication (NVC) that enables compassionate giving in various situations of social division and conflict, and tried a generative AI for it. Specifically, ChatGPT was used in place of the traditional certified trainer to test the possibility of mediating (modifying) input sentences in four processes: observation, feelings, needs, and requests. The results indicate that there is potential for the application of generative AI, although not yet at a practical level. Suggested improvement guidelines included adding model responses, relearning revised responses, specifying appropriate terminology for each process, and re-asking for required information. The use of generative AI will be useful initially to assist certified trainers, to prepare for and review events and workshops, and in the future to support consensus building and cooperative behavior in digital democracy, platform cooperatives, and cyber-human social co-operating systems. It is hoped that the widespread use of NVC mediation using generative AI will lead to the early realization of a mixbiotic society.

3.Minimizing Return Gaps with Discrete Communications in Decentralized POMDP

Authors:Jingdi Chen, Tian Lan

Abstract: Communication is crucial for solving cooperative Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning tasks in Partially-Observable Markov Decision Processes. Existing works often rely on black-box methods to encode local information/features into messages shared with other agents. However, such black-box approaches are unable to provide any quantitative guarantees on the expected return and often lead to the generation of continuous messages with high communication overhead and poor interpretability. In this paper, we establish an upper bound on the return gap between an ideal policy with full observability and an optimal partially-observable policy with discrete communication. This result enables us to recast multi-agent communication into a novel online clustering problem over the local observations at each agent, with messages as cluster labels and the upper bound on the return gap as clustering loss. By minimizing the upper bound, we propose a surprisingly simple design of message generation functions in multi-agent communication and integrate it with reinforcement learning using a Regularized Information Maximization loss function. Evaluations show that the proposed discrete communication significantly outperforms state-of-the-art multi-agent communication baselines and can achieve nearly-optimal returns with few-bit messages that are naturally interpretable.

4.Robust Ordinal Regression for Subsets Comparisons with Interactions

Authors:Hugo Gilbert LAMSADE, Mohamed Ouaguenouni LAMSADE, Meltem Ozturk LAMSADE, Olivier Spanjaard

Abstract: This paper is dedicated to a robust ordinal method for learning the preferences of a decision maker between subsets. The decision model, derived from Fishburn and LaValle (1996) and whose parameters we learn, is general enough to be compatible with any strict weak order on subsets, thanks to the consideration of possible interactions between elements. Moreover, we accept not to predict some preferences if the available preference data are not compatible with a reliable prediction. A predicted preference is considered reliable if all the simplest models (Occam's razor) explaining the preference data agree on it. Following the robust ordinal regression methodology, our predictions are based on an uncertainty set encompassing the possible values of the model parameters. We define a robust ordinal dominance relation between subsets and we design a procedure to determine whether this dominance relation holds. Numerical tests are provided on synthetic and real-world data to evaluate the richness and reliability of the preference predictions made.

5.Counterfactual Monotonic Knowledge Tracing for Assessing Students' Dynamic Mastery of Knowledge Concepts

Authors:Moyu Zhang, Xinning Zhu, Chunhong Zhang, Wenchen Qian, Feng Pan, Hui Zhao

Abstract: As the core of the Knowledge Tracking (KT) task, assessing students' dynamic mastery of knowledge concepts is crucial for both offline teaching and online educational applications. Since students' mastery of knowledge concepts is often unlabeled, existing KT methods rely on the implicit paradigm of historical practice to mastery of knowledge concepts to students' responses to practices to address the challenge of unlabeled concept mastery. However, purely predicting student responses without imposing specific constraints on hidden concept mastery values does not guarantee the accuracy of these intermediate values as concept mastery values. To address this issue, we propose a principled approach called Counterfactual Monotonic Knowledge Tracing (CMKT), which builds on the implicit paradigm described above by using a counterfactual assumption to constrain the evolution of students' mastery of knowledge concepts.

6.TPTU: Task Planning and Tool Usage of Large Language Model-based AI Agents

Authors:Jingqing Ruan, Yihong Chen, Bin Zhang, Zhiwei Xu, Tianpeng Bao, Guoqing Du, Shiwei Shi, Hangyu Mao, Xingyu Zeng, Rui Zhao

Abstract: With recent advancements in natural language processing, Large Language Models (LLMs) have emerged as powerful tools for various real-world applications. Despite their prowess, the intrinsic generative abilities of LLMs may prove insufficient for handling complex tasks which necessitate a combination of task planning and the usage of external tools. In this paper, we first propose a structured framework tailored for LLM-based AI Agents and discuss the crucial capabilities necessary for tackling intricate problems. Within this framework, we design two distinct types of agents (i.e., one-step agent and sequential agent) to execute the inference process. Subsequently, we instantiate the framework using various LLMs and evaluate their Task Planning and Tool Usage (TPTU) abilities on typical tasks. By highlighting key findings and challenges, our goal is to provide a helpful resource for researchers and practitioners to leverage the power of LLMs in their AI applications. Our study emphasizes the substantial potential of these models, while also identifying areas that need more investigation and improvement.

7.Biomedical Knowledge Graph Embeddings with Negative Statements

Authors:Rita T. Sousa, Sara Silva, Heiko Paulheim, Catia Pesquita

Abstract: A knowledge graph is a powerful representation of real-world entities and their relations. The vast majority of these relations are defined as positive statements, but the importance of negative statements is increasingly recognized, especially under an Open World Assumption. Explicitly considering negative statements has been shown to improve performance on tasks such as entity summarization and question answering or domain-specific tasks such as protein function prediction. However, no attention has been given to the exploration of negative statements by knowledge graph embedding approaches despite the potential of negative statements to produce more accurate representations of entities in a knowledge graph. We propose a novel approach, TrueWalks, to incorporate negative statements into the knowledge graph representation learning process. In particular, we present a novel walk-generation method that is able to not only differentiate between positive and negative statements but also take into account the semantic implications of negation in ontology-rich knowledge graphs. This is of particular importance for applications in the biomedical domain, where the inadequacy of embedding approaches regarding negative statements at the ontology level has been identified as a crucial limitation. We evaluate TrueWalks in ontology-rich biomedical knowledge graphs in two different predictive tasks based on KG embeddings: protein-protein interaction prediction and gene-disease association prediction. We conduct an extensive analysis over established benchmarks and demonstrate that our method is able to improve the performance of knowledge graph embeddings on all tasks.

8.Intelligence-Endogenous Management Platform for Computing and Network Convergence

Authors:Zicong Hong, Xiaoyu Qiu, Jian Lin, Wuhui Chen, Yue Yu, Hui Wang, Song Guo, Wen Gao

Abstract: Massive emerging applications are driving demand for the ubiquitous deployment of computing power today. This trend not only spurs the recent popularity of the \emph{Computing and Network Convergence} (CNC), but also introduces an urgent need for the intelligentization of a management platform to coordinate changing resources and tasks in the CNC. Therefore, in this article, we present the concept of an intelligence-endogenous management platform for CNCs called \emph{CNC brain} based on artificial intelligence technologies. It aims at efficiently and automatically matching the supply and demand with high heterogeneity in a CNC via four key building blocks, i.e., perception, scheduling, adaptation, and governance, throughout the CNC's life cycle. Their functionalities, goals, and challenges are presented. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed concept and framework, we also implement a prototype for the CNC brain based on a deep reinforcement learning technology. Also, it is evaluated on a CNC testbed that integrates two open-source and popular frameworks (OpenFaas and Kubernetes) and a real-world business dataset provided by Microsoft Azure. The evaluation results prove the proposed method's effectiveness in terms of resource utilization and performance. Finally, we highlight the future research directions of the CNC brain.

9.No Length Left Behind: Enhancing Knowledge Tracing for Modeling Sequences of Excessive or Insufficient Lengths

Authors:Moyu Zhang, Xinning Zhu, Chunhong Zhang, Feng Pan, Wenchen Qian, Hui Zhao

Abstract: Knowledge tracing (KT) aims to predict students' responses to practices based on their historical question-answering behaviors. However, most current KT methods focus on improving overall AUC, leaving ample room for optimization in modeling sequences of excessive or insufficient lengths. As sequences get longer, computational costs will increase exponentially. Therefore, KT methods usually truncate sequences to an acceptable length, which makes it difficult for models on online service systems to capture complete historical practice behaviors of students with too long sequences. Conversely, modeling students with short practice sequences using most KT methods may result in overfitting due to limited observation samples. To address the above limitations, we propose a model called Sequence-Flexible Knowledge Tracing (SFKT).

10.Exploring ChatGPT's Empathic Abilities

Authors:Kristina Schaaff, Caroline Reinig, Tim Schlippe

Abstract: Empathy is often understood as the ability to share and understand another individual's state of mind or emotion. With the increasing use of chatbots in various domains, e.g., children seeking help with homework, individuals looking for medical advice, and people using the chatbot as a daily source of everyday companionship, the importance of empathy in human-computer interaction has become more apparent. Therefore, our study investigates the extent to which ChatGPT based on GPT-3.5 can exhibit empathetic responses and emotional expressions. We analyzed the following three aspects: (1) understanding and expressing emotions, (2) parallel emotional response, and (3) empathic personality. Thus, we not only evaluate ChatGPT on various empathy aspects and compare it with human behavior but also show a possible way to analyze the empathy of chatbots in general. Our results show, that in 91.7% of the cases, ChatGPT was able to correctly identify emotions and produces appropriate answers. In conversations, ChatGPT reacted with a parallel emotion in 70.7% of cases. The empathic capabilities of ChatGPT were evaluated using a set of five questionnaires covering different aspects of empathy. Even though the results indicate that the empathic abilities of ChatGPT are still below the average of healthy humans, the scores are better than those of people who have been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome / high-functioning autism.

11.Feature Importance versus Feature Influence and What It Signifies for Explainable AI

Authors:Kary Främling

Abstract: When used in the context of decision theory, feature importance expresses how much changing the value of a feature can change the model outcome (or the utility of the outcome), compared to other features. Feature importance should not be confused with the feature influence used by most state-of-the-art post-hoc Explainable AI methods. Contrary to feature importance, feature influence is measured against a reference level or baseline. The Contextual Importance and Utility (CIU) method provides a unified definition of global and local feature importance that is applicable also for post-hoc explanations, where the value utility concept provides instance-level assessment of how favorable or not a feature value is for the outcome. The paper shows how CIU can be applied to both global and local explainability, assesses the fidelity and stability of different methods, and shows how explanations that use contextual importance and contextual utility can provide more expressive and flexible explanations than when using influence only.

12.Why We Don't Have AGI Yet

Authors:Peter Voss, Mladjan Jovanovic

Abstract: The original vision of AI was re-articulated in 2002 via the term 'Artificial General Intelligence' or AGI. This vision is to build 'Thinking Machines' - computer systems that can learn, reason, and solve problems similar to the way humans do. This is in stark contrast to the 'Narrow AI' approach practiced by almost everyone in the field over the many decades. While several large-scale efforts have nominally been working on AGI (most notably DeepMind), the field of pure focused AGI development has not been well funded or promoted. This is surprising given the fantastic value that true AGI can bestow on humanity. In addition to the dearth of effort in this field, there are also several theoretical and methodical missteps that are hampering progress. We highlight why purely statistical approaches are unlikely to lead to AGI, and identify several crucial cognitive abilities required to achieve human-like adaptability and autonomous learning. We conclude with a survey of socio-technical factors that have undoubtedly slowed progress towards AGI.

13.Stock Market Price Prediction: A Hybrid LSTM and Sequential Self-Attention based Approach

Authors:Karan Pardeshi, Sukhpal Singh Gill, Ahmed M. Abdelmoniem

Abstract: One of the most enticing research areas is the stock market, and projecting stock prices may help investors profit by making the best decisions at the correct time. Deep learning strategies have emerged as a critical technique in the field of the financial market. The stock market is impacted due to two aspects, one is the geo-political, social and global events on the bases of which the price trends could be affected. Meanwhile, the second aspect purely focuses on historical price trends and seasonality, allowing us to forecast stock prices. In this paper, our aim is to focus on the second aspect and build a model that predicts future prices with minimal errors. In order to provide better prediction results of stock price, we propose a new model named Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) with Sequential Self-Attention Mechanism (LSTM-SSAM). Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on the three stock datasets: SBIN, HDFCBANK, and BANKBARODA. The experimental results prove the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model compared to existing models. The experimental findings demonstrate that the root-mean-squared error (RMSE), and R-square (R2) evaluation indicators are giving the best results.

14.QDax: A Library for Quality-Diversity and Population-based Algorithms with Hardware Acceleration

Authors:Felix Chalumeau, Bryan Lim, Raphael Boige, Maxime Allard, Luca Grillotti, Manon Flageat, Valentin Macé, Arthur Flajolet, Thomas Pierrot, Antoine Cully

Abstract: QDax is an open-source library with a streamlined and modular API for Quality-Diversity (QD) optimization algorithms in Jax. The library serves as a versatile tool for optimization purposes, ranging from black-box optimization to continuous control. QDax offers implementations of popular QD, Neuroevolution, and Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms, supported by various examples. All the implementations can be just-in-time compiled with Jax, facilitating efficient execution across multiple accelerators, including GPUs and TPUs. These implementations effectively demonstrate the framework's flexibility and user-friendliness, easing experimentation for research purposes. Furthermore, the library is thoroughly documented and tested with 95\% coverage.

15.AgentBench: Evaluating LLMs as Agents

Authors:Xiao Liu, Hao Yu, Hanchen Zhang, Yifan Xu, Xuanyu Lei, Hanyu Lai, Yu Gu, Hangliang Ding, Kaiwen Men, Kejuan Yang, Shudan Zhang, Xiang Deng, Aohan Zeng, Zhengxiao Du, Chenhui Zhang, Sheng Shen, Tianjun Zhang, Yu Su, Huan Sun, Minlie Huang, Yuxiao Dong, Jie Tang

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) are becoming increasingly smart and autonomous, targeting real-world pragmatic missions beyond traditional NLP tasks. As a result, there has been an urgent need to evaluate LLMs as agents on challenging tasks in interactive environments. We present AgentBench, a multi-dimensional evolving benchmark that currently consists of 8 distinct environments to assess LLM-as-Agent's reasoning and decision-making abilities in a multi-turn open-ended generation setting. Our extensive test over 25 LLMs (including APIs and open-sourced models) shows that, while top commercial LLMs present a strong ability of acting as agents in complex environments, there is a significant disparity in performance between them and open-sourced competitors. It also serves as a component of an ongoing project with wider coverage and deeper consideration towards systematic LLM evaluation. Datasets, environments, and an integrated evaluation package for AgentBench are released at

16.Guarding the Guardians: Automated Analysis of Online Child Sexual Abuse

Authors:Juanita Puentes, Angela Castillo, Wilmar Osejo, Yuly Calderón, Viviana Quintero, Lina Saldarriaga, Diana Agudelo, Pablo Arbeláez

Abstract: Online violence against children has increased globally recently, demanding urgent attention. Competent authorities manually analyze abuse complaints to comprehend crime dynamics and identify patterns. However, the manual analysis of these complaints presents a challenge because it exposes analysts to harmful content during the review process. Given these challenges, we present a novel solution, an automated tool designed to analyze children's sexual abuse reports comprehensively. By automating the analysis process, our tool significantly reduces the risk of exposure to harmful content by categorizing the reports on three dimensions: Subject, Degree of Criminality, and Damage. Furthermore, leveraging our multidisciplinary team's expertise, we introduce a novel approach to annotate the collected data, enabling a more in-depth analysis of the reports. This approach improves the comprehension of fundamental patterns and trends, enabling law enforcement agencies and policymakers to create focused strategies in the fight against children's violence.

17.Establishing Trust in ChatGPT BioMedical Generated Text: An Ontology-Based Knowledge Graph to Validate Disease-Symptom Links

Authors:Ahmed Abdeen Hamed, Alessandro Crimi, Magdalena M. Misiak, Byung Suk Lee

Abstract: Methods: Through an innovative approach, we construct ontology-based knowledge graphs from authentic medical literature and AI-generated content. Our goal is to distinguish factual information from unverified data. We compiled two datasets: one from biomedical literature using a "human disease and symptoms" query, and another generated by ChatGPT, simulating articles. With these datasets (PubMed and ChatGPT), we curated 10 sets of 250 abstracts each, selected randomly with a specific seed. Our method focuses on utilizing disease ontology (DOID) and symptom ontology (SYMP) to build knowledge graphs, robust mathematical models that facilitate unbiased comparisons. By employing our fact-checking algorithms and network centrality metrics, we conducted GPT disease-symptoms link analysis to quantify the accuracy of factual knowledge amid noise, hypotheses, and significant findings. Results: The findings obtained from the comparison of diverse ChatGPT knowledge graphs with their PubMed counterparts revealed some interesting observations. While PubMed knowledge graphs exhibit a wealth of disease-symptom terms, it is surprising to observe that some ChatGPT graphs surpass them in the number of connections. Furthermore, some GPT graphs are demonstrating supremacy of the centrality scores, especially for the overlapping nodes. This striking contrast indicates the untapped potential of knowledge that can be derived from AI-generated content, awaiting verification. Out of all the graphs, the factual link ratio between any two graphs reached its peak at 60%. Conclusions: An intriguing insight from our findings was the striking number of links among terms in the knowledge graph generated from ChatGPT datasets, surpassing some of those in its PubMed counterpart. This early discovery has prompted further investigation using universal network metrics to unveil the new knowledge the links may hold.

1.A Controllable Co-Creative Agent for Game System Design

Authors:Rohan Agarwal, Zhiyu Lin, Mark Riedl

Abstract: Many advancements have been made in procedural content generation for games, and with mixed-initiative co-creativity, have the potential for great benefits to human designers. However, co-creative systems for game generation are typically limited to specific genres, rules, or games, limiting the creativity of the designer. We seek to model games abstractly enough to apply to any genre, focusing on designing game systems and mechanics, and create a controllable, co-creative agent that can collaborate on these designs. We present a model of games using state-machine-like components and resource flows, a set of controllable metrics, a design evaluator simulating playthroughs with these metrics, and an evolutionary design balancer and generator. We find this system to be both able to express a wide range of games and able to be human-controllable for future co-creative applications.

2.A Survey on Temporal Knowledge Graph Completion: Taxonomy, Progress, and Prospects

Authors:Jiapu Wang, Boyue Wang, Meikang Qiu, Shirui Pan, Bo Xiong, Heng Liu, Linhao Luo, Tengfei Liu, Yongli Hu, Baocai Yin, Wen Gao

Abstract: Temporal characteristics are prominently evident in a substantial volume of knowledge, which underscores the pivotal role of Temporal Knowledge Graphs (TKGs) in both academia and industry. However, TKGs often suffer from incompleteness for three main reasons: the continuous emergence of new knowledge, the weakness of the algorithm for extracting structured information from unstructured data, and the lack of information in the source dataset. Thus, the task of Temporal Knowledge Graph Completion (TKGC) has attracted increasing attention, aiming to predict missing items based on the available information. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of TKGC methods and their details. Specifically, this paper mainly consists of three components, namely, 1)Background, which covers the preliminaries of TKGC methods, loss functions required for training, as well as the dataset and evaluation protocol; 2)Interpolation, that estimates and predicts the missing elements or set of elements through the relevant available information. It further categorizes related TKGC methods based on how to process temporal information; 3)Extrapolation, which typically focuses on continuous TKGs and predicts future events, and then classifies all extrapolation methods based on the algorithms they utilize. We further pinpoint the challenges and discuss future research directions of TKGC.

3.MM-Vet: Evaluating Large Multimodal Models for Integrated Capabilities

Authors:Weihao Yu, Zhengyuan Yang, Linjie Li, Jianfeng Wang, Kevin Lin, Zicheng Liu, Xinchao Wang, Lijuan Wang

Abstract: We propose MM-Vet, an evaluation benchmark that examines large multimodal models (LMMs) on complicated multimodal tasks. Recent LMMs have shown various intriguing abilities, such as solving math problems written on the blackboard, reasoning about events and celebrities in news images, and explaining visual jokes. Rapid model advancements pose challenges to evaluation benchmark development. Problems include: (1) How to systematically structure and evaluate the complicated multimodal tasks; (2) How to design evaluation metrics that work well across question and answer types; and (3) How to give model insights beyond a simple performance ranking. To this end, we present MM-Vet, designed based on the insight that the intriguing ability to solve complicated tasks is often achieved by a generalist model being able to integrate different core vision-language (VL) capabilities. MM-Vet defines 6 core VL capabilities and examines the 16 integrations of interest derived from the capability combination. For evaluation metrics, we propose an LLM-based evaluator for open-ended outputs. The evaluator enables the evaluation across different question types and answer styles, resulting in a unified scoring metric. We evaluate representative LMMs on MM-Vet, providing insights into the capabilities of different LMM system paradigms and models. Code and data are available at

1.InterAct: Exploring the Potentials of ChatGPT as a Cooperative Agent

Authors:Po-Lin Chen, Cheng-Shang Chang

Abstract: This research paper delves into the integration of OpenAI's ChatGPT into embodied agent systems, evaluating its influence on interactive decision-making benchmark. Drawing a parallel to the concept of people assuming roles according to their unique strengths, we introduce InterAct. In this approach, we feed ChatGPT with varied prompts, assigning it a numerous roles like a checker and a sorter, then integrating them with the original language model. Our research shows a remarkable success rate of 98% in AlfWorld, which consists of 6 different tasks in a simulated household environment, emphasizing the significance of proficient prompt engineering. The results highlight ChatGPT's competence in comprehending and performing intricate tasks effectively in real-world settings, thus paving the way for further advancements in task planning.

2.A Global Transport Capacity Risk Prediction Method for Rail Transit Based on Gaussian Bayesian Network

Authors:Zhang Zhengyang, Dong Wei, Liu jun, Sun Xinya, Ji Yindong

Abstract: Aiming at the prediction problem of transport capacity risk caused by the mismatch between the carrying capacity of rail transit network and passenger flow demand, this paper proposes an explainable prediction method of rail transit network transport capacity risk based on linear Gaussian Bayesian network. This method obtains the training data of the prediction model based on the simulation model of the rail transit system with a three-layer structure including rail transit network, train flow and passenger flow. A Bayesian network structure construction method based on the topology of the rail transit network is proposed, and the MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) method is used to realize the parameter learning of the Bayesian network. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation examples.

3.Holy Grail 2.0: From Natural Language to Constraint Models

Authors:Dimos Tsouros, Hélène Verhaeghe, Serdar Kadıoğlu, Tias Guns

Abstract: Twenty-seven years ago, E. Freuder highlighted that "Constraint programming represents one of the closest approaches computer science has yet made to the Holy Grail of programming: the user states the problem, the computer solves it". Nowadays, CP users have great modeling tools available (like Minizinc and CPMpy), allowing them to formulate the problem and then let a solver do the rest of the job, getting closer to the stated goal. However, this still requires the CP user to know the formalism and respect it. Another significant challenge lies in the expertise required to effectively model combinatorial problems. All this limits the wider adoption of CP. In this position paper, we investigate a possible approach to leverage pre-trained Large Language Models to extract models from textual problem descriptions. More specifically, we take inspiration from the Natural Language Processing for Optimization (NL4OPT) challenge and present early results with a decomposition-based prompting approach to GPT Models.

4.DOLCE: A Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering

Authors:Stefano Borgo, Roberta Ferrario, Aldo Gangemi, Nicola Guarino, Claudio Masolo, Daniele Porello, Emilio M. Sanfilippo, Laure Vieu

Abstract: DOLCE, the first top-level (foundational) ontology to be axiomatized, has remained stable for twenty years and today is broadly used in a variety of domains. DOLCE is inspired by cognitive and linguistic considerations and aims to model a commonsense view of reality, like the one human beings exploit in everyday life in areas as diverse as socio-technical systems, manufacturing, financial transactions and cultural heritage. DOLCE clearly lists the ontological choices it is based upon, relies on philosophical principles, is richly formalized, and is built according to well-established ontological methodologies, e.g. OntoClean. Because of these features, it has inspired most of the existing top-level ontologies and has been used to develop or improve standards and public domain resources (e.g. CIDOC CRM, DBpedia and WordNet). Being a foundational ontology, DOLCE is not directly concerned with domain knowledge. Its purpose is to provide the general categories and relations needed to give a coherent view of reality, to integrate domain knowledge, and to mediate across domains. In these 20 years DOLCE has shown that applied ontologies can be stable and that interoperability across reference and domain ontologies is a reality. This paper briefly introduces the ontology and shows how to use it on a few modeling cases.

5.Towards Self-organizing Personal Knowledge Assistants in Evolving Corporate Memories

Authors:Christian Jilek, Markus Schröder, Heiko Maus, Sven Schwarz, Andreas Dengel

Abstract: This paper presents a retrospective overview of a decade of research in our department towards self-organizing personal knowledge assistants in evolving corporate memories. Our research is typically inspired by real-world problems and often conducted in interdisciplinary collaborations with research and industry partners. We summarize past experiments and results comprising topics like various ways of knowledge graph construction in corporate and personal settings, Managed Forgetting and (Self-organizing) Context Spaces as a novel approach to Personal Information Management (PIM) and knowledge work support. Past results are complemented by an overview of related work and some of our latest findings not published so far. Last, we give an overview of our related industry use cases including a detailed look into CoMem, a Corporate Memory based on our presented research already in productive use and providing challenges for further research. Many contributions are only first steps in new directions with still a lot of untapped potential, especially with regard to further increasing the automation in PIM and knowledge work support.

6.Job Shop Scheduling via Deep Reinforcement Learning: a Sequence to Sequence approach

Authors:Giovanni Bonetta, Davide Zago, Rossella Cancelliere, Andrea Grosso

Abstract: Job scheduling is a well-known Combinatorial Optimization problem with endless applications. Well planned schedules bring many benefits in the context of automated systems: among others, they limit production costs and waste. Nevertheless, the NP-hardness of this problem makes it essential to use heuristics whose design is difficult, requires specialized knowledge and often produces methods tailored to the specific task. This paper presents an original end-to-end Deep Reinforcement Learning approach to scheduling that automatically learns dispatching rules. Our technique is inspired by natural language encoder-decoder models for sequence processing and has never been used, to the best of our knowledge, for scheduling purposes. We applied and tested our method in particular to some benchmark instances of Job Shop Problem, but this technique is general enough to be potentially used to tackle other different optimal job scheduling tasks with minimal intervention. Results demonstrate that we outperform many classical approaches exploiting priority dispatching rules and show competitive results on state-of-the-art Deep Reinforcement Learning ones.

7.Thespian: Multi-Character Text Role-Playing Game Agents

Authors:Christopher Cui, Xiangyu Peng, Mark Riedl

Abstract: Text-adventure games and text role-playing games are grand challenges for reinforcement learning game playing agents. Text role-playing games are open-ended environments where an agent must faithfully play a particular character. We consider the distinction between characters and actors, where an actor agent has the ability to play multiple characters. We present a framework we call a thespian agent that can learn to emulate multiple characters along with a soft prompt that can be used to direct it as to which character to play at any time. We further describe an attention mechanism that allows the agent to learn new characters that are based on previously learned characters in a few-shot fashion. We show that our agent outperforms the state of the art agent framework in multi-character learning and few-shot learning.

1.Scaling Data Science Solutions with Semantics and Machine Learning: Bosch Case

Authors:Baifan Zhou, Nikolay Nikolov, Zhuoxun Zheng, Xianghui Luo, Ognjen Savkovic, Dumitru Roman, Ahmet Soylu, Evgeny Kharlamov

Abstract: Industry 4.0 and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies unlock unprecedented amount of data from factory production, posing big data challenges in volume and variety. In that context, distributed computing solutions such as cloud systems are leveraged to parallelise the data processing and reduce computation time. As the cloud systems become increasingly popular, there is increased demand that more users that were originally not cloud experts (such as data scientists, domain experts) deploy their solutions on the cloud systems. However, it is non-trivial to address both the high demand for cloud system users and the excessive time required to train them. To this end, we propose SemCloud, a semantics-enhanced cloud system, that couples cloud system with semantic technologies and machine learning. SemCloud relies on domain ontologies and mappings for data integration, and parallelises the semantic data integration and data analysis on distributed computing nodes. Furthermore, SemCloud adopts adaptive Datalog rules and machine learning for automated resource configuration, allowing non-cloud experts to use the cloud system. The system has been evaluated in industrial use case with millions of data, thousands of repeated runs, and domain users, showing promising results.

2.Literal-Aware Knowledge Graph Embedding for Welding Quality Monitoring: A Bosch Case

Authors:Zhipeng Tan, Baifan Zhou, Zhuoxun Zheng, Ognjen Savkovic, Ziqi Huang, Irlan-Grangel Gonzalez, Ahmet Soylu, Evgeny Kharlamov

Abstract: Recently there has been a series of studies in knowledge graph embedding (KGE), which attempts to learn the embeddings of the entities and relations as numerical vectors and mathematical mappings via machine learning (ML). However, there has been limited research that applies KGE for industrial problems in manufacturing. This paper investigates whether and to what extent KGE can be used for an important problem: quality monitoring for welding in manufacturing industry, which is an impactful process accounting for production of millions of cars annually. The work is in line with Bosch research of data-driven solutions that intends to replace the traditional way of destroying cars, which is extremely costly and produces waste. The paper tackles two very challenging questions simultaneously: how large the welding spot diameter is; and to which car body the welded spot belongs to. The problem setting is difficult for traditional ML because there exist a high number of car bodies that should be assigned as class labels. We formulate the problem as link prediction, and experimented popular KGE methods on real industry data, with consideration of literals. Our results reveal both limitations and promising aspects of adapted KGE methods.

3.Arithmetic with Language Models: from Memorization to Computation

Authors:Davide Maltoni, Matteo Ferrara

Abstract: A better understanding of the emergent computation and problem-solving capabilities of recent large language models is of paramount importance to further improve them and broaden their applicability. This work investigates how a language model, trained to predict the next token, can perform arithmetic computations generalizing beyond training data. Binary addition and multiplication constitute a good testbed for this purpose, since they require a very small vocabulary and exhibit relevant input/output discontinuities making smooth input interpolation ineffective for novel data. We successfully trained a light language model to learn these tasks and ran a number of experiments to investigate the extrapolation capabilities and internal information processing. Our findings support the hypotheses that the language model works as an Encoding-Regression-Decoding machine where the computation takes place in the value space once the input token representation is mapped to an appropriate internal representation.

4.Exploring the psychology of GPT-4's Moral and Legal Reasoning

Authors:Guilherme F. C. F. Almeida, José Luiz Nunes, Neele Engelmann, Alex Wiegmann, Marcelo de Araújo

Abstract: Large language models have been used as the foundation of highly sophisticated artificial intelligences, capable of delivering human-like responses to probes about legal and moral issues. However, these models are unreliable guides to their own inner workings, and even the engineering teams behind their creation are unable to explain exactly how they came to develop all of the capabilities they currently have. The emerging field of machine psychology seeks to gain insight into the processes and concepts that these models possess. In this paper, we employ the methods of psychology to probe into GPT-4's moral and legal reasoning. More specifically, we investigate the similarities and differences between GPT-4 and humans when it comes to intentionality ascriptions, judgments about causation, the morality of deception, moral foundations, the impact of moral luck on legal judgments, the concept of consent, and rule violation judgments. We find high correlations between human and AI responses, but also several significant systematic differences between them. We conclude with a discussion of the philosophical implications of our findings.

5.Flows: Building Blocks of Reasoning and Collaborating AI

Authors:Martin Josifoski, Lars Klein, Maxime Peyrard, Yifei Li, Saibo Geng, Julian Paul Schnitzler, Yuxing Yao, Jiheng Wei, Debjit Paul, Robert West

Abstract: Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced highly capable and controllable systems. This creates unprecedented opportunities for structured reasoning as well as collaboration among multiple AI systems and humans. To fully realize this potential, it is essential to develop a principled way of designing and studying such structured interactions. For this purpose, we introduce the conceptual framework of Flows: a systematic approach to modeling complex interactions. Flows are self-contained building blocks of computation, with an isolated state, communicating through a standardized message-based interface. This modular design allows Flows to be recursively composed into arbitrarily nested interactions, with a substantial reduction of complexity. Crucially, any interaction can be implemented using this framework, including prior work on AI--AI and human--AI interactions, prompt engineering schemes, and tool augmentation. We demonstrate the potential of Flows on the task of competitive coding, a challenging task on which even GPT-4 struggles. Our results suggest that structured reasoning and collaboration substantially improve generalization, with AI-only Flows adding +$21$ and human--AI Flows adding +$54$ absolute points in terms of solve rate. To support rapid and rigorous research, we introduce the aiFlows library. The library comes with a repository of Flows that can be easily used, extended, and composed into novel, more complex Flows. The aiFlows library is available at Data and Flows for reproducing our experiments are available at

1.Monitoring Algorithmic Fairness under Partial Observations

Authors:Thomas A. Henzinger, Konstantin Kueffner, Kaushik Mallik

Abstract: As AI and machine-learned software are used increasingly for making decisions that affect humans, it is imperative that they remain fair and unbiased in their decisions. To complement design-time bias mitigation measures, runtime verification techniques have been introduced recently to monitor the algorithmic fairness of deployed systems. Previous monitoring techniques assume full observability of the states of the (unknown) monitored system. Moreover, they can monitor only fairness properties that are specified as arithmetic expressions over the probabilities of different events. In this work, we extend fairness monitoring to systems modeled as partially observed Markov chains (POMC), and to specifications containing arithmetic expressions over the expected values of numerical functions on event sequences. The only assumptions we make are that the underlying POMC is aperiodic and starts in the stationary distribution, with a bound on its mixing time being known. These assumptions enable us to estimate a given property for the entire distribution of possible executions of the monitored POMC, by observing only a single execution. Our monitors observe a long run of the system and, after each new observation, output updated PAC-estimates of how fair or biased the system is. The monitors are computationally lightweight and, using a prototype implementation, we demonstrate their effectiveness on several real-world examples.

2.MetaGPT: Meta Programming for Multi-Agent Collaborative Framework

Authors:Sirui Hong, Xiawu Zheng, Jonathan Chen, Yuheng Cheng, Ceyao Zhang, Zili Wang, Steven Ka Shing Yau, Zijuan Lin, Liyang Zhou, Chenyu Ran, Lingfeng Xiao, Chenglin Wu

Abstract: Recently, remarkable progress has been made in automated task-solving through the use of multi-agents driven by large language models (LLMs). However, existing works primarily focuses on simple tasks lacking exploration and investigation in complicated tasks mainly due to the hallucination problem. This kind of hallucination gets amplified infinitely as multiple intelligent agents interact with each other, resulting in failures when tackling complicated problems.Therefore, we introduce MetaGPT, an innovative framework that infuses effective human workflows as a meta programming approach into LLM-driven multi-agent collaboration. In particular, MetaGPT first encodes Standardized Operating Procedures (SOPs) into prompts, fostering structured coordination. And then, it further mandates modular outputs, bestowing agents with domain expertise paralleling human professionals to validate outputs and reduce compounded errors. In this way, MetaGPT leverages the assembly line work model to assign diverse roles to various agents, thus establishing a framework that can effectively and cohesively deconstruct complex multi-agent collaborative problems. Our experiments conducted on collaborative software engineering tasks illustrate MetaGPT's capability in producing comprehensive solutions with higher coherence relative to existing conversational and chat-based multi-agent systems. This underscores the potential of incorporating human domain knowledge into multi-agents, thus opening up novel avenues for grappling with intricate real-world challenges. The GitHub repository of this project is made publicly available on:

3.SelfCheck: Using LLMs to Zero-Shot Check Their Own Step-by-Step Reasoning

Authors:Ning Miao, Yee Whye Teh, Tom Rainforth

Abstract: The recent progress in large language models (LLMs), especially the invention of chain-of-thoughts (CoT) prompting, makes it possible to solve reasoning problems. However, even the strongest LLMs are still struggling with more complicated problems that require non-linear thinking and multi-step reasoning. In this work, we explore whether LLMs have the ability to recognize their own errors, without resorting to external resources. In particular, we investigate whether they can be used to identify individual errors within a step-by-step reasoning. To this end, we propose a zero-shot verification scheme to recognize such errors. We then use this verification scheme to improve question-answering performance, by using it to perform weighted voting on different generated answers. We test the method on three math datasets-GSM8K, MathQA, and MATH-and find that it successfully recognizes errors and, in turn, increases final predictive performance.

4.Structural Embeddings of Tools for Large Language Models

Authors:Eren Unlu

Abstract: It is evident that the current state of Large Language Models (LLMs) necessitates the incorporation of external tools. The lack of straightforward algebraic and logical reasoning is well documented and prompted researchers to develop frameworks which allow LLMs to operate via external tools. The ontological nature of tool utilization for a specific task can be well formulated with a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). The central aim of the paper is to highlight the importance of graph based approaches to LLM-tool interaction in near future. We propose an exemplary framework to guide the orchestration of exponentially increasing numbers of external tools with LLMs,where objectives and functionalities of tools are graph encoded hierarchically. Assuming that textual segments of a Chain-of-Thought (CoT) can be imagined as a tool as defined here, the graph based framework can pave new avenues in that particular direction as well.

5.SurveyLM: A platform to explore emerging value perspectives in augmented language models' behaviors

Authors:Steve J. Bickley, Ho Fai Chan, Bang Dao, Benno Torgler, Son Tran

Abstract: This white paper presents our work on SurveyLM, a platform for analyzing augmented language models' (ALMs) emergent alignment behaviors through their dynamically evolving attitude and value perspectives in complex social contexts. Social Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems, like ALMs, often function within nuanced social scenarios where there is no singular correct response, or where an answer is heavily dependent on contextual factors, thus necessitating an in-depth understanding of their alignment dynamics. To address this, we apply survey and experimental methodologies, traditionally used in studying social behaviors, to evaluate ALMs systematically, thus providing unprecedented insights into their alignment and emergent behaviors. Moreover, the SurveyLM platform leverages the ALMs' own feedback to enhance survey and experiment designs, exploiting an underutilized aspect of ALMs, which accelerates the development and testing of high-quality survey frameworks while conserving resources. Through SurveyLM, we aim to shed light on factors influencing ALMs' emergent behaviors, facilitate their alignment with human intentions and expectations, and thereby contributed to the responsible development and deployment of advanced social AI systems. This white paper underscores the platform's potential to deliver robust results, highlighting its significance to alignment research and its implications for future social AI systems.

6.Reinforcement Learning-based Non-Autoregressive Solver for Traveling Salesman Problems

Authors:Yubin Xiao, Di Wang, Huanhuan Chen, Boyang Li, Wei Pang, Xuan Wu, Hao Li, Dong Xu, Yanchun Liang, You Zhou

Abstract: The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is a well-known problem in combinatorial optimization with applications in various domains. However, existing TSP solvers face challenges in producing high-quality solutions with low latency. To address this issue, we propose NAR4TSP, which produces TSP solutions in a Non-Autoregressive (NAR) manner using a specially designed Graph Neural Network (GNN), achieving faster inference speed. Moreover, NAR4TSP is trained using an enhanced Reinforcement Learning (RL) strategy, eliminating the dependency on costly labels used to train conventional supervised learning-based NAR models. To the best of our knowledge, NAR4TSP is the first TSP solver that successfully combines RL and NAR decoding. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world TSP instances demonstrate that NAR4TSP outperforms four state-of-the-art models in terms of solution quality, inference latency, and generalization ability. Lastly, we present visualizations of NAR4TSP's decoding process and its overall path planning to showcase the feasibility of implementing NAR4TSP in an end-to-end manner and its effectiveness, respectively.

1.Causal Inference for Banking Finance and Insurance A Survey

Authors:Satyam Kumar, Yelleti Vivek, Vadlamani Ravi, Indranil Bose

Abstract: Causal Inference plays an significant role in explaining the decisions taken by statistical models and artificial intelligence models. Of late, this field started attracting the attention of researchers and practitioners alike. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of 37 papers published during 1992-2023 and concerning the application of causal inference to banking, finance, and insurance. The papers are categorized according to the following families of domains: (i) Banking, (ii) Finance and its subdomains such as corporate finance, governance finance including financial risk and financial policy, financial economics, and Behavioral finance, and (iii) Insurance. Further, the paper covers the primary ingredients of causal inference namely, statistical methods such as Bayesian Causal Network, Granger Causality and jargon used thereof such as counterfactuals. The review also recommends some important directions for future research. In conclusion, we observed that the application of causal inference in the banking and insurance sectors is still in its infancy, and thus more research is possible to turn it into a viable method.

2.Every Mistake Counts in Assembly

Authors:Guodong Ding, Fadime Sener, Shugao Ma, Angela Yao

Abstract: One promising use case of AI assistants is to help with complex procedures like cooking, home repair, and assembly tasks. Can we teach the assistant to interject after the user makes a mistake? This paper targets the problem of identifying ordering mistakes in assembly procedures. We propose a system that can detect ordering mistakes by utilizing a learned knowledge base. Our framework constructs a knowledge base with spatial and temporal beliefs based on observed mistakes. Spatial beliefs depict the topological relationship of the assembling components, while temporal beliefs aggregate prerequisite actions as ordering constraints. With an episodic memory design, our algorithm can dynamically update and construct the belief sets as more actions are observed, all in an online fashion. We demonstrate experimentally that our inferred spatial and temporal beliefs are capable of identifying incorrect orderings in real-world action sequences. To construct the spatial beliefs, we collect a new set of coarse-level action annotations for Assembly101 based on the positioning of the toy parts. Finally, we demonstrate the superior performance of our belief inference algorithm in detecting ordering mistakes on the Assembly101 dataset.

3.Tracking mulitple targets with multiple radars using Distributed Auctions

Authors:Pierre Larrenie LABISEN-KLAIM, Cédric Buron LABISEN-KLAIM, Frédéric Barbaresco

Abstract: Coordination of radars can be performed in various ways. To be more resilient radar networks can be coordinated in a decentralized way. In this paper, we introduce a highly resilient algorithm for radar coordination based on decentralized and collaborative bundle auctions. We first formalize our problem as a constrained optimization problem and apply a market-based algorithm to provide an approximate solution. Our approach allows to track simultaneously multiple targets, and to use up to two radars tracking the same target to improve accuracy. We show that our approach performs sensibly as well as a centralized approach relying on a MIP solver, and depending on the situations, may outperform it or be outperformed.

4.LLMs4OL: Large Language Models for Ontology Learning

Authors:Hamed Babaei Giglou, Jennifer D'Souza, Sören Auer

Abstract: We propose the LLMs4OL approach, which utilizes Large Language Models (LLMs) for Ontology Learning (OL). LLMs have shown significant advancements in natural language processing, demonstrating their ability to capture complex language patterns in different knowledge domains. Our LLMs4OL paradigm investigates the following hypothesis: \textit{Can LLMs effectively apply their language pattern capturing capability to OL, which involves automatically extracting and structuring knowledge from natural language text?} To test this hypothesis, we conduct a comprehensive evaluation using the zero-shot prompting method. We evaluate nine different LLM model families for three main OL tasks: term typing, taxonomy discovery, and extraction of non-taxonomic relations. Additionally, the evaluations encompass diverse genres of ontological knowledge, including lexicosemantic knowledge in WordNet, geographical knowledge in GeoNames, and medical knowledge in UMLS.

5.Anticipating Responsibility in Multiagent Planning

Authors:Timothy Parker, Umberto Grandi, Emiliano Lorini

Abstract: Responsibility anticipation is the process of determining if the actions of an individual agent may cause it to be responsible for a particular outcome. This can be used in a multi-agent planning setting to allow agents to anticipate responsibility in the plans they consider. The planning setting in this paper includes partial information regarding the initial state and considers formulas in linear temporal logic as positive or negative outcomes to be attained or avoided. We firstly define attribution for notions of active, passive and contributive responsibility, and consider their agentive variants. We then use these to define the notion of responsibility anticipation. We prove that our notions of anticipated responsibility can be used to coordinate agents in a planning setting and give complexity results for our model, discussing equivalence with classical planning. We also present an outline for solving some of our attribution and anticipation problems using PDDL solvers.

6.Ontology engineering with Large Language Models

Authors:Patricia Mateiu, Adrian Groza

Abstract: We tackle the task of enriching ontologies by automatically translating natural language sentences into Description Logic. Since Large Language Models (LLMs) are the best tools for translations, we fine-tuned a GPT-3 model to convert Natural Language sentences into OWL Functional Syntax. We employ objective and concise examples to fine-tune the model regarding: instances, class subsumption, domain and range of relations, object properties relationships, disjoint classes, complements, cardinality restrictions. The resulted axioms are used to enrich an ontology, in a human supervised manner. The developed tool is publicly provided as a Protge plugin.

7.AsdKB: A Chinese Knowledge Base for the Early Screening and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors:Tianxing Wu, Xudong Cao, Yipeng Zhu, Feiyue Wu, Tianling Gong, Yuxiang Wang, Shenqi Jing

Abstract: To easily obtain the knowledge about autism spectrum disorder and help its early screening and diagnosis, we create AsdKB, a Chinese knowledge base on autism spectrum disorder. The knowledge base is built on top of various sources, including 1) the disease knowledge from SNOMED CT and ICD-10 clinical descriptions on mental and behavioural disorders, 2) the diagnostic knowledge from DSM-5 and different screening tools recommended by social organizations and medical institutes, and 3) the expert knowledge on professional physicians and hospitals from the Web. AsdKB contains both ontological and factual knowledge, and is accessible as Linked Data at The potential applications of AsdKB are question answering, auxiliary diagnosis, and expert recommendation, and we illustrate them with a prototype which can be accessed at

8.Ranking-based Argumentation Semantics Applied to Logical Argumentation (full version)

Authors:Jesse Heyninck, Badran Raddaoui, Christian Straßer

Abstract: In formal argumentation, a distinction can be made between extension-based semantics, where sets of arguments are either (jointly) accepted or not, and ranking-based semantics, where grades of acceptability are assigned to arguments. Another important distinction is that between abstract approaches, that abstract away from the content of arguments, and structured approaches, that specify a method of constructing argument graphs on the basis of a knowledge base. While ranking-based semantics have been extensively applied to abstract argumentation, few work has been done on ranking-based semantics for structured argumentation. In this paper, we make a systematic investigation into the behaviour of ranking-based semantics applied to existing formalisms for structured argumentation. We show that a wide class of ranking-based semantics gives rise to so-called culpability measures, and are relatively robust to specific choices in argument construction methods.

9.ToolLLM: Facilitating Large Language Models to Master 16000+ Real-world APIs

Authors:Yujia Qin, Shihao Liang, Yining Ye, Kunlun Zhu, Lan Yan, Yaxi Lu, Yankai Lin, Xin Cong, Xiangru Tang, Bill Qian, Sihan Zhao, Runchu Tian, Ruobing Xie, Jie Zhou, Mark Gerstein, Dahai Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun

Abstract: Despite the advancements of open-source large language models (LLMs) and their variants, e.g., LLaMA and Vicuna, they remain significantly limited in performing higher-level tasks, such as following human instructions to use external tools (APIs). This is because current instruction tuning largely focuses on basic language tasks instead of the tool-use domain. This is in contrast to state-of-the-art (SOTA) LLMs, e.g., ChatGPT, which have demonstrated excellent tool-use capabilities but are unfortunately closed source. To facilitate tool-use capabilities within open-source LLMs, we introduce ToolLLM, a general tool-use framework of data construction, model training and evaluation. We first present ToolBench, an instruction-tuning dataset for tool use, which is created automatically using ChatGPT. Specifically, we collect 16,464 real-world RESTful APIs spanning 49 categories from RapidAPI Hub, then prompt ChatGPT to generate diverse human instructions involving these APIs, covering both single-tool and multi-tool scenarios. Finally, we use ChatGPT to search for a valid solution path (chain of API calls) for each instruction. To make the searching process more efficient, we develop a novel depth-first search-based decision tree (DFSDT), enabling LLMs to evaluate multiple reasoning traces and expand the search space. We show that DFSDT significantly enhances the planning and reasoning capabilities of LLMs. For efficient tool-use assessment, we develop an automatic evaluator: ToolEval. We fine-tune LLaMA on ToolBench and obtain ToolLLaMA. Our ToolEval reveals that ToolLLaMA demonstrates a remarkable ability to execute complex instructions and generalize to unseen APIs, and exhibits comparable performance to ChatGPT. To make the pipeline more practical, we devise a neural API retriever to recommend appropriate APIs for each instruction, negating the need for manual API selection.

10.Decidable Fragments of LTLf Modulo Theories (Extended Version)

Authors:Luca Geatti, Alessandro Gianola, Nicola Gigante, Sarah Winkler

Abstract: We study Linear Temporal Logic Modulo Theories over Finite Traces (LTLfMT), a recently introduced extension of LTL over finite traces (LTLf) where propositions are replaced by first-order formulas and where first-order variables referring to different time points can be compared. In general, LTLfMT was shown to be semi-decidable for any decidable first-order theory (e.g., linear arithmetics), with a tableau-based semi-decision procedure. In this paper we present a sound and complete pruning rule for the LTLfMT tableau. We show that for any LTLfMT formula that satisfies an abstract, semantic condition, that we call finite memory, the tableau augmented with the new rule is also guaranteed to terminate. Last but not least, this technique allows us to establish novel decidability results for the satisfiability of several fragments of LTLfMT, as well as to give new decidability proofs for classes that are already known.

1.DELPHIC: Practical DEL Planning via Possibilities (Extended Version)

Authors:Alessandro Burigana, Paolo Felli, Marco Montali

Abstract: Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) provides a framework for epistemic planning that is capable of representing non-deterministic actions, partial observability, higher-order knowledge and both factual and epistemic change. The high expressivity of DEL challenges existing epistemic planners, which typically can handle only restricted fragments of the whole framework. The goal of this work is to push the envelop of practical DEL planning, ultimately aiming for epistemic planners to be able to deal with the full range of features offered by DEL. Towards this goal, we question the traditional semantics of DEL, defined in terms on Kripke models. In particular, we propose an equivalent semantics defined using, as main building block, so-called possibilities: non well-founded objects representing both factual properties of the world, and what agents consider to be possible. We call the resulting framework DELPHIC. We argue that DELPHIC indeed provides a more compact representation of epistemic states. To substantiate this claim, we implement both approaches in ASP and we set up an experimental evaluation to compare DELPHIC with the traditional, Kripke-based approach. The evaluation confirms that DELPHIC outperforms the traditional approach in space and time.

2.From Probabilistic Programming to Complexity-based Programming

Authors:Giovanni Sileno, Jean-Louis Dessalles

Abstract: The paper presents the main characteristics and a preliminary implementation of a novel computational framework named CompLog. Inspired by probabilistic programming systems like ProbLog, CompLog builds upon the inferential mechanisms proposed by Simplicity Theory, relying on the computation of two Kolmogorov complexities (here implemented as min-path searches via ASP programs) rather than probabilistic inference. The proposed system enables users to compute ex-post and ex-ante measures of unexpectedness of a certain situation, mapping respectively to posterior and prior subjective probabilities. The computation is based on the specification of world and mental models by means of causal and descriptive relations between predicates weighted by complexity. The paper illustrates a few examples of application: generating relevant descriptions, and providing alternative approaches to disjunction and to negation.

3.A Semantic Approach to Decidability in Epistemic Planning (Extended Version)

Authors:Alessandro Burigana, Paolo Felli, Marco Montali, Nicolas Troquard

Abstract: The use of Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) in multi-agent planning has led to a widely adopted action formalism that can handle nondeterminism, partial observability and arbitrary knowledge nesting. As such expressive power comes at the cost of undecidability, several decidable fragments have been isolated, mainly based on syntactic restrictions of the action formalism. In this paper, we pursue a novel semantic approach to achieve decidability. Namely, rather than imposing syntactical constraints, the semantic approach focuses on the axioms of the logic for epistemic planning. Specifically, we augment the logic of knowledge S5$_n$ and with an interaction axiom called (knowledge) commutativity, which controls the ability of agents to unboundedly reason on the knowledge of other agents. We then provide a threefold contribution. First, we show that the resulting epistemic planning problem is decidable. In doing so, we prove that our framework admits a finitary non-fixpoint characterization of common knowledge, which is of independent interest. Second, we study different generalizations of the commutativity axiom, with the goal of obtaining decidability for more expressive fragments of DEL. Finally, we show that two well-known epistemic planning systems based on action templates, when interpreted under the setting of knowledge, conform to the commutativity axiom, hence proving their decidability.

1.Fact-Checking of AI-Generated Reports

Authors:Razi Mahmood, Ge Wang, Mannudeep Kalra, Pingkun Yan

Abstract: With advances in generative artificial intelligence (AI), it is now possible to produce realistic-looking automated reports for preliminary reads of radiology images. This can expedite clinical workflows, improve accuracy and reduce overall costs. However, it is also well-known that such models often hallucinate, leading to false findings in the generated reports. In this paper, we propose a new method of fact-checking of AI-generated reports using their associated images. Specifically, the developed examiner differentiates real and fake sentences in reports by learning the association between an image and sentences describing real or potentially fake findings. To train such an examiner, we first created a new dataset of fake reports by perturbing the findings in the original ground truth radiology reports associated with images. Text encodings of real and fake sentences drawn from these reports are then paired with image encodings to learn the mapping to real/fake labels. The utility of such an examiner is demonstrated for verifying automatically generated reports by detecting and removing fake sentences. Future generative AI approaches can use the resulting tool to validate their reports leading to a more responsible use of AI in expediting clinical workflows.

2.Multi-Valued Partial Order Plans in Numeric Planning

Authors:Hayyan Helal, Gerhard Lakemeyer

Abstract: Many planning formalisms allow for mixing numeric with Boolean effects. However, most of these formalisms are undecidable. In this paper, we will analyze possible causes for this undecidability by studying the number of different occurrences of actions, an approach that proved useful for metric fluents before. We will start by reformulating a numeric planning problem known as restricted tasks as a search problem. We will then show how an NP-complete fragment of numeric planning can be found by using heuristics. To achieve this, we will develop the idea of multi-valued partial order plans, a least committing compact representation for (sequential and parallel) plans. Finally, we will study optimization techniques for this representation to incorporate soft preconditions.

3.Fuzzy order-sorted feature logic

Authors:Gian Carlo Milanese, Gabriella Pasi

Abstract: Order-Sorted Feature (OSF) logic is a knowledge representation and reasoning language based on function-denoting feature symbols and set-denoting sort symbols ordered in a subsumption lattice. OSF logic allows the construction of record-like terms that represent classes of entities and that are themselves ordered in a subsumption relation. The unification algorithm for such structures provides an efficient calculus of type subsumption, which has been applied in computational linguistics and implemented in constraint logic programming languages such as LOGIN and LIFE and automated reasoners such as CEDAR. This work generalizes OSF logic to a fuzzy setting. We give a flexible definition of a fuzzy subsumption relation which generalizes Zadeh's inclusion between fuzzy sets. Based on this definition we define a fuzzy semantics of OSF logic where sort symbols and OSF terms denote fuzzy sets. We extend the subsumption relation to OSF terms and prove that it constitutes a fuzzy partial order with the property that two OSF terms are subsumed by one another in the crisp sense if and only if their subsumption degree is greater than 0. We show how to find the greatest lower bound of two OSF terms by unifying them and how to compute the subsumption degree between two OSF terms, and we provide the complexity of these operations.

4.Hybrid ASP-based multi-objective scheduling of semiconductor manufacturing processes (Extended version)

Authors:Mohammed M. S. El-Kholany, Ramsha Ali, Martin Gebser

Abstract: Modern semiconductor manufacturing involves intricate production processes consisting of hundreds of operations, which can take several months from lot release to completion. The high-tech machines used in these processes are diverse, operate on individual wafers, lots, or batches in multiple stages, and necessitate product-specific setups and specialized maintenance procedures. This situation is different from traditional job-shop scheduling scenarios, which have less complex production processes and machines, and mainly focus on solving highly combinatorial but abstract scheduling problems. In this work, we address the scheduling of realistic semiconductor manufacturing processes by modeling their specific requirements using hybrid Answer Set Programming with difference logic, incorporating flexible machine processing, setup, batching and maintenance operations. Unlike existing methods that schedule semiconductor manufacturing processes locally with greedy heuristics or by independently optimizing specific machine group allocations, we examine the potentials of large-scale scheduling subject to multiple optimization objectives.

5.Base-based Model Checking for Multi-Agent Only Believing (long version)

Authors:Tiago de Lima, Emiliano Lorini, François Schwarzentruber

Abstract: We present a novel semantics for the language of multi-agent only believing exploiting belief bases, and show how to use it for automatically checking formulas of this language and of its dynamic extension with private belief expansion operators. We provide a PSPACE algorithm for model checking relying on a reduction to QBF and alternative dedicated algorithm relying on the exploration of the state space. We present an implementation of the QBF-based algorithm and some experimental results on computation time in a concrete example.

6.Thinker: Learning to Plan and Act

Authors:Stephen Chung, Ivan Anokhin, David Krueger

Abstract: We propose the Thinker algorithm, a novel approach that enables reinforcement learning agents to autonomously interact with and utilize a learned world model. The Thinker algorithm wraps the environment with a world model and introduces new actions designed for interacting with the world model. These model-interaction actions enable agents to perform planning by proposing alternative plans to the world model before selecting a final action to execute in the environment. This approach eliminates the need for hand-crafted planning algorithms by enabling the agent to learn how to plan autonomously and allows for easy interpretation of the agent's plan with visualization. We demonstrate the algorithm's effectiveness through experimental results in the game of Sokoban and the Atari 2600 benchmark, where the Thinker algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance and competitive results, respectively. Visualizations of agents trained with the Thinker algorithm demonstrate that they have learned to plan effectively with the world model to select better actions. The algorithm's generality opens a new research direction on how a world model can be used in reinforcement learning and how planning can be seamlessly integrated into an agent's decision-making process.

1.Revisiting the Performance-Explainability Trade-Off in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)

Authors:Barnaby Crook, Maximilian Schlüter, Timo Speith

Abstract: Within the field of Requirements Engineering (RE), the increasing significance of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) in aligning AI-supported systems with user needs, societal expectations, and regulatory standards has garnered recognition. In general, explainability has emerged as an important non-functional requirement that impacts system quality. However, the supposed trade-off between explainability and performance challenges the presumed positive influence of explainability. If meeting the requirement of explainability entails a reduction in system performance, then careful consideration must be given to which of these quality aspects takes precedence and how to compromise between them. In this paper, we critically examine the alleged trade-off. We argue that it is best approached in a nuanced way that incorporates resource availability, domain characteristics, and considerations of risk. By providing a foundation for future research and best practices, this work aims to advance the field of RE for AI.

2.A New Perspective on Evaluation Methods for Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)

Authors:Timo Speith, Markus Langer

Abstract: Within the field of Requirements Engineering (RE), the increasing significance of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) in aligning AI-supported systems with user needs, societal expectations, and regulatory standards has garnered recognition. In general, explainability has emerged as an important non-functional requirement that impacts system quality. However, the supposed trade-off between explainability and performance challenges the presumed positive influence of explainability. If meeting the requirement of explainability entails a reduction in system performance, then careful consideration must be given to which of these quality aspects takes precedence and how to compromise between them. In this paper, we critically examine the alleged trade-off. We argue that it is best approached in a nuanced way that incorporates resource availability, domain characteristics, and considerations of risk. By providing a foundation for future research and best practices, this work aims to advance the field of RE for AI.

3.General Purpose Artificial Intelligence Systems (GPAIS): Properties, Definition, Taxonomy, Open Challenges and Implications

Authors:Isaac Triguero, Daniel Molina, Javier Poyatos, Javier Del Ser, Francisco Herrera

Abstract: Most applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) are designed for a confined and specific task. However, there are many scenarios that call for a more general AI, capable of solving a wide array of tasks without being specifically designed for them. The term General-Purpose Artificial Intelligence Systems (GPAIS) has been defined to refer to these AI systems. To date, the possibility of an Artificial General Intelligence, powerful enough to perform any intellectual task as if it were human, or even improve it, has remained an aspiration, fiction, and considered a risk for our society. Whilst we might still be far from achieving that, GPAIS is a reality and sitting at the forefront of AI research. This work discusses existing definitions for GPAIS and proposes a new definition that allows for a gradual differentiation among types of GPAIS according to their properties and limitations. We distinguish between closed-world and open-world GPAIS, characterising their degree of autonomy and ability based on several factors such as adaptation to new tasks, competence in domains not intentionally trained for, ability to learn from few data, or proactive acknowledgment of their own limitations. We then propose a taxonomy of approaches to realise GPAIS, describing research trends such as the use of AI techniques to improve another AI or foundation models. As a prime example, we delve into generative AI, aligning them with the terms and concepts presented in the taxonomy. Through the proposed definition and taxonomy, our aim is to facilitate research collaboration across different areas that are tackling general-purpose tasks, as they share many common aspects. Finally, we discuss the current state of GPAIS, its challenges and prospects, implications for our society, and the need for responsible and trustworthy AI systems and regulation, with the goal of providing a holistic view of GPAIS.

1.Monte-Carlo Tree Search for Multi-Agent Pathfinding: Preliminary Results

Authors:Yelisey Pitanov, Alexey Skrynnik, Anton Andreychuk, Konstantin Yakovlev, Aleksandr Panov

Abstract: In this work we study a well-known and challenging problem of Multi-agent Pathfinding, when a set of agents is confined to a graph, each agent is assigned a unique start and goal vertices and the task is to find a set of collision-free paths (one for each agent) such that each agent reaches its respective goal. We investigate how to utilize Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) to solve the problem. Although MCTS was shown to demonstrate superior performance in a wide range of problems like playing antagonistic games (e.g. Go, Chess etc.), discovering faster matrix multiplication algorithms etc., its application to the problem at hand was not well studied before. To this end we introduce an original variant of MCTS, tailored to multi-agent pathfinding. The crux of our approach is how the reward, that guides MCTS, is computed. Specifically, we use individual paths to assist the agents with the the goal-reaching behavior, while leaving them freedom to get off the track if it is needed to avoid collisions. We also use a dedicated decomposition technique to reduce the branching factor of the tree search procedure. Empirically we show that the suggested method outperforms the baseline planning algorithm that invokes heuristic search, e.g. A*, at each re-planning step.

2.A Planning Ontology to Represent and Exploit Planning Knowledge for Performance Efficiency

Authors:Bharath Muppasani, Vishal Pallagani, Biplav Srivastava, Raghava Mutharaju, Michael N. Huhns, Vignesh Narayanan

Abstract: Ontologies are known for their ability to organize rich metadata, support the identification of novel insights via semantic queries, and promote reuse. In this paper, we consider the problem of automated planning, where the objective is to find a sequence of actions that will move an agent from an initial state of the world to a desired goal state. We hypothesize that given a large number of available planners and diverse planning domains; they carry essential information that can be leveraged to identify suitable planners and improve their performance for a domain. We use data on planning domains and planners from the International Planning Competition (IPC) to construct a planning ontology and demonstrate via experiments in two use cases that the ontology can lead to the selection of promising planners and improving their performance using macros - a form of action ordering constraints extracted from planning ontology. We also make the planning ontology and associated resources available to the community to promote further research.

3.On Solving the Rubik's Cube with Domain-Independent Planners Using Standard Representations

Authors:Bharath Muppasani, Vishal Pallagani, Biplav Srivastava, Forest Agostinelli

Abstract: Rubik's Cube (RC) is a well-known and computationally challenging puzzle that has motivated AI researchers to explore efficient alternative representations and problem-solving methods. The ideal situation for planning here is that a problem be solved optimally and efficiently represented in a standard notation using a general-purpose solver and heuristics. The fastest solver today for RC is DeepCubeA with a custom representation, and another approach is with Scorpion planner with State-Action-Space+ (SAS+) representation. In this paper, we present the first RC representation in the popular PDDL language so that the domain becomes more accessible to PDDL planners, competitions, and knowledge engineering tools, and is more human-readable. We then bridge across existing approaches and compare performance. We find that in one comparable experiment, DeepCubeA solves all problems with varying complexities, albeit only 18\% are optimal plans. For the same problem set, Scorpion with SAS+ representation and pattern database heuristics solves 61.50\% problems, while FastDownward with PDDL representation and FF heuristic solves 56.50\% problems, out of which all the plans generated were optimal. Our study provides valuable insights into the trade-offs between representational choice and plan optimality that can help researchers design future strategies for challenging domains combining general-purpose solving methods (planning, reinforcement learning), heuristics, and representations (standard or custom).

4.Argument Attribution Explanations in Quantitative Bipolar Argumentation Frameworks

Authors:Xiang Yin, Nico Potyka, Francesca Toni

Abstract: Argumentative explainable AI has been advocated by several in recent years, with an increasing interest on explaining the reasoning outcomes of Argumentation Frameworks (AFs). While there is a considerable body of research on qualitatively explaining the reasoning outcomes of AFs with debates/disputes/dialogues in the spirit of \emph{extension-based semantics}, explaining the quantitative reasoning outcomes of AFs under \emph{gradual semantics} has not received much attention, despite widespread use in applications. In this paper, we contribute to filling this gap by proposing a novel theory of \emph{Argument Attribution Explanations (AAEs)} by incorporating the spirit of feature attribution from machine learning in the context of Quantitative Bipolar Argumentation Frameworks (QBAFs): whereas feature attribution is used to determine the influence of features towards outputs of machine learning models, AAEs are used to determine the influence of arguments towards \emph{topic argument}s of interest. We study desirable properties of AAEs, including some new ones and some partially adapted from the literature to our setting. To demonstrate the applicability of our AAEs in practice, we conclude by carrying out two case studies in the scenarios of fake news detection and movie recommender systems.

1.Past-present temporal programs over finite traces

Authors:Pedro Cabalar, Martín Diéguez, François Laferrière, Torsten Schaub

Abstract: Extensions of Answer Set Programming with language constructs from temporal logics, such as temporal equilibrium logic over finite traces (TELf), provide an expressive computational framework for modeling dynamic applications. In this paper, we study the so-called past-present syntactic subclass, which consists of a set of logic programming rules whose body references to the past and head to the present. Such restriction ensures that the past remains independent of the future, which is the case in most dynamic domains. We extend the definitions of completion and loop formulas to the case of past-present formulas, which allows capturing the temporal stable models of a set of past-present temporal programs by means of an LTLf expression.

2.Enhancing Human-like Multi-Modal Reasoning: A New Challenging Dataset and Comprehensive Framework

Authors:Jingxuan Wei, Cheng Tan, Zhangyang Gao, Linzhuang Sun, Siyuan Li, Bihui Yu, Ruifeng Guo, Stan Z. Li

Abstract: Multimodal reasoning is a critical component in the pursuit of artificial intelligence systems that exhibit human-like intelligence, especially when tackling complex tasks. While the chain-of-thought (CoT) technique has gained considerable attention, the existing ScienceQA dataset, which focuses on multimodal scientific questions and explanations from elementary and high school textbooks, lacks a comprehensive evaluation of diverse approaches. To address this gap, we present COCO Multi-Modal Reasoning Dataset(COCO-MMRD), a novel dataset that encompasses an extensive collection of open-ended questions, rationales, and answers derived from the large object dataset COCO. Unlike previous datasets that rely on multiple-choice questions, our dataset pioneers the use of open-ended questions in the context of multimodal CoT, introducing a more challenging problem that effectively assesses the reasoning capability of CoT models. Through comprehensive evaluations and detailed analyses, we provide valuable insights and propose innovative techniques, including multi-hop cross-modal attention and sentence-level contrastive learning, to enhance the image and text encoders. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed dataset and techniques, offering novel perspectives for advancing multimodal reasoning.

3.Theoretically Guaranteed Policy Improvement Distilled from Model-Based Planning

Authors:Chuming Li, Ruonan Jia, Jie Liu, Yinmin Zhang, Yazhe Niu, Yaodong Yang, Yu Liu, Wanli Ouyang

Abstract: Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has demonstrated remarkable successes on a range of continuous control tasks due to its high sample efficiency. To save the computation cost of conducting planning online, recent practices tend to distill optimized action sequences into an RL policy during the training phase. Although the distillation can incorporate both the foresight of planning and the exploration ability of RL policies, the theoretical understanding of these methods is yet unclear. In this paper, we extend the policy improvement step of Soft Actor-Critic (SAC) by developing an approach to distill from model-based planning to the policy. We then demonstrate that such an approach of policy improvement has a theoretical guarantee of monotonic improvement and convergence to the maximum value defined in SAC. We discuss effective design choices and implement our theory as a practical algorithm -- Model-based Planning Distilled to Policy (MPDP) -- that updates the policy jointly over multiple future time steps. Extensive experiments show that MPDP achieves better sample efficiency and asymptotic performance than both model-free and model-based planning algorithms on six continuous control benchmark tasks in MuJoCo.

1.AIGC Empowering Telecom Sector White Paper

Authors:Ye Ouyang, Yaqin Zhang, Xiaozhou Ye, Yunxin Liu, Yong Song, Yang Liu, Sen Bian, Zhiyong Liu

Abstract: In the global craze of GPT, people have deeply realized that AI, as a transformative technology and key force in economic and social development, will bring great leaps and breakthroughs to the global industry and profoundly influence the future world competition pattern. As the builder and operator of information and communication infrastructure, the telecom sector provides infrastructure support for the development of AI, and even takes the lead in the implementation of AI applications. How to enable the application of AIGC (GPT) and implement AIGC in the telecom sector are questions that telecom practitioners must ponder and answer. Through the study of GPT, a typical representative of AIGC, the authors have analyzed how GPT empowers the telecom sector in the form of scenarios, discussed the gap between the current GPT general model and telecom services, proposed for the first time a Telco Augmented Cognition capability system, provided answers to how to construct a telecom service GPT in the telecom sector, and carried out various practices. Our counterparts in the industry are expected to focus on collaborative innovation around telecom and AI, build an open and shared innovation ecosystem, promote the deep integration of AI and telecom sector, and accelerate the construction of next-generation information infrastructure, in an effort to facilitate the digital transformation of the economy and society.

2.Zero-touch realization of Pervasive Artificial Intelligence-as-a-service in 6G networks

Authors:Emna Baccour, Mhd Saria Allahham, Aiman Erbad, Amr Mohamed, Ahmed Refaey Hussein, Mounir Hamdi

Abstract: The vision of the upcoming 6G technologies, characterized by ultra-dense network, low latency, and fast data rate is to support Pervasive AI (PAI) using zero-touch solutions enabling self-X (e.g., self-configuration, self-monitoring, and self-healing) services. However, the research on 6G is still in its infancy, and only the first steps have been taken to conceptualize its design, investigate its implementation, and plan for use cases. Toward this end, academia and industry communities have gradually shifted from theoretical studies of AI distribution to real-world deployment and standardization. Still, designing an end-to-end framework that systematizes the AI distribution by allowing easier access to the service using a third-party application assisted by a zero-touch service provisioning has not been well explored. In this context, we introduce a novel platform architecture to deploy a zero-touch PAI-as-a-Service (PAIaaS) in 6G networks supported by a blockchain-based smart system. This platform aims to standardize the pervasive AI at all levels of the architecture and unify the interfaces in order to facilitate the service deployment across application and infrastructure domains, relieve the users worries about cost, security, and resource allocation, and at the same time, respect the 6G stringent performance requirements. As a proof of concept, we present a Federated Learning-as-a-service use case where we evaluate the ability of our proposed system to self-optimize and self-adapt to the dynamics of 6G networks in addition to minimizing the users' perceived costs.

3.Adaptive ResNet Architecture for Distributed Inference in Resource-Constrained IoT Systems

Authors:Fazeela Mazhar Khan, Emna Baccour, Aiman Erbad, Mounir Hamdi

Abstract: As deep neural networks continue to expand and become more complex, most edge devices are unable to handle their extensive processing requirements. Therefore, the concept of distributed inference is essential to distribute the neural network among a cluster of nodes. However, distribution may lead to additional energy consumption and dependency among devices that suffer from unstable transmission rates. Unstable transmission rates harm real-time performance of IoT devices causing low latency, high energy usage, and potential failures. Hence, for dynamic systems, it is necessary to have a resilient DNN with an adaptive architecture that can downsize as per the available resources. This paper presents an empirical study that identifies the connections in ResNet that can be dropped without significantly impacting the model's performance to enable distribution in case of resource shortage. Based on the results, a multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to minimize latency and maximize accuracy as per available resources. Our experiments demonstrate that an adaptive ResNet architecture can reduce shared data, energy consumption, and latency throughout the distribution while maintaining high accuracy.

4.IndigoVX: Where Human Intelligence Meets AI for Optimal Decision Making

Authors:Kais Dukes

Abstract: This paper defines a new approach for augmenting human intelligence with AI for optimal goal solving. Our proposed AI, Indigo, is an acronym for Informed Numerical Decision-making through Iterative Goal-Oriented optimization. When combined with a human collaborator, we term the joint system IndigoVX, for Virtual eXpert. The system is conceptually simple. We envisage this method being applied to games or business strategies, with the human providing strategic context and the AI offering optimal, data-driven moves. Indigo operates through an iterative feedback loop, harnessing the human expert's contextual knowledge and the AI's data-driven insights to craft and refine strategies towards a well-defined goal. Using a quantified three-score schema, this hybridization allows the combined team to evaluate strategies and refine their plan, while adapting to challenges and changes in real-time.

5.Model Reporting for Certifiable AI: A Proposal from Merging EU Regulation into AI Development

Authors:Danilo Brajovic, Niclas Renner, Vincent Philipp Goebels, Philipp Wagner, Benjamin Fresz, Martin Biller, Mara Klaeb, Janika Kutz, Jens Neuhuettler, Marco F. Huber

Abstract: Despite large progress in Explainable and Safe AI, practitioners suffer from a lack of regulation and standards for AI safety. In this work we merge recent regulation efforts by the European Union and first proposals for AI guidelines with recent trends in research: data and model cards. We propose the use of standardized cards to document AI applications throughout the development process. Our main contribution is the introduction of use-case and operation cards, along with updates for data and model cards to cope with regulatory requirements. We reference both recent research as well as the source of the regulation in our cards and provide references to additional support material and toolboxes whenever possible. The goal is to design cards that help practitioners develop safe AI systems throughout the development process, while enabling efficient third-party auditing of AI applications, being easy to understand, and building trust in the system. Our work incorporates insights from interviews with certification experts as well as developers and individuals working with the developed AI applications.

6.Identifying Relevant Features of CSE-CIC-IDS2018 Dataset for the Development of an Intrusion Detection System

Authors:László Göcs, Zsolt Csaba Johanyák

Abstract: Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are essential elements of IT systems. Their key component is a classification module that continuously evaluates some features of the network traffic and identifies possible threats. Its efficiency is greatly affected by the right selection of the features to be monitored. Therefore, the identification of a minimal set of features that are necessary to safely distinguish malicious traffic from benign traffic is indispensable in the course of the development of an IDS. This paper presents the preprocessing and feature selection workflow as well as its results in the case of the CSE-CIC-IDS2018 on AWS dataset, focusing on five attack types. To identify the relevant features, six feature selection methods were applied, and the final ranking of the features was elaborated based on their average score. Next, several subsets of the features were formed based on different ranking threshold values, and each subset was tried with five classification algorithms to determine the optimal feature set for each attack type. During the evaluation, four widely used metrics were taken into consideration.

7.On the Complexity of the Bipartite Polarization Problem: from Neutral to Highly Polarized Discussions

Authors:Teresa Alsinet, Josep Argelich, Ramón Béjar, Santi Martínez

Abstract: The Bipartite Polarization Problem is an optimization problem where the goal is to find the highest polarized bipartition on a weighted and labelled graph that represents a debate developed through some social network, where nodes represent user's opinions and edges agreement or disagreement between users. This problem can be seen as a generalization of the maxcut problem, and in previous work approximate solutions and exact solutions have been obtained for real instances obtained from Reddit discussions, showing that such real instances seem to be very easy to solve. In this paper, we investigate further the complexity of this problem, by introducing an instance generation model where a single parameter controls the polarization of the instances in such a way that this correlates with the average complexity to solve those instances. The average complexity results we obtain are consistent with our hypothesis: the higher the polarization of the instance, the easier is to find the corresponding polarized bipartition.

8.Integration of Domain Expert-Centric Ontology Design into the CRISP-DM for Cyber-Physical Production Systems

Authors:Milapji Singh Gill, Tom Westermann, Marvin Schieseck, Alexander Fay

Abstract: In the age of Industry 4.0 and Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPSs) vast amounts of potentially valuable data are being generated. Methods from Machine Learning (ML) and Data Mining (DM) have proven to be promising in extracting complex and hidden patterns from the data collected. The knowledge obtained can in turn be used to improve tasks like diagnostics or maintenance planning. However, such data-driven projects, usually performed with the Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM), often fail due to the disproportionate amount of time needed for understanding and preparing the data. The application of domain-specific ontologies has demonstrated its advantageousness in a wide variety of Industry 4.0 application scenarios regarding the aforementioned challenges. However, workflows and artifacts from ontology design for CPPSs have not yet been systematically integrated into the CRISP-DM. Accordingly, this contribution intends to present an integrated approach so that data scientists are able to more quickly and reliably gain insights into the CPPS. The result is exemplarily applied to an anomaly detection use case.

9.Statement-based Memory for Neural Source Code Summarization

Authors:Aakash Bansal, Siyuan Jiang, Sakib Haque, Collin McMillan

Abstract: Source code summarization is the task of writing natural language descriptions of source code behavior. Code summarization underpins software documentation for programmers. Short descriptions of code help programmers understand the program quickly without having to read the code itself. Lately, neural source code summarization has emerged as the frontier of research into automated code summarization techniques. By far the most popular targets for summarization are program subroutines. The idea, in a nutshell, is to train an encoder-decoder neural architecture using large sets of examples of subroutines extracted from code repositories. The encoder represents the code and the decoder represents the summary. However, most current approaches attempt to treat the subroutine as a single unit. For example, by taking the entire subroutine as input to a Transformer or RNN-based encoder. But code behavior tends to depend on the flow from statement to statement. Normally dynamic analysis may shed light on this flow, but dynamic analysis on hundreds of thousands of examples in large datasets is not practical. In this paper, we present a statement-based memory encoder that learns the important elements of flow during training, leading to a statement-based subroutine representation without the need for dynamic analysis. We implement our encoder for code summarization and demonstrate a significant improvement over the state-of-the-art.

10.Benchmark datasets for biomedical knowledge graphs with negative statements

Authors:Rita T. Sousa, Sara Silva, Catia Pesquita

Abstract: Knowledge graphs represent facts about real-world entities. Most of these facts are defined as positive statements. The negative statements are scarce but highly relevant under the open-world assumption. Furthermore, they have been demonstrated to improve the performance of several applications, namely in the biomedical domain. However, no benchmark dataset supports the evaluation of the methods that consider these negative statements. We present a collection of datasets for three relation prediction tasks - protein-protein interaction prediction, gene-disease association prediction and disease prediction - that aim at circumventing the difficulties in building benchmarks for knowledge graphs with negative statements. These datasets include data from two successful biomedical ontologies, Gene Ontology and Human Phenotype Ontology, enriched with negative statements. We also generate knowledge graph embeddings for each dataset with two popular path-based methods and evaluate the performance in each task. The results show that the negative statements can improve the performance of knowledge graph embeddings.

1.Challenges and Solutions in AI for All

Authors:Rifat Ara Shams, Didar Zowghi, Muneera Bano

Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI)'s pervasive presence and variety necessitate diversity and inclusivity (D&I) principles in its design for fairness, trust, and transparency. Yet, these considerations are often overlooked, leading to issues of bias, discrimination, and perceived untrustworthiness. In response, we conducted a Systematic Review to unearth challenges and solutions relating to D&I in AI. Our rigorous search yielded 48 research articles published between 2017 and 2022. Open coding of these papers revealed 55 unique challenges and 33 solutions for D&I in AI, as well as 24 unique challenges and 23 solutions for enhancing such practices using AI. This study, by offering a deeper understanding of these issues, will enlighten researchers and practitioners seeking to integrate these principles into future AI systems.

2.A Personalized Recommender System Based-on Knowledge Graph Embeddings

Authors:Ngoc Luyen Le Heudiasyc, Marie-Hélène Abel Heudiasyc, Philippe Gouspillou

Abstract: Knowledge graphs have proven to be effective for modeling entities and their relationships through the use of ontologies. The recent emergence in interest for using knowledge graphs as a form of information modeling has led to their increased adoption in recommender systems. By incorporating users and items into the knowledge graph, these systems can better capture the implicit connections between them and provide more accurate recommendations. In this paper, we investigate and propose the construction of a personalized recommender system via knowledge graphs embedding applied to the vehicle purchase/sale domain. The results of our experimentation demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in providing relevant recommendations that are consistent with individual users.

3.Bounded Combinatorial Reconfiguration with Answer Set Programming

Authors:Yuya Yamada, Mutsunori Banbara, Katsumi Inoue, Torsten Schaub

Abstract: We develop an approach called bounded combinatorial reconfiguration for solving combinatorial reconfiguration problems based on Answer Set Programming (ASP). The general task is to study the solution spaces of source combinatorial problems and to decide whether or not there are sequences of feasible solutions that have special properties. The resulting recongo solver covers all metrics of the solver track in the most recent international competition on combinatorial reconfiguration (CoRe Challenge 2022). recongo ranked first in the shortest metric of the single-engine solvers track. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of bounded combinatorial reconfiguration, and present an ASP encoding of the independent set reconfiguration problem that is one of the most studied combinatorial reconfiguration problems. Finally, we present empirical analysis considering all instances of CoRe Challenge 2022.

4.Towards an architectural framework for intelligent virtual agents using probabilistic programming

Authors:Anton Andreev GIPSA-Services, Grégoire Cattan

Abstract: We present a new framework called KorraAI for conceiving and building embodied conversational agents (ECAs). Our framework models ECAs' behavior considering contextual information, for example, about environment and interaction time, and uncertain information provided by the human interaction partner. Moreover, agents built with KorraAI can show proactive behavior, as they can initiate interactions with human partners. For these purposes, KorraAI exploits probabilistic programming. Probabilistic models in KorraAI are used to model its behavior and interactions with the user. They enable adaptation to the user's preferences and a certain degree of indeterminism in the ECAs to achieve more natural behavior. Human-like internal states, such as moods, preferences, and emotions (e.g., surprise), can be modeled in KorraAI with distributions and Bayesian networks. These models can evolve over time, even without interaction with the user. ECA models are implemented as plugins and share a common interface. This enables ECA designers to focus more on the character they are modeling and less on the technical details, as well as to store and exchange ECA models. Several applications of KorraAI ECAs are possible, such as virtual sales agents, customer service agents, virtual companions, entertainers, or tutors.

5.LLM Censorship: A Machine Learning Challenge or a Computer Security Problem?

Authors:David Glukhov, Ilia Shumailov, Yarin Gal, Nicolas Papernot, Vardan Papyan

Abstract: Large language models (LLMs) have exhibited impressive capabilities in comprehending complex instructions. However, their blind adherence to provided instructions has led to concerns regarding risks of malicious use. Existing defence mechanisms, such as model fine-tuning or output censorship using LLMs, have proven to be fallible, as LLMs can still generate problematic responses. Commonly employed censorship approaches treat the issue as a machine learning problem and rely on another LM to detect undesirable content in LLM outputs. In this paper, we present the theoretical limitations of such semantic censorship approaches. Specifically, we demonstrate that semantic censorship can be perceived as an undecidable problem, highlighting the inherent challenges in censorship that arise due to LLMs' programmatic and instruction-following capabilities. Furthermore, we argue that the challenges extend beyond semantic censorship, as knowledgeable attackers can reconstruct impermissible outputs from a collection of permissible ones. As a result, we propose that the problem of censorship needs to be reevaluated; it should be treated as a security problem which warrants the adaptation of security-based approaches to mitigate potential risks.

6.Modifications of the Miller definition of contrastive (counterfactual) explanations

Authors:Kevin McAreavey, Weiru Liu

Abstract: Miller recently proposed a definition of contrastive (counterfactual) explanations based on the well-known Halpern-Pearl (HP) definitions of causes and (non-contrastive) explanations. Crucially, the Miller definition was based on the original HP definition of explanations, but this has since been modified by Halpern; presumably because the original yields counterintuitive results in many standard examples. More recently Borner has proposed a third definition, observing that this modified HP definition may also yield counterintuitive results. In this paper we show that the Miller definition inherits issues found in the original HP definition. We address these issues by proposing two improved variants based on the more robust modified HP and Borner definitions. We analyse our new definitions and show that they retain the spirit of the Miller definition where all three variants satisfy an alternative unified definition that is modular with respect to an underlying definition of non-contrastive explanations. To the best of our knowledge this paper also provides the first explicit comparison between the original and modified HP definitions.

7.PASTA: Pretrained Action-State Transformer Agents

Authors:Raphael Boige, Yannis Flet-Berliac, Arthur Flajolet, Guillaume Richard, Thomas Pierrot

Abstract: Self-supervised learning has brought about a revolutionary paradigm shift in various computing domains, including NLP, vision, and biology. Recent approaches involve pre-training transformer models on vast amounts of unlabeled data, serving as a starting point for efficiently solving downstream tasks. In the realm of reinforcement learning, researchers have recently adapted these approaches by developing models pre-trained on expert trajectories, enabling them to address a wide range of tasks, from robotics to recommendation systems. However, existing methods mostly rely on intricate pre-training objectives tailored to specific downstream applications. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of models we refer to as Pretrained Action-State Transformer Agents (PASTA). Our study uses a unified methodology and covers an extensive set of general downstream tasks including behavioral cloning, offline RL, sensor failure robustness, and dynamics change adaptation. Our goal is to systematically compare various design choices and provide valuable insights to practitioners for building robust models. Key highlights of our study include tokenization at the action and state component level, using fundamental pre-training objectives like next token prediction, training models across diverse domains simultaneously, and using parameter efficient fine-tuning (PEFT). The developed models in our study contain fewer than 10 million parameters and the application of PEFT enables fine-tuning of fewer than 10,000 parameters during downstream adaptation, allowing a broad community to use these models and reproduce our experiments. We hope that this study will encourage further research into the use of transformers with first-principles design choices to represent RL trajectories and contribute to robust policy learning.

8.Characterising Decision Theories with Mechanised Causal Graphs

Authors:Matt MacDermott, Tom Everitt, Francesco Belardinelli

Abstract: How should my own decisions affect my beliefs about the outcomes I expect to achieve? If taking a certain action makes me view myself as a certain type of person, it might affect how I think others view me, and how I view others who are similar to me. This can influence my expected utility calculations and change which action I perceive to be best. Whether and how it should is subject to debate, with contenders for how to think about it including evidential decision theory, causal decision theory, and functional decision theory. In this paper, we show that mechanised causal models can be used to characterise and differentiate the most important decision theories, and generate a taxonomy of different decision theories.

9.Dense Sample Deep Learning

Authors:Stephen Josè Hanson, Vivek Yadev, Catherine Hanson

Abstract: Deep Learning (DL) , a variant of the neural network algorithms originally proposed in the 1980s, has made surprising progress in Artificial Intelligence (AI), ranging from language translation, protein folding, autonomous cars, and more recently human-like language models (CHATbots), all that seemed intractable until very recently. Despite the growing use of Deep Learning (DL) networks, little is actually understood about the learning mechanisms and representations that makes these networks effective across such a diverse range of applications. Part of the answer must be the huge scale of the architecture and of course the large scale of the data, since not much has changed since 1987. But the nature of deep learned representations remain largely unknown. Unfortunately training sets with millions or billions of tokens have unknown combinatorics and Networks with millions or billions of hidden units cannot easily be visualized and their mechanisms cannot be easily revealed. In this paper, we explore these questions with a large (1.24M weights; VGG) DL in a novel high density sample task (5 unique tokens with at minimum 500 exemplars per token) which allows us to more carefully follow the emergence of category structure and feature construction. We use various visualization methods for following the emergence of the classification and the development of the coupling of feature detectors and structures that provide a type of graphical bootstrapping, From these results we harvest some basic observations of the learning dynamics of DL and propose a new theory of complex feature construction based on our results.

1.Generating Redstone Style Cities in Minecraft

Authors:Shuo Huang, Chengpeng Hu, Julian Togelius, Jialin Liu

Abstract: Procedurally generating cities in Minecraft provides players more diverse scenarios and could help understand and improve the design of cities in other digital worlds and the real world. This paper presents a city generator that was submitted as an entry to the 2023 Edition of Minecraft Settlement Generation Competition for Minecraft. The generation procedure is composed of six main steps, namely vegetation clearing, terrain reshaping, building layout generation, route planning, streetlight placement, and wall construction. Three algorithms, including a heuristic-based algorithm, an evolving layout algorithm, and a random one are applied to generate the building layout, thus determining where to place different redstone style buildings, and tested by generating cities on random maps in limited time. Experimental results show that the heuristic-based algorithm is capable of finding an acceptable building layout faster for flat maps, while the evolving layout algorithm performs better in evolving layout for rugged maps. A user study is conducted to compare our generator with outstanding entries of the competition's 2022 edition using the competition's evaluation criteria and shows that our generator performs well in the adaptation and functionality criteria

2.A Fast and Map-Free Model for Trajectory Prediction in Traffics

Authors:Junhong Xiang, Jingmin Zhang, Zhixiong Nan

Abstract: To handle the two shortcomings of existing methods, (i)nearly all models rely on high-definition (HD) maps, yet the map information is not always available in real traffic scenes and HD map-building is expensive and time-consuming and (ii) existing models usually focus on improving prediction accuracy at the expense of reducing computing efficiency, yet the efficiency is crucial for various real applications, this paper proposes an efficient trajectory prediction model that is not dependent on traffic maps. The core idea of our model is encoding single-agent's spatial-temporal information in the first stage and exploring multi-agents' spatial-temporal interactions in the second stage. By comprehensively utilizing attention mechanism, LSTM, graph convolution network and temporal transformer in the two stages, our model is able to learn rich dynamic and interaction information of all agents. Our model achieves the highest performance when comparing with existing map-free methods and also exceeds most map-based state-of-the-art methods on the Argoverse dataset. In addition, our model also exhibits a faster inference speed than the baseline methods.

3.Towards Reliable Rare Category Analysis on Graphs via Individual Calibration

Authors:Longfeng Wu, Bowen Lei, Dongkuan Xu, Dawei Zhou

Abstract: Rare categories abound in a number of real-world networks and play a pivotal role in a variety of high-stakes applications, including financial fraud detection, network intrusion detection, and rare disease diagnosis. Rare category analysis (RCA) refers to the task of detecting, characterizing, and comprehending the behaviors of minority classes in a highly-imbalanced data distribution. While the vast majority of existing work on RCA has focused on improving the prediction performance, a few fundamental research questions heretofore have received little attention and are less explored: How confident or uncertain is a prediction model in rare category analysis? How can we quantify the uncertainty in the learning process and enable reliable rare category analysis? To answer these questions, we start by investigating miscalibration in existing RCA methods. Empirical results reveal that state-of-the-art RCA methods are mainly over-confident in predicting minority classes and under-confident in predicting majority classes. Motivated by the observation, we propose a novel individual calibration framework, named CALIRARE, for alleviating the unique challenges of RCA, thus enabling reliable rare category analysis. In particular, to quantify the uncertainties in RCA, we develop a node-level uncertainty quantification algorithm to model the overlapping support regions with high uncertainty; to handle the rarity of minority classes in miscalibration calculation, we generalize the distribution-based calibration metric to the instance level and propose the first individual calibration measurement on graphs named Expected Individual Calibration Error (EICE). We perform extensive experimental evaluations on real-world datasets, including rare category characterization and model calibration tasks, which demonstrate the significance of our proposed framework.

4.Amortised Experimental Design and Parameter Estimation for User Models of Pointing

Authors:Antti Keurulainen, Isak Westerlund, Oskar Keurulainen, Andrew Howes

Abstract: User models play an important role in interaction design, supporting automation of interaction design choices. In order to do so, model parameters must be estimated from user data. While very large amounts of user data are sometimes required, recent research has shown how experiments can be designed so as to gather data and infer parameters as efficiently as possible, thereby minimising the data requirement. In the current article, we investigate a variant of these methods that amortises the computational cost of designing experiments by training a policy for choosing experimental designs with simulated participants. Our solution learns which experiments provide the most useful data for parameter estimation by interacting with in-silico agents sampled from the model space thereby using synthetic data rather than vast amounts of human data. The approach is demonstrated for three progressively complex models of pointing.

5.Amortised Design Optimization for Item Response Theory

Authors:Antti Keurulainen, Isak Westerlund, Oskar Keurulainen, Andrew Howes

Abstract: Item Response Theory (IRT) is a well known method for assessing responses from humans in education and psychology. In education, IRT is used to infer student abilities and characteristics of test items from student responses. Interactions with students are expensive, calling for methods that efficiently gather information for inferring student abilities. Methods based on Optimal Experimental Design (OED) are computationally costly, making them inapplicable for interactive applications. In response, we propose incorporating amortised experimental design into IRT. Here, the computational cost is shifted to a precomputing phase by training a Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) agent with synthetic data. The agent is trained to select optimally informative test items for the distribution of students, and to conduct amortised inference conditioned on the experiment outcomes. During deployment the agent estimates parameters from data, and suggests the next test item for the student, in close to real-time, by taking into account the history of experiments and outcomes.

6.PyTAG: Challenges and Opportunities for Reinforcement Learning in Tabletop Games

Authors:Martin Balla, George E. M. Long, Dominik Jeurissen, James Goodman, Raluca D. Gaina, Diego Perez-Liebana

Abstract: In recent years, Game AI research has made important breakthroughs using Reinforcement Learning (RL). Despite this, RL for modern tabletop games has gained little to no attention, even when they offer a range of unique challenges compared to video games. To bridge this gap, we introduce PyTAG, a Python API for interacting with the Tabletop Games framework (TAG). TAG contains a growing set of more than 20 modern tabletop games, with a common API for AI agents. We present techniques for training RL agents in these games and introduce baseline results after training Proximal Policy Optimisation algorithms on a subset of games. Finally, we discuss the unique challenges complex modern tabletop games provide, now open to RL research through PyTAG.

7.Chit-Chat or Deep Talk: Prompt Engineering for Process Mining

Authors:Urszula Jessen, Michal Sroka, Dirk Fahland

Abstract: This research investigates the application of Large Language Models (LLMs) to augment conversational agents in process mining, aiming to tackle its inherent complexity and diverse skill requirements. While LLM advancements present novel opportunities for conversational process mining, generating efficient outputs is still a hurdle. We propose an innovative approach that amend many issues in existing solutions, informed by prior research on Natural Language Processing (NLP) for conversational agents. Leveraging LLMs, our framework improves both accessibility and agent performance, as demonstrated by experiments on public question and data sets. Our research sets the stage for future explorations into LLMs' role in process mining and concludes with propositions for enhancing LLM memory, implementing real-time user testing, and examining diverse data sets.

8.6G Network Business Support System

Authors:Ye Ouyang, Yaqin Zhang, Peng Wang, Yunxin Liu, Wen Qiao, Jun Zhu, Yang Liu, Feng Zhang, Shuling Wang, Xidong Wang

Abstract: 6G is the next-generation intelligent and integrated digital information infrastructure, characterized by ubiquitous interconnection, native intelligence, multi-dimensional perception, global coverage, green and low-carbon, native network security, etc. 6G will realize the transition from serving people and people-things communication to supporting the efficient connection of intelligent agents, and comprehensively leading the digital, intelligent and green transformation of the economy and the society. As the core support system for mobile communication network, 6 6G BSS need to integrate with new business models brought about by the development of the next-generation Internet and IT, upgrade from "network-centric" to "business and service centric" and "customer-centric". 6G OSS and BSS systems need to strengthen their integration to improve the operational efficiency and benefits of customers by connecting the digital intelligence support capabilities on both sides of supply and demand. This paper provides a detailed introduction to the overall vision, potential key technologies, and functional architecture of 6G BSS systems. It also presents an evolutionary roadmap and technological prospects for the BSS systems from 5G to 6G.

9.A decision making framework for recommended maintenance of road segments

Authors:Haoyu Sun, Yan Yan

Abstract: With the rapid development of global road transportation, countries worldwide have completed the construction of road networks. However, the ensuing challenge lies in the maintenance of existing roads. It is well-known that countries allocate limited budgets to road maintenance projects, and road management departments face difficulties in making scientifically informed maintenance decisions. Therefore, integrating various artificial intelligence decision-making techniques to thoroughly explore historical maintenance data and adapt them to the context of road maintenance scientific decision-making has become an urgent issue. This integration aims to provide road management departments with more scientific tools and evidence for decision-making. The framework proposed in this paper primarily addresses the following four issues: 1) predicting the pavement performance of various routes, 2) determining the prioritization of maintenance routes, 3) making maintenance decisions based on the evaluation of the effects of past maintenance, and considering comprehensive technical and management indicators, and 4) determining the prioritization of maintenance sections based on the maintenance effectiveness and recommended maintenance effectiveness. By tackling these four problems, the framework enables intelligent decision-making for the optimal maintenance plan and maintenance sections, taking into account limited funding and historical maintenance management experience.

1.Development of the ChatGPT, Generative Artificial Intelligence and Natural Large Language Models for Accountable Reporting and Use (CANGARU) Guidelines

Authors:Giovanni E. Cacciamani, Michael B. Eppler, Conner Ganjavi, Asli Pekan, Brett Biedermann, Gary S. Collins, Inderbir S. Gill

Abstract: The swift progress and ubiquitous adoption of Generative AI (GAI), Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPTs), and large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT, have spurred queries about their ethical application, use, and disclosure in scholarly research and scientific productions. A few publishers and journals have recently created their own sets of rules; however, the absence of a unified approach may lead to a 'Babel Tower Effect,' potentially resulting in confusion rather than desired standardization. In response to this, we present the ChatGPT, Generative Artificial Intelligence, and Natural Large Language Models for Accountable Reporting and Use Guidelines (CANGARU) initiative, with the aim of fostering a cross-disciplinary global inclusive consensus on the ethical use, disclosure, and proper reporting of GAI/GPT/LLM technologies in academia. The present protocol consists of four distinct parts: a) an ongoing systematic review of GAI/GPT/LLM applications to understand the linked ideas, findings, and reporting standards in scholarly research, and to formulate guidelines for its use and disclosure, b) a bibliometric analysis of existing author guidelines in journals that mention GAI/GPT/LLM, with the goal of evaluating existing guidelines, analyzing the disparity in their recommendations, and identifying common rules that can be brought into the Delphi consensus process, c) a Delphi survey to establish agreement on the items for the guidelines, ensuring principled GAI/GPT/LLM use, disclosure, and reporting in academia, and d) the subsequent development and dissemination of the finalized guidelines and their supplementary explanation and elaboration documents.

2.Ord2Seq: Regard Ordinal Regression as Label Sequence Prediction

Authors:Jinhong Wang, Yi Cheng, Jintai Chen, Tingting Chen, Danny Chen, Jian Wu

Abstract: Ordinal regression refers to classifying object instances into ordinal categories. It has been widely studied in many scenarios, such as medical disease grading, movie rating, etc. Known methods focused only on learning inter-class ordinal relationships, but still incur limitations in distinguishing adjacent categories thus far. In this paper, we propose a simple sequence prediction framework for ordinal regression called Ord2Seq, which, for the first time, transforms each ordinal category label into a special label sequence and thus regards an ordinal regression task as a sequence prediction process. In this way, we decompose an ordinal regression task into a series of recursive binary classification steps, so as to subtly distinguish adjacent categories. Comprehensive experiments show the effectiveness of distinguishing adjacent categories for performance improvement and our new approach exceeds state-of-the-art performances in four different scenarios. Codes will be available upon acceptance.

3.PromptMagician: Interactive Prompt Engineering for Text-to-Image Creation

Authors:Yingchaojie Feng, Xingbo Wang, Kam Kwai Wong, Sijia Wang, Yuhong Lu, Minfeng Zhu, Baicheng Wang, Wei Chen

Abstract: Generative text-to-image models have gained great popularity among the public for their powerful capability to generate high-quality images based on natural language prompts. However, developing effective prompts for desired images can be challenging due to the complexity and ambiguity of natural language. This research proposes PromptMagician, a visual analysis system that helps users explore the image results and refine the input prompts. The backbone of our system is a prompt recommendation model that takes user prompts as input, retrieves similar prompt-image pairs from DiffusionDB, and identifies special (important and relevant) prompt keywords. To facilitate interactive prompt refinement, PromptMagician introduces a multi-level visualization for the cross-modal embedding of the retrieved images and recommended keywords, and supports users in specifying multiple criteria for personalized exploration. Two usage scenarios, a user study, and expert interviews demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of our system, suggesting it facilitates prompt engineering and improves the creativity support of the generative text-to-image model.

4.Emotional Intelligence of Large Language Models

Authors:Xuena Wang Department of Psychology & Tsinghua Laboratory of Brain and Intelligence, Tsinghua University, Xueting Li Department of Psychology, Renmin University, Zi Yin Department of Psychology & Tsinghua Laboratory of Brain and Intelligence, Tsinghua University, Yue Wu Department of Psychology & Tsinghua Laboratory of Brain and Intelligence, Tsinghua University, Liu Jia Department of Psychology & Tsinghua Laboratory of Brain and Intelligence, Tsinghua University

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable abilities across numerous disciplines, primarily assessed through tasks in language generation, knowledge utilization, and complex reasoning. However, their alignment with human emotions and values, which is critical for real-world applications, has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we assessed LLMs' Emotional Intelligence (EI), encompassing emotion recognition, interpretation, and understanding, which is necessary for effective communication and social interactions. Specifically, we first developed a novel psychometric assessment focusing on Emotion Understanding (EU), a core component of EI, suitable for both humans and LLMs. This test requires evaluating complex emotions (e.g., surprised, joyful, puzzled, proud) in realistic scenarios (e.g., despite feeling underperformed, John surprisingly achieved a top score). With a reference frame constructed from over 500 adults, we tested a variety of mainstream LLMs. Most achieved above-average EQ scores, with GPT-4 exceeding 89% of human participants with an EQ of 117. Interestingly, a multivariate pattern analysis revealed that some LLMs apparently did not reply on the human-like mechanism to achieve human-level performance, as their representational patterns were qualitatively distinct from humans. In addition, we discussed the impact of factors such as model size, training method, and architecture on LLMs' EQ. In summary, our study presents one of the first psychometric evaluations of the human-like characteristics of LLMs, which may shed light on the future development of LLMs aiming for both high intellectual and emotional intelligence. Project website:

5.Multimodal Machine Learning for Extraction of Theorems and Proofs in the Scientific Literature

Authors:Shrey Mishra, Antoine Gauquier, Pierre Senellart

Abstract: Scholarly articles in mathematical fields feature mathematical statements such as theorems, propositions, etc., as well as their proofs. Extracting them from the PDF representation of the articles requires understanding of scientific text along with visual and font-based indicators. We pose this problem as a multimodal classification problem using text, font features, and bitmap image rendering of the PDF as different modalities. In this paper we propose a multimodal machine learning approach for extraction of theorem-like environments and proofs, based on late fusion of features extracted by individual unimodal classifiers, taking into account the sequential succession of blocks in the document. For the text modality, we pretrain a new language model on a 11 GB scientific corpus; experiments shows similar performance for our task than a model (RoBERTa) pretrained on 160 GB, with faster convergence while requiring much less fine-tuning data. Font-based information relies on training a 128-cell LSTM on the sequence of font names and sizes within each block. Bitmap renderings are dealt with using an EfficientNetv2 deep network tuned to classify each image block. Finally, a simple CRF-based approach uses the features of the multimodal model along with information on block sequences. Experimental results show the benefits of using a multimodal approach vs any single modality, as well as major performance improvements using the CRF modeling of block sequences.

6.QMNet: Importance-Aware Message Exchange for Decentralized Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Xiufeng Huang, Sheng Zhou

Abstract: To improve the performance of multi-agent reinforcement learning under the constraint of wireless resources, we propose a message importance metric and design an importance-aware scheduling policy to effectively exchange messages. The key insight is spending the precious communication resources on important messages. The message importance depends not only on the messages themselves, but also on the needs of agents who receive them. Accordingly, we propose a query-message-based architecture, called QMNet. Agents generate queries and messages with the environment observation. Sharing queries can help calculate message importance. Exchanging messages can help agents cooperate better. Besides, we exploit the message importance to deal with random access collisions in decentralized systems. Furthermore, a message prediction mechanism is proposed to compensate for messages that are not transmitted. Finally, we evaluate the proposed schemes in a traffic junction environment, where only a fraction of agents can send messages due to limited wireless resources. Results show that QMNet can extract valuable information to guarantee the system performance even when only $30\%$ of agents can share messages. By exploiting message prediction, the system can further save $40\%$ of wireless resources. The importance-aware decentralized multi-access mechanism can effectively avoid collisions, achieving almost the same performance as centralized scheduling.

7.Machine Learning for SAT: Restricted Heuristics and New Graph Representations

Authors:Mikhail Shirokikh, Ilya Shenbin, Anton Alekseev, Sergey Nikolenko

Abstract: Boolean satisfiability (SAT) is a fundamental NP-complete problem with many applications, including automated planning and scheduling. To solve large instances, SAT solvers have to rely on heuristics, e.g., choosing a branching variable in DPLL and CDCL solvers. Such heuristics can be improved with machine learning (ML) models; they can reduce the number of steps but usually hinder the running time because useful models are relatively large and slow. We suggest the strategy of making a few initial steps with a trained ML model and then releasing control to classical heuristics; this simplifies cold start for SAT solving and can decrease both the number of steps and overall runtime, but requires a separate decision of when to release control to the solver. Moreover, we introduce a modification of Graph-Q-SAT tailored to SAT problems converted from other domains, e.g., open shop scheduling problems. We validate the feasibility of our approach with random and industrial SAT problems.

8.ESMC: Entire Space Multi-Task Model for Post-Click Conversion Rate via Parameter Constraint

Authors:Zhenhao Jiang, Biao Zeng, Hao Feng, Jin Liu, Jicong Fan, Jie Zhang, Jia Jia, Ning Hu, Xingyu Chen, Xuguang Lan

Abstract: Large-scale online recommender system spreads all over the Internet being in charge of two basic tasks: Click-Through Rate (CTR) and Post-Click Conversion Rate (CVR) estimations. However, traditional CVR estimators suffer from well-known Sample Selection Bias and Data Sparsity issues. Entire space models were proposed to address the two issues via tracing the decision-making path of "exposure_click_purchase". Further, some researchers observed that there are purchase-related behaviors between click and purchase, which can better draw the user's decision-making intention and improve the recommendation performance. Thus, the decision-making path has been extended to "exposure_click_in-shop action_purchase" and can be modeled with conditional probability approach. Nevertheless, we observe that the chain rule of conditional probability does not always hold. We report Probability Space Confusion (PSC) issue and give a derivation of difference between ground-truth and estimation mathematically. We propose a novel Entire Space Multi-Task Model for Post-Click Conversion Rate via Parameter Constraint (ESMC) and two alternatives: Entire Space Multi-Task Model with Siamese Network (ESMS) and Entire Space Multi-Task Model in Global Domain (ESMG) to address the PSC issue. Specifically, we handle "exposure_click_in-shop action" and "in-shop action_purchase" separately in the light of characteristics of in-shop action. The first path is still treated with conditional probability while the second one is treated with parameter constraint strategy. Experiments on both offline and online environments in a large-scale recommendation system illustrate the superiority of our proposed methods over state-of-the-art models. The real-world datasets will be released.

9.Human Body Digital Twin: A Master Plan

Authors:Chenyu Tang, Shuo Gao, Luigi G. Occhipinti

Abstract: The human body DT has the potential to revolutionize healthcare and wellness, but its responsible and effective implementation requires consideration of various factors. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the current status and future prospects of the human body DT and proposes a five-level roadmap for its development. The roadmap covers the development of various components, such as wearable devices, data collection, data analysis, and decision-making systems. The article also highlights the necessary support, security, cost, and ethical considerations that must be addressed in order to ensure responsible and effective implementation of the human body DT. The proposed roadmap provides a framework for guiding future development and offers a unique perspective on the future of the human body DT, facilitating new interdisciplinary research and innovative solutions in this rapidly evolving field.

10.Rumor Detection with Diverse Counterfactual Evidence

Authors:Kaiwei Zhang, Junchi Yu, Haichao Shi, Jian Liang, Xiao-Yu Zhang

Abstract: The growth in social media has exacerbated the threat of fake news to individuals and communities. This draws increasing attention to developing efficient and timely rumor detection methods. The prevailing approaches resort to graph neural networks (GNNs) to exploit the post-propagation patterns of the rumor-spreading process. However, these methods lack inherent interpretation of rumor detection due to the black-box nature of GNNs. Moreover, these methods suffer from less robust results as they employ all the propagation patterns for rumor detection. In this paper, we address the above issues with the proposed Diverse Counterfactual Evidence framework for Rumor Detection (DCE-RD). Our intuition is to exploit the diverse counterfactual evidence of an event graph to serve as multi-view interpretations, which are further aggregated for robust rumor detection results. Specifically, our method first designs a subgraph generation strategy to efficiently generate different subgraphs of the event graph. We constrain the removal of these subgraphs to cause the change in rumor detection results. Thus, these subgraphs naturally serve as counterfactual evidence for rumor detection. To achieve multi-view interpretation, we design a diversity loss inspired by Determinantal Point Processes (DPP) to encourage diversity among the counterfactual evidence. A GNN-based rumor detection model further aggregates the diverse counterfactual evidence discovered by the proposed DCE-RD to achieve interpretable and robust rumor detection results. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets show the superior performance of our method. Our code is available at

11.Biomaker CA: a Biome Maker project using Cellular Automata

Authors:Ettore Randazzo, Alexander Mordvintsev

Abstract: We introduce Biomaker CA: a Biome Maker project using Cellular Automata (CA). In Biomaker CA, morphogenesis is a first class citizen and small seeds need to grow into plant-like organisms to survive in a nutrient starved environment and eventually reproduce with variation so that a biome survives for long timelines. We simulate complex biomes by means of CA rules in 2D grids and parallelize all of its computation on GPUs through the Python JAX framework. We show how this project allows for several different kinds of environments and laws of 'physics', alongside different model architectures and mutation strategies. We further analyze some configurations to show how plant agents can grow, survive, reproduce, and evolve, forming stable and unstable biomes. We then demonstrate how one can meta-evolve models to survive in a harsh environment either through end-to-end meta-evolution or by a more surgical and efficient approach, called Petri dish meta-evolution. Finally, we show how to perform interactive evolution, where the user decides how to evolve a plant model interactively and then deploys it in a larger environment. We open source Biomaker CA at: .

12.Company2Vec -- German Company Embeddings based on Corporate Websites

Authors:Christopher Gerling

Abstract: With Company2Vec, the paper proposes a novel application in representation learning. The model analyzes business activities from unstructured company website data using Word2Vec and dimensionality reduction. Company2Vec maintains semantic language structures and thus creates efficient company embeddings in fine-granular industries. These semantic embeddings can be used for various applications in banking. Direct relations between companies and words allow semantic business analytics (e.g. top-n words for a company). Furthermore, industry prediction is presented as a supervised learning application and evaluation method. The vectorized structure of the embeddings allows measuring companies similarities with the cosine distance. Company2Vec hence offers a more fine-grained comparison of companies than the standard industry labels (NACE). This property is relevant for unsupervised learning tasks, such as clustering. An alternative industry segmentation is shown with k-means clustering on the company embeddings. Finally, this paper proposes three algorithms for (1) firm-centric, (2) industry-centric and (3) portfolio-centric peer-firm identification.

13.Learning to Select SAT Encodings for Pseudo-Boolean and Linear Integer Constraints

Authors:Felix Ulrich-Oltean, Peter Nightingale, James Alfred Walker

Abstract: Many constraint satisfaction and optimisation problems can be solved effectively by encoding them as instances of the Boolean Satisfiability problem (SAT). However, even the simplest types of constraints have many encodings in the literature with widely varying performance, and the problem of selecting suitable encodings for a given problem instance is not trivial. We explore the problem of selecting encodings for pseudo-Boolean and linear constraints using a supervised machine learning approach. We show that it is possible to select encodings effectively using a standard set of features for constraint problems; however we obtain better performance with a new set of features specifically designed for the pseudo-Boolean and linear constraints. In fact, we achieve good results when selecting encodings for unseen problem classes. Our results compare favourably to AutoFolio when using the same feature set. We discuss the relative importance of instance features to the task of selecting the best encodings, and compare several variations of the machine learning method.

14.Local Minima Drive Communications in Cooperative Interaction

Authors:Roger K. Moore

Abstract: An important open question in human-robot interaction (HRI) is precisely when an agent should decide to communicate, particularly in a cooperative task. Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) tells us that agents are able to cooperate on a joint task simply by sharing the same 'intention', thereby distributing the effort required to complete the task among the agents. This is even true for agents that do not possess the same abilities, so long as the goal is observable, the combined actions are sufficient to complete the task, and there is no local minimum in the search space. If these conditions hold, then a cooperative task can be accomplished without any communication between the contributing agents. However, for tasks that do contain local minima, the global solution can only be reached if at least one of the agents adapts its intention at the appropriate moments, and this can only be achieved by appropriately timed communication. In other words, it is hypothesised that in cooperative tasks, the function of communication is to coordinate actions in a complex search space that contains local minima. These principles have been verified in a computer-based simulation environment in which two independent one-dimensional agents are obliged to cooperate in order to solve a two-dimensional path-finding task.

15.Balancing Privacy and Progress in Artificial Intelligence: Anonymization in Histopathology for Biomedical Research and Education

Authors:Neel Kanwal, Emiel A. M. Janssen, Kjersti Engan

Abstract: The advancement of biomedical research heavily relies on access to large amounts of medical data. In the case of histopathology, Whole Slide Images (WSI) and clinicopathological information are valuable for developing Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms for Digital Pathology (DP). Transferring medical data "as open as possible" enhances the usability of the data for secondary purposes but poses a risk to patient privacy. At the same time, existing regulations push towards keeping medical data "as closed as necessary" to avoid re-identification risks. Generally, these legal regulations require the removal of sensitive data but do not consider the possibility of data linkage attacks due to modern image-matching algorithms. In addition, the lack of standardization in DP makes it harder to establish a single solution for all formats of WSIs. These challenges raise problems for bio-informatics researchers in balancing privacy and progress while developing AI algorithms. This paper explores the legal regulations and terminologies for medical data-sharing. We review existing approaches and highlight challenges from the histopathological perspective. We also present a data-sharing guideline for histological data to foster multidisciplinary research and education.

1.Team Badminseok at IJCAI CoachAI Badminton Challenge 2023: Multi-Layer Multi-Input Transformer Network (MuLMINet) with Weighted Loss

Authors:Minwoo Seong, Jeongseok Oh, SeungJun Kim

Abstract: The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) technology in turn-based sports, such as badminton, has sparked significant interest in evaluating strategies through the analysis of match video data. Predicting future shots based on past ones plays a vital role in coaching and strategic planning. In this study, we present a Multi-Layer Multi-Input Transformer Network (MuLMINet) that leverages professional badminton player match data to accurately predict future shot types and area coordinates. Our approach resulted in achieving the runner-up (2nd place) in the IJCAI CoachAI Badminton Challenge 2023, Track 2. To facilitate further research, we have made our code publicly accessible online, contributing to the broader research community's knowledge and advancements in the field of AI-assisted sports analysis.

2.Efficient Computation of Counterfactual Bounds

Authors:Marco Zaffalon, Alessandro Antonucci, Rafael Cabañas, David Huber, Dario Azzimonti

Abstract: We assume to be given structural equations over discrete variables inducing a directed acyclic graph, namely, a structural causal model, together with data about its internal nodes. The question we want to answer is how we can compute bounds for partially identifiable counterfactual queries from such an input. We start by giving a map from structural casual models to credal networks. This allows us to compute exact counterfactual bounds via algorithms for credal nets on a subclass of structural causal models. Exact computation is going to be inefficient in general given that, as we show, causal inference is NP-hard even on polytrees. We target then approximate bounds via a causal EM scheme. We evaluate their accuracy by providing credible intervals on the quality of the approximation; we show through a synthetic benchmark that the EM scheme delivers accurate results in a fair number of runs. In the course of the discussion, we also point out what seems to be a neglected limitation to the trending idea that counterfactual bounds can be computed without knowledge of the structural equations. We also present a real case study on palliative care to show how our algorithms can readily be used for practical purposes.

3.Gender mobility in the labor market with skills-based matching models

Authors:Ajaya Adhikari, Steven Vethman, Daan Vos, Marc Lenz, Ioana Cocu, Ioannis Tolios, Cor J. Veenman

Abstract: Skills-based matching promises mobility of workers between different sectors and occupations in the labor market. In this case, job seekers can look for jobs they do not yet have experience in, but for which they do have relevant skills. Currently, there are multiple occupations with a skewed gender distribution. For skills-based matching, it is unclear if and how a shift in the gender distribution, which we call gender mobility, between occupations will be effected. It is expected that the skills-based matching approach will likely be data-driven, including computational language models and supervised learning methods. This work, first, shows the presence of gender segregation in language model-based skills representation of occupations. Second, we assess the use of these representations in a potential application based on simulated data, and show that the gender segregation is propagated by various data-driven skills-based matching models.These models are based on different language representations (bag of words, word2vec, and BERT), and distance metrics (static and machine learning-based). Accordingly, we show how skills-based matching approaches can be evaluated and compared on matching performance as well as on the risk of gender segregation. Making the gender segregation bias of models more explicit can help in generating healthy trust in the use of these models in practice.

4.A Novel Multiagent Flexibility Aggregation Framework

Authors:Stavros Orfanoudakis, Georgios Chalkiadakis

Abstract: The increasing number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in the emerging Smart Grid, has created an imminent need for intelligent multiagent frameworks able to utilize these assets efficiently. In this paper, we propose a novel DER aggregation framework, encompassing a multiagent architecture and various types of mechanisms for the effective management and efficient integration of DERs in the Grid. One critical component of our architecture is the Local Flexibility Estimators (LFEs) agents, which are key for offloading the Aggregator from serious or resource-intensive responsibilities -- such as addressing privacy concerns and predicting the accuracy of DER statements regarding their offered demand response services. The proposed framework allows the formation of efficient LFE cooperatives. To this end, we developed and deployed a variety of cooperative member selection mechanisms, including (a) scoring rules, and (b) (deep) reinforcement learning. We use data from the well-known PowerTAC simulator to systematically evaluate our framework. Our experiments verify its effectiveness for incorporating heterogeneous DERs into the Grid in an efficient manner. In particular, when using the well-known probabilistic prediction accuracy-incentivizing CRPS scoring rule as a selection mechanism, our framework results in increased average payments for participants, when compared with traditional commercial aggregators.

5.Neurosymbolic AI for Reasoning on Biomedical Knowledge Graphs

Authors:Lauren Nicole DeLong, Ramon Fernández Mir, Zonglin Ji, Fiona Niamh Coulter Smith, Jacques D. Fleuriot

Abstract: Biomedical datasets are often modeled as knowledge graphs (KGs) because they capture the multi-relational, heterogeneous, and dynamic natures of biomedical systems. KG completion (KGC), can, therefore, help researchers make predictions to inform tasks like drug repositioning. While previous approaches for KGC were either rule-based or embedding-based, hybrid approaches based on neurosymbolic artificial intelligence are becoming more popular. Many of these methods possess unique characteristics which make them even better suited toward biomedical challenges. Here, we survey such approaches with an emphasis on their utilities and prospective benefits for biomedicine.

6.An Indefensible Attack: Label-Only Model Inversion via Conditional Diffusion Model

Authors:Rongke Liu

Abstract: Model inversion attacks (MIAs) are aimed at recovering private data from a target model's training set, which poses a threat to the privacy of deep learning models. MIAs primarily focus on the white-box scenario where the attacker has full access to the structure and parameters of the target model. However, practical applications are black-box, it is not easy for adversaries to obtain model-related parameters, and various models only output predicted labels. Existing black-box MIAs primarily focused on designing the optimization strategy, and the generative model is only migrated from the GAN used in white-box MIA. Our research is the pioneering study of feasible attack models in label-only black-box scenarios, to the best of our knowledge. In this paper, we develop a novel method of MIA using the conditional diffusion model to recover the precise sample of the target without any extra optimization, as long as the target model outputs the label. Two primary techniques are introduced to execute the attack. Firstly, select an auxiliary dataset that is relevant to the target model task, and the labels predicted by the target model are used as conditions to guide the training process. Secondly, target labels and random standard normally distributed noise are input into the trained conditional diffusion model, generating target samples with pre-defined guidance strength. We then filter out the most robust and representative samples. Furthermore, we propose for the first time to use Learned Perceptual Image Patch Similarity (LPIPS) as one of the evaluation metrics for MIA, with systematic quantitative and qualitative evaluation in terms of attack accuracy, realism, and similarity. Experimental results show that this method can generate similar and accurate data to the target without optimization and outperforms generators of previous approaches in the label-only scenario.

7.Long-range Dependency based Multi-Layer Perceptron for Heterogeneous Information Networks

Authors:Chao Li, Zijie Guo, Qiuting He, Hao Xu, Kun He

Abstract: Existing heterogeneous graph neural networks (HGNNs) have achieved great success in utilizing the rich semantic information in heterogeneous information networks (HINs). However, few works have delved into the utilization of long-range dependencies in HINs, which is extremely valuable as many real-world HINs are sparse, and each node has only a few directly connected neighbors. Although some HGNNs can utilize distant neighbors by stacking multiple layers or leveraging long meta-paths, the exponentially increased number of nodes in the receptive field or the number of meta-paths incurs high computation and memory costs. To address these issues, we investigate the importance of different meta-paths and propose Long-range Dependency based Multi-Layer Perceptron (LDMLP). Specifically, to solve the high-cost problem of leveraging long-range dependencies, LDMLP adopts a search stage to discover effective meta-paths automatically, reducing the exponentially increased number of meta-paths to a constant. To avoid the influence of specific modules on search results, LDMLP utilizes a simple architecture with only multi-layer perceptions in the search stage, improving the generalization of searched meta-paths. As a result, the searched meta-paths not only perform well in LDMLP but also enable other HGNNs like HAN and SeHGNN to perform better. Extensive experiments on eight heterogeneous datasets demonstrate that LDMLP achieves state-of-the-art performance while enjoying high efficiency and generalization, especially on sparse HINs.

8.Towards eXplainable AI for Mobility Data Science

Authors:Anahid Jalali, Anita Graser, Clemens Heistracher

Abstract: This paper presents our ongoing work towards XAI for Mobility Data Science applications, focusing on explainable models that can learn from dense trajectory data, such as GPS tracks of vehicles and vessels using temporal graph neural networks (GNNs) and counterfactuals. We review the existing GeoXAI studies, argue the need for comprehensible explanations with human-centered approaches, and outline a research path toward XAI for Mobility Data Science.

9.Navigating Fairness Measures and Trade-Offs

Authors:Stefan Buijsman

Abstract: In order to monitor and prevent bias in AI systems we can use a wide range of (statistical) fairness measures. However, it is mathematically impossible to optimize for all of these measures at the same time. In addition, optimizing a fairness measure often greatly reduces the accuracy of the system (Kozodoi et al, 2022). As a result, we need a substantive theory that informs us how to make these decisions and for what reasons. I show that by using Rawls' notion of justice as fairness, we can create a basis for navigating fairness measures and the accuracy trade-off. In particular, this leads to a principled choice focusing on both the most vulnerable groups and the type of fairness measure that has the biggest impact on that group. This also helps to close part of the gap between philosophical accounts of distributive justice and the fairness literature that has been observed (Kuppler et al, 2021) and to operationalise the value of fairness.

10.Glamour muscles: why having a body is not what it means to be embodied

Authors:Shawn L. Beaulieu, Sam Kriegman

Abstract: Embodiment has recently enjoyed renewed consideration as a means to amplify the faculties of smart machines. Proponents of embodiment seem to imply that optimizing for movement in physical space promotes something more than the acquisition of niche capabilities for solving problems in physical space. However, there is nothing in principle which should so distinguish the problem of action selection in physical space from the problem of action selection in more abstract spaces, like that of language. Rather, what makes embodiment persuasive as a means toward higher intelligence is that it promises to capture, but does not actually realize, contingent facts about certain bodies (living intelligence) and the patterns of activity associated with them. These include an active resistance to annihilation and revisable constraints on the processes that make the world intelligible. To be theoretically or practically useful beyond the creation of niche tools, we argue that "embodiment" cannot be the trivial fact of a body, nor its movement through space, but the perpetual negotiation of the function, design, and integrity of that body$\unicode{x2013}$that is, to participate in what it means to $\textit{constitute}$ a given body. It follows that computer programs which are strictly incapable of traversing physical space might, under the right conditions, be more embodied than a walking, talking robot.

11.Quaternion Convolutional Neural Networks: Current Advances and Future Directions

Authors:Gerardo Altamirano-Gomez, Carlos Gershenson

Abstract: Since their first applications, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have solved problems that have advanced the state-of-the-art in several domains. CNNs represent information using real numbers. Despite encouraging results, theoretical analysis shows that representations such as hyper-complex numbers can achieve richer representational capacities than real numbers, and that Hamilton products can capture intrinsic interchannel relationships. Moreover, in the last few years, experimental research has shown that Quaternion-Valued CNNs (QCNNs) can achieve similar performance with fewer parameters than their real-valued counterparts. This paper condenses research in the development of QCNNs from its very beginnings. We propose a conceptual organization of current trends and analyze the main building blocks used in the design of QCNN models. Based on this conceptual organization, we propose future directions of research.

12.TableGPT: Towards Unifying Tables, Nature Language and Commands into One GPT

Authors:Liangyu Zha, Junlin Zhou, Liyao Li, Rui Wang, Qingyi Huang, Saisai Yang, Jing Yuan, Changbao Su, Xiang Li, Aofeng Su, Tao Zhang, Chen Zhou, Kaizhe Shou, Miao Wang, Wufang Zhu, Guoshan Lu, Chao Ye, Yali Ye, Wentao Ye, Yiming Zhang, Xinglong Deng, Jie Xu, Haobo Wang, Gang Chen, Junbo Zhao

Abstract: Tables are prevalent in real-world databases, requiring significant time and effort for humans to analyze and manipulate. The advancements in large language models (LLMs) have made it possible to interact with tables using natural language input, bringing this capability closer to reality. In this paper, we present TableGPT, a unified fine-tuned framework that enables LLMs to understand and operate on tables using external functional commands. It introduces the capability to seamlessly interact with tables, enabling a wide range of functionalities such as question answering, data manipulation (e.g., insert, delete, query, and modify operations), data visualization, analysis report generation, and automated prediction. TableGPT aims to provide convenience and accessibility to users by empowering them to effortlessly leverage tabular data. At the core of TableGPT lies the novel concept of global tabular representations, which empowers LLMs to gain a comprehensive understanding of the entire table beyond meta-information. By jointly training LLMs on both table and text modalities, TableGPT achieves a deep understanding of tabular data and the ability to perform complex operations on tables through chain-of-command instructions. Importantly, TableGPT offers the advantage of being a self-contained system rather than relying on external API interfaces. Moreover, it supports efficient data process flow, query rejection (when appropriate) and private deployment, enabling faster domain data fine-tuning and ensuring data privacy, which enhances the framework's adaptability to specific use cases.

13.Fast model inference and training on-board of Satellites

Authors:Vít Růžička, Gonzalo Mateo-García, Chris Bridges, Chris Brunskill, Cormac Purcell, Nicolas Longépé, Andrew Markham

Abstract: Artificial intelligence onboard satellites has the potential to reduce data transmission requirements, enable real-time decision-making and collaboration within constellations. This study deploys a lightweight foundational model called RaVAEn on D-Orbit's ION SCV004 satellite. RaVAEn is a variational auto-encoder (VAE) that generates compressed latent vectors from small image tiles, enabling several downstream tasks. In this work we demonstrate the reliable use of RaVAEn onboard a satellite, achieving an encoding time of 0.110s for tiles of a 4.8x4.8 km$^2$ area. In addition, we showcase fast few-shot training onboard a satellite using the latent representation of data. We compare the deployment of the model on the on-board CPU and on the available Myriad vision processing unit (VPU) accelerator. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the deployment of a multi-task model on-board a CubeSat and the on-board training of a machine learning model.

1.Prescriptive Process Monitoring Under Resource Constraints: A Reinforcement Learning Approach

Authors:Mahmoud Shoush, Marlon Dumas

Abstract: Prescriptive process monitoring methods seek to optimize the performance of business processes by triggering interventions at runtime, thereby increasing the probability of positive case outcomes. These interventions are triggered according to an intervention policy. Reinforcement learning has been put forward as an approach to learning intervention policies through trial and error. Existing approaches in this space assume that the number of resources available to perform interventions in a process is unlimited, an unrealistic assumption in practice. This paper argues that, in the presence of resource constraints, a key dilemma in the field of prescriptive process monitoring is to trigger interventions based not only on predictions of their necessity, timeliness, or effect but also on the uncertainty of these predictions and the level of resource utilization. Indeed, committing scarce resources to an intervention when the necessity or effects of this intervention are highly uncertain may intuitively lead to suboptimal intervention effects. Accordingly, the paper proposes a reinforcement learning approach for prescriptive process monitoring that leverages conformal prediction techniques to consider the uncertainty of the predictions upon which an intervention decision is based. An evaluation using real-life datasets demonstrates that explicitly modeling uncertainty using conformal predictions helps reinforcement learning agents converge towards policies with higher net intervention gain

2.IntelliGraphs: Datasets for Benchmarking Knowledge Graph Generation

Authors:Thiviyan Thanapalasingam, Emile van Krieken, Peter Bloem, Paul Groth

Abstract: Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) models are used to learn continuous representations of entities and relations. A key task in the literature is predicting missing links between entities. However, Knowledge Graphs are not just sets of links but also have semantics underlying their structure. Semantics is crucial in several downstream tasks, such as query answering or reasoning. We introduce the subgraph inference task, where a model has to generate likely and semantically valid subgraphs. We propose IntelliGraphs, a set of five new Knowledge Graph datasets. The IntelliGraphs datasets contain subgraphs with semantics expressed in logical rules for evaluating subgraph inference. We also present the dataset generator that produced the synthetic datasets. We designed four novel baseline models, which include three models based on traditional KGEs. We evaluate their expressiveness and show that these models cannot capture the semantics. We believe this benchmark will encourage the development of machine learning models that emphasize semantic understanding.

3.Layered controller synthesis for dynamic multi-agent systems

Authors:Emily Clement, Nicolas Perrin-Gilbert, Philipp Schlehuber-Caissier

Abstract: In this paper we present a layered approach for multi-agent control problem, decomposed into three stages, each building upon the results of the previous one. First, a high-level plan for a coarse abstraction of the system is computed, relying on parametric timed automata augmented with stopwatches as they allow to efficiently model simplified dynamics of such systems. In the second stage, the high-level plan, based on SMT-formulation, mainly handles the combinatorial aspects of the problem, provides a more dynamically accurate solution. These stages are collectively referred to as the SWA-SMT solver. They are correct by construction but lack a crucial feature: they cannot be executed in real time. To overcome this, we use SWA-SMT solutions as the initial training dataset for our last stage, which aims at obtaining a neural network control policy. We use reinforcement learning to train the policy, and show that the initial dataset is crucial for the overall success of the method.

4.LLM-assisted Knowledge Graph Engineering: Experiments with ChatGPT

Authors:Lars-Peter Meyer, Claus Stadler, Johannes Frey, Norman Radtke, Kurt Junghanns, Roy Meissner, Gordian Dziwis, Kirill Bulert, Michael Martin

Abstract: Knowledge Graphs (KG) provide us with a structured, flexible, transparent, cross-system, and collaborative way of organizing our knowledge and data across various domains in society and industrial as well as scientific disciplines. KGs surpass any other form of representation in terms of effectiveness. However, Knowledge Graph Engineering (KGE) requires in-depth experiences of graph structures, web technologies, existing models and vocabularies, rule sets, logic, as well as best practices. It also demands a significant amount of work. Considering the advancements in large language models (LLMs) and their interfaces and applications in recent years, we have conducted comprehensive experiments with ChatGPT to explore its potential in supporting KGE. In this paper, we present a selection of these experiments and their results to demonstrate how ChatGPT can assist us in the development and management of KGs.

5.On the Connection between Game-Theoretic Feature Attributions and Counterfactual Explanations

Authors:Emanuele Albini, Shubham Sharma, Saumitra Mishra, Danial Dervovic, Daniele Magazzeni

Abstract: Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) has received widespread interest in recent years, and two of the most popular types of explanations are feature attributions, and counterfactual explanations. These classes of approaches have been largely studied independently and the few attempts at reconciling them have been primarily empirical. This work establishes a clear theoretical connection between game-theoretic feature attributions, focusing on but not limited to SHAP, and counterfactuals explanations. After motivating operative changes to Shapley values based feature attributions and counterfactual explanations, we prove that, under conditions, they are in fact equivalent. We then extend the equivalency result to game-theoretic solution concepts beyond Shapley values. Moreover, through the analysis of the conditions of such equivalence, we shed light on the limitations of naively using counterfactual explanations to provide feature importances. Experiments on three datasets quantitatively show the difference in explanations at every stage of the connection between the two approaches and corroborate the theoretical findings.

1.An Effective and Efficient Time-aware Entity Alignment Framework via Two-aspect Three-view Label Propagation

Authors:Li Cai, Xin Mao, Youshao Xiao, Changxu Wu, Man Lan

Abstract: Entity alignment (EA) aims to find the equivalent entity pairs between different knowledge graphs (KGs), which is crucial to promote knowledge fusion. With the wide use of temporal knowledge graphs (TKGs), time-aware EA (TEA) methods appear to enhance EA. Existing TEA models are based on Graph Neural Networks (GNN) and achieve state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance, but it is difficult to transfer them to large-scale TKGs due to the scalability issue of GNN. In this paper, we propose an effective and efficient non-neural EA framework between TKGs, namely LightTEA, which consists of four essential components: (1) Two-aspect Three-view Label Propagation, (2) Sparse Similarity with Temporal Constraints, (3) Sinkhorn Operator, and (4) Temporal Iterative Learning. All of these modules work together to improve the performance of EA while reducing the time consumption of the model. Extensive experiments on public datasets indicate that our proposed model significantly outperforms the SOTA methods for EA between TKGs, and the time consumed by LightTEA is only dozens of seconds at most, no more than 10% of the most efficient TEA method.

2.AI-Generated Imagery: A New Era for the `Readymade'

Authors:Amy Smith, Michael Cook

Abstract: While the term `art' defies any concrete definition, this paper aims to examine how digital images produced by generative AI systems, such as Midjourney, have come to be so regularly referred to as such. The discourse around the classification of AI-generated imagery as art is currently somewhat homogeneous, lacking the more nuanced aspects that would apply to more traditional modes of artistic media production. This paper aims to bring important philosophical considerations to the surface of the discussion around AI-generated imagery in the context of art. We employ existing philosophical frameworks and theories of language to suggest that some AI-generated imagery, by virtue of its visual properties within these frameworks, can be presented as `readymades' for consideration as art.

3.VELMA: Verbalization Embodiment of LLM Agents for Vision and Language Navigation in Street View

Authors:Raphael Schumann, Wanrong Zhu, Weixi Feng, Tsu-Jui Fu, Stefan Riezler, William Yang Wang

Abstract: Incremental decision making in real-world environments is one of the most challenging tasks in embodied artificial intelligence. One particularly demanding scenario is Vision and Language Navigation~(VLN) which requires visual and natural language understanding as well as spatial and temporal reasoning capabilities. The embodied agent needs to ground its understanding of navigation instructions in observations of a real-world environment like Street View. Despite the impressive results of LLMs in other research areas, it is an ongoing problem of how to best connect them with an interactive visual environment. In this work, we propose VELMA, an embodied LLM agent that uses a verbalization of the trajectory and of visual environment observations as contextual prompt for the next action. Visual information is verbalized by a pipeline that extracts landmarks from the human written navigation instructions and uses CLIP to determine their visibility in the current panorama view. We show that VELMA is able to successfully follow navigation instructions in Street View with only two in-context examples. We further finetune the LLM agent on a few thousand examples and achieve 25%-30% relative improvement in task completion over the previous state-of-the-art for two datasets.

4.Guided Bottom-Up Interactive Constraint Acquisition

Authors:Dimos Tsouros, Senne Berden, Tias Guns

Abstract: Constraint Acquisition (CA) systems can be used to assist in the modeling of constraint satisfaction problems. In (inter)active CA, the system is given a set of candidate constraints and posts queries to the user with the goal of finding the right constraints among the candidates. Current interactive CA algorithms suffer from at least two major bottlenecks. First, in order to converge, they require a large number of queries to be asked to the user. Second, they cannot handle large sets of candidate constraints, since these lead to large waiting times for the user. For this reason, the user must have fairly precise knowledge about what constraints the system should consider. In this paper, we alleviate these bottlenecks by presenting two novel methods that improve the efficiency of CA. First, we introduce a bottom-up approach named GrowAcq that reduces the maximum waiting time for the user and allows the system to handle much larger sets of candidate constraints. It also reduces the total number of queries for problems in which the target constraint network is not sparse. Second, we propose a probability-based method to guide query generation and show that it can significantly reduce the number of queries required to converge. We also propose a new technique that allows the use of openly accessible CP solvers in query generation, removing the dependency of existing methods on less well-maintained custom solvers that are not publicly available. Experimental results show that our proposed methods outperform state-of-the-art CA methods, reducing the number of queries by up to 60%. Our methods work well even in cases where the set of candidate constraints is 50 times larger than the ones commonly used in the literature.

5.Maneuver Decision-Making Through Automatic Curriculum Reinforcement Learning Without Handcrafted Reward functions

Authors:Zhang Hong-Peng

Abstract: Maneuver decision-making is the core of unmanned combat aerial vehicle for autonomous air combat. To solve this problem, we propose an automatic curriculum reinforcement learning method, which enables agents to learn effective decisions in air combat from scratch. The range of initial states are used for distinguishing curricula of different difficulty levels, thereby maneuver decision is divided into a series of sub-tasks from easy to difficult, and test results are used to change sub-tasks. As sub-tasks change, agents gradually learn to complete a series of sub-tasks from easy to difficult, enabling them to make effective maneuvering decisions to cope with various states without the need to spend effort designing reward functions. The ablation studied show that the automatic curriculum learning proposed in this article is an essential component for training through reinforcement learning, namely, agents cannot complete effective decisions without curriculum learning. Simulation experiments show that, after training, agents are able to make effective decisions given different states, including tracking, attacking and escaping, which are both rational and interpretable.

6.Reflective Hybrid Intelligence for Meaningful Human Control in Decision-Support Systems

Authors:Catholijn M. Jonker, Luciano Cavalcante Siebert, Pradeep K. Murukannaiah

Abstract: With the growing capabilities and pervasiveness of AI systems, societies must collectively choose between reduced human autonomy, endangered democracies and limited human rights, and AI that is aligned to human and social values, nurturing collaboration, resilience, knowledge and ethical behaviour. In this chapter, we introduce the notion of self-reflective AI systems for meaningful human control over AI systems. Focusing on decision support systems, we propose a framework that integrates knowledge from psychology and philosophy with formal reasoning methods and machine learning approaches to create AI systems responsive to human values and social norms. We also propose a possible research approach to design and develop self-reflective capability in AI systems. Finally, we argue that self-reflective AI systems can lead to self-reflective hybrid systems (human + AI), thus increasing meaningful human control and empowering human moral reasoning by providing comprehensible information and insights on possible human moral blind spots.

1.Neural-Symbolic Recommendation with Graph-Enhanced Information

Authors:Bang Chen, Wei Peng, Maonian Wu, Bo Zheng, Shaojun Zhu

Abstract: The recommendation system is not only a problem of inductive statistics from data but also a cognitive task that requires reasoning ability. The most advanced graph neural networks have been widely used in recommendation systems because they can capture implicit structured information from graph-structured data. However, like most neural network algorithms, they only learn matching patterns from a perception perspective. Some researchers use user behavior for logic reasoning to achieve recommendation prediction from the perspective of cognitive reasoning, but this kind of reasoning is a local one and ignores implicit information on a global scale. In this work, we combine the advantages of graph neural networks and propositional logic operations to construct a neuro-symbolic recommendation model with both global implicit reasoning ability and local explicit logic reasoning ability. We first build an item-item graph based on the principle of adjacent interaction and use graph neural networks to capture implicit information in global data. Then we transform user behavior into propositional logic expressions to achieve recommendations from the perspective of cognitive reasoning. Extensive experiments on five public datasets show that our proposed model outperforms several state-of-the-art methods, source code is avaliable at [].

2.Epistemic Syllogistic: First Steps

Authors:Yipu Li Peking University, Yanjing Wang Peking University

Abstract: Aristotle's discussions on modal syllogistic have often been viewed as error-prone and have garnered significant attention in the literature due to historical and philosophical interests. However, from a contemporary standpoint, they also introduced natural fragments of first-order modal logic, warranting a comprehensive technical analysis. In this paper, drawing inspiration from the natural logic program, we propose and examine several variants of modal syllogistic within the epistemic context, thereby coining the term Epistemic Syllogistic. Specifically, we concentrate on the de re interpretation of epistemic syllogisms containing non-trivial yet natural expressions such as "all things known to be A are also known to be not B." We explore the epistemic apodeictic syllogistic and its extensions, which accommodate more complex terms. Our main contributions include several axiomatizations of these logics, with completeness proofs that may be of independent interest.

3.A Theory of Bounded Inductive Rationality

Authors:Caspar Oesterheld Carnegie Mellon University, Abram Demski Machine Intelligence Research Institute, Vincent Conitzer Carnegie Mellon University

Abstract: The dominant theories of rational choice assume logical omniscience. That is, they assume that when facing a decision problem, an agent can perform all relevant computations and determine the truth value of all relevant logical/mathematical claims. This assumption is unrealistic when, for example, we offer bets on remote digits of pi or when an agent faces a computationally intractable planning problem. Furthermore, the assumption of logical omniscience creates contradictions in cases where the environment can contain descriptions of the agent itself. Importantly, strategic interactions as studied in game theory are decision problems in which a rational agent is predicted by its environment (the other players). In this paper, we develop a theory of rational decision making that does not assume logical omniscience. We consider agents who repeatedly face decision problems (including ones like betting on digits of pi or games against other agents). The main contribution of this paper is to provide a sensible theory of rationality for such agents. Roughly, we require that a boundedly rational inductive agent tests each efficiently computable hypothesis infinitely often and follows those hypotheses that keep their promises of high rewards. We then prove that agents that are rational in this sense have other desirable properties. For example, they learn to value random and pseudo-random lotteries at their expected reward. Finally, we consider strategic interactions between different agents and prove a folk theorem for what strategies bounded rational inductive agents can converge to.

4.Mining for Unknown Unknowns

Authors:Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné

Abstract: Unknown unknowns are future relevant contingencies that lack an ex ante description. While there are numerous retrospective accounts showing that significant gains or losses might have been achieved or avoided had such contingencies been previously uncovered, getting hold of unknown unknowns still remains elusive, both in practice and conceptually. Using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) - a subfield of lattice theory which is increasingly applied for mining and organizing data - this paper introduces a simple framework to systematically think out of the box and direct the search for unknown unknowns.

5.Aggregating Credences into Beliefs: Agenda Conditions for Impossibility Results

Authors:Minkyung Wang, Chisu Kim

Abstract: Binarizing belief aggregation addresses how to rationally aggregate individual probabilistic beliefs into collective binary beliefs. Similar to the development of judgment aggregation theory, formulating axiomatic requirements, proving impossibility theorems, and identifying exact agenda conditions of impossibility theorems are natural and important research topics in binarizing belief aggregation. Building on our previous research on impossibility theorems, we use an agenda-theoretic approach to generalize the results and to determine the necessary and sufficient level of logical interconnection between the issues in an agenda for the impossibility theorems to arise. We demonstrate that (1) path-connectedness and even-negatability constitute the exact agenda condition for the oligarchy result stating that binarizing belief aggregation satisfying proposition-wise independence and deductive closure of collective beliefs yields the oligarchies under minor conditions; (2) negation-connectedness is the condition for the triviality result obtained by adding anonymity to the oligarchy result; and (3) blockedness is the condition for the impossibility result, which follows by adding completeness and consistency of collective beliefs. Moreover, we compare these novel findings with existing agenda-theoretic characterization theorems in judgment aggregation and belief binarization.

6.OntoChatGPT Information System: Ontology-Driven Structured Prompts for ChatGPT Meta-Learning

Authors:Oleksandr Palagin, Vladislav Kaverinskiy, Anna Litvin, Kyrylo Malakhov

Abstract: This research presents a comprehensive methodology for utilizing an ontology-driven structured prompts system in interplay with ChatGPT, a widely used large language model (LLM). The study develops formal models, both information and functional, and establishes the methodological foundations for integrating ontology-driven prompts with ChatGPT's meta-learning capabilities. The resulting productive triad comprises the methodological foundations, advanced information technology, and the OntoChatGPT system, which collectively enhance the effectiveness and performance of chatbot systems. The implementation of this technology is demonstrated using the Ukrainian language within the domain of rehabilitation. By applying the proposed methodology, the OntoChatGPT system effectively extracts entities from contexts, classifies them, and generates relevant responses. The study highlights the versatility of the methodology, emphasizing its applicability not only to ChatGPT but also to other chatbot systems based on LLMs, such as Google's Bard utilizing the PaLM 2 LLM. The underlying principles of meta-learning, structured prompts, and ontology-driven information retrieval form the core of the proposed methodology, enabling their adaptation and utilization in various LLM-based systems. This versatile approach opens up new possibilities for NLP and dialogue systems, empowering developers to enhance the performance and functionality of chatbot systems across different domains and languages.

7.A Modal Logic for Explaining some Graph Neural Networks

Authors:Pierre Nunn, François Schwarzentruber

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a modal logic in which counting modalities appear in linear inequalities. We show that each formula can be transformed into an equivalent graph neural network (GNN). We also show that each GNN can be transformed into a formula. We show that the satisfiability problem is decidable. We also discuss some variants that are in PSPACE.

8.Stable Normative Explanations: From Argumentation to Deontic Logic

Authors:Cecilia Di Florio, Guido Governatori, Antonino Rotolo, Giovanni Sartor

Abstract: This paper examines how a notion of stable explanation developed elsewhere in Defeasible Logic can be expressed in the context of formal argumentation. With this done, we discuss the deontic meaning of this reconstruction and show how to build from argumentation neighborhood structures for deontic logic where this notion of explanation can be characterised. Some direct complexity results are offered.

9.Contextual Pre-Planning on Reward Machine Abstractions for Enhanced Transfer in Deep Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Guy Azran, Mohamad H. Danesh, Stefano V. Albrecht, Sarah Keren

Abstract: Recent studies show that deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agents tend to overfit to the task on which they were trained and fail to adapt to minor environment changes. To expedite learning when transferring to unseen tasks, we propose a novel approach to representing the current task using reward machines (RM), state machine abstractions that induce subtasks based on the current task's rewards and dynamics. Our method provides agents with symbolic representations of optimal transitions from their current abstract state and rewards them for achieving these transitions. These representations are shared across tasks, allowing agents to exploit knowledge of previously encountered symbols and transitions, thus enhancing transfer. Our empirical evaluation shows that our representations improve sample efficiency and few-shot transfer in a variety of domains.

10.Integrated Planning in Hospitals: A Review

Authors:Sebastian Rachuba, Melanie Reuter-Oppermann, Clemens Thielen

Abstract: Efficient planning of scarce resources in hospitals is a challenging task for which a large variety of Operations Research and Management Science approaches have been developed since the 1950s. While efficient planning of single resources such as operating rooms, beds, or specific types of staff can already lead to enormous efficiency gains, integrated planning of several resources has been shown to hold even greater potential, and a large number of integrated planning approaches have been presented in the literature over the past decades. This paper provides the first literature review that focuses specifically on the Operations Research and Management Science literature related to integrated planning of different resources in hospitals. We collect the relevant literature and analyze it regarding different aspects such as uncertainty modeling and the use of real-life data. Several cross comparisons reveal interesting insights concerning, e.g., relations between the modeling and solution methods used and the practical implementation of the approaches developed. Moreover, we provide a high-level taxonomy for classifying different resource-focused integration approaches and point out gaps in the literature as well as promising directions for future research.

11.Unleashing Cognitive Synergy in Large Language Models: A Task-Solving Agent through Multi-Persona Self-Collaboration

Authors:Zhenhailong Wang, Shaoguang Mao, Wenshan Wu, Tao Ge, Furu Wei, Heng Ji

Abstract: Human intelligence thrives on the concept of cognitive synergy, where collaboration and information integration among different cognitive processes yield superior outcomes compared to individual cognitive processes in isolation. Although Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated promising performance as general task-solving agents, they still struggle with tasks that require intensive domain knowledge and complex reasoning. In this work, we propose Solo Performance Prompting (SPP), which transforms a single LLM into a cognitive synergist by engaging in multi-turn self-collaboration with multiple personas. A cognitive synergist refers to an intelligent agent that collaborates with multiple minds, combining their individual strengths and knowledge, to enhance problem-solving and overall performance in complex tasks. By dynamically identifying and simulating different personas based on task inputs, SPP unleashes the potential of cognitive synergy in LLMs. We have discovered that assigning multiple, fine-grained personas in LLMs elicits better problem-solving abilities compared to using a single or fixed number of personas. We evaluate SPP on three challenging tasks: Trivia Creative Writing, Codenames Collaborative, and Logic Grid Puzzle, encompassing both knowledge-intensive and reasoning-intensive types. Unlike previous works, such as Chain-of-Thought, that solely enhance the reasoning abilities in LLMs, SPP effectively elicits internal knowledge acquisition abilities, reduces hallucination, and maintains strong reasoning capabilities. Code, data, and prompts can be found at:

1.Injecting Logical Constraints into Neural Networks via Straight-Through Estimators

Authors:Zhun Yang, Joohyung Lee, Chiyoun Park

Abstract: Injecting discrete logical constraints into neural network learning is one of the main challenges in neuro-symbolic AI. We find that a straight-through-estimator, a method introduced to train binary neural networks, could effectively be applied to incorporate logical constraints into neural network learning. More specifically, we design a systematic way to represent discrete logical constraints as a loss function; minimizing this loss using gradient descent via a straight-through-estimator updates the neural network's weights in the direction that the binarized outputs satisfy the logical constraints. The experimental results show that by leveraging GPUs and batch training, this method scales significantly better than existing neuro-symbolic methods that require heavy symbolic computation for computing gradients. Also, we demonstrate that our method applies to different types of neural networks, such as MLP, CNN, and GNN, making them learn with no or fewer labeled data by learning directly from known constraints.

2.RLTF: Reinforcement Learning from Unit Test Feedback

Authors:Jiate Liu, Yiqin Zhu, Kaiwen Xiao, Qiang Fu, Xiao Han, Wei Yang, Deheng Ye

Abstract: The goal of program synthesis, or code generation, is to generate executable code based on given descriptions. Recently, there has been an increasing number of studies employing reinforcement learning (RL) to improve the performance of large language models (LLMs) for code. However, these RL methods have only used offline frameworks, limiting their exploration of new sample spaces. Additionally, current approaches that utilize unit test signals are rather simple, not accounting for specific error locations within the code. To address these issues, we proposed RLTF, i.e., Reinforcement Learning from Unit Test Feedback, a novel online RL framework with unit test feedback of multi-granularity for refining code LLMs. Our approach generates data in real-time during training and simultaneously utilizes fine-grained feedback signals to guide the model towards producing higher-quality code. Extensive experiments show that RLTF achieves state-of-the-art performance on the APPS and the MBPP benchmarks. Our code can be found at:

3.A Semi-Automated Solution Approach Selection Tool for Any Use Case via Scopus and OpenAI: a Case Study for AI/ML in Oncology

Authors:Deniz Kenan Kılıç, Alex Elkjær Vasegaard, Aurélien Desoeuvres, Peter Nielsen

Abstract: In today's vast literature landscape, a manual review is very time-consuming. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a semi-automated tool for solution method review and selection. It caters to researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers while serving as a benchmark for future work. The tool comprises three modules: (1) paper selection and scoring, using a keyword selection scheme to query Scopus API and compute relevancy; (2) solution method extraction in papers utilizing OpenAI API; (3) sensitivity analysis and post-analyzes. It reveals trends, relevant papers, and methods. AI in the oncology case study and several use cases are presented with promising results, comparing the tool to manual ground truth.

4.Learning Interpretable Heuristics for WalkSAT

Authors:Yannet Interian, Sara Bernardini

Abstract: Local search algorithms are well-known methods for solving large, hard instances of the satisfiability problem (SAT). The performance of these algorithms crucially depends on heuristics for setting noise parameters and scoring variables. The optimal setting for these heuristics varies for different instance distributions. In this paper, we present an approach for learning effective variable scoring functions and noise parameters by using reinforcement learning. We consider satisfiability problems from different instance distributions and learn specialized heuristics for each of them. Our experimental results show improvements with respect to both a WalkSAT baseline and another local search learned heuristic.

5.Understanding Real-World AI Planning Domains: A Conceptual Framework

Authors:Ebaa Alnazer, Ilche Georgievski

Abstract: Planning is a pivotal ability of any intelligent system being developed for real-world applications. AI planning is concerned with researching and developing planning systems that automatically compute plans that satisfy some user objective. Identifying and understanding the relevant and realistic aspects that characterise real-world application domains are crucial to the development of AI planning systems. This provides guidance to knowledge engineers and software engineers in the process of designing, identifying, and categorising resources required for the development process. To the best of our knowledge, such support does not exist. We address this research gap by developing a conceptual framework that identifies and categorises the aspects of real-world planning domains in varying levels of granularity. Our framework provides not only a common terminology but also a comprehensive overview of a broad range of planning aspects exemplified using the domain of sustainable buildings as a prominent application domain of AI planning. The framework has the potential to impact the design, development, and applicability of AI planning systems in real-world application domains.

6.Large Language Models as General Pattern Machines

Authors:Suvir Mirchandani, Fei Xia, Pete Florence, Brian Ichter, Danny Driess, Montserrat Gonzalez Arenas, Kanishka Rao, Dorsa Sadigh, Andy Zeng

Abstract: We observe that pre-trained large language models (LLMs) are capable of autoregressively completing complex token sequences -- from arbitrary ones procedurally generated by probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFG), to more rich spatial patterns found in the Abstract Reasoning Corpus (ARC), a general AI benchmark, prompted in the style of ASCII art. Surprisingly, pattern completion proficiency can be partially retained even when the sequences are expressed using tokens randomly sampled from the vocabulary. These results suggest that without any additional training, LLMs can serve as general sequence modelers, driven by in-context learning. In this work, we investigate how these zero-shot capabilities may be applied to problems in robotics -- from extrapolating sequences of numbers that represent states over time to complete simple motions, to least-to-most prompting of reward-conditioned trajectories that can discover and represent closed-loop policies (e.g., a stabilizing controller for CartPole). While difficult to deploy today for real systems due to latency, context size limitations, and compute costs, the approach of using LLMs to drive low-level control may provide an exciting glimpse into how the patterns among words could be transferred to actions.

1.Adaptation and Communication in Human-Robot Teaming to Handle Discrepancies in Agents' Beliefs about Plans

Authors:Yuening Zhang, Brian C. Williams

Abstract: When agents collaborate on a task, it is important that they have some shared mental model of the task routines -- the set of feasible plans towards achieving the goals. However, in reality, situations often arise that such a shared mental model cannot be guaranteed, such as in ad-hoc teams where agents may follow different conventions or when contingent constraints arise that only some agents are aware of. Previous work on human-robot teaming has assumed that the team has a set of shared routines, which breaks down in these situations. In this work, we leverage epistemic logic to enable agents to understand the discrepancy in each other's beliefs about feasible plans and dynamically plan their actions to adapt or communicate to resolve the discrepancy. We propose a formalism that extends conditional doxastic logic to describe knowledge bases in order to explicitly represent agents' nested beliefs on the feasible plans and state of execution. We provide an online execution algorithm based on Monte Carlo Tree Search for the agent to plan its action, including communication actions to explain the feasibility of plans, announce intent, and ask questions. Finally, we evaluate the success rate and scalability of the algorithm and show that our agent is better equipped to work in teams without the guarantee of a shared mental model.

2.Efficient Ground Vehicle Path Following in Game AI

Authors:Rodrigue de Schaetzen, Alessandro Sestini

Abstract: This short paper presents an efficient path following solution for ground vehicles tailored to game AI. Our focus is on adapting established techniques to design simple solutions with parameters that are easily tunable for an efficient benchmark path follower. Our solution pays particular attention to computing a target speed which uses quadratic Bezier curves to estimate the path curvature. The performance of the proposed path follower is evaluated through a variety of test scenarios in a first-person shooter game, demonstrating its effectiveness and robustness in handling different types of paths and vehicles. We achieved a 70% decrease in the total number of stuck events compared to an existing path following solution.

3.On Formal Feature Attribution and Its Approximation

Authors:Jinqiang Yu, Alexey Ignatiev, Peter J. Stuckey

Abstract: Recent years have witnessed the widespread use of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms and machine learning (ML) models. Despite their tremendous success, a number of vital problems like ML model brittleness, their fairness, and the lack of interpretability warrant the need for the active developments in explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) and formal ML model verification. The two major lines of work in XAI include feature selection methods, e.g. Anchors, and feature attribution techniques, e.g. LIME and SHAP. Despite their promise, most of the existing feature selection and attribution approaches are susceptible to a range of critical issues, including explanation unsoundness and out-of-distribution sampling. A recent formal approach to XAI (FXAI) although serving as an alternative to the above and free of these issues suffers from a few other limitations. For instance and besides the scalability limitation, the formal approach is unable to tackle the feature attribution problem. Additionally, a formal explanation despite being formally sound is typically quite large, which hampers its applicability in practical settings. Motivated by the above, this paper proposes a way to apply the apparatus of formal XAI to the case of feature attribution based on formal explanation enumeration. Formal feature attribution (FFA) is argued to be advantageous over the existing methods, both formal and non-formal. Given the practical complexity of the problem, the paper then proposes an efficient technique for approximating exact FFA. Finally, it offers experimental evidence of the effectiveness of the proposed approximate FFA in comparison to the existing feature attribution algorithms not only in terms of feature importance and but also in terms of their relative order.

4.Large AI Model-Based Semantic Communications

Authors:Feibo Jiang, Yubo Peng, Li Dong, Kezhi Wang, Kun Yang, Cunhua Pan, Xiaohu You

Abstract: Semantic communication (SC) is an emerging intelligent paradigm, offering solutions for various future applications like metaverse, mixed-reality, and the Internet of everything. However, in current SC systems, the construction of the knowledge base (KB) faces several issues, including limited knowledge representation, frequent knowledge updates, and insecure knowledge sharing. Fortunately, the development of the large AI model provides new solutions to overcome above issues. Here, we propose a large AI model-based SC framework (LAM-SC) specifically designed for image data, where we first design the segment anything model (SAM)-based KB (SKB) that can split the original image into different semantic segments by universal semantic knowledge. Then, we present an attention-based semantic integration (ASI) to weigh the semantic segments generated by SKB without human participation and integrate them as the semantic-aware image. Additionally, we propose an adaptive semantic compression (ASC) encoding to remove redundant information in semantic features, thereby reducing communication overhead. Finally, through simulations, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the LAM-SC framework and the significance of the large AI model-based KB development in future SC paradigms.

5.Discovering Variable Binding Circuitry with Desiderata

Authors:Xander Davies, Max Nadeau, Nikhil Prakash, Tamar Rott Shaham, David Bau

Abstract: Recent work has shown that computation in language models may be human-understandable, with successful efforts to localize and intervene on both single-unit features and input-output circuits. Here, we introduce an approach which extends causal mediation experiments to automatically identify model components responsible for performing a specific subtask by solely specifying a set of \textit{desiderata}, or causal attributes of the model components executing that subtask. As a proof of concept, we apply our method to automatically discover shared \textit{variable binding circuitry} in LLaMA-13B, which retrieves variable values for multiple arithmetic tasks. Our method successfully localizes variable binding to only 9 attention heads (of the 1.6k) and one MLP in the final token's residual stream.

1.Validation of the Practicability of Logical Assessment Formula for Evaluations with Inaccurate Ground-Truth Labels

Authors:Yongquan Yang, Hong Bu

Abstract: Logical assessment formula (LAF) is a new theory proposed for evaluations with inaccurate ground-truth labels (IAGTLs) to assess the predictive models for various artificial intelligence applications. However, the practicability of LAF for evaluations with IAGTLs has not yet been validated in real-world practice. In this paper, to address this issue, we applied LAF to tumour segmentation for breast cancer (TSfBC) in medical histopathology whole slide image analysis (MHWSIA). Experimental results and analysis show the validity of LAF for evaluations with IAGTLs in the case of TSfBC and reflect the potentials of LAF applied to MHWSIA.

2.RecallM: An Architecture for Temporal Context Understanding and Question Answering

Authors:Brandon Kynoch, Hugo Latapie

Abstract: The ideal long-term memory mechanism for Large Language Model (LLM) based chatbots, would lay the foundation for continual learning, complex reasoning and allow sequential and temporal dependencies to be learnt. Creating this type of memory mechanism is an extremely challenging problem. In this paper we explore different methods of achieving the effect of long-term memory. We propose a new architecture focused on creating adaptable and updatable long-term memory for AGI systems. We demonstrate through various experiments the benefits of the RecallM architecture, particularly the improved temporal understanding it provides.

3.DeepOnto: A Python Package for Ontology Engineering with Deep Learning

Authors:Yuan He, Jiaoyan Chen, Hang Dong, Ian Horrocks, Carlo Allocca, Taehun Kim, Brahmananda Sapkota

Abstract: Applying deep learning techniques, particularly language models (LMs), in ontology engineering has raised widespread attention. However, deep learning frameworks like PyTorch and Tensorflow are predominantly developed for Python programming, while widely-used ontology APIs, such as the OWL API and Jena, are primarily Java-based. To facilitate seamless integration of these frameworks and APIs, we present Deeponto, a Python package designed for ontology engineering. The package encompasses a core ontology processing module founded on the widely-recognised and reliable OWL API, encapsulating its fundamental features in a more "Pythonic" manner and extending its capabilities to include other essential components including reasoning, verbalisation, normalisation, projection, and more. Building on this module, Deeponto offers a suite of tools, resources, and algorithms that support various ontology engineering tasks, such as ontology alignment and completion, by harnessing deep learning methodologies, primarily pre-trained LMs. In this paper, we also demonstrate the practical utility of Deeponto through two use-cases: the Digital Health Coaching in Samsung Research UK and the Bio-ML track of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI).

4.Structure Guided Multi-modal Pre-trained Transformer for Knowledge Graph Reasoning

Authors:Ke Liang, Sihang Zhou, Yue Liu, Lingyuan Meng, Meng Liu, Xinwang Liu

Abstract: Multimodal knowledge graphs (MKGs), which intuitively organize information in various modalities, can benefit multiple practical downstream tasks, such as recommendation systems, and visual question answering. However, most MKGs are still far from complete, which motivates the flourishing of MKG reasoning models. Recently, with the development of general artificial architectures, the pretrained transformer models have drawn increasing attention, especially for multimodal scenarios. However, the research of multimodal pretrained transformer (MPT) for knowledge graph reasoning (KGR) is still at an early stage. As the biggest difference between MKG and other multimodal data, the rich structural information underlying the MKG still cannot be fully leveraged in existing MPT models. Most of them only utilize the graph structure as a retrieval map for matching images and texts connected with the same entity. This manner hinders their reasoning performances. To this end, we propose the graph Structure Guided Multimodal Pretrained Transformer for knowledge graph reasoning, termed SGMPT. Specifically, the graph structure encoder is adopted for structural feature encoding. Then, a structure-guided fusion module with two different strategies, i.e., weighted summation and alignment constraint, is first designed to inject the structural information into both the textual and visual features. To the best of our knowledge, SGMPT is the first MPT model for multimodal KGR, which mines the structural information underlying the knowledge graph. Extensive experiments on FB15k-237-IMG and WN18-IMG, demonstrate that our SGMPT outperforms existing state-of-the-art models, and prove the effectiveness of the designed strategies.

5.Learning Multi-Agent Intention-Aware Communication for Optimal Multi-Order Execution in Finance

Authors:Yuchen Fang, Zhenggang Tang, Kan Ren, Weiqing Liu, Li Zhao, Jiang Bian, Dongsheng Li, Weinan Zhang, Yong Yu, Tie-Yan Liu

Abstract: Order execution is a fundamental task in quantitative finance, aiming at finishing acquisition or liquidation for a number of trading orders of the specific assets. Recent advance in model-free reinforcement learning (RL) provides a data-driven solution to the order execution problem. However, the existing works always optimize execution for an individual order, overlooking the practice that multiple orders are specified to execute simultaneously, resulting in suboptimality and bias. In this paper, we first present a multi-agent RL (MARL) method for multi-order execution considering practical constraints. Specifically, we treat every agent as an individual operator to trade one specific order, while keeping communicating with each other and collaborating for maximizing the overall profits. Nevertheless, the existing MARL algorithms often incorporate communication among agents by exchanging only the information of their partial observations, which is inefficient in complicated financial market. To improve collaboration, we then propose a learnable multi-round communication protocol, for the agents communicating the intended actions with each other and refining accordingly. It is optimized through a novel action value attribution method which is provably consistent with the original learning objective yet more efficient. The experiments on the data from two real-world markets have illustrated superior performance with significantly better collaboration effectiveness achieved by our method.

6.LEO: Learning Efficient Orderings for Multiobjective Binary Decision Diagrams

Authors:Rahul Patel, Elias B. Khalil

Abstract: Approaches based on Binary decision diagrams (BDDs) have recently achieved state-of-the-art results for multiobjective integer programming problems. The variable ordering used in constructing BDDs can have a significant impact on their size and on the quality of bounds derived from relaxed or restricted BDDs for single-objective optimization problems. We first showcase a similar impact of variable ordering on the Pareto frontier (PF) enumeration time for the multiobjective knapsack problem, suggesting the need for deriving variable ordering methods that improve the scalability of the multiobjective BDD approach. To that end, we derive a novel parameter configuration space based on variable scoring functions which are linear in a small set of interpretable and easy-to-compute variable features. We show how the configuration space can be efficiently explored using black-box optimization, circumventing the curse of dimensionality (in the number of variables and objectives), and finding good orderings that reduce the PF enumeration time. However, black-box optimization approaches incur a computational overhead that outweighs the reduction in time due to good variable ordering. To alleviate this issue, we propose LEO, a supervised learning approach for finding efficient variable orderings that reduce the enumeration time. Experiments on benchmark sets from the knapsack problem with 3-7 objectives and up to 80 variables show that LEO is ~30-300% and ~10-200% faster at PF enumeration than common ordering strategies and algorithm configuration. Our code and instances are available at

1.Combating Confirmation Bias: A Unified Pseudo-Labeling Framework for Entity Alignment

Authors:Qijie Ding, Jie Yin, Daokun Zhang, Junbin Gao

Abstract: Entity alignment (EA) aims at identifying equivalent entity pairs across different knowledge graphs (KGs) that refer to the same real-world identity. To systematically combat confirmation bias for pseudo-labeling-based entity alignment, we propose a Unified Pseudo-Labeling framework for Entity Alignment (UPL-EA) that explicitly eliminates pseudo-labeling errors to boost the accuracy of entity alignment. UPL-EA consists of two complementary components: (1) The Optimal Transport (OT)-based pseudo-labeling uses discrete OT modeling as an effective means to enable more accurate determination of entity correspondences across two KGs and to mitigate the adverse impact of erroneous matches. A simple but highly effective criterion is further devised to derive pseudo-labeled entity pairs that satisfy one-to-one correspondences at each iteration. (2) The cross-iteration pseudo-label calibration operates across multiple consecutive iterations to further improve the pseudo-labeling precision rate by reducing the local pseudo-label selection variability with a theoretical guarantee. The two components are respectively designed to eliminate Type I and Type II pseudo-labeling errors identified through our analyse. The calibrated pseudo-labels are thereafter used to augment prior alignment seeds to reinforce subsequent model training for alignment inference. The effectiveness of UPL-EA in eliminating pseudo-labeling errors is both theoretically supported and experimentally validated. The experimental results show that our approach achieves competitive performance with limited prior alignment seeds.

2.Beyond Known Reality: Exploiting Counterfactual Explanations for Medical Research

Authors:Toygar Tanyel, Serkan Ayvaz, Bilgin Keserci

Abstract: This study employs counterfactual explanations to explore "what if?" scenarios in medical research, with the aim of expanding our understanding beyond existing boundaries. Specifically, we focus on utilizing MRI features for diagnosing pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors as a case study. The field of artificial intelligence and explainability has witnessed a growing number of studies and increasing scholarly interest. However, the lack of human-friendly interpretations in explaining the outcomes of machine learning algorithms has significantly hindered the acceptance of these methods by clinicians in their clinical practice. To address this, our approach incorporates counterfactual explanations, providing a novel way to examine alternative decision-making scenarios. These explanations offer personalized and context-specific insights, enabling the validation of predictions and clarification of variations under diverse circumstances. Importantly, our approach maintains both statistical and clinical fidelity, allowing for the examination of distinct tumor features through alternative realities. Additionally, we explore the potential use of counterfactuals for data augmentation and evaluate their feasibility as an alternative approach in medical research. The results demonstrate the promising potential of counterfactual explanations to enhance trust and acceptance of AI-driven methods in clinical settings.

3.Safety Shielding under Delayed Observation

Authors:Filip Cano Córdoba, Alexander Palmisano, Martin Fränzle, Roderick Bloem, Bettina Könighofer

Abstract: Agents operating in physical environments need to be able to handle delays in the input and output signals since neither data transmission nor sensing or actuating the environment are instantaneous. Shields are correct-by-construction runtime enforcers that guarantee safe execution by correcting any action that may cause a violation of a formal safety specification. Besides providing safety guarantees, shields should interfere minimally with the agent. Therefore, shields should pick the safe corrective actions in such a way that future interferences are most likely minimized. Current shielding approaches do not consider possible delays in the input signals in their safety analyses. In this paper, we address this issue. We propose synthesis algorithms to compute \emph{delay-resilient shields} that guarantee safety under worst-case assumptions on the delays of the input signals. We also introduce novel heuristics for deciding between multiple corrective actions, designed to minimize future shield interferences caused by delays. As a further contribution, we present the first integration of shields in a realistic driving simulator. We implemented our delayed shields in the driving simulator \textsc{Carla}. We shield potentially unsafe autonomous driving agents in different safety-critical scenarios and show the effect of delays on the safety analysis.

4.Analyzing Different Expert-Opined Strategies to Enhance the Effect on the Goal of a Multi-Attribute Decision-Making System Using a Concept of Effort Propagation and Application in Enhancement of High School Students' Performance

Authors:Suvojit Dhara, Adrijit Goswami

Abstract: In many real-world multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) problems, mining the inter-relationships and possible hierarchical structures among the factors are considered to be one of the primary tasks. But, besides that, one major task is to determine an optimal strategy to work on the factors to enhance the effect on the goal attribute. This paper proposes two such strategies, namely parallel and hierarchical effort assignment, and propagation strategies. The concept of effort propagation through a strategy is formally defined and described in the paper. Both the parallel and hierarchical strategies are divided into sub-strategies based on whether the assignment of efforts to the factors is uniform or depends upon some appropriate heuristics related to the factors in the system. The adapted and discussed heuristics are the relative significance and effort propagability of the factors. The strategies are analyzed for a real-life case study regarding Indian high school administrative factors that play an important role in enhancing students' performance. Total effort propagation of around 7%-15% to the goal is seen across the proposed strategies given a total of 1 unit of effort to the directly accessible factors of the system. A comparative analysis is adapted to determine the optimal strategy among the proposed ones to enhance student performance most effectively. The highest effort propagation achieved in the work is approximately 14.4348%. The analysis in the paper establishes the necessity of research towards the direction of effort propagation analysis in case of decision-making problems.

5.Causal Discovery with Language Models as Imperfect Experts

Authors:Stephanie Long, Alexandre Piché, Valentina Zantedeschi, Tibor Schuster, Alexandre Drouin

Abstract: Understanding the causal relationships that underlie a system is a fundamental prerequisite to accurate decision-making. In this work, we explore how expert knowledge can be used to improve the data-driven identification of causal graphs, beyond Markov equivalence classes. In doing so, we consider a setting where we can query an expert about the orientation of causal relationships between variables, but where the expert may provide erroneous information. We propose strategies for amending such expert knowledge based on consistency properties, e.g., acyclicity and conditional independencies in the equivalence class. We then report a case study, on real data, where a large language model is used as an imperfect expert.

6.Building Cooperative Embodied Agents Modularly with Large Language Models

Authors:Hongxin Zhang, Weihua Du, Jiaming Shan, Qinhong Zhou, Yilun Du, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Tianmin Shu, Chuang Gan

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive planning abilities in single-agent embodied tasks across various domains. However, their capacity for planning and communication in multi-agent cooperation remains unclear, even though these are crucial skills for intelligent embodied agents. In this paper, we present a novel framework that utilizes LLMs for multi-agent cooperation and tests it in various embodied environments. Our framework enables embodied agents to plan, communicate, and cooperate with other embodied agents or humans to accomplish long-horizon tasks efficiently. We demonstrate that recent LLMs, such as GPT-4, can surpass strong planning-based methods and exhibit emergent effective communication using our framework without requiring fine-tuning or few-shot prompting. We also discover that LLM-based agents that communicate in natural language can earn more trust and cooperate more effectively with humans. Our research underscores the potential of LLMs for embodied AI and lays the foundation for future research in multi-agent cooperation. Videos can be found on the project website

7.Surge Routing: Event-informed Multiagent Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Rideshare

Authors:Daniel Garces, Stephanie Gil

Abstract: Large events such as conferences, concerts and sports games, often cause surges in demand for ride services that are not captured in average demand patterns, posing unique challenges for routing algorithms. We propose a learning framework for an autonomous fleet of taxis that scrapes event data from the internet to predict and adapt to surges in demand and generates cooperative routing and pickup policies that service a higher number of requests than other routing protocols. We achieve this through a combination of (i) an event processing framework that scrapes the internet for event information and generates dense vector representations that can be used as input features for a neural network that predicts demand; (ii) a two neural network system that predicts hourly demand over the entire map, using these dense vector representations; (iii) a probabilistic approach that leverages locale occupancy schedules to map publicly available demand data over sectors to discretized street intersections; and finally, (iv) a scalable model-based reinforcement learning framework that uses the predicted demand over intersections to anticipate surges and route taxis using one-agent-at-a-time rollout with limited sampling certainty equivalence. We learn routing and pickup policies using real NYC ride share data for 2022 and information for more than 2000 events across 300 unique venues in Manhattan. We test our approach with a fleet of 100 taxis on a map with 38 different sectors (2235 street intersections). Our experimental results demonstrate that our method obtains routing policies that service $6$ more requests on average per minute (around $360$ more requests per hour) than other model-based RL frameworks and other classical algorithms in operations research when dealing with surge demand conditions.

1.Beyond Conservatism: Diffusion Policies in Offline Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Zhuoran Li, Ling Pan, Longbo Huang

Abstract: We present a novel Diffusion Offline Multi-agent Model (DOM2) for offline Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL). Different from existing algorithms that rely mainly on conservatism in policy design, DOM2 enhances policy expressiveness and diversity based on diffusion. Specifically, we incorporate a diffusion model into the policy network and propose a trajectory-based data-augmentation scheme in training. These key ingredients make our algorithm more robust to environment changes and achieve significant improvements in performance, generalization and data-efficiency. Our extensive experimental results demonstrate that DOM2 outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods in multi-agent particle and multi-agent MuJoCo environments, and generalizes significantly better in shifted environments thanks to its high expressiveness and diversity. Furthermore, DOM2 shows superior data efficiency and can achieve state-of-the-art performance with $20+$ times less data compared to existing algorithms.

2.Analyzing Intentional Behavior in Autonomous Agents under Uncertainty

Authors:Filip Cano Córdoba, Samuel Judson, Timos Antonopoulos, Katrine Bjørner, Nicholas Shoemaker, Scott J. Shapiro, Ruzica Piskac, Bettina Könighofer

Abstract: Principled accountability for autonomous decision-making in uncertain environments requires distinguishing intentional outcomes from negligent designs from actual accidents. We propose analyzing the behavior of autonomous agents through a quantitative measure of the evidence of intentional behavior. We model an uncertain environment as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). For a given scenario, we rely on probabilistic model checking to compute the ability of the agent to influence reaching a certain event. We call this the scope of agency. We say that there is evidence of intentional behavior if the scope of agency is high and the decisions of the agent are close to being optimal for reaching the event. Our method applies counterfactual reasoning to automatically generate relevant scenarios that can be analyzed to increase the confidence of our assessment. In a case study, we show how our method can distinguish between 'intentional' and 'accidental' traffic collisions.

3.Knowledge Graph for NLG in the context of conversational agents

Authors:Hussam Ghanem ICB, Massinissa Atmani ICB, Christophe Cruz ICB

Abstract: The use of knowledge graphs (KGs) enhances the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the responses provided by a conversational agent. While generating answers during conversations consists in generating text from these KGs, it is still regarded as a challenging task that has gained significant attention in recent years. In this document, we provide a review of different architectures used for knowledge graph-to-text generation including: Graph Neural Networks, the Graph Transformer, and linearization with seq2seq models. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each architecture and conclude that the choice of architecture will depend on the specific requirements of the task at hand. We also highlight the importance of considering constraints such as execution time and model validity, particularly in the context of conversational agents. Based on these constraints and the availability of labeled data for the domains of DAVI, we choose to use seq2seq Transformer-based models (PLMs) for the Knowledge Graph-to-Text Generation task. We aim to refine benchmark datasets of kg-to-text generation on PLMs and to explore the emotional and multilingual dimensions in our future work. Overall, this review provides insights into the different approaches for knowledge graph-to-text generation and outlines future directions for research in this area.

4.Conceptual Cognitive Maps Formation with Neural Successor Networks and Word Embeddings

Authors:Paul Stoewer, Achim Schilling, Andreas Maier, Patrick Krauss

Abstract: The human brain possesses the extraordinary capability to contextualize the information it receives from our environment. The entorhinal-hippocampal plays a critical role in this function, as it is deeply engaged in memory processing and constructing cognitive maps using place and grid cells. Comprehending and leveraging this ability could significantly augment the field of artificial intelligence. The multi-scale successor representation serves as a good model for the functionality of place and grid cells and has already shown promise in this role. Here, we introduce a model that employs successor representations and neural networks, along with word embedding vectors, to construct a cognitive map of three separate concepts. The network adeptly learns two different scaled maps and situates new information in proximity to related pre-existing representations. The dispersion of information across the cognitive map varies according to its scale - either being heavily concentrated, resulting in the formation of the three concepts, or spread evenly throughout the map. We suggest that our model could potentially improve current AI models by providing multi-modal context information to any input, based on a similarity metric for the input and pre-existing knowledge representations.

5.Heuristic Algorithms for the Approximation of Mutual Coherence

Authors:Gregor Betz, Vera Chekan, Tamara Mchedlidze

Abstract: Mutual coherence is a measure of similarity between two opinions. Although the notion comes from philosophy, it is essential for a wide range of technologies, e.g., the Wahl-O-Mat system. In Germany, this system helps voters to find candidates that are the closest to their political preferences. The exact computation of mutual coherence is highly time-consuming due to the iteration over all subsets of an opinion. Moreover, for every subset, an instance of the SAT model counting problem has to be solved which is known to be a hard problem in computer science. This work is the first study to accelerate this computation. We model the distribution of the so-called confirmation values as a mixture of three Gaussians and present efficient heuristics to estimate its model parameters. The mutual coherence is then approximated with the expected value of the distribution. Some of the presented algorithms are fully polynomial-time, others only require solving a small number of instances of the SAT model counting problem. The average squared error of our best algorithm lies below 0.0035 which is insignificant if the efficiency is taken into account. Furthermore, the accuracy is precise enough to be used in Wahl-O-Mat-like systems.

6.RaidEnv: Exploring New Challenges in Automated Content Balancing for Boss Raid Games

Authors:Hyeon-Chang Jeon, In-Chang Baek, Cheong-mok Bae, Taehwa Park, Wonsang You, Taegwan Ha, Hoyun Jung, Jinha Noh, Seungwon Oh, Kyung-Joong Kim

Abstract: The balance of game content significantly impacts the gaming experience. Unbalanced game content diminishes engagement or increases frustration because of repetitive failure. Although game designers intend to adjust the difficulty of game content, this is a repetitive, labor-intensive, and challenging process, especially for commercial-level games with extensive content. To address this issue, the game research community has explored automated game balancing using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. However, previous studies have focused on limited game content and did not consider the importance of the generalization ability of playtesting agents when encountering content changes. In this study, we propose RaidEnv, a new game simulator that includes diverse and customizable content for the boss raid scenario in MMORPG games. Additionally, we design two benchmarks for the boss raid scenario that can aid in the practical application of game AI. These benchmarks address two open problems in automatic content balancing, and we introduce two evaluation metrics to provide guidance for AI in automatic content balancing. This novel game research platform expands the frontiers of automatic game balancing problems and offers a framework within a realistic game production pipeline.

7.Concept2Box: Joint Geometric Embeddings for Learning Two-View Knowledge Graphs

Authors:Zijie Huang, Daheng Wang, Binxuan Huang, Chenwei Zhang, Jingbo Shang, Yan Liang, Zhengyang Wang, Xian Li, Christos Faloutsos, Yizhou Sun, Wei Wang

Abstract: Knowledge graph embeddings (KGE) have been extensively studied to embed large-scale relational data for many real-world applications. Existing methods have long ignored the fact many KGs contain two fundamentally different views: high-level ontology-view concepts and fine-grained instance-view entities. They usually embed all nodes as vectors in one latent space. However, a single geometric representation fails to capture the structural differences between two views and lacks probabilistic semantics towards concepts' granularity. We propose Concept2Box, a novel approach that jointly embeds the two views of a KG using dual geometric representations. We model concepts with box embeddings, which learn the hierarchy structure and complex relations such as overlap and disjoint among them. Box volumes can be interpreted as concepts' granularity. Different from concepts, we model entities as vectors. To bridge the gap between concept box embeddings and entity vector embeddings, we propose a novel vector-to-box distance metric and learn both embeddings jointly. Experiments on both the public DBpedia KG and a newly-created industrial KG showed the effectiveness of Concept2Box.

1.Towards Explainable AI for Channel Estimation in Wireless Communications

Authors:Abdul Karim Gizzini, Yahia Medjahdi, Ali J. Ghandour, Laurent Clavier

Abstract: Research into 6G networks has been initiated to support a variety of critical artificial intelligence (AI) assisted applications such as autonomous driving. In such applications, AI-based decisions should be performed in a real-time manner. These decisions include resource allocation, localization, channel estimation, etc. Considering the black-box nature of existing AI-based models, it is highly challenging to understand and trust the decision-making behavior of such models. Therefore, explaining the logic behind those models through explainable AI (XAI) techniques is essential for their employment in critical applications. This manuscript proposes a novel XAI-based channel estimation (XAI-CHEST) scheme that provides detailed reasonable interpretability of the deep learning (DL) models that are employed in doubly-selective channel estimation. The aim of the proposed XAI-CHEST scheme is to identify the relevant model inputs by inducing high noise on the irrelevant ones. As a result, the behavior of the studied DL-based channel estimators can be further analyzed and evaluated based on the generated interpretations. Simulation results show that the proposed XAI-CHEST scheme provides valid interpretations of the DL-based channel estimators for different scenarios.

2.ChatGPT vs. Google: A Comparative Study of Search Performance and User Experience

Authors:Ruiyun Xu Rayna, Yue Feng Katherine, Hailiang Chen

Abstract: The advent of ChatGPT, a large language model-powered chatbot, has prompted questions about its potential implications for traditional search engines. In this study, we investigate the differences in user behavior when employing search engines and chatbot tools for information-seeking tasks. We carry out a randomized online experiment, dividing participants into two groups: one using a ChatGPT-like tool and the other using a Google Search-like tool. Our findings reveal that the ChatGPT group consistently spends less time on all tasks, with no significant difference in overall task performance between the groups. Notably, ChatGPT levels user search performance across different education levels and excels in answering straightforward questions and providing general solutions but falls short in fact-checking tasks. Users perceive ChatGPT's responses as having higher information quality compared to Google Search, despite displaying a similar level of trust in both tools. Furthermore, participants using ChatGPT report significantly better user experiences in terms of usefulness, enjoyment, and satisfaction, while perceived ease of use remains comparable between the two tools. However, ChatGPT may also lead to overreliance and generate or replicate misinformation, yielding inconsistent results. Our study offers valuable insights for search engine management and highlights opportunities for integrating chatbot technologies into search engine designs.

3.Reliable AI: Does the Next Generation Require Quantum Computing?

Authors:Aras Bacho, Holger Boche, Gitta Kutyniok

Abstract: In this survey, we aim to explore the fundamental question of whether the next generation of artificial intelligence requires quantum computing. Artificial intelligence is increasingly playing a crucial role in many aspects of our daily lives and is central to the fourth industrial revolution. It is therefore imperative that artificial intelligence is reliable and trustworthy. However, there are still many issues with reliability of artificial intelligence, such as privacy, responsibility, safety, and security, in areas such as autonomous driving, healthcare, robotics, and others. These problems can have various causes, including insufficient data, biases, and robustness problems, as well as fundamental issues such as computability problems on digital hardware. The cause of these computability problems is rooted in the fact that digital hardware is based on the computing model of the Turing machine, which is inherently discrete. Notably, our findings demonstrate that digital hardware is inherently constrained in solving problems about optimization, deep learning, or differential equations. Therefore, these limitations carry substantial implications for the field of artificial intelligence, in particular for machine learning. Furthermore, although it is well known that the quantum computer shows a quantum advantage for certain classes of problems, our findings establish that some of these limitations persist when employing quantum computing models based on the quantum circuit or the quantum Turing machine paradigm. In contrast, analog computing models, such as the Blum-Shub-Smale machine, exhibit the potential to surmount these limitations.

4.Minimizing Age of Information for Mobile Edge Computing Systems: A Nested Index Approach

Authors:Shuo Chen, Ning Yang, Meng Zhang, Jun Wang

Abstract: Exploiting the computational heterogeneity of mobile devices and edge nodes, mobile edge computation (MEC) provides an efficient approach to achieving real-time applications that are sensitive to information freshness, by offloading tasks from mobile devices to edge nodes. We use the metric Age-of-Information (AoI) to evaluate information freshness. An efficient solution to minimize the AoI for the MEC system with multiple users is non-trivial to obtain due to the random computing time. In this paper, we consider multiple users offloading tasks to heterogeneous edge servers in a MEC system. We first reformulate the problem as a Restless Multi-Arm-Bandit (RMAB) problem and establish a hierarchical Markov Decision Process (MDP) to characterize the updating of AoI for the MEC system. Based on the hierarchical MDP, we propose a nested index framework and design a nested index policy with provably asymptotic optimality. Finally, the closed form of the nested index is obtained, which enables the performance tradeoffs between computation complexity and accuracy. Our algorithm leads to an optimality gap reduction of up to 40%, compared to benchmarks. Our algorithm asymptotically approximates the lower bound as the system scalar gets large enough.

5.Learning to Communicate using Contrastive Learning

Authors:Yat Long Lo, Biswa Sengupta, Jakob Foerster, Michael Noukhovitch

Abstract: Communication is a powerful tool for coordination in multi-agent RL. But inducing an effective, common language is a difficult challenge, particularly in the decentralized setting. In this work, we introduce an alternative perspective where communicative messages sent between agents are considered as different incomplete views of the environment state. By examining the relationship between messages sent and received, we propose to learn to communicate using contrastive learning to maximize the mutual information between messages of a given trajectory. In communication-essential environments, our method outperforms previous work in both performance and learning speed. Using qualitative metrics and representation probing, we show that our method induces more symmetric communication and captures global state information from the environment. Overall, we show the power of contrastive learning and the importance of leveraging messages as encodings for effective communication.

1.LMBot: Distilling Graph Knowledge into Language Model for Graph-less Deployment in Twitter Bot Detection

Authors:Zijian Cai, Zhaoxuan Tan, Zhenyu Lei, Zifeng Zhu, Hongrui Wang, Qinghua Zheng, Minnan Luo

Abstract: As malicious actors employ increasingly advanced and widespread bots to disseminate misinformation and manipulate public opinion, the detection of Twitter bots has become a crucial task. Though graph-based Twitter bot detection methods achieve state-of-the-art performance, we find that their inference depends on the neighbor users multi-hop away from the targets, and fetching neighbors is time-consuming and may introduce bias. At the same time, we find that after finetuning on Twitter bot detection, pretrained language models achieve competitive performance and do not require a graph structure during deployment. Inspired by this finding, we propose a novel bot detection framework LMBot that distills the knowledge of graph neural networks (GNNs) into language models (LMs) for graph-less deployment in Twitter bot detection to combat the challenge of data dependency. Moreover, LMBot is compatible with graph-based and graph-less datasets. Specifically, we first represent each user as a textual sequence and feed them into the LM for domain adaptation. For graph-based datasets, the output of LMs provides input features for the GNN, enabling it to optimize for bot detection and distill knowledge back to the LM in an iterative, mutually enhancing process. Armed with the LM, we can perform graph-less inference, which resolves the graph data dependency and sampling bias issues. For datasets without graph structure, we simply replace the GNN with an MLP, which has also shown strong performance. Our experiments demonstrate that LMBot achieves state-of-the-art performance on four Twitter bot detection benchmarks. Extensive studies also show that LMBot is more robust, versatile, and efficient compared to graph-based Twitter bot detection methods.

2.Harnessing LLMs in Curricular Design: Using GPT-4 to Support Authoring of Learning Objectives

Authors:Pragnya Sridhar, Aidan Doyle, Arav Agarwal, Christopher Bogart, Jaromir Savelka, Majd Sakr

Abstract: We evaluated the capability of a generative pre-trained transformer (GPT-4) to automatically generate high-quality learning objectives (LOs) in the context of a practically oriented university course on Artificial Intelligence. Discussions of opportunities (e.g., content generation, explanation) and risks (e.g., cheating) of this emerging technology in education have intensified, but to date there has not been a study of the models' capabilities in supporting the course design and authoring of LOs. LOs articulate the knowledge and skills learners are intended to acquire by engaging with a course. To be effective, LOs must focus on what students are intended to achieve, focus on specific cognitive processes, and be measurable. Thus, authoring high-quality LOs is a challenging and time consuming (i.e., expensive) effort. We evaluated 127 LOs that were automatically generated based on a carefully crafted prompt (detailed guidelines on high-quality LOs authoring) submitted to GPT-4 for conceptual modules and projects of an AI Practitioner course. We analyzed the generated LOs if they follow certain best practices such as beginning with action verbs from Bloom's taxonomy in regards to the level of sophistication intended. Our analysis showed that the generated LOs are sensible, properly expressed (e.g., starting with an action verb), and that they largely operate at the appropriate level of Bloom's taxonomy, respecting the different nature of the conceptual modules (lower levels) and projects (higher levels). Our results can be leveraged by instructors and curricular designers wishing to take advantage of the state-of-the-art generative models to support their curricular and course design efforts.

3.An automated method for the ontological representation of security directives

Authors:Giampaolo Bella, Gianpietro Castiglione, Daniele Francesco Santamaria

Abstract: Large documents written in juridical language are difficult to interpret, with long sentences leading to intricate and intertwined relations between the nouns. The present paper frames this problem in the context of recent European security directives. The complexity of their language is here thwarted by automating the extraction of the relevant information, namely of the parts of speech from each clause, through a specific tailoring of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. These contribute, in combination with ontology development principles, to the design of our automated method for the representation of security directives as ontologies. The method is showcased on a practical problem, namely to derive an ontology representing the NIS 2 directive, which is the peak of cybersecurity prescripts at the European level. Although the NLP techniques adopted showed some limitations and had to be complemented by manual analysis, the overall results provide valid support for directive compliance in general and for ontology development in particular.

4.Systematic Investigation of Sparse Perturbed Sharpness-Aware Minimization Optimizer

Authors:Peng Mi, Li Shen, Tianhe Ren, Yiyi Zhou, Tianshuo Xu, Xiaoshuai Sun, Tongliang Liu, Rongrong Ji, Dacheng Tao

Abstract: Deep neural networks often suffer from poor generalization due to complex and non-convex loss landscapes. Sharpness-Aware Minimization (SAM) is a popular solution that smooths the loss landscape by minimizing the maximized change of training loss when adding a perturbation to the weight. However, indiscriminate perturbation of SAM on all parameters is suboptimal and results in excessive computation, double the overhead of common optimizers like Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD). In this paper, we propose Sparse SAM (SSAM), an efficient and effective training scheme that achieves sparse perturbation by a binary mask. To obtain the sparse mask, we provide two solutions based on Fisher information and dynamic sparse training, respectively. We investigate the impact of different masks, including unstructured, structured, and $N$:$M$ structured patterns, as well as explicit and implicit forms of implementing sparse perturbation. We theoretically prove that SSAM can converge at the same rate as SAM, i.e., $O(\log T/\sqrt{T})$. Sparse SAM has the potential to accelerate training and smooth the loss landscape effectively. Extensive experimental results on CIFAR and ImageNet-1K confirm that our method is superior to SAM in terms of efficiency, and the performance is preserved or even improved with a perturbation of merely 50\% sparsity. Code is available at

5.A behaviouristic approach to representing processes and procedures in the OASIS 2 ontology

Authors:Giampaolo Bella, Gianpietro Castiglione, Daniele Francesco Santamaria

Abstract: Foundational ontologies devoted to the effective representation of processes and procedures are not widely investigated at present, thereby limiting the practical adoption of semantic approaches in real scenarios where the precise instructions to follow must be considered. Also, the representation ought to include how agents should carry out the actions associated with the process, whether or not agents are able to perform those actions, the possible roles played as well as the related events. The OASIS ontology provides an established model to capture agents and their interactions but lacks means for representing processes and procedures carried out by agents. This motivates the research presented in this article, which delivers an extension of the OASIS 2 ontology to combine the capabilities for representing agents and their behaviours with the full conceptualization of processes and procedures. The overarching goal is to deliver a foundational OWL ontology that deals with agent planning, reaching a balance between generality and applicability, which is known to be an open challenge.

6.Comparing Reinforcement Learning and Human Learning using the Game of Hidden Rules

Authors:Eric Pulick, Vladimir Menkov, Yonatan Mintz, Paul Kantor, Vicki Bier

Abstract: Reliable real-world deployment of reinforcement learning (RL) methods requires a nuanced understanding of their strengths and weaknesses and how they compare to those of humans. Human-machine systems are becoming more prevalent and the design of these systems relies on a task-oriented understanding of both human learning (HL) and RL. Thus, an important line of research is characterizing how the structure of a learning task affects learning performance. While increasingly complex benchmark environments have led to improved RL capabilities, such environments are difficult to use for the dedicated study of task structure. To address this challenge we present a learning environment built to support rigorous study of the impact of task structure on HL and RL. We demonstrate the environment's utility for such study through example experiments in task structure that show performance differences between humans and RL algorithms.

7.Qualitative Prediction of Multi-Agent Spatial Interactions

Authors:Sariah Mghames, Luca Castri, Marc Hanheide, Nicola Bellotto

Abstract: Deploying service robots in our daily life, whether in restaurants, warehouses or hospitals, calls for the need to reason on the interactions happening in dense and dynamic scenes. In this paper, we present and benchmark three new approaches to model and predict multi-agent interactions in dense scenes, including the use of an intuitive qualitative representation. The proposed solutions take into account static and dynamic context to predict individual interactions. They exploit an input- and a temporal-attention mechanism, and are tested on medium and long-term time horizons. The first two approaches integrate different relations from the so-called Qualitative Trajectory Calculus (QTC) within a state-of-the-art deep neural network to create a symbol-driven neural architecture for predicting spatial interactions. The third approach implements a purely data-driven network for motion prediction, the output of which is post-processed to predict QTC spatial interactions. Experimental results on a popular robot dataset of challenging crowded scenarios show that the purely data-driven prediction approach generally outperforms the other two. The three approaches were further evaluated on a different but related human scenarios to assess their generalisation capability.

8.Transformers in Healthcare: A Survey

Authors:Subhash Nerella, Sabyasachi Bandyopadhyay, Jiaqing Zhang, Miguel Contreras, Scott Siegel, Aysegul Bumin, Brandon Silva, Jessica Sena, Benjamin Shickel, Azra Bihorac, Kia Khezeli, Parisa Rashidi

Abstract: With Artificial Intelligence (AI) increasingly permeating various aspects of society, including healthcare, the adoption of the Transformers neural network architecture is rapidly changing many applications. Transformer is a type of deep learning architecture initially developed to solve general-purpose Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks and has subsequently been adapted in many fields, including healthcare. In this survey paper, we provide an overview of how this architecture has been adopted to analyze various forms of data, including medical imaging, structured and unstructured Electronic Health Records (EHR), social media, physiological signals, and biomolecular sequences. Those models could help in clinical diagnosis, report generation, data reconstruction, and drug/protein synthesis. We identified relevant studies using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of using transformers in healthcare and examine issues such as computational cost, model interpretability, fairness, alignment with human values, ethical implications, and environmental impact.

9.The Integer Linear Programming Inference Cookbook

Authors:Vivek Srikumar, Dan Roth

Abstract: Over the years, integer linear programs have been employed to model inference in many natural language processing problems. This survey is meant to guide the reader through the process of framing a new inference problem as an instance of an integer linear program and is structured as a collection of recipes. At the end, we will see two worked examples to illustrate the use of these recipes.

1.Neural Polarizer: A Lightweight and Effective Backdoor Defense via Purifying Poisoned Features

Authors:Mingli Zhu, Shaokui Wei, Hongyuan Zha, Baoyuan Wu

Abstract: Recent studies have demonstrated the susceptibility of deep neural networks to backdoor attacks. Given a backdoored model, its prediction of a poisoned sample with trigger will be dominated by the trigger information, though trigger information and benign information coexist. Inspired by the mechanism of the optical polarizer that a polarizer could pass light waves with particular polarizations while filtering light waves with other polarizations, we propose a novel backdoor defense method by inserting a learnable neural polarizer into the backdoored model as an intermediate layer, in order to purify the poisoned sample via filtering trigger information while maintaining benign information. The neural polarizer is instantiated as one lightweight linear transformation layer, which is learned through solving a well designed bi-level optimization problem, based on a limited clean dataset. Compared to other fine-tuning-based defense methods which often adjust all parameters of the backdoored model, the proposed method only needs to learn one additional layer, such that it is more efficient and requires less clean data. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in removing backdoors across various neural network architectures and datasets, especially in the case of very limited clean data.

2.From Query Tools to Causal Architects: Harnessing Large Language Models for Advanced Causal Discovery from Data

Authors:Taiyu Ban, Lyvzhou Chen, Xiangyu Wang, Huanhuan Chen

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) exhibit exceptional abilities for causal analysis between concepts in numerous societally impactful domains, including medicine, science, and law. Recent research on LLM performance in various causal discovery and inference tasks has given rise to a new ladder in the classical three-stage framework of causality. In this paper, we advance the current research of LLM-driven causal discovery by proposing a novel framework that combines knowledge-based LLM causal analysis with data-driven causal structure learning. To make LLM more than a query tool and to leverage its power in discovering natural and new laws of causality, we integrate the valuable LLM expertise on existing causal mechanisms into statistical analysis of objective data to build a novel and practical baseline for causal structure learning. We introduce a universal set of prompts designed to extract causal graphs from given variables and assess the influence of LLM prior causality on recovering causal structures from data. We demonstrate the significant enhancement of LLM expertise on the quality of recovered causal structures from data, while also identifying critical challenges and issues, along with potential approaches to address them. As a pioneering study, this paper aims to emphasize the new frontier that LLMs are opening for classical causal discovery and inference, and to encourage the widespread adoption of LLM capabilities in data-driven causal analysis.

3.Computationally Assisted Quality Control for Public Health Data Streams

Authors:Ananya Joshi, Kathryn Mazaitis, Roni Rosenfeld, Bryan Wilder

Abstract: Irregularities in public health data streams (like COVID-19 Cases) hamper data-driven decision-making for public health stakeholders. A real-time, computer-generated list of the most important, outlying data points from thousands of daily-updated public health data streams could assist an expert reviewer in identifying these irregularities. However, existing outlier detection frameworks perform poorly on this task because they do not account for the data volume or for the statistical properties of public health streams. Accordingly, we developed FlaSH (Flagging Streams in public Health), a practical outlier detection framework for public health data users that uses simple, scalable models to capture these statistical properties explicitly. In an experiment where human experts evaluate FlaSH and existing methods (including deep learning approaches), FlaSH scales to the data volume of this task, matches or exceeds these other methods in mean accuracy, and identifies the outlier points that users empirically rate as more helpful. Based on these results, FlaSH has been deployed on data streams used by public health stakeholders.

4.Identifiability of direct effects from summary causal graphs

Authors:Simon Ferreira, Charles K. Assaad

Abstract: Dynamic structural causal models (SCMs) are a powerful framework for reasoning in dynamic systems about direct effects which measure how a change in one variable affects another variable while holding all other variables constant. The causal relations in a dynamic structural causal model can be qualitatively represented with a full-time causal graph. Assuming linearity and causal sufficiency and given the full-time causal graph, the direct causal effect is always identifiable and can be estimated from data by adjusting on any set of variables given by the so-called single-door criterion. However, in many application such a graph is not available for various reasons but nevertheless experts have access to an abstraction of the full-time causal graph which represents causal relations between time series while omitting temporal information. This paper presents a complete identifiability result which characterizes all cases for which the direct effect is graphically identifiable from summary causal graphs and gives two sound finite adjustment sets that can be used to estimate the direct effect whenever it is identifiable.

5.Exploring & Exploiting High-Order Graph Structure for Sparse Knowledge Graph Completion

Authors:Tao He, Ming Liu, Yixin Cao, Zekun Wang, Zihao Zheng, Zheng Chu, Bing Qin

Abstract: Sparse knowledge graph (KG) scenarios pose a challenge for previous Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) methods, that is, the completion performance decreases rapidly with the increase of graph sparsity. This problem is also exacerbated because of the widespread existence of sparse KGs in practical applications. To alleviate this challenge, we present a novel framework, LR-GCN, that is able to automatically capture valuable long-range dependency among entities to supplement insufficient structure features and distill logical reasoning knowledge for sparse KGC. The proposed approach comprises two main components: a GNN-based predictor and a reasoning path distiller. The reasoning path distiller explores high-order graph structures such as reasoning paths and encodes them as rich-semantic edges, explicitly compositing long-range dependencies into the predictor. This step also plays an essential role in densifying KGs, effectively alleviating the sparse issue. Furthermore, the path distiller further distills logical reasoning knowledge from these mined reasoning paths into the predictor. These two components are jointly optimized using a well-designed variational EM algorithm. Extensive experiments and analyses on four sparse benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

6.The mapKurator System: A Complete Pipeline for Extracting and Linking Text from Historical Maps

Authors:Jina Kim, Zekun Li, Yijun Lin, Min Namgung, Leeje Jang, Yao-Yi Chiang

Abstract: Documents hold spatial focus and valuable locality characteristics. For example, descriptions of listings in real estate or travel blogs contain information about specific local neighborhoods. This information is valuable to characterize how humans perceive their environment. However, the first step to making use of this information is to identify the spatial focus (e.g., a city) of a document. Traditional approaches for identifying the spatial focus of a document rely on detecting and disambiguating toponyms from the document. This approach requires a vocabulary set of location phrases and ad-hoc rules, which ignore important words related to location. Recent topic modeling approaches using large language models often consider a few topics, each with broad coverage. In contrast, the spatial focus of a document can be a country, a city, or even a neighborhood, which together, is much larger than the number of topics considered in these approaches. Additionally, topic modeling methods are often applied to broad topics of news articles where context is easily distinguishable. To identify the geographic focus of a document effectively, we present a simple but effective Joint Embedding of multi-LocaLitY (JELLY), which jointly learns representations with separate encoders of document and location. JELLY significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods for identifying spatial focus from documents from a number of sources. We also demonstrate case studies on the arithmetic of the learned representations, including identifying cities with similar locality characteristics and zero-shot learning to identify document spatial focus.

7.Interdisciplinary Methods in Computational Creativity: How Human Variables Shape Human-Inspired AI Research

Authors:Nadia M. Ady, Faun Rice

Abstract: The word creativity originally described a concept from human psychology, but in the realm of computational creativity (CC), it has become much more. The question of what creativity means when it is part of a computational system might be considered core to CC. Pinning down the meaning of creativity, and concepts like it, becomes salient when researchers port concepts from human psychology to computation, a widespread practice extending beyond CC into artificial intelligence (AI). Yet, the human processes shaping human-inspired computational systems have been little investigated. In this paper, we question which human literatures (social sciences, psychology, neuroscience) enter AI scholarship and how they are translated at the port of entry. This study is based on 22 in-depth, semi-structured interviews, primarily with human-inspired AI researchers, half of whom focus on creativity as a major research area. This paper focuses on findings most relevant to CC. We suggest that which human literature enters AI bears greater scrutiny because ideas may become disconnected from context in their home discipline. Accordingly, we recommend that CC researchers document the decisions and context of their practices, particularly those practices formalizing human concepts for machines. Publishing reflexive commentary on human elements in CC and AI would provide a useful record and permit greater dialogue with other disciplines.

1.A Distributed Computation Model Based on Federated Learning Integrates Heterogeneous models and Consortium Blockchain for Solving Time-Varying Problems

Authors:Zhihao Hao, Guancheng Wang, Chunwei Tian, Bob Zhang

Abstract: The recurrent neural network has been greatly developed for effectively solving time-varying problems corresponding to complex environments. However, limited by the way of centralized processing, the model performance is greatly affected by factors like the silos problems of the models and data in reality. Therefore, the emergence of distributed artificial intelligence such as federated learning (FL) makes it possible for the dynamic aggregation among models. However, the integration process of FL is still server-dependent, which may cause a great risk to the overall model. Also, it only allows collaboration between homogeneous models, and does not have a good solution for the interaction between heterogeneous models. Therefore, we propose a Distributed Computation Model (DCM) based on the consortium blockchain network to improve the credibility of the overall model and effective coordination among heterogeneous models. In addition, a Distributed Hierarchical Integration (DHI) algorithm is also designed for the global solution process. Within a group, permissioned nodes collect the local models' results from different permissionless nodes and then sends the aggregated results back to all the permissionless nodes to regularize the processing of the local models. After the iteration is completed, the secondary integration of the local results will be performed between permission nodes to obtain the global results. In the experiments, we verify the efficiency of DCM, where the results show that the proposed model outperforms many state-of-the-art models based on a federated learning framework.

2.Stone Needle: A General Multimodal Large-scale Model Framework towards Healthcare

Authors:Weihua Liu, Yong Zuo

Abstract: In healthcare, multimodal data is prevalent and requires to be comprehensively analyzed before diagnostic decisions, including medical images, clinical reports, etc. However, current large-scale artificial intelligence models predominantly focus on single-modal cognitive abilities and neglect the integration of multiple modalities. Therefore, we propose Stone Needle, a general multimodal large-scale model framework tailored explicitly for healthcare applications. Stone Needle serves as a comprehensive medical multimodal model foundation, integrating various modalities such as text, images, videos, and audio to surpass the limitations of single-modal systems. Through the framework components of intent analysis, medical foundation models, prompt manager, and medical language module, our architecture can perform multi-modal interaction in multiple rounds of dialogue. Our method is a general multimodal large-scale model framework, integrating diverse modalities and allowing us to tailor for specific tasks. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our method compared to single-modal systems. The fusion of different modalities and the ability to process complex medical information in Stone Needle benefits accurate diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and patient care.

3.Mastering Nordschleife -- A comprehensive race simulation for AI strategy decision-making in motorsports

Authors:Max Boettinger, David Klotz

Abstract: In the realm of circuit motorsports, race strategy plays a pivotal role in determining race outcomes. This strategy focuses on the timing of pit stops, which are necessary due to fuel consumption and tire performance degradation. The objective of race strategy is to balance the advantages of pit stops, such as tire replacement and refueling, with the time loss incurred in the pit lane. Current race simulations, used to estimate the best possible race strategy, vary in granularity, modeling of probabilistic events, and require manual input for in-laps. This paper addresses these limitations by developing a novel simulation model tailored to GT racing and leveraging artificial intelligence to automate strategic decisions. By integrating the simulation with OpenAI's Gym framework, a reinforcement learning environment is created and an agent is trained. The study evaluates various hyperparameter configurations, observation spaces, and reward functions, drawing upon historical timing data from the 2020 N\"urburgring Langstrecken Serie for empirical parameter validation. The results demonstrate the potential of reinforcement learning for improving race strategy decision-making, as the trained agent makes sensible decisions regarding pit stop timing and refueling amounts. Key parameters, such as learning rate, decay rate and the number of episodes, are identified as crucial factors, while the combination of fuel mass and current race position proves most effective for policy development. The paper contributes to the broader application of reinforcement learning in race simulations and unlocks the potential for race strategy optimization beyond FIA Formula~1, specifically in the GT racing domain.

4.Training Deep Surrogate Models with Large Scale Online Learning

Authors:Lucas Meyer EDF R\&D, SINCLAIR AI Lab, DATAMOVE, Marc Schouler DATAMOVE, Robert Alexander Caulk DATAMOVE, Alejandro Ribés SINCLAIR AI Lab, EDF R\&D, Bruno Raffin DATAMOVE

Abstract: The spatiotemporal resolution of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) plays important roles in the mathematical description of the world's physical phenomena. In general, scientists and engineers solve PDEs numerically by the use of computationally demanding solvers. Recently, deep learning algorithms have emerged as a viable alternative for obtaining fast solutions for PDEs. Models are usually trained on synthetic data generated by solvers, stored on disk and read back for training. This paper advocates that relying on a traditional static dataset to train these models does not allow the full benefit of the solver to be used as a data generator. It proposes an open source online training framework for deep surrogate models. The framework implements several levels of parallelism focused on simultaneously generating numerical simulations and training deep neural networks. This approach suppresses the I/O and storage bottleneck associated with disk-loaded datasets, and opens the way to training on significantly larger datasets. Experiments compare the offline and online training of four surrogate models, including state-of-the-art architectures. Results indicate that exposing deep surrogate models to more dataset diversity, up to hundreds of GB, can increase model generalization capabilities. Fully connected neural networks, Fourier Neural Operator (FNO), and Message Passing PDE Solver prediction accuracy is improved by 68%, 16% and 7%, respectively.

5.Towards a Better Understanding of Learning with Multiagent Teams

Authors:David Radke, Kate Larson, Tim Brecht, Kyle Tilbury

Abstract: While it has long been recognized that a team of individual learning agents can be greater than the sum of its parts, recent work has shown that larger teams are not necessarily more effective than smaller ones. In this paper, we study why and under which conditions certain team structures promote effective learning for a population of individual learning agents. We show that, depending on the environment, some team structures help agents learn to specialize into specific roles, resulting in more favorable global results. However, large teams create credit assignment challenges that reduce coordination, leading to large teams performing poorly compared to smaller ones. We support our conclusions with both theoretical analysis and empirical results.

6.Inferring the Goals of Communicating Agents from Actions and Instructions

Authors:Lance Ying, Tan Zhi-Xuan, Vikash Mansinghka, Joshua B. Tenenbaum

Abstract: When humans cooperate, they frequently coordinate their activity through both verbal communication and non-verbal actions, using this information to infer a shared goal and plan. How can we model this inferential ability? In this paper, we introduce a model of a cooperative team where one agent, the principal, may communicate natural language instructions about their shared plan to another agent, the assistant, using GPT-3 as a likelihood function for instruction utterances. We then show how a third person observer can infer the team's goal via multi-modal Bayesian inverse planning from actions and instructions, computing the posterior distribution over goals under the assumption that agents will act and communicate rationally to achieve them. We evaluate this approach by comparing it with human goal inferences in a multi-agent gridworld, finding that our model's inferences closely correlate with human judgments (R = 0.96). When compared to inference from actions alone, we also find that instructions lead to more rapid and less uncertain goal inference, highlighting the importance of verbal communication for cooperative agents.

7.Relevant Entity Selection: Knowledge Graph Bootstrapping via Zero-Shot Analogical Pruning

Authors:Lucas Jarnac, Miguel Couceiro, Pierre Monnin

Abstract: Knowledge Graph Construction (KGC) can be seen as an iterative process starting from a high quality nucleus that is refined by knowledge extraction approaches in a virtuous loop. Such a nucleus can be obtained from knowledge existing in an open KG like Wikidata. However, due to the size of such generic KGs, integrating them as a whole may entail irrelevant content and scalability issues. We propose an analogy-based approach that starts from seed entities of interest in a generic KG, and keeps or prunes their neighboring entities. We evaluate our approach on Wikidata through two manually labeled datasets that contain either domain-homogeneous or -heterogeneous seed entities. We empirically show that our analogy-based approach outperforms LSTM, Random Forest, SVM, and MLP, with a drastically lower number of parameters. We also evaluate its generalization potential in a transfer learning setting. These results advocate for the further integration of analogy-based inference in tasks related to the KG lifecycle.

8.Social World Knowledge: Modeling and Applications

Authors:Nir Lotan, Einat Minkov

Abstract: Social world knowledge is a key ingredient in effective communication and information processing by humans and machines alike. As of today, there exist many knowledge bases that represent factual world knowledge. Yet, there is no resource that is designed to capture social aspects of world knowledge. We believe that this work makes an important step towards the formulation and construction of such a resource. We introduce SocialVec, a general framework for eliciting low-dimensional entity embeddings from the social contexts in which they occur in social networks. In this framework, entities correspond to highly popular accounts which invoke general interest. We assume that entities that individual users tend to co-follow are socially related, and use this definition of social context to learn the entity embeddings. Similar to word embeddings which facilitate tasks that involve text semantics, we expect the learned social entity embeddings to benefit multiple tasks of social flavor. In this work, we elicited the social embeddings of roughly 200K entities from a sample of 1.3M Twitter users and the accounts that they follow. We employ and gauge the resulting embeddings on two tasks of social importance. First, we assess the political bias of news sources in terms of entity similarity in the social embedding space. Second, we predict the personal traits of individual Twitter users based on the social embeddings of entities that they follow. In both cases, we show advantageous or competitive performance using our approach compared with task-specific baselines. We further show that existing entity embedding schemes, which are fact-based, fail to capture social aspects of knowledge. We make the learned social entity embeddings available to the research community to support further exploration of social world knowledge and its applications.

9.Lagrangian based A* algorithm for automated reasoning

Authors:Renju Rajan

Abstract: In this paper, a modification of A* algorithm is considered for the shortest path problem. A weightage is introduced in the heuristic part of the A* algorithm to improve its efficiency. An application of the algorithm is considered for UAV path planning wherein velocity is taken as the weigtage to the heuristic. At the outset, calculus of variations based Lagrange's equation was used to identify velocity as the decisive factor for the dynamical system. This approach would be useful for other problems as well to improve the efficiency of algorithms in those areas.

1.Internal Contrastive Learning for Generalized Out-of-distribution Fault Diagnosis (GOOFD) Framework

Authors:Xingyue Wang, Hanrong Zhang, Ke Ma, Shuting Tao, Peng Peng, Hongwei Wang

Abstract: Fault diagnosis is essential in industrial processes for monitoring the conditions of important machines. With the ever-increasing complexity of working conditions and demand for safety during production and operation, different diagnosis methods are required, and more importantly, an integrated fault diagnosis system that can cope with multiple tasks is highly desired. However, the diagnosis subtasks are often studied separately, and the currently available methods still need improvement for such a generalized system. To address this issue, we propose the Generalized Out-of-distribution Fault Diagnosis (GOOFD) framework to integrate diagnosis subtasks, such as fault detection, fault classification, and novel fault diagnosis. Additionally, a unified fault diagnosis method based on internal contrastive learning is put forward to underpin the proposed generalized framework. The method extracts features utilizing the internal contrastive learning technique and then recognizes the outliers based on the Mahalanobis distance. Experiments are conducted on a simulated benchmark dataset as well as two practical process datasets to evaluate the proposed framework. As demonstrated in the experiments, the proposed method achieves better performance compared with several existing techniques and thus verifies the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

2.Delivering Inflated Explanations

Authors:Yacine Izza, Alexey Ignatiev, Peter Stuckey, Joao Marques-Silva

Abstract: In the quest for Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) one of the questions that frequently arises given a decision made by an AI system is, ``why was the decision made in this way?'' Formal approaches to explainability build a formal model of the AI system and use this to reason about the properties of the system. Given a set of feature values for an instance to be explained, and a resulting decision, a formal abductive explanation is a set of features, such that if they take the given value will always lead to the same decision. This explanation is useful, it shows that only some features were used in making the final decision. But it is narrow, it only shows that if the selected features take their given values the decision is unchanged. It's possible that some features may change values and still lead to the same decision. In this paper we formally define inflated explanations which is a set of features, and for each feature of set of values (always including the value of the instance being explained), such that the decision will remain unchanged. Inflated explanations are more informative than abductive explanations since e.g they allow us to see if the exact value of a feature is important, or it could be any nearby value. Overall they allow us to better understand the role of each feature in the decision. We show that we can compute inflated explanations for not that much greater cost than abductive explanations, and that we can extend duality results for abductive explanations also to inflated explanations.

3.Planning Landmark Based Goal Recognition Revisited: Does Using Initial State Landmarks Make Sense?

Authors:Nils Wilken, Lea Cohausz, Christian Bartelt, Heiner Stuckenschmidt

Abstract: Goal recognition is an important problem in many application domains (e.g., pervasive computing, intrusion detection, computer games, etc.). In many application scenarios, it is important that goal recognition algorithms can recognize goals of an observed agent as fast as possible. However, many early approaches in the area of Plan Recognition As Planning, require quite large amounts of computation time to calculate a solution. Mainly to address this issue, recently, Pereira et al. developed an approach that is based on planning landmarks and is much more computationally efficient than previous approaches. However, the approach, as proposed by Pereira et al., also uses trivial landmarks (i.e., facts that are part of the initial state and goal description are landmarks by definition). In this paper, we show that it does not provide any benefit to use landmarks that are part of the initial state in a planning landmark based goal recognition approach. The empirical results show that omitting initial state landmarks for goal recognition improves goal recognition performance.

4.Herb-Drug Interactions: A Holistic Decision Support System in Healthcare

Authors:Andreia Martins, Eva Maia, Isabel Praça

Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine are commonly used concomitantly with conventional medications leading to adverse drug reactions and even fatality in some cases. Furthermore, the vast possibility of herb-drug interactions prevents health professionals from remembering or manually searching them in a database. Decision support systems are a powerful tool that can be used to assist clinicians in making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in patient care. Therefore, an original and hybrid decision support system was designed to identify herb-drug interactions, applying artificial intelligence techniques to identify new possible interactions. Different machine learning models will be used to strengthen the typical rules engine used in these cases. Thus, using the proposed system, the pharmacy community, people's first line of contact within the Healthcare System, will be able to make better and more accurate therapeutic decisions and mitigate possible adverse events.

5.Cooperation or Competition: Avoiding Player Domination for Multi-Target Robustness via Adaptive Budgets

Authors:Yimu Wang, Dinghuai Zhang, Yihan Wu, Heng Huang, Hongyang Zhang

Abstract: Despite incredible advances, deep learning has been shown to be susceptible to adversarial attacks. Numerous approaches have been proposed to train robust networks both empirically and certifiably. However, most of them defend against only a single type of attack, while recent work takes steps forward in defending against multiple attacks. In this paper, to understand multi-target robustness, we view this problem as a bargaining game in which different players (adversaries) negotiate to reach an agreement on a joint direction of parameter updating. We identify a phenomenon named player domination in the bargaining game, namely that the existing max-based approaches, such as MAX and MSD, do not converge. Based on our theoretical analysis, we design a novel framework that adjusts the budgets of different adversaries to avoid any player dominance. Experiments on standard benchmarks show that employing the proposed framework to the existing approaches significantly advances multi-target robustness.

6.Precursor-of-Anomaly Detection for Irregular Time Series

Authors:Sheo Yon Jhin, Jaehoon Lee, Noseong Park

Abstract: Anomaly detection is an important field that aims to identify unexpected patterns or data points, and it is closely related to many real-world problems, particularly to applications in finance, manufacturing, cyber security, and so on. While anomaly detection has been studied extensively in various fields, detecting future anomalies before they occur remains an unexplored territory. In this paper, we present a novel type of anomaly detection, called \emph{\textbf{P}recursor-of-\textbf{A}nomaly} (PoA) detection. Unlike conventional anomaly detection, which focuses on determining whether a given time series observation is an anomaly or not, PoA detection aims to detect future anomalies before they happen. To solve both problems at the same time, we present a neural controlled differential equation-based neural network and its multi-task learning algorithm. We conduct experiments using 17 baselines and 3 datasets, including regular and irregular time series, and demonstrate that our presented method outperforms the baselines in almost all cases. Our ablation studies also indicate that the multitasking training method significantly enhances the overall performance for both anomaly and PoA detection.

7.A novel structured argumentation framework for improved explainability of classification tasks

Authors:Lucas Rizzo, Luca Longo

Abstract: This paper presents a novel framework for structured argumentation, named extend argumentative decision graph ($xADG$). It is an extension of argumentative decision graphs built upon Dung's abstract argumentation graphs. The $xADG$ framework allows for arguments to use boolean logic operators and multiple premises (supports) within their internal structure, resulting in more concise argumentation graphs that may be easier for users to understand. The study presents a methodology for construction of $xADGs$ and evaluates their size and predictive capacity for classification tasks of varying magnitudes. Resulting $xADGs$ achieved strong (balanced) accuracy, which was accomplished through an input decision tree, while also reducing the average number of supports needed to reach a conclusion. The results further indicated that it is possible to construct plausibly understandable $xADGs$ that outperform other techniques for building $ADGs$ in terms of predictive capacity and overall size. In summary, the study suggests that $xADG$ represents a promising framework to developing more concise argumentative models that can be used for classification tasks and knowledge discovery, acquisition, and refinement.

8.ShuttleSet22: Benchmarking Stroke Forecasting with Stroke-Level Badminton Dataset

Authors:Wei-Yao Wang, Wei-Wei Du, Wen-Chih Peng

Abstract: In recent years, badminton analytics has drawn attention due to the advancement of artificial intelligence and the efficiency of data collection. While there is a line of effective applications to improve and investigate player performance, there are only a few public badminton datasets that can be used for researchers outside the badminton domain. Existing badminton singles datasets focus on specific matchups; however, they cannot provide comprehensive studies on different players and various matchups. In this paper, we provide a badminton singles dataset, ShuttleSet22, which is collected from high-ranking matches in 2022. ShuttleSet22 consists of 30,172 strokes in 2,888 rallies in the training set, 1,400 strokes in 450 rallies in the validation set, and 2,040 strokes in 654 rallies in the testing set with detailed stroke-level metadata within a rally. To benchmark existing work with ShuttleSet22, we test the state-of-the-art stroke forecasting approach, ShuttleNet, with the corresponding stroke forecasting task, i.e., predict the future strokes based on the given strokes of each rally. We also hold a challenge, Track 2: Forecasting Future Turn-Based Strokes in Badminton Rallies, at CoachAI Badminton Challenge 2023 to boost researchers to tackle this problem. The baseline codes and the dataset will be made available on\%202\%3A\%20Stroke\%20Forecasting.

1.A Preference-aware Meta-optimization Framework for Personalized Vehicle Energy Consumption Estimation

Authors:Siqi Lai The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Weijia Zhang The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hao Liu The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Abstract: Vehicle Energy Consumption (VEC) estimation aims to predict the total energy required for a given trip before it starts, which is of great importance to trip planning and transportation sustainability. Existing approaches mainly focus on extracting statistically significant factors from typical trips to improve the VEC estimation. However, the energy consumption of each vehicle may diverge widely due to the personalized driving behavior under varying travel contexts. To this end, this paper proposes a preference-aware meta-optimization framework Meta-Pec for personalized vehicle energy consumption estimation. Specifically, we first propose a spatiotemporal behavior learning module to capture the latent driver preference hidden in historical trips. Moreover, based on the memorization of driver preference, we devise a selection-based driving behavior prediction module to infer driver-specific driving patterns on a given route, which provides additional basis and supervision signals for VEC estimation. Besides, a driver-specific meta-optimization scheme is proposed to enable fast model adaption by learning and sharing transferable knowledge globally. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets show the superiority of our proposed framework against ten numerical and data-driven machine learning baselines. The source code is available at

2.Medical Federated Model with Mixture of Personalized and Sharing Components

Authors:Yawei Zhao, Qinghe Liu, Xinwang Liu, Kunlun He

Abstract: Although data-driven methods usually have noticeable performance on disease diagnosis and treatment, they are suspected of leakage of privacy due to collecting data for model training. Recently, federated learning provides a secure and trustable alternative to collaboratively train model without any exchange of medical data among multiple institutes. Therefore, it has draw much attention due to its natural merit on privacy protection. However, when heterogenous medical data exists between different hospitals, federated learning usually has to face with degradation of performance. In the paper, we propose a new personalized framework of federated learning to handle the problem. It successfully yields personalized models based on awareness of similarity between local data, and achieves better tradeoff between generalization and personalization than existing methods. After that, we further design a differentially sparse regularizer to improve communication efficiency during procedure of model training. Additionally, we propose an effective method to reduce the computational cost, which improves computation efficiency significantly. Furthermore, we collect 5 real medical datasets, including 2 public medical image datasets and 3 private multi-center clinical diagnosis datasets, and evaluate its performance by conducting nodule classification, tumor segmentation, and clinical risk prediction tasks. Comparing with 13 existing related methods, the proposed method successfully achieves the best model performance, and meanwhile up to 60% improvement of communication efficiency. Source code is public, and can be accessed at:

3.About the Cost of Global Privacy in Density Estimation

Authors:Clément Lalanne ENS de Lyon, OCKHAM, Aurélien Garivier UMPA-ENSL, MC2, Rémi Gribonval OCKHAM

Abstract: We study non-parametric density estimation for densities in Lipschitz and Sobolev spaces, and under global privacy. In particular, we investigate regimes where the privacy budget is not supposed to be constant. We consider the classical definition of global differential privacy, but also the more recent notion of global concentrated differential privacy. We recover the result of Barber \& Duchi (2014) stating that histogram estimators are optimal against Lipschitz distributions for the L2 risk, and under regular differential privacy, and we extend it to other norms and notions of privacy. Then, we investigate higher degrees of smoothness, drawing two conclusions: First, and contrary to what happens with constant privacy budget (Wasserman \& Zhou, 2010), there are regimes where imposing privacy degrades the regular minimax risk of estimation on Sobolev densities. Second, so-called projection estimators are near-optimal against the same classes of densities in this new setup with pure differential privacy, but contrary to the constant privacy budget case, it comes at the cost of relaxation. With zero concentrated differential privacy, there is no need for relaxation, and we prove that the estimation is optimal.

4.Neural State-Dependent Delay Differential Equations

Authors:Thibault Monsel DATAFLOT, TAU, Onofrio Semeraro DATAFLOT, Lionel Mathelin DATAFLOT, Guillaume Charpiat TAU

Abstract: Discontinuities and delayed terms are encountered in the governing equations of a large class of problems ranging from physics, engineering, medicine to economics. These systems are impossible to be properly modelled and simulated with standard Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE), or any data-driven approximation including Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (NODE). To circumvent this issue, latent variables are typically introduced to solve the dynamics of the system in a higher dimensional space and obtain the solution as a projection to the original space. However, this solution lacks physical interpretability. In contrast, Delay Differential Equations (DDEs) and their data-driven, approximated counterparts naturally appear as good candidates to characterize such complicated systems. In this work we revisit the recently proposed Neural DDE by introducing Neural State-Dependent DDE (SDDDE), a general and flexible framework featuring multiple and state-dependent delays. The developed framework is auto-differentiable and runs efficiently on multiple backends. We show that our method is competitive and outperforms other continuous-class models on a wide variety of delayed dynamical systems.

5.logLTN: Differentiable Fuzzy Logic in the Logarithm Space

Authors:Samy Badreddine, Luciano Serafini, Michael Spranger

Abstract: The AI community is increasingly focused on merging logic with deep learning to create Neuro-Symbolic (NeSy) paradigms and assist neural approaches with symbolic knowledge. A significant trend in the literature involves integrating axioms and facts in loss functions by grounding logical symbols with neural networks and operators with fuzzy semantics. Logic Tensor Networks (LTN) is one of the main representatives in this category, known for its simplicity, efficiency, and versatility. However, it has been previously shown that not all fuzzy operators perform equally when applied in a differentiable setting. Researchers have proposed several configurations of operators, trading off between effectiveness, numerical stability, and generalization to different formulas. This paper presents a configuration of fuzzy operators for grounding formulas end-to-end in the logarithm space. Our goal is to develop a configuration that is more effective than previous proposals, able to handle any formula, and numerically stable. To achieve this, we propose semantics that are best suited for the logarithm space and introduce novel simplifications and improvements that are crucial for optimization via gradient-descent. We use LTN as the framework for our experiments, but the conclusions of our work apply to any similar NeSy framework. Our findings, both formal and empirical, show that the proposed configuration outperforms the state-of-the-art and that each of our modifications is essential in achieving these results.

6.Creating user stereotypes for persona development from qualitative data through semi-automatic subspace clustering

Authors:Dannie Korsgaard, Thomas Bjorner, Pernille Krog Sorensen, Paolo Burelli

Abstract: Personas are models of users that incorporate motivations, wishes, and objectives; These models are employed in user-centred design to help design better user experiences and have recently been employed in adaptive systems to help tailor the personalized user experience. Designing with personas involves the production of descriptions of fictitious users, which are often based on data from real users. The majority of data-driven persona development performed today is based on qualitative data from a limited set of interviewees and transformed into personas using labour-intensive manual techniques. In this study, we propose a method that employs the modelling of user stereotypes to automate part of the persona creation process and addresses the drawbacks of the existing semi-automated methods for persona development. The description of the method is accompanied by an empirical comparison with a manual technique and a semi-automated alternative (multiple correspondence analysis). The results of the comparison show that manual techniques differ between human persona designers leading to different results. The proposed algorithm provides similar results based on parameter input, but was more rigorous and will find optimal clusters, while lowering the labour associated with finding the clusters in the dataset. The output of the method also represents the largest variances in the dataset identified by the multiple correspondence analysis.

7.Estimating player completion rate in mobile puzzle games using reinforcement learning

Authors:Jeppe Theiss Kristensen, Arturo Valdivia, Paolo Burelli

Abstract: In this work we investigate whether it is plausible to use the performance of a reinforcement learning (RL) agent to estimate the difficulty measured as the player completion rate of different levels in the mobile puzzle game Lily's Garden.For this purpose we train an RL agent and measure the number of moves required to complete a level. This is then compared to the level completion rate of a large sample of real players.We find that the strongest predictor of player completion rate for a level is the number of moves taken to complete a level of the ~5% best runs of the agent on a given level. A very interesting observation is that, while in absolute terms, the agent is unable to reach human-level performance across all levels, the differences in terms of behaviour between levels are highly correlated to the differences in human behaviour. Thus, despite performing sub-par, it is still possible to use the performance of the agent to estimate, and perhaps further model, player metrics.

8.PhD Thesis: Exploring the role of (self-)attention in cognitive and computer vision architecture

Authors:Mohit Vaishnav

Abstract: We investigate the role of attention and memory in complex reasoning tasks. We analyze Transformer-based self-attention as a model and extend it with memory. By studying a synthetic visual reasoning test, we refine the taxonomy of reasoning tasks. Incorporating self-attention with ResNet50, we enhance feature maps using feature-based and spatial attention, achieving efficient solving of challenging visual reasoning tasks. Our findings contribute to understanding the attentional needs of SVRT tasks. Additionally, we propose GAMR, a cognitive architecture combining attention and memory, inspired by active vision theory. GAMR outperforms other architectures in sample efficiency, robustness, and compositionality, and shows zero-shot generalization on new reasoning tasks.

9.Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning for Dynamic Avatar Migration in AIoT-enabled Vehicular Metaverses with Trajectory Prediction

Authors:Junlong Chen, Jiawen Kang, Minrui Xu, Zehui Xiong, Dusit Niyato, Chuan Chen, Abbas Jamalipour, Shengli Xie

Abstract: Avatars, as promising digital assistants in Vehicular Metaverses, can enable drivers and passengers to immerse in 3D virtual spaces, serving as a practical emerging example of Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) in intelligent vehicular environments. The immersive experience is achieved through seamless human-avatar interaction, e.g., augmented reality navigation, which requires intensive resources that are inefficient and impractical to process on intelligent vehicles locally. Fortunately, offloading avatar tasks to RoadSide Units (RSUs) or cloud servers for remote execution can effectively reduce resource consumption. However, the high mobility of vehicles, the dynamic workload of RSUs, and the heterogeneity of RSUs pose novel challenges to making avatar migration decisions. To address these challenges, in this paper, we propose a dynamic migration framework for avatar tasks based on real-time trajectory prediction and Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning (MADRL). Specifically, we propose a model to predict the future trajectories of intelligent vehicles based on their historical data, indicating the future workloads of RSUs.Based on the expected workloads of RSUs, we formulate the avatar task migration problem as a long-term mixed integer programming problem. To tackle this problem efficiently, the problem is transformed into a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and solved by multiple DRL agents with hybrid continuous and discrete actions in decentralized. Numerical results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the latency of executing avatar tasks by around 25% without prediction and 30% with prediction and enhance user immersive experiences in the AIoT-enabled Vehicular Metaverse (AeVeM).

10.DR-HAI: Argumentation-based Dialectical Reconciliation in Human-AI Interactions

Authors:Stylianos Loukas Vasileiou, Ashwin Kumar, William Yeoh, Tran Cao Son, Francesca Toni

Abstract: We introduce DR-HAI -- a novel argumentation-based framework designed to extend model reconciliation approaches, commonly used in explainable AI planning, for enhanced human-AI interaction. By adopting a multi-shot reconciliation paradigm and not assuming a-priori knowledge of the human user's model, DR-HAI enables interactive reconciliation to address knowledge discrepancies between an explainer and an explainee. We formally describe the operational semantics of DR-HAI, provide theoretical guarantees related to termination and success, and empirically evaluate its efficacy. Our findings suggest that DR-HAI offers a promising direction for fostering effective human-AI interactions.

11.FC-KBQA: A Fine-to-Coarse Composition Framework for Knowledge Base Question Answering

Authors:Lingxi Zhang, Jing Zhang, Yanling Wang, Shulin Cao, Xinmei Huang, Cuiping Li, Hong Chen, Juanzi Li

Abstract: The generalization problem on KBQA has drawn considerable attention. Existing research suffers from the generalization issue brought by the entanglement in the coarse-grained modeling of the logical expression, or inexecutability issues due to the fine-grained modeling of disconnected classes and relations in real KBs. We propose a Fine-to-Coarse Composition framework for KBQA (FC-KBQA) to both ensure the generalization ability and executability of the logical expression. The main idea of FC-KBQA is to extract relevant fine-grained knowledge components from KB and reformulate them into middle-grained knowledge pairs for generating the final logical expressions. FC-KBQA derives new state-of-the-art performance on GrailQA and WebQSP, and runs 4 times faster than the baseline.

12.Experiments with Detecting and Mitigating AI Deception

Authors:Ismail Sahbane, Francis Rhys Ward, C Henrik Åslund

Abstract: How to detect and mitigate deceptive AI systems is an open problem for the field of safe and trustworthy AI. We analyse two algorithms for mitigating deception: The first is based on the path-specific objectives framework where paths in the game that incentivise deception are removed. The second is based on shielding, i.e., monitoring for unsafe policies and replacing them with a safe reference policy. We construct two simple games and evaluate our algorithms empirically. We find that both methods ensure that our agent is not deceptive, however, shielding tends to achieve higher reward.

1.Adaptive Planning Search Algorithm for Analog Circuit Verification

Authors:Cristian Manolache, Cristina Andronache, Alexandru Caranica, Horia Cucu, Andi Buzo, Cristian Diaconu, Georg Pelz

Abstract: Integrated circuit verification has gathered considerable interest in recent times. Since these circuits keep growing in complexity year by year, pre-Silicon (pre-SI) verification becomes ever more important, in order to ensure proper functionality. Thus, in order to reduce the time needed for manually verifying ICs, we propose a machine learning (ML) approach, which uses less simulations. This method relies on an initial evaluation set of operating condition configurations (OCCs), in order to train Gaussian process (GP) surrogate models. By using surrogate models, we can propose further, more difficult OCCs. Repeating this procedure for several iterations has shown better GP estimation of the circuit's responses, on both synthetic and real circuits, resulting in a better chance of finding the worst case, or even failures, for certain circuit responses. Thus, we show that the proposed approach is able to provide OCCs closer to the specifications for all circuits and identify a failure (specification violation) for one of the responses of a real circuit.

2.Inferring Hierarchical Structure in Multi-Room Maze Environments

Authors:Daria de Tinguy, Toon Van de Maele, Tim Verbelen, Bart Dhoedt

Abstract: Cognitive maps play a crucial role in facilitating flexible behaviour by representing spatial and conceptual relationships within an environment. The ability to learn and infer the underlying structure of the environment is crucial for effective exploration and navigation. This paper introduces a hierarchical active inference model addressing the challenge of inferring structure in the world from pixel-based observations. We propose a three-layer hierarchical model consisting of a cognitive map, an allocentric, and an egocentric world model, combining curiosity-driven exploration with goal-oriented behaviour at the different levels of reasoning from context to place to motion. This allows for efficient exploration and goal-directed search in room-structured mini-grid environments.

3.Thoughts on Architecture

Authors:Paul S. Rosenbloom

Abstract: The term architecture has evolved considerably from its original Greek roots and its application to buildings and computers to its more recent manifestation for minds. This article considers lessons from this history, in terms of a set of relevant distinctions introduced at each of these stages and a definition of architecture that spans all three, and a reconsideration of three key issues from cognitive architectures for architectures in general and cognitive architectures more particularly.

1.Don't Treat the Symptom, Find the Cause! Efficient Artificial-Intelligence Methods for (Interactive) Debugging

Authors:Patrick Rodler

Abstract: In the modern world, we are permanently using, leveraging, interacting with, and relying upon systems of ever higher sophistication, ranging from our cars, recommender systems in e-commerce, and networks when we go online, to integrated circuits when using our PCs and smartphones, the power grid to ensure our energy supply, security-critical software when accessing our bank accounts, and spreadsheets for financial planning and decision making. The complexity of these systems coupled with our high dependency on them implies both a non-negligible likelihood of system failures, and a high potential that such failures have significant negative effects on our everyday life. For that reason, it is a vital requirement to keep the harm of emerging failures to a minimum, which means minimizing the system downtime as well as the cost of system repair. This is where model-based diagnosis comes into play. Model-based diagnosis is a principled, domain-independent approach that can be generally applied to troubleshoot systems of a wide variety of types, including all the ones mentioned above, and many more. It exploits and orchestrates i.a. techniques for knowledge representation, automated reasoning, heuristic problem solving, intelligent search, optimization, stochastics, statistics, decision making under uncertainty, machine learning, as well as calculus, combinatorics and set theory to detect, localize, and fix faults in abnormally behaving systems. In this thesis, we will give an introduction to the topic of model-based diagnosis, point out the major challenges in the field, and discuss a selection of approaches from our research addressing these issues.

2.Transferable Curricula through Difficulty Conditioned Generators

Authors:Sidney Tio, Pradeep Varakantham

Abstract: Advancements in reinforcement learning (RL) have demonstrated superhuman performance in complex tasks such as Starcraft, Go, Chess etc. However, knowledge transfer from Artificial "Experts" to humans remain a significant challenge. A promising avenue for such transfer would be the use of curricula. Recent methods in curricula generation focuses on training RL agents efficiently, yet such methods rely on surrogate measures to track student progress, and are not suited for training robots in the real world (or more ambitiously humans). In this paper, we introduce a method named Parameterized Environment Response Model (PERM) that shows promising results in training RL agents in parameterized environments. Inspired by Item Response Theory, PERM seeks to model difficulty of environments and ability of RL agents directly. Given that RL agents and humans are trained more efficiently under the "zone of proximal development", our method generates a curriculum by matching the difficulty of an environment to the current ability of the student. In addition, PERM can be trained offline and does not employ non-stationary measures of student ability, making it suitable for transfer between students. We demonstrate PERM's ability to represent the environment parameter space, and training with RL agents with PERM produces a strong performance in deterministic environments. Lastly, we show that our method is transferable between students, without any sacrifice in training quality.

1.Deep Learning Accelerator in Loop Reliability Evaluation for Autonomous Driving

Authors:Haitong Huang, Cheng Liu

Abstract: The reliability of deep learning accelerators (DLAs) used in autonomous driving systems has significant impact on the system safety. However, the DLA reliability is usually evaluated with low-level metrics like mean square errors of the output which remains rather different from the high-level metrics like total distance traveled before failure in autonomous driving. As a result, the high-level reliability metrics evaluated at the post-silicon stage may still lead to DLA design revision and result in expensive reliable DLA design iterations targeting at autonomous driving. To address the problem, we proposed a DLA-in-loop reliability evaluation platform to enable system reliability evaluation at the early DLA design stage.

2.PyRCA: A Library for Metric-based Root Cause Analysis

Authors:Chenghao Liu, Wenzhuo Yang, Himanshu Mittal, Manpreet Singh, Doyen Sahoo, Steven C. H. Hoi

Abstract: We introduce PyRCA, an open-source Python machine learning library of Root Cause Analysis (RCA) for Artificial Intelligence for IT Operations (AIOps). It provides a holistic framework to uncover the complicated metric causal dependencies and automatically locate root causes of incidents. It offers a unified interface for multiple commonly used RCA models, encompassing both graph construction and scoring tasks. This library aims to provide IT operations staff, data scientists, and researchers a one-step solution to rapid model development, model evaluation and deployment to online applications. In particular, our library includes various causal discovery methods to support causal graph construction, and multiple types of root cause scoring methods inspired by Bayesian analysis, graph analysis and causal analysis, etc. Our GUI dashboard offers practitioners an intuitive point-and-click interface, empowering them to easily inject expert knowledge through human interaction. With the ability to visualize causal graphs and the root cause of incidents, practitioners can quickly gain insights and improve their workflow efficiency. This technical report introduces PyRCA's architecture and major functionalities, while also presenting benchmark performance numbers in comparison to various baseline models. Additionally, we demonstrate PyRCA's capabilities through several example use cases.

3.Towards Theory-based Moral AI: Moral AI with Aggregating Models Based on Normative Ethical Theory

Authors:Masashi Takeshita, Rzepka Rafal, Kenji Araki

Abstract: Moral AI has been studied in the fields of philosophy and artificial intelligence. Although most existing studies are only theoretical, recent developments in AI have made it increasingly necessary to implement AI with morality. On the other hand, humans are under the moral uncertainty of not knowing what is morally right. In this paper, we implement the Maximizing Expected Choiceworthiness (MEC) algorithm, which aggregates outputs of models based on three normative theories of normative ethics to generate the most appropriate output. MEC is a method for making appropriate moral judgments under moral uncertainty. Our experimental results suggest that the output of MEC correlates to some extent with commonsense morality and that MEC can produce equally or more appropriate output than existing methods.

4.Plausibility-Based Heuristics for Latent Space Classical Planning

Authors:Yuta Takata, Alex Fukunaga

Abstract: Recent work on LatPlan has shown that it is possible to learn models for domain-independent classical planners from unlabeled image data. Although PDDL models acquired by LatPlan can be solved using standard PDDL planners, the resulting latent-space plan may be invalid with respect to the underlying, ground-truth domain (e.g., the latent-space plan may include hallucinatory/invalid states). We propose Plausibility-Based Heuristics, which are domain-independent plausibility metrics which can be computed for each state evaluated during search and uses as a heuristic function for best-first search. We show that PBH significantly increases the number of valid found plans on image-based tile puzzle and Towers of Hanoi domains.

5.UUKG: Unified Urban Knowledge Graph Dataset for Urban Spatiotemporal Prediction

Authors:Yansong Ning, Hao Liu, Hao Wang, Zhenyu Zeng, Hui Xiong

Abstract: Accurate Urban SpatioTemporal Prediction (USTP) is of great importance to the development and operation of the smart city. As an emerging building block, multi-sourced urban data are usually integrated as urban knowledge graphs (UrbanKGs) to provide critical knowledge for urban spatiotemporal prediction models. However, existing UrbanKGs are often tailored for specific downstream prediction tasks and are not publicly available, which limits the potential advancement. This paper presents UUKG, the unified urban knowledge graph dataset for knowledge-enhanced urban spatiotemporal predictions. Specifically, we first construct UrbanKGs consisting of millions of triplets for two metropolises by connecting heterogeneous urban entities such as administrative boroughs, POIs, and road segments. Moreover, we conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis on constructed UrbanKGs and uncover diverse high-order structural patterns, such as hierarchies and cycles, that can be leveraged to benefit downstream USTP tasks. To validate and facilitate the use of UrbanKGs, we implement and evaluate 15 KG embedding methods on the KG completion task and integrate the learned KG embeddings into 9 spatiotemporal models for five different USTP tasks. The extensive experimental results not only provide benchmarks of knowledge-enhanced USTP models under different task settings but also highlight the potential of state-of-the-art high-order structure-aware UrbanKG embedding methods. We hope the proposed UUKG fosters research on urban knowledge graphs and broad smart city applications. The dataset and source code are available at

6.A Graphical Modeling Language for Artificial Intelligence Applications in Automation Systems

Authors:Marvin Schieseck, Philip Topalis, Alexander Fay

Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in automation systems are usually distributed systems whose development and integration involve several experts. Each expert uses its own domain-specific modeling language and tools to model the system elements. An interdisciplinary graphical modeling language that enables the modeling of an AI application as an overall system comprehensible to all disciplines does not yet exist. As a result, there is often a lack of interdisciplinary system understanding, leading to increased development, integration, and maintenance efforts. This paper therefore presents a graphical modeling language that enables consistent and understandable modeling of AI applications in automation systems at system level. This makes it possible to subdivide individual subareas into domain specific subsystems and thus reduce the existing efforts.

7.Discovering Causality for Efficient Cooperation in Multi-Agent Environments

Authors:Rafael Pina, Varuna De Silva, Corentin Artaud

Abstract: In cooperative Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) agents are required to learn behaviours as a team to achieve a common goal. However, while learning a task, some agents may end up learning sub-optimal policies, not contributing to the objective of the team. Such agents are called lazy agents due to their non-cooperative behaviours that may arise from failing to understand whether they caused the rewards. As a consequence, we observe that the emergence of cooperative behaviours is not necessarily a byproduct of being able to solve a task as a team. In this paper, we investigate the applications of causality in MARL and how it can be applied in MARL to penalise these lazy agents. We observe that causality estimations can be used to improve the credit assignment to the agents and show how it can be leveraged to improve independent learning in MARL. Furthermore, we investigate how Amortized Causal Discovery can be used to automate causality detection within MARL environments. The results demonstrate that causality relations between individual observations and the team reward can be used to detect and punish lazy agents, making them develop more intelligent behaviours. This results in improvements not only in the overall performances of the team but also in their individual capabilities. In addition, results show that Amortized Causal Discovery can be used efficiently to find causal relations in MARL.

1.Data-Driven Model Discrimination of Switched Nonlinear Systems with Temporal Logic Inference

Authors:Zeyuan Jin, Nasim Baharisangari, Zhe Xu, Sze Zheng Yong

Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of data-driven model discrimination for unknown switched systems with unknown linear temporal logic (LTL) specifications, representing tasks, that govern their mode sequences, where only sampled data of the unknown dynamics and tasks are available. To tackle this problem, we propose data-driven methods to over-approximate the unknown dynamics and to infer the unknown specifications such that both set-membership models of the unknown dynamics and LTL formulas are guaranteed to include the ground truth model and specification/task. Moreover, we present an optimization-based algorithm for analyzing the distinguishability of a set of learned/inferred model-task pairs as well as a model discrimination algorithm for ruling out model-task pairs from this set that are inconsistent with new observations at run time. Further, we present an approach for reducing the size of inferred specifications to increase the computational efficiency of the model discrimination algorithms.

1.A Graphical Formalism for Commonsense Reasoning with Recipes

Authors:Antonis Bikakis, Aissatou Diallo, Luke Dickens, Anthony Hunter, Rob Miller

Abstract: Whilst cooking is a very important human activity, there has been little consideration given to how we can formalize recipes for use in a reasoning framework. We address this need by proposing a graphical formalization that captures the comestibles (ingredients, intermediate food items, and final products), and the actions on comestibles in the form of a labelled bipartite graph. We then propose formal definitions for comparing recipes, for composing recipes from subrecipes, and for deconstructing recipes into subrecipes. We also introduce and compare two formal definitions for substitution into recipes which are required when there are missing ingredients, or some actions are not possible, or because there is a need to change the final product somehow.

2.Behavioral Cloning via Search in Embedded Demonstration Dataset

Authors:Federico Malato, Florian Leopold, Ville Hautamaki, Andrew Melnik

Abstract: Behavioural cloning uses a dataset of demonstrations to learn a behavioural policy. To overcome various learning and policy adaptation problems, we propose to use latent space to index a demonstration dataset, instantly access similar relevant experiences, and copy behavior from these situations. Actions from a selected similar situation can be performed by the agent until representations of the agent's current situation and the selected experience diverge in the latent space. Thus, we formulate our control problem as a search problem over a dataset of experts' demonstrations. We test our approach on BASALT MineRL-dataset in the latent representation of a Video PreTraining model. We compare our model to state-of-the-art Minecraft agents. Our approach can effectively recover meaningful demonstrations and show human-like behavior of an agent in the Minecraft environment in a wide variety of scenarios. Experimental results reveal that performance of our search-based approach is comparable to trained models, while allowing zero-shot task adaptation by changing the demonstration examples.

3.Exploiting Uncertainty for Querying Inconsistent Description Logics Knowledge Bases

Authors:Riccardo Zese, Evelina Lamma, Fabrizio Riguzzi

Abstract: The necessity to manage inconsistency in Description Logics Knowledge Bases (KBs) has come to the fore with the increasing importance gained by the Semantic Web, where information comes from different sources that constantly change their content and may contain contradictory descriptions when considered either alone or together. Classical reasoning algorithms do not handle inconsistent KBs, forcing the debugging of the KB in order to remove the inconsistency. In this paper, we exploit an existing probabilistic semantics called DISPONTE to overcome this problem and allow queries also in case of inconsistent KBs. We implemented our approach in the reasoners TRILL and BUNDLE and empirically tested the validity of our proposal. Moreover, we formally compare the presented approach to that of the repair semantics, one of the most established semantics when considering DL reasoning tasks.

4.Who Needs to Know? Minimal Knowledge for Optimal Coordination

Authors:Niklas Lauffer, Ameesh Shah, Micah Carroll, Michael Dennis, Stuart Russell

Abstract: To optimally coordinate with others in cooperative games, it is often crucial to have information about one's collaborators: successful driving requires understanding which side of the road to drive on. However, not every feature of collaborators is strategically relevant: the fine-grained acceleration of drivers may be ignored while maintaining optimal coordination. We show that there is a well-defined dichotomy between strategically relevant and irrelevant information. Moreover, we show that, in dynamic games, this dichotomy has a compact representation that can be efficiently computed via a Bellman backup operator. We apply this algorithm to analyze the strategically relevant information for tasks in both a standard and a partially observable version of the Overcooked environment. Theoretical and empirical results show that our algorithms are significantly more efficient than baselines. Videos are available at

1.A Versatile Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning Benchmark for Inventory Management

Authors:Xianliang Yang, Zhihao Liu, Wei Jiang, Chuheng Zhang, Li Zhao, Lei Song, Jiang Bian

Abstract: Multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) models multiple agents that interact and learn within a shared environment. This paradigm is applicable to various industrial scenarios such as autonomous driving, quantitative trading, and inventory management. However, applying MARL to these real-world scenarios is impeded by many challenges such as scaling up, complex agent interactions, and non-stationary dynamics. To incentivize the research of MARL on these challenges, we develop MABIM (Multi-Agent Benchmark for Inventory Management) which is a multi-echelon, multi-commodity inventory management simulator that can generate versatile tasks with these different challenging properties. Based on MABIM, we evaluate the performance of classic operations research (OR) methods and popular MARL algorithms on these challenging tasks to highlight their weaknesses and potential.

2.Exploiting Configurations of MaxSAT Solvers

Authors:Josep Alòs, Carlos Ansótegui, Josep M. Salvia, Eduard Torres

Abstract: In this paper, we describe how we can effectively exploit alternative parameter configurations to a MaxSAT solver. We describe how these configurations can be computed in the context of MaxSAT. In particular, we experimentally show how to easily combine configurations of a non-competitive solver to obtain a better solving approach.

3.For Better or Worse: The Impact of Counterfactual Explanations' Directionality on User Behavior in xAI

Authors:Ulrike Kuhl, André Artelt, Barbara Hammer

Abstract: Counterfactual explanations (CFEs) are a popular approach in explainable artificial intelligence (xAI), highlighting changes to input data necessary for altering a model's output. A CFE can either describe a scenario that is better than the factual state (upward CFE), or a scenario that is worse than the factual state (downward CFE). However, potential benefits and drawbacks of the directionality of CFEs for user behavior in xAI remain unclear. The current user study (N=161) compares the impact of CFE directionality on behavior and experience of participants tasked to extract new knowledge from an automated system based on model predictions and CFEs. Results suggest that upward CFEs provide a significant performance advantage over other forms of counterfactual feedback. Moreover, the study highlights potential benefits of mixed CFEs improving user performance compared to downward CFEs or no explanations. In line with the performance results, users' explicit knowledge of the system is statistically higher after receiving upward CFEs compared to downward comparisons. These findings imply that the alignment between explanation and task at hand, the so-called regulatory fit, may play a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of model explanations, informing future research directions in xAI. To ensure reproducible research, the entire code, underlying models and user data of this study is openly available:

4.On Guiding Search in HTN Temporal Planning with non Temporal Heuristics

Authors:Nicolas Cavrel, Damien Pellier, Humbert Fiorino

Abstract: The Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) formalism is used to express a wide variety of planning problems as task decompositions, and many techniques have been proposed to solve them. However, few works have been done on temporal HTN. This is partly due to the lack of a formal and consensual definition of what a temporal hierarchical planning problem is as well as the difficulty to develop heuristics in this context. In response to these inconveniences, we propose in this paper a new general POCL (Partial Order Causal Link) approach to represent and solve a temporal HTN problem by using existing heuristics developed to solve non temporal problems. We show experimentally that this approach is performant and can outperform the existing ones.

5.Temporalising Unique Characterisability and Learnability of Ontology-Mediated Queries

Authors:Jean Christoph Jung, Vladislav Ryzhikov, Frank Wolter, Michael Zakharyaschev

Abstract: Recently, the study of the unique characterisability and learnability of database queries by means of examples has been extended to ontology-mediated queries. Here, we study in how far the obtained results can be lifted to temporalised ontology-mediated queries. We provide a systematic introduction to the relevant approaches in the non-temporal case and then show general transfer results pinpointing under which conditions existing results can be lifted to temporalised queries.

6.An Interleaving Semantics of the Timed Concurrent Language for Argumentation to Model Debates and Dialogue Games

Authors:Stefano Bistarelli, Maria Chiara Meo, Carlo Taticchi

Abstract: Time is a crucial factor in modelling dynamic behaviours of intelligent agents: activities have a determined temporal duration in a real-world environment, and previous actions influence agents' behaviour. In this paper, we propose a language for modelling concurrent interaction between agents that also allows the specification of temporal intervals in which particular actions occur. Such a language exploits a timed version of Abstract Argumentation Frameworks to realise a shared memory used by the agents to communicate and reason on the acceptability of their beliefs with respect to a given time interval. An interleaving model on a single processor is used for basic computation steps, with maximum parallelism for time elapsing. Following this approach, only one of the enabled agents is executed at each moment. To demonstrate the capabilities of language, we also show how it can be used to model interactions such as debates and dialogue games taking place between intelligent agents. Lastly, we present an implementation of the language that can be accessed via a web interface. Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).

7.Towards Explainable TOPSIS: Visual Insights into the Effects of Weights and Aggregations on Rankings

Authors:Robert Susmaga, Izabela Szczech, Dariusz Brzezinski

Abstract: Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is extensively used across diverse industries to assess and rank alternatives. Among numerous MCDA methods developed to solve real-world ranking problems, TOPSIS remains one of the most popular choices in many application areas. TOPSIS calculates distances between the considered alternatives and two predefined ones, namely the ideal and the anti-ideal, and creates a ranking of the alternatives according to a chosen aggregation of these distances. However, the interpretation of the inner workings of TOPSIS is difficult, especially when the number of criteria is large. To this end, recent research has shown that TOPSIS aggregations can be expressed using the means (M) and standard deviations (SD) of alternatives, creating MSD-space, a tool for visualizing and explaining aggregations. Even though MSD-space is highly useful, it assumes equally important criteria, making it less applicable to real-world ranking problems. In this paper, we generalize the concept of MSD-space to weighted criteria by introducing the concept of WMSD-space defined by what is referred to as weight-scaled means and standard deviations. We demonstrate that TOPSIS and similar distance-based aggregation methods can be successfully illustrated in a plane and interpreted even when the criteria are weighted, regardless of their number. The proposed WMSD-space offers a practical method for explaining TOPSIS rankings in real-world decision problems.

8.Contextual Dictionary Lookup for Knowledge Graph Completion

Authors:Jining Wang, Delai Qiu, YouMing Liu, Yining Wang, Chuan Chen, Zibin Zheng, Yuren Zhou

Abstract: Knowledge graph completion (KGC) aims to solve the incompleteness of knowledge graphs (KGs) by predicting missing links from known triples, numbers of knowledge graph embedding (KGE) models have been proposed to perform KGC by learning embeddings. Nevertheless, most existing embedding models map each relation into a unique vector, overlooking the specific fine-grained semantics of them under different entities. Additionally, the few available fine-grained semantic models rely on clustering algorithms, resulting in limited performance and applicability due to the cumbersome two-stage training process. In this paper, we present a novel method utilizing contextual dictionary lookup, enabling conventional embedding models to learn fine-grained semantics of relations in an end-to-end manner. More specifically, we represent each relation using a dictionary that contains multiple latent semantics. The composition of a given entity and the dictionary's central semantics serves as the context for generating a lookup, thus determining the fine-grained semantics of the relation adaptively. The proposed loss function optimizes both the central and fine-grained semantics simultaneously to ensure their semantic consistency. Besides, we introduce two metrics to assess the validity and accuracy of the dictionary lookup operation. We extend several KGE models with the method, resulting in substantial performance improvements on widely-used benchmark datasets.

9.V-LoL: A Diagnostic Dataset for Visual Logical Learning

Authors:Lukas Helff, Wolfgang Stammer, Hikaru Shindo, Devendra Singh Dhami, Kristian Kersting

Abstract: Despite the successes of recent developments in visual AI, different shortcomings still exist; from missing exact logical reasoning, to abstract generalization abilities, to understanding complex and noisy scenes. Unfortunately, existing benchmarks, were not designed to capture more than a few of these aspects. Whereas deep learning datasets focus on visually complex data but simple visual reasoning tasks, inductive logic datasets involve complex logical learning tasks, however, lack the visual component. To address this, we propose the visual logical learning dataset, V-LoL, that seamlessly combines visual and logical challenges. Notably, we introduce the first instantiation of V-LoL, V-LoL-Trains, -- a visual rendition of a classic benchmark in symbolic AI, the Michalski train problem. By incorporating intricate visual scenes and flexible logical reasoning tasks within a versatile framework, V-LoL-Trains provides a platform for investigating a wide range of visual logical learning challenges. We evaluate a variety of AI systems including traditional symbolic AI, neural AI, as well as neuro-symbolic AI. Our evaluations demonstrate that even state-of-the-art AI faces difficulties in dealing with visual logical learning challenges, highlighting unique advantages and limitations specific to each methodology. Overall, V-LoL opens up new avenues for understanding and enhancing current abilities in visual logical learning for AI systems.

10.DreamDecompiler: Improved Bayesian Program Learning by Decompiling Amortised Knowledge

Authors:Alessandro B. Palmarini, Christopher G. Lucas, N. Siddharth

Abstract: Solving program induction problems requires searching through an enormous space of possibilities. DreamCoder is an inductive program synthesis system that, whilst solving problems, learns to simplify search in an iterative wake-sleep procedure. The cost of search is amortised by training a neural search policy, reducing search breadth and effectively "compiling" useful information to compose program solutions across tasks. Additionally, a library of program components is learnt to express discovered solutions in fewer components, reducing search depth. In DreamCoder, the neural search policy has only an indirect effect on the library learnt through the program solutions it helps discover. We present an approach for library learning that directly leverages the neural search policy, effectively "decompiling" its amortised knowledge to extract relevant program components. This provides stronger amortised inference: the amortised knowledge learnt to reduce search breadth is now also used to reduce search depth. We integrate our approach with DreamCoder and demonstrate faster domain proficiency with improved generalisation on a range of domains, particularly when fewer example solutions are available.

11.Synapse: Leveraging Few-Shot Exemplars for Human-Level Computer Control

Authors:Longtao Zheng, Rundong Wang, Bo An

Abstract: This paper investigates the design of few-shot exemplars for computer automation through prompting large language models (LLMs). While previous prompting approaches focus on self-correction, we find that well-structured exemplars alone are sufficient for human-level performance. We present Synapse, an in-context computer control agent demonstrating human-level performance on the MiniWob++ benchmark. Synapse consists of three main components: 1) state-conditional decomposition, which divides demonstrations into exemplar sets based on the agent's need for new environment states, enabling temporal abstraction; 2) structured prompting, which filters states and reformulates task descriptions for each set to improve planning correctness; and 3) exemplar retrieval, which associates incoming tasks with corresponding exemplars in an exemplar database for multi-task adaptation and generalization. Synapse overcomes context length limits, reduces errors in multi-step control, and allows for more exemplars within the context. Importantly, Synapse complements existing prompting approaches that enhance LLMs' reasoning and planning abilities. Synapse outperforms previous methods, including behavioral cloning, reinforcement learning, finetuning, and prompting, with an average success rate of $98.5\%$ across 63 tasks in MiniWob++. Notably, Synapse relies on exemplars from only 47 tasks, demonstrating effective generalization to novel tasks. Our results highlight the potential of in-context learning to advance the integration of LLMs into practical tool automation.

1.TASRA: A Taxonomy and Analysis of Societal-Scale Risks from AI

Authors:Andrew Critch, Stuart Russell

Abstract: While several recent works have identified societal-scale and extinction-level risks to humanity arising from artificial intelligence, few have attempted an {\em exhaustive taxonomy} of such risks. Many exhaustive taxonomies are possible, and some are useful -- particularly if they reveal new risks or practical approaches to safety. This paper explores a taxonomy based on accountability: whose actions lead to the risk, are the actors unified, and are they deliberate? We also provide stories to illustrate how the various risk types could each play out, including risks arising from unanticipated interactions of many AI systems, as well as risks from deliberate misuse, for which combined technical and policy solutions are indicated.

2.Generating Language Corrections for Teaching Physical Control Tasks

Authors:Megha Srivastava, Noah Goodman, Dorsa Sadigh

Abstract: AI assistance continues to help advance applications in education, from language learning to intelligent tutoring systems, yet current methods for providing students feedback are still quite limited. Most automatic feedback systems either provide binary correctness feedback, which may not help a student understand how to improve, or require hand-coding feedback templates, which may not generalize to new domains. This can be particularly challenging for physical control tasks, where the rich diversity in student behavior and specialized domains make it challenging to leverage general-purpose assistive tools for providing feedback. We design and build CORGI, a model trained to generate language corrections for physical control tasks, such as learning to ride a bike. CORGI takes in as input a pair of student and expert trajectories, and then generates natural language corrections to help the student improve. We collect and train CORGI over data from three diverse physical control tasks (drawing, steering, and joint movement). Through both automatic and human evaluations, we show that CORGI can (i) generate valid feedback for novel student trajectories, (ii) outperform baselines on domains with novel control dynamics, and (iii) improve student learning in an interactive drawing task.

3.Argumentative Characterizations of (Extended) Disjunctive Logic Programs

Authors:Jesse Heyninck, Ofer Arieli

Abstract: This paper continues an established line of research about the relations between argumentation theory, particularly assumption-based argumentation, and different kinds of logic programs. In particular, we extend known result of Caminada, Schultz and Toni by showing that assumption-based argumentation can represent not only normal logic programs, but also disjunctive logic programs and their extensions. For this, we consider some inference rules for disjunction that the core logic of the argumentation frameworks should respect, and show the correspondence to the handling of disjunctions in the heads of the logic programs' rules.

1.Multimodal Explainable Artificial Intelligence: A Comprehensive Review of Methodological Advances and Future Research Directions

Authors:Nikolaos Rodis, Christos Sardianos, Georgios Th. Papadopoulos, Panagiotis Radoglou-Grammatikis, Panagiotis Sarigiannidis, Iraklis Varlamis

Abstract: The current study focuses on systematically analyzing the recent advances in the field of Multimodal eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (MXAI). In particular, the relevant primary prediction tasks and publicly available datasets are initially described. Subsequently, a structured presentation of the MXAI methods of the literature is provided, taking into account the following criteria: a) The number of the involved modalities, b) The stage at which explanations are produced, and c) The type of the adopted methodology (i.e. mathematical formalism). Then, the metrics used for MXAI evaluation are discussed. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of current challenges and future research directions is provided.

2.An End-to-End Reinforcement Learning Approach for Job-Shop Scheduling Problems Based on Constraint Programming

Authors:Pierre Tassel, Martin Gebser, Konstantin Schekotihin

Abstract: Constraint Programming (CP) is a declarative programming paradigm that allows for modeling and solving combinatorial optimization problems, such as the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP). While CP solvers manage to find optimal or near-optimal solutions for small instances, they do not scale well to large ones, i.e., they require long computation times or yield low-quality solutions. Therefore, real-world scheduling applications often resort to fast, handcrafted, priority-based dispatching heuristics to find a good initial solution and then refine it using optimization methods. This paper proposes a novel end-to-end approach to solving scheduling problems by means of CP and Reinforcement Learning (RL). In contrast to previous RL methods, tailored for a given problem by including procedural simulation algorithms, complex feature engineering, or handcrafted reward functions, our neural-network architecture and training algorithm merely require a generic CP encoding of some scheduling problem along with a set of small instances. Our approach leverages existing CP solvers to train an agent learning a Priority Dispatching Rule (PDR) that generalizes well to large instances, even from separate datasets. We evaluate our method on seven JSSP datasets from the literature, showing its ability to find higher-quality solutions for very large instances than obtained by static PDRs and by a CP solver within the same time limit.

3.Strategies to exploit XAI to improve classification systems

Authors:Andrea Apicella, Luca Di Lorenzo, Francesco Isgrò, Andrea Pollastro, Roberto Prevete

Abstract: Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) aims to provide insights into the decision-making process of AI models, allowing users to understand their results beyond their decisions. A significant goal of XAI is to improve the performance of AI models by providing explanations for their decision-making processes. However, most XAI literature focuses on how to explain an AI system, while less attention has been given to how XAI methods can be exploited to improve an AI system. In this work, a set of well-known XAI methods typically used with Machine Learning (ML) classification tasks are investigated to verify if they can be exploited, not just to provide explanations but also to improve the performance of the model itself. To this aim, two strategies to use the explanation to improve a classification system are reported and empirically evaluated on three datasets: Fashion-MNIST, CIFAR10, and STL10. Results suggest that explanations built by Integrated Gradients highlight input features that can be effectively used to improve classification performance.

4.SNeL: A Structured Neuro-Symbolic Language for Entity-Based Multimodal Scene Understanding

Authors:Silvan Ferreira, Allan Martins, Ivanovitch Silva

Abstract: In the evolving landscape of artificial intelligence, multimodal and Neuro-Symbolic paradigms stand at the forefront, with a particular emphasis on the identification and interaction with entities and their relations across diverse modalities. Addressing the need for complex querying and interaction in this context, we introduce SNeL (Structured Neuro-symbolic Language), a versatile query language designed to facilitate nuanced interactions with neural networks processing multimodal data. SNeL's expressive interface enables the construction of intricate queries, supporting logical and arithmetic operators, comparators, nesting, and more. This allows users to target specific entities, specify their properties, and limit results, thereby efficiently extracting information from a scene. By aligning high-level symbolic reasoning with low-level neural processing, SNeL effectively bridges the Neuro-Symbolic divide. The language's versatility extends to a variety of data types, including images, audio, and text, making it a powerful tool for multimodal scene understanding. Our evaluations demonstrate SNeL's potential to reshape the way we interact with complex neural networks, underscoring its efficacy in driving targeted information extraction and facilitating a deeper understanding of the rich semantics encapsulated in multimodal AI models.

5.Combining a Meta-Policy and Monte-Carlo Planning for Scalable Type-Based Reasoning in Partially Observable Environments

Authors:Jonathon Schwartz, Hanna Kurniawati, Marcus Hutter

Abstract: The design of autonomous agents that can interact effectively with other agents without prior coordination is a core problem in multi-agent systems. Type-based reasoning methods achieve this by maintaining a belief over a set of potential behaviours for the other agents. However, current methods are limited in that they assume full observability of the state and actions of the other agent or do not scale efficiently to larger problems with longer planning horizons. Addressing these limitations, we propose Partially Observable Type-based Meta Monte-Carlo Planning (POTMMCP) - an online Monte-Carlo Tree Search based planning method for type-based reasoning in large partially observable environments. POTMMCP incorporates a novel meta-policy for guiding search and evaluating beliefs, allowing it to search more effectively to longer horizons using less planning time. We show that our method converges to the optimal solution in the limit and empirically demonstrate that it effectively adapts online to diverse sets of other agents across a range of environments. Comparisons with the state-of-the art method on problems with up to $10^{14}$ states and $10^8$ observations indicate that POTMMCP is able to compute better solutions significantly faster.

1.arXiv4TGC: Large-Scale Datasets for Temporal Graph Clustering

Authors:Meng Liu, Ke Liang, Yue Liu, Siwei Wang, Sihang Zhou, Xinwang Liu

Abstract: Temporal graph clustering (TGC) is a crucial task in temporal graph learning. Its focus is on node clustering on temporal graphs, and it offers greater flexibility for large-scale graph structures due to the mechanism of temporal graph methods. However, the development of TGC is currently constrained by a significant problem: the lack of suitable and reliable large-scale temporal graph datasets to evaluate clustering performance. In other words, most existing temporal graph datasets are in small sizes, and even large-scale datasets contain only a limited number of available node labels. It makes evaluating models for large-scale temporal graph clustering challenging. To address this challenge, we build arXiv4TGC, a set of novel academic datasets (including arXivAI, arXivCS, arXivMath, arXivPhy, and arXivLarge) for large-scale temporal graph clustering. In particular, the largest dataset, arXivLarge, contains 1.3 million labeled available nodes and 10 million temporal edges. We further compare the clustering performance with typical temporal graph learning models on both previous classic temporal graph datasets and the new datasets proposed in this paper. The clustering performance on arXiv4TGC can be more apparent for evaluating different models, resulting in higher clustering confidence and more suitable for large-scale temporal graph clustering. The arXiv4TGC datasets are publicly available at:

2.A Rapid Review of Responsible AI frameworks: How to guide the development of ethical AI

Authors:Vita Santa Barletta, Danilo Caivano, Domenico Gigante, Azzurra Ragone

Abstract: In the last years, the raise of Artificial Intelligence (AI), and its pervasiveness in our lives, has sparked a flourishing debate about the ethical principles that should lead its implementation and use in society. Driven by these concerns, we conduct a rapid review of several frameworks providing principles, guidelines, and/or tools to help practitioners in the development and deployment of Responsible AI (RAI) applications. We map each framework w.r.t. the different Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) phases discovering that most of these frameworks fall just in the Requirements Elicitation phase, leaving the other phases uncovered. Very few of these frameworks offer supporting tools for practitioners, and they are mainly provided by private companies. Our results reveal that there is not a "catching-all" framework supporting both technical and non-technical stakeholders in the implementation of real-world projects. Our findings highlight the lack of a comprehensive framework encompassing all RAI principles and all (SDLC) phases that could be navigated by users with different skill sets and with different goals.

3.Progression Cognition Reinforcement Learning with Prioritized Experience for Multi-Vehicle Pursuit

Authors:Xinhang Li, Yiying Yang, Zheng Yuan, Zhe Wang, Qinwen Wang, Chen Xu, Lei Li, Jianhua He, Lin Zhang

Abstract: Multi-vehicle pursuit (MVP) such as autonomous police vehicles pursuing suspects is important but very challenging due to its mission and safety critical nature. While multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) algorithms have been proposed for MVP problem in structured grid-pattern roads, the existing algorithms use randomly training samples in centralized learning, which leads to homogeneous agents showing low collaboration performance. For the more challenging problem of pursuing multiple evading vehicles, these algorithms typically select a fixed target evading vehicle for pursuing vehicles without considering dynamic traffic situation, which significantly reduces pursuing success rate. To address the above problems, this paper proposes a Progression Cognition Reinforcement Learning with Prioritized Experience for MVP (PEPCRL-MVP) in urban multi-intersection dynamic traffic scenes. PEPCRL-MVP uses a prioritization network to assess the transitions in the global experience replay buffer according to the parameters of each MARL agent. With the personalized and prioritized experience set selected via the prioritization network, diversity is introduced to the learning process of MARL, which can improve collaboration and task related performance. Furthermore, PEPCRL-MVP employs an attention module to extract critical features from complex urban traffic environments. These features are used to develop progression cognition method to adaptively group pursuing vehicles. Each group efficiently target one evading vehicle in dynamic driving environments. Extensive experiments conducted with a simulator over unstructured roads of an urban area show that PEPCRL-MVP is superior to other state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, PEPCRL-MVP improves pursuing efficiency by 3.95% over TD3-DMAP and its success rate is 34.78% higher than that of MADDPG. Codes are open sourced.

4.Causal Fairness for Outcome Control

Authors:Drago Plecko, Elias Bareinboim

Abstract: As society transitions towards an AI-based decision-making infrastructure, an ever-increasing number of decisions once under control of humans are now delegated to automated systems. Even though such developments make various parts of society more efficient, a large body of evidence suggests that a great deal of care needs to be taken to make such automated decision-making systems fair and equitable, namely, taking into account sensitive attributes such as gender, race, and religion. In this paper, we study a specific decision-making task called outcome control in which an automated system aims to optimize an outcome variable $Y$ while being fair and equitable. The interest in such a setting ranges from interventions related to criminal justice and welfare, all the way to clinical decision-making and public health. In this paper, we first analyze through causal lenses the notion of benefit, which captures how much a specific individual would benefit from a positive decision, counterfactually speaking, when contrasted with an alternative, negative one. We introduce the notion of benefit fairness, which can be seen as the minimal fairness requirement in decision-making, and develop an algorithm for satisfying it. We then note that the benefit itself may be influenced by the protected attribute, and propose causal tools which can be used to analyze this. Finally, if some of the variations of the protected attribute in the benefit are considered as discriminatory, the notion of benefit fairness may need to be strengthened, which leads us to articulating a notion of causal benefit fairness. Using this notion, we develop a new optimization procedure capable of maximizing $Y$ while ascertaining causal fairness in the decision process.

5.Capturing (Optimal) Relaxed Plans with Stable and Supported Models of Logic Programs

Authors:Masood Feyzbakhsh Rankooh, Tomi Janhunen

Abstract: We establish a novel relation between delete-free planning, an important task for the AI Planning community also known as relaxed planning, and logic programming. We show that given a planning problem, all subsets of actions that could be ordered to produce relaxed plans for the problem can be bijectively captured with stable models of a logic program describing the corresponding relaxed planning problem. We also consider the supported model semantics of logic programs, and introduce one causal and one diagnostic encoding of the relaxed planning problem as logic programs, both capturing relaxed plans with their supported models. Our experimental results show that these new encodings can provide major performance gain when computing optimal relaxed plans, with our diagnostic encoding outperforming state-of-the-art approaches to relaxed planning regardless of the given time limit when measured on a wide collection of STRIPS planning benchmarks.

6.The Importance of Time in Causal Algorithmic Recourse

Authors:Isacco Beretta, Martina Cinquini

Abstract: The application of Algorithmic Recourse in decision-making is a promising field that offers practical solutions to reverse unfavorable decisions. However, the inability of these methods to consider potential dependencies among variables poses a significant challenge due to the assumption of feature independence. Recent advancements have incorporated knowledge of causal dependencies, thereby enhancing the quality of the recommended recourse actions. Despite these improvements, the inability to incorporate the temporal dimension remains a significant limitation of these approaches. This is particularly problematic as identifying and addressing the root causes of undesired outcomes requires understanding time-dependent relationships between variables. In this work, we motivate the need to integrate the temporal dimension into causal algorithmic recourse methods to enhance recommendations' plausibility and reliability. The experimental evaluation highlights the significance of the role of time in this field.

7.FheFL: Fully Homomorphic Encryption Friendly Privacy-Preserving Federated Learning with Byzantine Users

Authors:Yogachandran Rahulamathavan, Charuka Herath, Xiaolan Liu, Sangarapillai Lambotharan, Carsten Maple

Abstract: The federated learning (FL) technique was initially developed to mitigate data privacy issues that can arise in the traditional machine learning paradigm. While FL ensures that a user's data always remain with the user, the gradients of the locally trained models must be communicated with the centralized server to build the global model. This results in privacy leakage, where the server can infer private information of the users' data from the shared gradients. To mitigate this flaw, the next-generation FL architectures proposed encryption and anonymization techniques to protect the model updates from the server. However, this approach creates other challenges, such as a malicious user might sabotage the global model by sharing false gradients. Since the gradients are encrypted, the server is unable to identify and eliminate rogue users which would protect the global model. Therefore, to mitigate both attacks, this paper proposes a novel fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) based scheme suitable for FL. We modify the one-to-one single-key Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (CKKS)-based FHE scheme into a distributed multi-key additive homomorphic encryption scheme that supports model aggregation in FL. We employ a novel aggregation scheme within the encrypted domain, utilizing users' non-poisoning rates, to effectively address data poisoning attacks while ensuring privacy is preserved by the proposed encryption scheme. Rigorous security, privacy, convergence, and experimental analyses have been provided to show that FheFL is novel, secure, and private, and achieves comparable accuracy at reasonable computational cost.

8.Explainable Predictive Maintenance

Authors:Sepideh Pashami, Slawomir Nowaczyk, Yuantao Fan, Jakub Jakubowski, Nuno Paiva, Narjes Davari, Szymon Bobek, Samaneh Jamshidi, Hamid Sarmadi, Abdallah Alabdallah, Rita P. Ribeiro, Bruno Veloso, Moamar Sayed-Mouchaweh, Lala Rajaoarisoa, Grzegorz J. Nalepa, João Gama

Abstract: Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) fills the role of a critical interface fostering interactions between sophisticated intelligent systems and diverse individuals, including data scientists, domain experts, end-users, and more. It aids in deciphering the intricate internal mechanisms of ``black box'' Machine Learning (ML), rendering the reasons behind their decisions more understandable. However, current research in XAI primarily focuses on two aspects; ways to facilitate user trust, or to debug and refine the ML model. The majority of it falls short of recognising the diverse types of explanations needed in broader contexts, as different users and varied application areas necessitate solutions tailored to their specific needs. One such domain is Predictive Maintenance (PdM), an exploding area of research under the Industry 4.0 \& 5.0 umbrella. This position paper highlights the gap between existing XAI methodologies and the specific requirements for explanations within industrial applications, particularly the Predictive Maintenance field. Despite explainability's crucial role, this subject remains a relatively under-explored area, making this paper a pioneering attempt to bring relevant challenges to the research community's attention. We provide an overview of predictive maintenance tasks and accentuate the need and varying purposes for corresponding explanations. We then list and describe XAI techniques commonly employed in the literature, discussing their suitability for PdM tasks. Finally, to make the ideas and claims more concrete, we demonstrate XAI applied in four specific industrial use cases: commercial vehicles, metro trains, steel plants, and wind farms, spotlighting areas requiring further research.

9.Gradient-Informed Quality Diversity for the Illumination of Discrete Spaces

Authors:Raphael Boige, Guillaume Richard, Jérémie Dona, Thomas Pierrot, Antoine Cully

Abstract: Quality Diversity (QD) algorithms have been proposed to search for a large collection of both diverse and high-performing solutions instead of a single set of local optima. While early QD algorithms view the objective and descriptor functions as black-box functions, novel tools have been introduced to use gradient information to accelerate the search and improve overall performance of those algorithms over continuous input spaces. However a broad range of applications involve discrete spaces, such as drug discovery or image generation. Exploring those spaces is challenging as they are combinatorially large and gradients cannot be used in the same manner as in continuous spaces. We introduce map-elites with a Gradient-Informed Discrete Emitter (ME-GIDE), which extends QD optimisation with differentiable functions over discrete search spaces. ME-GIDE leverages the gradient information of the objective and descriptor functions with respect to its discrete inputs to propose gradient-informed updates that guide the search towards a diverse set of high quality solutions. We evaluate our method on challenging benchmarks including protein design and discrete latent space illumination and find that our method outperforms state-of-the-art QD algorithms in all benchmarks.

10.Habits of Mind: Reusing Action Sequences for Efficient Planning

Authors:Noémi Éltető, Peter Dayan

Abstract: When we exercise sequences of actions, their execution becomes more fluent and precise. Here, we consider the possibility that exercised action sequences can also be used to make planning faster and more accurate by focusing expansion of the search tree on paths that have been frequently used in the past, and by reducing deep planning problems to shallow ones via multi-step jumps in the tree. To capture such sequences, we use a flexible Bayesian action chunking mechanism which finds and exploits statistically reliable structure at different scales. This gives rise to shorter or longer routines that can be embedded into a Monte-Carlo tree search planner. We show the benefits of this scheme using a physical construction task patterned after tangrams.

11.Actively learning a Bayesian matrix fusion model with deep side information

Authors:Yangyang Yu, Jordan W. Suchow

Abstract: High-dimensional deep neural network representations of images and concepts can be aligned to predict human annotations of diverse stimuli. However, such alignment requires the costly collection of behavioral responses, such that, in practice, the deep-feature spaces are only ever sparsely sampled. Here, we propose an active learning approach to adaptively sampling experimental stimuli to efficiently learn a Bayesian matrix factorization model with deep side information. We observe a significant efficiency gain over a passive baseline. Furthermore, with a sequential batched sampling strategy, the algorithm is applicable not only to small datasets collected from traditional laboratory experiments but also to settings where large-scale crowdsourced data collection is needed to accurately align the high-dimensional deep feature representations derived from pre-trained networks.

12.Negotiated Reasoning: On Provably Addressing Relative Over-Generalization

Authors:Junjie Sheng, Wenhao Li, Bo Jin, Hongyuan Zha, Jun Wang, Xiangfeng Wang

Abstract: Over-generalization is a thorny issue in cognitive science, where people may become overly cautious due to past experiences. Agents in multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) also have been found to suffer relative over-generalization (RO) as people do and stuck to sub-optimal cooperation. Recent methods have shown that assigning reasoning ability to agents can mitigate RO algorithmically and empirically, but there has been a lack of theoretical understanding of RO, let alone designing provably RO-free methods. This paper first proves that RO can be avoided when the MARL method satisfies a consistent reasoning requirement under certain conditions. Then we introduce a novel reasoning framework, called negotiated reasoning, that first builds the connection between reasoning and RO with theoretical justifications. After that, we propose an instantiated algorithm, Stein variational negotiated reasoning (SVNR), which uses Stein variational gradient descent to derive a negotiation policy that provably avoids RO in MARL under maximum entropy policy iteration. The method is further parameterized with neural networks for amortized learning, making computation efficient. Numerical experiments on many RO-challenged environments demonstrate the superiority and efficiency of SVNR compared to state-of-the-art methods in addressing RO.

1.A Unified One-Step Solution for Aspect Sentiment Quad Prediction

Authors:Junxian Zhou, Haiqin Yang, Yuxuan He, Hao Mou, Junbo Yang

Abstract: Aspect sentiment quad prediction (ASQP) is a challenging yet significant subtask in aspect-based sentiment analysis as it provides a complete aspect-level sentiment structure. However, existing ASQP datasets are usually small and low-density, hindering technical advancement. To expand the capacity, in this paper, we release two new datasets for ASQP, which contain the following characteristics: larger size, more words per sample, and higher density. With such datasets, we unveil the shortcomings of existing strong ASQP baselines and therefore propose a unified one-step solution for ASQP, namely One-ASQP, to detect the aspect categories and to identify the aspect-opinion-sentiment (AOS) triplets simultaneously. Our One-ASQP holds several unique advantages: (1) by separating ASQP into two subtasks and solving them independently and simultaneously, we can avoid error propagation in pipeline-based methods and overcome slow training and inference in generation-based methods; (2) by introducing sentiment-specific horns tagging schema in a token-pair-based two-dimensional matrix, we can exploit deeper interactions between sentiment elements and efficiently decode the AOS triplets; (3) we design ``[NULL]'' token can help us effectively identify the implicit aspects or opinions. Experiments on two benchmark datasets and our released two datasets demonstrate the advantages of our One-ASQP. The two new datasets are publicly released at \url{}.

2.MobileNMT: Enabling Translation in 15MB and 30ms

Authors:Ye Lin, Xiaohui Wang, Zhexi Zhang, Mingxuan Wang, Tong Xiao, Jingbo Zhu

Abstract: Deploying NMT models on mobile devices is essential for privacy, low latency, and offline scenarios. For high model capacity, NMT models are rather large. Running these models on devices is challenging with limited storage, memory, computation, and power consumption. Existing work either only focuses on a single metric such as FLOPs or general engine which is not good at auto-regressive decoding. In this paper, we present MobileNMT, a system that can translate in 15MB and 30ms on devices. We propose a series of principles for model compression when combined with quantization. Further, we implement an engine that is friendly to INT8 and decoding. With the co-design of model and engine, compared with the existing system, we speed up 47.0x and save 99.5% of memory with only 11.6% loss of BLEU. The code is publicly available at

3.Decentralized Technologies for AI Hubs

Authors:Richard Blythman, Mohamed Arshath, Salvatore Vivona, Jakub Smékal, Hithesh Shaji

Abstract: AI requires heavy amounts of storage and compute with assets that are commonly stored in AI Hubs. AI Hubs have contributed significantly to the democratization of AI. However, existing implementations are associated with certain benefits and limitations that stem from the underlying infrastructure and governance systems with which they are built. These limitations include high costs, lack of monetization and reward, lack of control and difficulty of reproducibility. In the current work, we explore the potential of decentralized technologies - such as Web3 wallets, peer-to-peer marketplaces, storage and compute, and DAOs - to address some of these issues. We suggest that these infrastructural components can be used in combination in the design and construction of decentralized AI Hubs.

4.Extension of the Blackboard Architecture with Common Properties and Generic Rules

Authors:Jonathan Rivard, Jeremy Straub

Abstract: The Blackboard Architecture provides a mechanism for embodying data, decision making and actuation. Its versatility has been demonstrated across a wide number of application areas. However, it lacks the capability to directly model organizational, spatial and other relationships which may be useful in decision-making, in addition to the propositional logic embodied in the rule-fact-action network. Previous work has proposed the use of container objects and links as a mechanism to simultaneously model these organizational and other relationships, while leaving the operational logic modeled in the rules, facts and actions. While containers facilitate this modeling, their utility is limited by the need to manually define them. For systems which may have multiple instances of a particular type of object and which may build their network autonomously, based on sensing, the reuse of logical structures facilitates operations and reduces storage and processing needs. This paper, thus, presents and assesses two additional concepts to add to the Blackboard Architecture: common properties and generic rules. Common properties are facts associated with containers which are defined as representing the same information across the various objects that they are associated with. Generic rules provide logical propositions that use these generic rules across links and apply to any objects matching their definition. The potential uses of these two new concepts are discussed herein and their impact on system performance is characterized.

5.Introduction and Assessment of the Addition of Links and Containers to the Blackboard Architecture

Authors:Jordan Milbrath, Jeremy Straub

Abstract: The Blackboard Architecture provides a mechanism for storing data and logic and using it to make decisions that impact the application environment that the Blackboard Architecture network models. While rule-fact-action networks can represent numerous types of data, the relationships that can be easily modeled are limited by the propositional logic nature of the rule-fact network structure. This paper proposes and evaluates the inclusion of containers and links in the Blackboard Architecture. These objects are designed to allow them to model organizational, physical, spatial and other relationships that cannot be readily or efficiently implemented as Boolean logic rules. Containers group related facts together and can be nested to implement complex relationships. Links interconnect containers that have a relationship that is relevant to their organizational purpose. Both objects, together, facilitate new ways of using the Blackboard Architecture and enable or simply its use for complex tasks that have multiple types of relationships that need to be considered during operations.

6.Dear XAI Community, We Need to Talk! Fundamental Misconceptions in Current XAI Research

Authors:Timo Freiesleben, Gunnar König

Abstract: Despite progress in the field, significant parts of current XAI research are still not on solid conceptual, ethical, or methodological grounds. Unfortunately, these unfounded parts are not on the decline but continue to grow. Many explanation techniques are still proposed without clarifying their purpose. Instead, they are advertised with ever more fancy-looking heatmaps or only seemingly relevant benchmarks. Moreover, explanation techniques are motivated with questionable goals, such as building trust, or rely on strong assumptions about the 'concepts' that deep learning algorithms learn. In this paper, we highlight and discuss these and other misconceptions in current XAI research. We also suggest steps to make XAI a more substantive area of research.

7.Personality testing of GPT-3: Limited temporal reliability, but highlighted social desirability of GPT-3's personality instruments results

Authors:Bojana Bodroza Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, Bojana M. Dinic Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, Ljubisa Bojic Digital Society Lab, Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory, University of Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: To assess the potential applications and limitations of chatbot GPT-3 Davinci-003, this study explored the temporal reliability of personality questionnaires applied to the chatbot and its personality profile. Psychological questionnaires were administered to the chatbot on two separate occasions, followed by a comparison of the responses to human normative data. The findings revealed varying levels of agreement in the chatbot's responses over time, with some scales displaying excellent while others demonstrated poor agreement. Overall, Davinci-003 displayed a socially desirable and pro-social personality profile, particularly in the domain of communion. However, the underlying basis of the chatbot's responses, whether driven by conscious self-reflection or predetermined algorithms, remains uncertain.

8.Generative Semantic Communication: Diffusion Models Beyond Bit Recovery

Authors:Eleonora Grassucci, Sergio Barbarossa, Danilo Comminiello

Abstract: Semantic communication is expected to be one of the cores of next-generation AI-based communications. One of the possibilities offered by semantic communication is the capability to regenerate, at the destination side, images or videos semantically equivalent to the transmitted ones, without necessarily recovering the transmitted sequence of bits. The current solutions still lack the ability to build complex scenes from the received partial information. Clearly, there is an unmet need to balance the effectiveness of generation methods and the complexity of the transmitted information, possibly taking into account the goal of communication. In this paper, we aim to bridge this gap by proposing a novel generative diffusion-guided framework for semantic communication that leverages the strong abilities of diffusion models in synthesizing multimedia content while preserving semantic features. We reduce bandwidth usage by sending highly-compressed semantic information only. Then, the diffusion model learns to synthesize semantic-consistent scenes through spatially-adaptive normalizations from such denoised semantic information. We prove, through an in-depth assessment of multiple scenarios, that our method outperforms existing solutions in generating high-quality images with preserved semantic information even in cases where the received content is significantly degraded. More specifically, our results show that objects, locations, and depths are still recognizable even in the presence of extremely noisy conditions of the communication channel. The code is available at

9.GCT-TTE: Graph Convolutional Transformer for Travel Time Estimation

Authors:Vladimir Mashurov, Vaagn Chopurian, Vadim Porvatov, Arseny Ivanov, Natalia Semenova

Abstract: This paper introduces a new transformer-based model for the problem of travel time estimation. The key feature of the proposed GCT-TTE architecture is the utilization of different data modalities capturing different properties of an input path. Along with the extensive study regarding the model configuration, we implemented and evaluated a sufficient number of actual baselines for path-aware and path-blind settings. The conducted computational experiments have confirmed the viability of our pipeline, which outperformed state-of-the-art models on both considered datasets. Additionally, GCT-TTE was deployed as a web service accessible for further experiments with user-defined routes.

10.Semantic Technologies in Sensor-Based Personal Health Monitoring Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study

Authors:Mbithe Nzomo, Deshendran Moodley

Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increased focus on early detection, prevention, and prediction of diseases. This, together with advances in sensor technology and the Internet of Things, has led to accelerated efforts in the development of personal health monitoring systems. Semantic technologies have emerged as an effective way to not only deal with the issue of interoperability associated with heterogeneous health sensor data, but also to represent expert health knowledge to support complex reasoning required for decision-making. This study evaluates the state of the art in the use of semantic technologies in sensor-based personal health monitoring systems. Using a systematic approach, a total of 40 systems representing the state of the art in the field are analysed. Through this analysis, six key challenges that such systems must overcome for optimal and effective health monitoring are identified: interoperability, context awareness, situation detection, situation prediction, decision support, and uncertainty handling. The study critically evaluates the extent to which these systems incorporate semantic technologies to deal with these challenges and identifies the prominent architectures, system development and evaluation methodologies that are used. The study provides a comprehensive mapping of the field, identifies inadequacies in the state of the art, and provides recommendations for future research directions.

11.Meta-Learning in Spiking Neural Networks with Reward-Modulated STDP

Authors:Arsham Gholamzadeh Khoee, Alireza Javaheri, Saeed Reza Kheradpisheh, Mohammad Ganjtabesh

Abstract: The human brain constantly learns and rapidly adapts to new situations by integrating acquired knowledge and experiences into memory. Developing this capability in machine learning models is considered an important goal of AI research since deep neural networks perform poorly when there is limited data or when they need to adapt quickly to new unseen tasks. Meta-learning models are proposed to facilitate quick learning in low-data regimes by employing absorbed information from the past. Although some models have recently been introduced that reached high-performance levels, they are not biologically plausible. We have proposed a bio-plausible meta-learning model inspired by the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex using spiking neural networks with a reward-based learning system. Our proposed model includes a memory designed to prevent catastrophic forgetting, a phenomenon that occurs when meta-learning models forget what they have learned as soon as the new task begins. Also, our new model can easily be applied to spike-based neuromorphic devices and enables fast learning in neuromorphic hardware. The final analysis will discuss the implications and predictions of the model for solving few-shot classification tasks. In solving these tasks, our model has demonstrated the ability to compete with the existing state-of-the-art meta-learning techniques.

12.Synthesizing realistic sand assemblies with denoising diffusion in latent space

Authors:Nikolaos N. Vlassis, WaiChing Sun, Khalid A. Alshibli, Richard A. Regueiro

Abstract: The shapes and morphological features of grains in sand assemblies have far-reaching implications in many engineering applications, such as geotechnical engineering, computer animations, petroleum engineering, and concentrated solar power. Yet, our understanding of the influence of grain geometries on macroscopic response is often only qualitative, due to the limited availability of high-quality 3D grain geometry data. In this paper, we introduce a denoising diffusion algorithm that uses a set of point clouds collected from the surface of individual sand grains to generate grains in the latent space. By employing a point cloud autoencoder, the three-dimensional point cloud structures of sand grains are first encoded into a lower-dimensional latent space. A generative denoising diffusion probabilistic model is trained to produce synthetic sand that maximizes the log-likelihood of the generated samples belonging to the original data distribution measured by a Kullback-Leibler divergence. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed method is capable of generating realistic grains with morphology, shapes and sizes consistent with the training data inferred from an F50 sand database . We then use a rigid contact dynamic simulator to pour the synthetic sand in a confined volume to form granular assemblies in a static equilibrium state with targeted distribution properties. To ensure third-party validation, 50,000 synthetic sand grains and the 1,542 real synchrotron microcomputed tomography (SMT) scans of the F50 sand, as well as the granular assemblies composed of synthetic sand grains are made available in an open-source repository.

13.Social robots to improve therapeutic adherence in pediatric asthma

Authors:Laura Montalbano, Agnese Augello, Giovanni Pilato, Stefania La Grutta

Abstract: In chronic diseases, obtaining a correct diagnosis and providing the most appropriate treatments often is not enough to guarantee an improvement of the clinical condition of a patient. Poor adherence to medical prescriptions constitutes one of the main causes preventing achievement of therapeutic goals. This is generally true especially for certain diseases and specific target patients, such as children. An engaging and entertaining technology can be exploited in support of clinical practices to achieve better health outcomes. Our assumption is that a gamified session with a humanoid robot, compared to the usual methodologies for therapeutic education, can be more incisive in learning the correct inhalation procedure in children affected by asthma. In this perspective, we describe an interactive module implemented on the Pepper robotic platform and the setting of a study that was planned in 2020 to be held at the Pneumoallergology Pediatric clinic of CNR in Palermo. The study was canceled due to the pandemic and the subsequent and permanent closure of the clinic. Our long-term goal is to assess, by means of a qualitative-quantitative survey plan, the impact of such an educational action, evaluating possible improvement in the adherence to the treatment.

14.Dual policy as self-model for planning

Authors:Jaesung Yoo, Fernanda de la Torre, Robert Guangyu Yang

Abstract: Planning is a data efficient decision-making strategy where an agent selects candidate actions by exploring possible future states. To simulate future states when there is a high-dimensional action space, the knowledge of one's decision making strategy must be used to limit the number of actions to be explored. We refer to the model used to simulate one's decisions as the agent's self-model. While self-models are implicitly used widely in conjunction with world models to plan actions, it remains unclear how self-models should be designed. Inspired by current reinforcement learning approaches and neuroscience, we explore the benefits and limitations of using a distilled policy network as the self-model. In such dual-policy agents, a model-free policy and a distilled policy are used for model-free actions and planned actions, respectively. Our results on a ecologically relevant, parametric environment indicate that distilled policy network for self-model stabilizes training, has faster inference than using model-free policy, promotes better exploration, and could learn a comprehensive understanding of its own behaviors, at the cost of distilling a new network apart from the model-free policy.

15.Artificial Intelligence can facilitate selfish decisions by altering the appearance of interaction partners

Authors:Nils Köbis, Philipp Lorenz-Spreen, Tamer Ajaj, Jean-Francois Bonnefon, Ralph Hertwig, Iyad Rahwan

Abstract: The increasing prevalence of image-altering filters on social media and video conferencing technologies has raised concerns about the ethical and psychological implications of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) to manipulate our perception of others. In this study, we specifically investigate the potential impact of blur filters, a type of appearance-altering technology, on individuals' behavior towards others. Our findings consistently demonstrate a significant increase in selfish behavior directed towards individuals whose appearance is blurred, suggesting that blur filters can facilitate moral disengagement through depersonalization. These results emphasize the need for broader ethical discussions surrounding AI technologies that modify our perception of others, including issues of transparency, consent, and the awareness of being subject to appearance manipulation by others. We also emphasize the importance of anticipatory experiments in informing the development of responsible guidelines and policies prior to the widespread adoption of such technologies.

16.Unified Model for Crystalline Material Generation

Authors:Astrid Klipfel, Yaël Frégier, Adlane Sayede, Zied Bouraoui

Abstract: One of the greatest challenges facing our society is the discovery of new innovative crystal materials with specific properties. Recently, the problem of generating crystal materials has received increasing attention, however, it remains unclear to what extent, or in what way, we can develop generative models that consider both the periodicity and equivalence geometric of crystal structures. To alleviate this issue, we propose two unified models that act at the same time on crystal lattice and atomic positions using periodic equivariant architectures. Our models are capable to learn any arbitrary crystal lattice deformation by lowering the total energy to reach thermodynamic stability. Code and data are available at

17.PromptBench: Towards Evaluating the Robustness of Large Language Models on Adversarial Prompts

Authors:Kaijie Zhu, Jindong Wang, Jiaheng Zhou, Zichen Wang, Hao Chen, Yidong Wang, Linyi Yang, Wei Ye, Neil Zhenqiang Gong, Yue Zhang, Xing Xie

Abstract: The increasing reliance on Large Language Models (LLMs) across academia and industry necessitates a comprehensive understanding of their robustness to prompts. In response to this vital need, we introduce PromptBench, a robustness benchmark designed to measure LLMs' resilience to adversarial prompts. This study uses a plethora of adversarial textual attacks targeting prompts across multiple levels: character, word, sentence, and semantic. These prompts are then employed in diverse tasks, such as sentiment analysis, natural language inference, reading comprehension, machine translation, and math problem-solving. Our study generates 4,032 adversarial prompts, meticulously evaluated over 8 tasks and 13 datasets, with 567,084 test samples in total. Our findings demonstrate that contemporary LLMs are vulnerable to adversarial prompts. Furthermore, we present comprehensive analysis to understand the mystery behind prompt robustness and its transferability. We then offer insightful robustness analysis and pragmatic recommendations for prompt composition, beneficial to both researchers and everyday users. We make our code, prompts, and methodologies to generate adversarial prompts publicly accessible, thereby enabling and encouraging collaborative exploration in this pivotal field:

18.Top-Down Knowledge Compilation for Counting Modulo Theories

Authors:Vincent Derkinderen, Pedro Zuidberg Dos Martires, Samuel Kolb, Paolo Morettin

Abstract: Propositional model counting (#SAT) can be solved efficiently when the input formula is in deterministic decomposable negation normal form (d-DNNF). Translating an arbitrary formula into a representation that allows inference tasks, such as counting, to be performed efficiently, is called knowledge compilation. Top-down knowledge compilation is a state-of-the-art technique for solving #SAT problems that leverages the traces of exhaustive DPLL search to obtain d-DNNF representations. While knowledge compilation is well studied for propositional approaches, knowledge compilation for the (quantifier free) counting modulo theory setting (#SMT) has been studied to a much lesser degree. In this paper, we discuss compilation strategies for #SMT. We specifically advocate for a top-down compiler based on the traces of exhaustive DPLL(T) search.

19.Querying Circumscribed Description Logic Knowledge Bases

Authors:Carsten Lutz, Quentin Manière, Robin Nolte

Abstract: Circumscription is one of the main approaches for defining non-monotonic description logics (DLs). While the decidability and complexity of traditional reasoning tasks such as satisfiability of circumscribed DL knowledge bases (KBs) is well understood, for evaluating conjunctive queries (CQs) and unions thereof (UCQs), not even decidability had been established. In this paper, we prove decidability of (U)CQ evaluation on circumscribed DL KBs and obtain a rather complete picture of both the combined complexity and the data complexity, for DLs ranging from ALCHIO via EL to various versions of DL-Lite. We also study the much simpler atomic queries (AQs).

20.ChatGPT is fun, but it is not funny! Humor is still challenging Large Language Models

Authors:Sophie Jentzsch, Kristian Kersting

Abstract: Humor is a central aspect of human communication that has not been solved for artificial agents so far. Large language models (LLMs) are increasingly able to capture implicit and contextual information. Especially, OpenAI's ChatGPT recently gained immense public attention. The GPT3-based model almost seems to communicate on a human level and can even tell jokes. Humor is an essential component of human communication. But is ChatGPT really funny? We put ChatGPT's sense of humor to the test. In a series of exploratory experiments around jokes, i.e., generation, explanation, and detection, we seek to understand ChatGPT's capability to grasp and reproduce human humor. Since the model itself is not accessible, we applied prompt-based experiments. Our empirical evidence indicates that jokes are not hard-coded but mostly also not newly generated by the model. Over 90% of 1008 generated jokes were the same 25 Jokes. The system accurately explains valid jokes but also comes up with fictional explanations for invalid jokes. Joke-typical characteristics can mislead ChatGPT in the classification of jokes. ChatGPT has not solved computational humor yet but it can be a big leap toward "funny" machines.

1.Agents Explore the Environment Beyond Good Actions to Improve Their Model for Better Decisions

Authors:Matthias Unverzagt

Abstract: Improving the decision-making capabilities of agents is a key challenge on the road to artificial intelligence. To improve the planning skills needed to make good decisions, MuZero's agent combines prediction by a network model and planning by a tree search using the predictions. MuZero's learning process can fail when predictions are poor but planning requires them. We use this as an impetus to get the agent to explore parts of the decision tree in the environment that it otherwise would not explore. The agent achieves this, first by normal planning to come up with an improved policy. Second, it randomly deviates from this policy at the beginning of each training episode. And third, it switches back to the improved policy at a random time step to experience the rewards from the environment associated with the improved policy, which is the basis for learning the correct value expectation. The simple board game Tic-Tac-Toe is used to illustrate how this approach can improve the agent's decision-making ability. The source code, written entirely in Java, is available at

2.Rigorous Runtime Analysis of MOEA/D for Solving Multi-Objective Minimum Weight Base Problems

Authors:Anh Viet Do, Aneta Neumann, Frank Neumann, Andrew M. Sutton

Abstract: We study the multi-objective minimum weight base problem, an abstraction of classical NP-hard combinatorial problems such as the multi-objective minimum spanning tree problem. We prove some important properties of the convex hull of the non-dominated front, such as its approximation quality and an upper bound on the number of extreme points. Using these properties, we give the first run-time analysis of the MOEA/D algorithm for this problem, an evolutionary algorithm that effectively optimizes by decomposing the objectives into single-objective components. We show that the MOEA/D, given an appropriate decomposition setting, finds all extreme points within expected fixed-parameter polynomial time in the oracle model, the parameter being the number of objectives. Experiments are conducted on random bi-objective minimum spanning tree instances, and the results agree with our theoretical findings. Furthermore, compared with a previously studied evolutionary algorithm for the problem GSEMO, MOEA/D finds all extreme points much faster across all instances.

3.I'm Afraid I Can't Do That: Predicting Prompt Refusal in Black-Box Generative Language Models

Authors:Max Reuter, William Schulze

Abstract: Since the release of OpenAI's ChatGPT, generative language models have attracted extensive public attention. The increased usage has highlighted generative models' broad utility, but also revealed several forms of embedded bias. Some is induced by the pre-training corpus; but additional bias specific to generative models arises from the use of subjective fine-tuning to avoid generating harmful content. Fine-tuning bias may come from individual engineers and company policies, and affects which prompts the model chooses to refuse. In this experiment, we characterize ChatGPT's refusal behavior using a black-box attack. We first query ChatGPT with a variety of offensive and benign prompts (n=1,730), then manually label each response as compliance or refusal. Manual examination of responses reveals that refusal is not cleanly binary, and lies on a continuum; as such, we map several different kinds of responses to a binary of compliance or refusal. The small manually-labeled dataset is used to train a refusal classifier, which achieves an accuracy of 92%. Second, we use this refusal classifier to bootstrap a larger (n=10,000) dataset adapted from the Quora Insincere Questions dataset. With this machine-labeled data, we train a prompt classifier to predict whether ChatGPT will refuse a given question, without seeing ChatGPT's response. This prompt classifier achieves 76% accuracy on a test set of manually labeled questions (n=1,009). We examine our classifiers and the prompt n-grams that are most predictive of either compliance or refusal. Datasets and code are available at

4.A Belief Model for Conflicting and Uncertain Evidence -- Connecting Dempster-Shafer Theory and the Topology of Evidence

Authors:Daira Pinto Prieto, Ronald de Haan, Aybüke Özgün

Abstract: One problem to solve in the context of information fusion, decision-making, and other artificial intelligence challenges is to compute justified beliefs based on evidence. In real-life examples, this evidence may be inconsistent, incomplete, or uncertain, making the problem of evidence fusion highly non-trivial. In this paper, we propose a new model for measuring degrees of beliefs based on possibly inconsistent, incomplete, and uncertain evidence, by combining tools from Dempster-Shafer Theory and Topological Models of Evidence. Our belief model is more general than the aforementioned approaches in two important ways: (1) it can reproduce them when appropriate constraints are imposed, and, more notably, (2) it is flexible enough to compute beliefs according to various standards that represent agents' evidential demands. The latter novelty allows the users of our model to employ it to compute an agent's (possibly) distinct degrees of belief, based on the same evidence, in situations when, e.g, the agent prioritizes avoiding false negatives and when it prioritizes avoiding false positives. Finally, we show that computing degrees of belief with this model is #P-complete in general.

5.Scalable Concept Extraction in Industry 4.0

Authors:Andrés Felipe Posada-Moreno, Kai Müller, Florian Brillowski, Friedrich Solowjow, Thomas Gries, Sebastian Trimpe

Abstract: The industry 4.0 is leveraging digital technologies and machine learning techniques to connect and optimize manufacturing processes. Central to this idea is the ability to transform raw data into human understandable knowledge for reliable data-driven decision-making. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been instrumental in processing image data, yet, their ``black box'' nature complicates the understanding of their prediction process. In this context, recent advances in the field of eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) have proposed the extraction and localization of concepts, or which visual cues intervene on the prediction process of CNNs. This paper tackles the application of concept extraction (CE) methods to industry 4.0 scenarios. To this end, we modify a recently developed technique, ``Extracting Concepts with Local Aggregated Descriptors'' (ECLAD), improving its scalability. Specifically, we propose a novel procedure for calculating concept importance, utilizing a wrapper function designed for CNNs. This process is aimed at decreasing the number of times each image needs to be evaluated. Subsequently, we demonstrate the potential of CE methods, by applying them in three industrial use cases. We selected three representative use cases in the context of quality control for material design (tailored textiles), manufacturing (carbon fiber reinforcement), and maintenance (photovoltaic module inspection). In these examples, CE was able to successfully extract and locate concepts directly related to each task. This is, the visual cues related to each concept, coincided with what human experts would use to perform the task themselves, even when the visual cues were entangled between multiple classes. Through empirical results, we show that CE can be applied for understanding CNNs in an industrial context, giving useful insights that can relate to domain knowledge.

6.An Approach to Solving the Abstraction and Reasoning Corpus (ARC) Challenge

Authors:Tan John Chong Min

Abstract: We utilise the power of Large Language Models (LLMs), in particular GPT4, to be prompt engineered into performing an arbitrary task. Here, we give the model some human priors via text, along with some typical procedures for solving the ARC tasks, and ask it to generate the i) broad description of the input-output relation, ii) detailed steps of the input-output mapping, iii) use the detailed steps to perform manipulation on the test input and derive the test output. The current GPT3.5/GPT4 prompt solves 2 out of 4 tested small ARC challenges (those with small grids of 8x8 and below). With tweaks to the prompt to make it more specific for the use case, it can solve more. We posit that when scaled to a multi-agent system with usage of past memory and equipped with an image interpretation tool via Visual Question Answering, we may actually be able to solve the majority of the ARC challenge

7.The Creative Frontier of Generative AI: Managing the Novelty-Usefulness Tradeoff

Authors:Anirban Mukherjee, Hannah Chang

Abstract: In this paper, drawing inspiration from the human creativity literature, we explore the optimal balance between novelty and usefulness in generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems. We posit that overemphasizing either aspect can lead to limitations such as hallucinations and memorization. Hallucinations, characterized by AI responses containing random inaccuracies or falsehoods, emerge when models prioritize novelty over usefulness. Memorization, where AI models reproduce content from their training data, results from an excessive focus on usefulness, potentially limiting creativity. To address these challenges, we propose a framework that includes domain-specific analysis, data and transfer learning, user preferences and customization, custom evaluation metrics, and collaboration mechanisms. Our approach aims to generate content that is both novel and useful within specific domains, while considering the unique requirements of various contexts.

8.Enabling Efficient Interaction between an Algorithm Agent and an LLM: A Reinforcement Learning Approach

Authors:Bin Hu, Chenyang Zhao, Pu Zhang, Zihao Zhou, Yuanhang Yang, Zenglin Xu, Bin Liu

Abstract: Large language models (LLMs) encode a vast amount of world knowledge acquired from massive text datasets. Recent studies have demonstrated that LLMs can assist an algorithm agent in solving complex sequential decision making tasks in embodied environments by providing high-level instructions. However, interacting with LLMs can be time-consuming, as in many practical scenarios, they require a significant amount of storage space that can only be deployed on remote cloud server nodes. Additionally, using commercial LLMs can be costly since they may charge based on usage frequency. In this paper, we explore how to enable efficient and cost-effective interactions between the agent and an LLM. We propose a reinforcement learning based mediator model that determines when it is necessary to consult LLMs for high-level instructions to accomplish a target task. Experiments on 4 MiniGrid environments that entail planning sub-goals demonstrate that our method can learn to solve target tasks with only a few necessary interactions with an LLM, significantly reducing interaction costs in testing environments, compared with baseline methods. Experimental results also suggest that by learning a mediator model to interact with the LLM, the agent's performance becomes more robust against both exploratory and stochastic environments.

9.BioBLP: A Modular Framework for Learning on Multimodal Biomedical Knowledge Graphs

Authors:Daniel Daza, Dimitrios Alivanistos, Payal Mitra, Thom Pijnenburg, Michael Cochez, Paul Groth

Abstract: Knowledge graphs (KGs) are an important tool for representing complex relationships between entities in the biomedical domain. Several methods have been proposed for learning embeddings that can be used to predict new links in such graphs. Some methods ignore valuable attribute data associated with entities in biomedical KGs, such as protein sequences, or molecular graphs. Other works incorporate such data, but assume that entities can be represented with the same data modality. This is not always the case for biomedical KGs, where entities exhibit heterogeneous modalities that are central to their representation in the subject domain. We propose a modular framework for learning embeddings in KGs with entity attributes, that allows encoding attribute data of different modalities while also supporting entities with missing attributes. We additionally propose an efficient pretraining strategy for reducing the required training runtime. We train models using a biomedical KG containing approximately 2 million triples, and evaluate the performance of the resulting entity embeddings on the tasks of link prediction, and drug-protein interaction prediction, comparing against methods that do not take attribute data into account. In the standard link prediction evaluation, the proposed method results in competitive, yet lower performance than baselines that do not use attribute data. When evaluated in the task of drug-protein interaction prediction, the method compares favorably with the baselines. We find settings involving low degree entities, which make up for a substantial amount of the set of entities in the KG, where our method outperforms the baselines. Our proposed pretraining strategy yields significantly higher performance while reducing the required training runtime. Our implementation is available at .

10.Schema First! Learn Versatile Knowledge Graph Embeddings by Capturing Semantics with MASCHInE

Authors:Nicolas Hubert, Heiko Paulheim, Pierre Monnin, Armelle Brun, Davy Monticolo

Abstract: Knowledge graph embedding models (KGEMs) have gained considerable traction in recent years. These models learn a vector representation of knowledge graph entities and relations, a.k.a. knowledge graph embeddings (KGEs). Learning versatile KGEs is desirable as it makes them useful for a broad range of tasks. However, KGEMs are usually trained for a specific task, which makes their embeddings task-dependent. In parallel, the widespread assumption that KGEMs actually create a semantic representation of the underlying entities and relations (e.g., project similar entities closer than dissimilar ones) has been challenged. In this work, we design heuristics for generating protographs -- small, modified versions of a KG that leverage schema-based information. The learnt protograph-based embeddings are meant to encapsulate the semantics of a KG, and can be leveraged in learning KGEs that, in turn, also better capture semantics. Extensive experiments on various evaluation benchmarks demonstrate the soundness of this approach, which we call Modular and Agnostic SCHema-based Integration of protograph Embeddings (MASCHInE). In particular, MASCHInE helps produce more versatile KGEs that yield substantially better performance for entity clustering and node classification tasks. For link prediction, using MASCHInE has little impact on rank-based performance but increases the number of semantically valid predictions.

11.Description Logics with Abstraction and Refinement

Authors:Carsten Lutz, Lukas Schulze

Abstract: Ontologies often require knowledge representation on multiple levels of abstraction, but description logics (DLs) are not well-equipped for supporting this. We propose an extension of DLs in which abstraction levels are first-class citizens and which provides explicit operators for the abstraction and refinement of concepts and roles across multiple abstraction levels, based on conjunctive queries. We prove that reasoning in the resulting family of DLs is decidable while several seemingly harmless variations turn out to be undecidable. We also pinpoint the precise complexity of our logics and several relevant fragments.

12.Newly Formed Cities: an AI Curation

Authors:Dario Negueruela del Castillo, Ludovica Schaerf, Pepe Ballesteros, Iacopo Neri, Valentine Bernasconi

Abstract: Art curatorial processes are characterized by the presentation of a collection of artworks in a knowledgeable way. Machine processes are characterized by their capacity to manage and analyze large amounts of data. This paper envisages machine curation and audience interaction as a means to explore the implications of contemporary AI models for the curatorial world. This project was developed for the occasion of the 2023 Helsinki Art Biennial, entitled New Directions May Emerge. We use the Helsinki Art Museum (HAM) collection to re-imagine the city of Helsinki through the lens of machine perception. We use visual-textual models to place artworks currently hosted inside the museum in outdoor public spaces of the city, assigning fictional coordinates based on similarity scores. Synthetic 360{\deg} art panoramas are generated using diffusion-based models to propose a machinic visual style guided by the artworks. The result of this project will be virtually presented as a web-based installation, where such a re-contextualization allows the navigation of an alternative version of the city while exploring its artistic heritage. Finally, we discuss our contributions to machine curation and the ethical implications that such a process entails. The web-based installation is available at this link:

13.AI-Supported Assessment of Load Safety

Authors:Julius Schöning, Niklas Kruse

Abstract: Load safety assessment and compliance is an essential step in the corporate process of every logistics service provider. In 2020, a total of 11,371 police checks of trucks were carried out, during which 9.6% (1091) violations against the load safety regulations were detected. For a logistic service provider, every load safety violation results in height fines and damage to reputation. An assessment of load safety supported by artificial intelligence (AI) will reduce the risk of accidents by unsecured loads and fines during safety assessments. This work shows how photos of the load, taken by the truck driver or the loadmaster after the loading process, can be used to assess load safety. By a trained two-stage artificial neural network (ANN), these photos are classified into three different classes I) cargo loaded safely, II) cargo loaded unsafely, and III) unusable image. By applying several architectures of convolutional neural networks (CNN), it can be shown that it is possible to distinguish between unusable and usable images for cargo safety assessment. This distinction is quite crucial since the truck driver and the loadmaster sometimes provide photos without the essential image features like the case structure of the truck and the whole cargo. A human operator or another ANN will then assess the load safety within the second stage.

14.Remarks on Utility in Repeated Bets

Authors:Nimrod Megiddo

Abstract: The use of von Neumann -- Morgenstern utility is examined in the context of multiple choices between lotteries. Different conclusions are reached if the choices are simultaneous or sequential. It is demonstrated that utility cannot be additive.

15.Considering Human Factors in Risk Maps for Robust and Foresighted Driver Warning

Authors:Tim Puphal, Ryohei Hirano, Malte Probst, Raphael Wenzel, Akihito Kimata

Abstract: Driver support systems that include human states in the support process is an active research field. Many recent approaches allow, for example, to sense the driver's drowsiness or awareness of the driving situation. However, so far, this rich information has not been utilized much for improving the effectiveness of support systems. In this paper, we therefore propose a warning system that uses human states in the form of driver errors and can warn users in some cases of upcoming risks several seconds earlier than the state of the art systems not considering human factors. The system consists of a behavior planner Risk Maps which directly changes its prediction of the surrounding driving situation based on the sensed driver errors. By checking if this driver's behavior plan is objectively safe, a more robust and foresighted driver warning is achieved. In different simulations of a dynamic lane change and intersection scenarios, we show how the driver's behavior plan can become unsafe, given the estimate of driver errors, and experimentally validate the advantages of considering human factors.

16.Embracing Background Knowledge in the Analysis of Actual Causality: An Answer Set Programming Approach

Authors:Michael Gelfond, Jorge Fandinno, Evgenii Balai

Abstract: This paper presents a rich knowledge representation language aimed at formalizing causal knowledge. This language is used for accurately and directly formalizing common benchmark examples from the literature of actual causality. A definition of cause is presented and used to analyze the actual causes of changes with respect to sequences of actions representing those examples.

17.ChatDB: Augmenting LLMs with Databases as Their Symbolic Memory

Authors:Chenxu Hu, Jie Fu, Chenzhuang Du, Simian Luo, Junbo Zhao, Hang Zhao

Abstract: Large language models (LLMs) with memory are computationally universal. However, mainstream LLMs are not taking full advantage of memory, and the designs are heavily influenced by biological brains. Due to their approximate nature and proneness to the accumulation of errors, conventional neural memory mechanisms cannot support LLMs to simulate complex reasoning. In this paper, we seek inspiration from modern computer architectures to augment LLMs with symbolic memory for complex multi-hop reasoning. Such a symbolic memory framework is instantiated as an LLM and a set of SQL databases, where the LLM generates SQL instructions to manipulate the SQL databases. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed memory framework on a synthetic dataset requiring complex reasoning. The project website is available at .

1.A Novel Multi-Agent Deep RL Approach for Traffic Signal Control

Authors:Shijie Wang, Shangbo Wang

Abstract: As travel demand increases and urban traffic condition becomes more complicated, applying multi-agent deep reinforcement learning (MARL) to traffic signal control becomes one of the hot topics. The rise of Reinforcement Learning (RL) has opened up opportunities for solving Adaptive Traffic Signal Control (ATSC) in complex urban traffic networks, and deep neural networks have further enhanced their ability to handle complex data. Traditional research in traffic signal control is based on the centralized Reinforcement Learning technique. However, in a large-scale road network, centralized RL is infeasible because of an exponential growth of joint state-action space. In this paper, we propose a Friend-Deep Q-network (Friend-DQN) approach for multiple traffic signal control in urban networks, which is based on an agent-cooperation scheme. In particular, the cooperation between multiple agents can reduce the state-action space and thus speed up the convergence. We use SUMO (Simulation of Urban Transport) platform to evaluate the performance of Friend-DQN model, and show its feasibility and superiority over other existing methods.

2.Efficient GPT Model Pre-training using Tensor Train Matrix Representation

Authors:Viktoriia Chekalina, Georgii Novikov, Julia Gusak, Ivan Oseledets, Alexander Panchenko

Abstract: Large-scale transformer models have shown remarkable performance in language modelling tasks. However, such models feature billions of parameters, leading to difficulties in their deployment and prohibitive training costs from scratch. To reduce the number of the parameters in the GPT-2 architecture, we replace the matrices of fully-connected layers with the corresponding Tensor Train Matrix~(TTM) structure. Finally, we customize forward and backward operations through the TTM-based layer for simplicity and the stableness of further training. % The resulting GPT-2-based model stores up to 40% fewer parameters, showing the perplexity comparable to the original model. On the downstream tasks, including language understanding and text summarization, the model performs similarly to the original GPT-2 model. The proposed tensorized layers could be used to efficiently pre-training other Transformer models.

3.Interpretable Multimodal Emotion Recognition using Facial Features and Physiological Signals

Authors:Puneet Kumar, Xiaobai Li

Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate the importance and feasibility of fusing multimodal information for emotion recognition. It introduces a multimodal framework for emotion understanding by fusing the information from visual facial features and rPPG signals extracted from the input videos. An interpretability technique based on permutation feature importance analysis has also been implemented to compute the contributions of rPPG and visual modalities toward classifying a given input video into a particular emotion class. The experiments on IEMOCAP dataset demonstrate that the emotion classification performance improves by combining the complementary information from multiple modalities.

4.Leveraging Large Language Models for Topic Classification in the Domain of Public Affairs

Authors:Alejandro Peña, Aythami Morales, Julian Fierrez, Ignacio Serna, Javier Ortega-Garcia, Iñigo Puente, Jorge Cordova, Gonzalo Cordova

Abstract: The analysis of public affairs documents is crucial for citizens as it promotes transparency, accountability, and informed decision-making. It allows citizens to understand government policies, participate in public discourse, and hold representatives accountable. This is crucial, and sometimes a matter of life or death, for companies whose operation depend on certain regulations. Large Language Models (LLMs) have the potential to greatly enhance the analysis of public affairs documents by effectively processing and understanding the complex language used in such documents. In this work, we analyze the performance of LLMs in classifying public affairs documents. As a natural multi-label task, the classification of these documents presents important challenges. In this work, we use a regex-powered tool to collect a database of public affairs documents with more than 33K samples and 22.5M tokens. Our experiments assess the performance of 4 different Spanish LLMs to classify up to 30 different topics in the data in different configurations. The results shows that LLMs can be of great use to process domain-specific documents, such as those in the domain of public affairs.

5.Action-Evolution Petri Nets: a Framework for Modeling and Solving Dynamic Task Assignment Problems

Authors:Riccardo Lo Bianco, Remco Dijkman, Wim Nuijten, Willem van Jaarsveld

Abstract: Dynamic task assignment involves assigning arriving tasks to a limited number of resources in order to minimize the overall cost of the assignments. To achieve optimal task assignment, it is necessary to model the assignment problem first. While there exist separate formalisms, specifically Markov Decision Processes and (Colored) Petri Nets, to model, execute, and solve different aspects of the problem, there is no integrated modeling technique. To address this gap, this paper proposes Action-Evolution Petri Nets (A-E PN) as a framework for modeling and solving dynamic task assignment problems. A-E PN provides a unified modeling technique that can represent all elements of dynamic task assignment problems. Moreover, A-E PN models are executable, which means they can be used to learn close-to-optimal assignment policies through Reinforcement Learning (RL) without additional modeling effort. To evaluate the framework, we define a taxonomy of archetypical assignment problems. We show for three cases that A-E PN can be used to learn close-to-optimal assignment policies. Our results suggest that A-E PN can be used to model and solve a broad range of dynamic task assignment problems.

6.Adversarial Ink: Componentwise Backward Error Attacks on Deep Learning

Authors:Lucas Beerens, Desmond J. Higham

Abstract: Deep neural networks are capable of state-of-the-art performance in many classification tasks. However, they are known to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks -- small perturbations to the input that lead to a change in classification. We address this issue from the perspective of backward error and condition number, concepts that have proved useful in numerical analysis. To do this, we build on the work of Beuzeville et al. (2021). In particular, we develop a new class of attack algorithms that use componentwise relative perturbations. Such attacks are highly relevant in the case of handwritten documents or printed texts where, for example, the classification of signatures, postcodes, dates or numerical quantities may be altered by changing only the ink consistency and not the background. This makes the perturbed images look natural to the naked eye. Such ``adversarial ink'' attacks therefore reveal a weakness that can have a serious impact on safety and security. We illustrate the new attacks on real data and contrast them with existing algorithms. We also study the use of a componentwise condition number to quantify vulnerability.

7.The Chai Platform's AI Safety Framework

Authors:Xiaoding Lu, Aleksey Korshuk, Zongyi Liu, William Beauchamp

Abstract: Chai empowers users to create and interact with customized chatbots, offering unique and engaging experiences. Despite the exciting prospects, the work recognizes the inherent challenges of a commitment to modern safety standards. Therefore, this paper presents the integrated AI safety principles into Chai to prioritize user safety, data protection, and ethical technology use. The paper specifically explores the multidimensional domain of AI safety research, demonstrating its application in Chai's conversational chatbot platform. It presents Chai's AI safety principles, informed by well-established AI research centres and adapted for chat AI. This work proposes the following safety framework: Content Safeguarding; Stability and Robustness; and Operational Transparency and Traceability. The subsequent implementation of these principles is outlined, followed by an experimental analysis of Chai's AI safety framework's real-world impact. We emphasise the significance of conscientious application of AI safety principles and robust safety measures. The successful implementation of the safe AI framework in Chai indicates the practicality of mitigating potential risks for responsible and ethical use of AI technologies. The ultimate vision is a transformative AI tool fostering progress and innovation while prioritizing user safety and ethical standards.

8.Tackling Cooperative Incompatibility for Zero-Shot Human-AI Coordination

Authors:Yang Li, Shao Zhang, Jichen Sun, Wenhao Zhang, Yali Du, Ying Wen, Xinbing Wang, Wei Pan

Abstract: Achieving coordination between humans and artificial intelligence in scenarios involving previously unencountered humans remains a substantial obstacle within Zero-Shot Human-AI Coordination, which aims to develop AI agents capable of efficiently working alongside previously unknown human teammates. Traditional algorithms have aimed to collaborate with humans by optimizing fixed objectives within a population, fostering diversity in strategies and behaviors. However, these techniques may lead to learning loss and an inability to cooperate with specific strategies within the population, a phenomenon named cooperative incompatibility. To mitigate this issue, we introduce the Cooperative Open-ended LEarning (COLE) framework, which formulates open-ended objectives in cooperative games with two players using perspectives of graph theory to evaluate and pinpoint the cooperative capacity of each strategy. We put forth a practical algorithm incorporating insights from game theory and graph theory, e.g., Shapley Value and Centrality. We also show that COLE could effectively overcome the cooperative incompatibility from theoretical and empirical analysis. Subsequently, we created an online Overcooked human-AI experiment platform, the COLE platform, which enables easy customization of questionnaires, model weights, and other aspects. Utilizing the COLE platform, we enlist 130 participants for human experiments. Our findings reveal a preference for our approach over state-of-the-art methods using a variety of subjective metrics. Moreover, objective experimental outcomes in the Overcooked game environment indicate that our method surpasses existing ones when coordinating with previously unencountered AI agents and the human proxy model. Our code and demo are publicly available at

9.From Robustness to Explainability and Back Again

Authors:Xuanxiang Huang, Joao Marques-Silva

Abstract: In contrast with ad-hoc methods for eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), formal explainability offers important guarantees of rigor. However, formal explainability is hindered by poor scalability for some families of classifiers, the most significant being neural networks. As a result, there are concerns as to whether formal explainability might serve to complement other approaches in delivering trustworthy AI. This paper addresses the limitation of scalability of formal explainability, and proposes novel algorithms for computing formal explanations. The novel algorithm computes explanations by answering instead a number of robustness queries, and such that the number of such queries is at most linear on the number of features. Consequently, the proposed algorithm establishes a direct relationship between the practical complexity of formal explainability and that of robustness. More importantly, the paper generalizes the definition of formal explanation, thereby allowing the use of robustness tools that are based on different distance norms, and also by reasoning in terms of some target degree of robustness. The experiments validate the practical efficiency of the proposed approach.

10.Sequential Monte Carlo Steering of Large Language Models using Probabilistic Programs

Authors:Alexander K. Lew, Tan Zhi-Xuan, Gabriel Grand, Vikash K. Mansinghka

Abstract: Even after fine-tuning and reinforcement learning, large language models (LLMs) can be difficult, if not impossible, to control reliably with prompts alone. We propose a new inference-time approach to enforcing syntactic and semantic constraints on the outputs of LLMs, called sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) steering. The key idea is to specify language generation tasks as posterior inference problems in a class of discrete probabilistic sequence models, and replace standard decoding with sequential Monte Carlo inference. For a computational cost similar to that of beam search, SMC can steer LLMs to solve diverse tasks, including infilling, generation under syntactic constraints, and prompt intersection. To facilitate experimentation with SMC steering, we present a probabilistic programming library, LLaMPPL (, for concisely specifying new generation tasks as language model probabilistic programs, and automating steering of LLaMA-family Transformers.

11.InstructZero: Efficient Instruction Optimization for Black-Box Large Language Models

Authors:Lichang Chen, Jiuhai Chen, Tom Goldstein, Heng Huang, Tianyi Zhou

Abstract: Large language models~(LLMs) are instruction followers, but it can be challenging to find the best instruction for different situations, especially for black-box LLMs on which backpropagation is forbidden. Instead of directly optimizing the discrete instruction, we optimize a low-dimensional soft prompt applied to an open-source LLM to generate the instruction for the black-box LLM. On each iteration of the proposed method, which we call InstructZero, a soft prompt is converted into an instruction using the open-source LLM, which is then submitted to the black-box LLM for zero-shot evaluation, and the performance is sent to Bayesian optimization to produce new soft prompts improving the zero-shot performance. We evaluate InstructZero on different combinations of open-source LLMs and APIs including Vicuna and ChatGPT. Our results show that InstructZero outperforms SOTA auto-instruction methods across a variety of downstream tasks. Our code and data are publicly available at

12.DeepGraphDMD: Interpretable Spatio-Temporal Decomposition of Non-linear Functional Brain Network Dynamics

Authors:Md Asadullah Turja, Martin Styner, Guorong Wu

Abstract: Functional brain dynamics is supported by parallel and overlapping functional network modes that are associated with specific neural circuits. Decomposing these network modes from fMRI data and finding their temporal characteristics is challenging due to their time-varying nature and the non-linearity of the functional dynamics. Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) algorithms have been quite popular for solving this decomposition problem in recent years. In this work, we apply GraphDMD -- an extension of the DMD for network data -- to extract the dynamic network modes and their temporal characteristics from the fMRI time series in an interpretable manner. GraphDMD, however, regards the underlying system as a linear dynamical system that is sub-optimal for extracting the network modes from non-linear functional data. In this work, we develop a generalized version of the GraphDMD algorithm -- DeepGraphDMD -- applicable to arbitrary non-linear graph dynamical systems. DeepGraphDMD is an autoencoder-based deep learning model that learns Koopman eigenfunctions for graph data and embeds the non-linear graph dynamics into a latent linear space. We show the effectiveness of our method in both simulated data and the HCP resting-state fMRI data. In the HCP data, DeepGraphDMD provides novel insights into cognitive brain functions by discovering two major network modes related to fluid and crystallized intelligence.

1.Multi-Robot Path Planning Combining Heuristics and Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Shaoming Peng

Abstract: Multi-robot path finding in dynamic environments is a highly challenging classic problem. In the movement process, robots need to avoid collisions with other moving robots while minimizing their travel distance. Previous methods for this problem either continuously replan paths using heuristic search methods to avoid conflicts or choose appropriate collision avoidance strategies based on learning approaches. The former may result in long travel distances due to frequent replanning, while the latter may have low learning efficiency due to low sample exploration and utilization, and causing high training costs for the model. To address these issues, we propose a path planning method, MAPPOHR, which combines heuristic search, empirical rules, and multi-agent reinforcement learning. The method consists of two layers: a real-time planner based on the multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithm, MAPPO, which embeds empirical rules in the action output layer and reward functions, and a heuristic search planner used to create a global guiding path. During movement, the heuristic search planner replans new paths based on the instructions of the real-time planner. We tested our method in 10 different conflict scenarios. The experiments show that the planning performance of MAPPOHR is better than that of existing learning and heuristic methods. Due to the utilization of empirical knowledge and heuristic search, the learning efficiency of MAPPOHR is higher than that of existing learning methods.

2.Egocentric Planning for Scalable Embodied Task Achievement

Authors:Xiaotian Liu, Hector Palacios, Christian Muise

Abstract: Embodied agents face significant challenges when tasked with performing actions in diverse environments, particularly in generalizing across object types and executing suitable actions to accomplish tasks. Furthermore, agents should exhibit robustness, minimizing the execution of illegal actions. In this work, we present Egocentric Planning, an innovative approach that combines symbolic planning and Object-oriented POMDPs to solve tasks in complex environments, harnessing existing models for visual perception and natural language processing. We evaluated our approach in ALFRED, a simulated environment designed for domestic tasks, and demonstrated its high scalability, achieving an impressive 36.07% unseen success rate in the ALFRED benchmark and winning the ALFRED challenge at CVPR Embodied AI workshop. Our method requires reliable perception and the specification or learning of a symbolic description of the preconditions and effects of the agent's actions, as well as what object types reveal information about others. It is capable of naturally scaling to solve new tasks beyond ALFRED, as long as they can be solved using the available skills. This work offers a solid baseline for studying end-to-end and hybrid methods that aim to generalize to new tasks, including recent approaches relying on LLMs, but often struggle to scale to long sequences of actions or produce robust plans for novel tasks.

3.Energy-Efficient UAV-Assisted IoT Data Collection via TSP-Based Solution Space Reduction

Authors:Sivaram Krishnan, Mahyar Nemati, Seng W. Loke, Jihong Park, Jinho Choi

Abstract: This paper presents a wireless data collection framework that employs an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to efficiently gather data from distributed IoT sensors deployed in a large area. Our approach takes into account the non-zero communication ranges of the sensors to optimize the flight path of the UAV, resulting in a variation of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). We prove mathematically that the optimal waypoints for this TSP-variant problem are restricted to the boundaries of the sensor communication ranges, greatly reducing the solution space. Building on this finding, we develop a low-complexity UAV-assisted sensor data collection algorithm, and demonstrate its effectiveness in a selected use case where we minimize the total energy consumption of the UAV and sensors by jointly optimizing the UAV's travel distance and the sensors' communication ranges.

4.Knowledge Graph Reasoning over Entities and Numerical Values

Authors:Jiaxin Bai, Chen Luo, Zheng Li, Qingyu Yin, Bing Yin, Yangqiu Song

Abstract: A complex logic query in a knowledge graph refers to a query expressed in logic form that conveys a complex meaning, such as where did the Canadian Turing award winner graduate from? Knowledge graph reasoning-based applications, such as dialogue systems and interactive search engines, rely on the ability to answer complex logic queries as a fundamental task. In most knowledge graphs, edges are typically used to either describe the relationships between entities or their associated attribute values. An attribute value can be in categorical or numerical format, such as dates, years, sizes, etc. However, existing complex query answering (CQA) methods simply treat numerical values in the same way as they treat entities. This can lead to difficulties in answering certain queries, such as which Australian Pulitzer award winner is born before 1927, and which drug is a pain reliever and has fewer side effects than Paracetamol. In this work, inspired by the recent advances in numerical encoding and knowledge graph reasoning, we propose numerical complex query answering. In this task, we introduce new numerical variables and operations to describe queries involving numerical attribute values. To address the difference between entities and numerical values, we also propose the framework of Number Reasoning Network (NRN) for alternatively encoding entities and numerical values into separate encoding structures. During the numerical encoding process, NRN employs a parameterized density function to encode the distribution of numerical values. During the entity encoding process, NRN uses established query encoding methods for the original CQA problem. Experimental results show that NRN consistently improves various query encoding methods on three different knowledge graphs and achieves state-of-the-art results.

5.An Architecture for Deploying Reinforcement Learning in Industrial Environments

Authors:Georg Schäfer, Reuf Kozlica, Stefan Wegenkittl, Stefan Huber

Abstract: Industry 4.0 is driven by demands like shorter time-to-market, mass customization of products, and batch size one production. Reinforcement Learning (RL), a machine learning paradigm shown to possess a great potential in improving and surpassing human level performance in numerous complex tasks, allows coping with the mentioned demands. In this paper, we present an OPC UA based Operational Technology (OT)-aware RL architecture, which extends the standard RL setting, combining it with the setting of digital twins. Moreover, we define an OPC UA information model allowing for a generalized plug-and-play like approach for exchanging the RL agent used. In conclusion, we demonstrate and evaluate the architecture, by creating a proof of concept. By means of solving a toy example, we show that this architecture can be used to determine the optimal policy using a real control system.

6.A Modular Test Bed for Reinforcement Learning Incorporation into Industrial Applications

Authors:Reuf Kozlica, Georg Schäfer, Simon Hirländer, Stefan Wegenkittl

Abstract: This application paper explores the potential of using reinforcement learning (RL) to address the demands of Industry 4.0, including shorter time-to-market, mass customization, and batch size one production. Specifically, we present a use case in which the task is to transport and assemble goods through a model factory following predefined rules. Each simulation run involves placing a specific number of goods of random color at the entry point. The objective is to transport the goods to the assembly station, where two rivets are installed in each product, connecting the upper part to the lower part. Following the installation of rivets, blue products must be transported to the exit, while green products are to be transported to storage. The study focuses on the application of reinforcement learning techniques to address this problem and improve the efficiency of the production process.

7.Deep Q-Learning versus Proximal Policy Optimization: Performance Comparison in a Material Sorting Task

Authors:Reuf Kozlica, Stefan Wegenkittl, Simon Hirländer

Abstract: This paper presents a comparison between two well-known deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms: Deep Q-Learning (DQN) and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) in a simulated production system. We utilize a Petri Net (PN)-based simulation environment, which was previously proposed in related work. The performance of the two algorithms is compared based on several evaluation metrics, including average percentage of correctly assembled and sorted products, average episode length, and percentage of successful episodes. The results show that PPO outperforms DQN in terms of all evaluation metrics. The study highlights the advantages of policy-based algorithms in problems with high-dimensional state and action spaces. The study contributes to the field of deep RL in context of production systems by providing insights into the effectiveness of different algorithms and their suitability for different tasks.

8.Accelerating science with human-aware artificial intelligence

Authors:Jamshid Sourati, James Evans

Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) models trained on published scientific findings have been used to invent valuable materials and targeted therapies, but they typically ignore the human scientists who continually alter the landscape of discovery. Here we show that incorporating the distribution of human expertise by training unsupervised models on simulated inferences cognitively accessible to experts dramatically improves (up to 400%) AI prediction of future discoveries beyond those focused on research content alone, especially when relevant literature is sparse. These models succeed by predicting human predictions and the scientists who will make them. By tuning human-aware AI to avoid the crowd, we can generate scientifically promising "alien" hypotheses unlikely to be imagined or pursued without intervention until the distant future, which hold promise to punctuate scientific advance beyond questions currently pursued. Accelerating human discovery or probing its blind spots, human-aware AI enables us to move toward and beyond the contemporary scientific frontier.

9.OMNI: Open-endedness via Models of human Notions of Interestingness

Authors:Jenny Zhang, Joel Lehman, Kenneth Stanley, Jeff Clune

Abstract: Open-ended algorithms aim to learn new, interesting behaviors forever. That requires a vast environment search space, but there are thus infinitely many possible tasks. Even after filtering for tasks the current agent can learn (i.e., learning progress), countless learnable yet uninteresting tasks remain (e.g., minor variations of previously learned tasks). An Achilles Heel of open-endedness research is the inability to quantify (and thus prioritize) tasks that are not just learnable, but also $\textit{interesting}$ (e.g., worthwhile and novel). We propose solving this problem by $\textit{Open-endedness via Models of human Notions of Interestingness}$ (OMNI). The insight is that we can utilize large (language) models (LMs) as a model of interestingness (MoI), because they $\textit{already}$ internalize human concepts of interestingness from training on vast amounts of human-generated data, where humans naturally write about what they find interesting or boring. We show that LM-based MoIs improve open-ended learning by focusing on tasks that are both learnable $\textit{and interesting}$, outperforming baselines based on uniform task sampling or learning progress alone. This approach has the potential to dramatically advance the ability to intelligently select which tasks to focus on next (i.e., auto-curricula), and could be seen as AI selecting its own next task to learn, facilitating self-improving AI and AI-Generating Algorithms.

1.The Survey, Taxonomy, and Future Directions of Trustworthy AI: A Meta Decision of Strategic Decisions

Authors:Caesar Wu, Yuan-Fang Lib, Pascal Bouvry

Abstract: When making strategic decisions, we are often confronted with overwhelming information to process. The situation can be further complicated when some pieces of evidence are contradicted each other or paradoxical. The challenge then becomes how to determine which information is useful and which ones should be eliminated. This process is known as meta-decision. Likewise, when it comes to using Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems for strategic decision-making, placing trust in the AI itself becomes a meta-decision, given that many AI systems are viewed as opaque "black boxes" that process large amounts of data. Trusting an opaque system involves deciding on the level of Trustworthy AI (TAI). We propose a new approach to address this issue by introducing a novel taxonomy or framework of TAI, which encompasses three crucial domains: articulate, authentic, and basic for different levels of trust. To underpin these domains, we create ten dimensions to measure trust: explainability/transparency, fairness/diversity, generalizability, privacy, data governance, safety/robustness, accountability, reproducibility, reliability, and sustainability. We aim to use this taxonomy to conduct a comprehensive survey and explore different TAI approaches from a strategic decision-making perspective.

2.Parallel Neurosymbolic Integration with Concordia

Authors:Jonathan Feldstein, Modestas Jurčius, Efthymia Tsamoura

Abstract: Parallel neurosymbolic architectures have been applied effectively in NLP by distilling knowledge from a logic theory into a deep model.However, prior art faces several limitations including supporting restricted forms of logic theories and relying on the assumption of independence between the logic and the deep network. We present Concordia, a framework overcoming the limitations of prior art. Concordia is agnostic both to the deep network and the logic theory offering support for a wide range of probabilistic theories. Our framework can support supervised training of both components and unsupervised training of the neural component. Concordia has been successfully applied to tasks beyond NLP and data classification, improving the accuracy of state-of-the-art on collective activity detection, entity linking and recommendation tasks.

3.From Temporal to Contemporaneous Iterative Causal Discovery in the Presence of Latent Confounders

Authors:Raanan Y. Rohekar, Shami Nisimov, Yaniv Gurwicz, Gal Novik

Abstract: We present a constraint-based algorithm for learning causal structures from observational time-series data, in the presence of latent confounders. We assume a discrete-time, stationary structural vector autoregressive process, with both temporal and contemporaneous causal relations. One may ask if temporal and contemporaneous relations should be treated differently. The presented algorithm gradually refines a causal graph by learning long-term temporal relations before short-term ones, where contemporaneous relations are learned last. This ordering of causal relations to be learnt leads to a reduction in the required number of statistical tests. We validate this reduction empirically and demonstrate that it leads to higher accuracy for synthetic data and more plausible causal graphs for real-world data compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.

4.Knowledge-based Reasoning and Learning under Partial Observability in Ad Hoc Teamwork

Authors:Hasra Dodampegama, Mohan Sridharan

Abstract: Ad hoc teamwork refers to the problem of enabling an agent to collaborate with teammates without prior coordination. Data-driven methods represent the state of the art in ad hoc teamwork. They use a large labeled dataset of prior observations to model the behavior of other agent types and to determine the ad hoc agent's behavior. These methods are computationally expensive, lack transparency, and make it difficult to adapt to previously unseen changes, e.g., in team composition. Our recent work introduced an architecture that determined an ad hoc agent's behavior based on non-monotonic logical reasoning with prior commonsense domain knowledge and predictive models of other agents' behavior that were learned from limited examples. In this paper, we substantially expand the architecture's capabilities to support: (a) online selection, adaptation, and learning of the models that predict the other agents' behavior; and (b) collaboration with teammates in the presence of partial observability and limited communication. We illustrate and experimentally evaluate the capabilities of our architecture in two simulated multiagent benchmark domains for ad hoc teamwork: Fort Attack and Half Field Offense. We show that the performance of our architecture is comparable or better than state of the art data-driven baselines in both simple and complex scenarios, particularly in the presence of limited training data, partial observability, and changes in team composition.

5.Cross Modal Data Discovery over Structured and Unstructured Data Lakes

Authors:Mohamed Y. Eltabakh, Mayuresh Kunjir, Ahmed Elmagarmid, Mohammad Shahmeer Ahmad

Abstract: Organizations are collecting increasingly large amounts of data for data driven decision making. These data are often dumped into a centralized repository, e.g., a data lake, consisting of thousands of structured and unstructured datasets. Perversely, such mixture of datasets makes the problem of discovering elements (e.g., tables or documents) that are relevant to a user's query or an analytical task very challenging. Despite the recent efforts in data discovery, the problem remains widely open especially in the two fronts of (1) discovering relationships and relatedness across structured and unstructured datasets where existing techniques suffer from either scalability, being customized for a specific problem type (e.g., entity matching or data integration), or demolishing the structural properties on its way, and (2) developing a holistic system for integrating various similarity measurements and sketches in an effective way to boost the discovery accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new data discovery system, named CMDL, for addressing these two limitations. CMDL supports the data discovery process over both structured and unstructured data while retaining the structural properties of tables.

6.STEVE-1: A Generative Model for Text-to-Behavior in Minecraft

Authors:Shalev Lifshitz, Keiran Paster, Harris Chan, Jimmy Ba, Sheila McIlraith

Abstract: Constructing AI models that respond to text instructions is challenging, especially for sequential decision-making tasks. This work introduces an instruction-tuned Video Pretraining (VPT) model for Minecraft called STEVE-1, demonstrating that the unCLIP approach, utilized in DALL-E 2, is also effective for creating instruction-following sequential decision-making agents. STEVE-1 is trained in two steps: adapting the pretrained VPT model to follow commands in MineCLIP's latent space, then training a prior to predict latent codes from text. This allows us to finetune VPT through self-supervised behavioral cloning and hindsight relabeling, bypassing the need for costly human text annotations. By leveraging pretrained models like VPT and MineCLIP and employing best practices from text-conditioned image generation, STEVE-1 costs just $60 to train and can follow a wide range of short-horizon open-ended text and visual instructions in Minecraft. STEVE-1 sets a new bar for open-ended instruction following in Minecraft with low-level controls (mouse and keyboard) and raw pixel inputs, far outperforming previous baselines. We provide experimental evidence highlighting key factors for downstream performance, including pretraining, classifier-free guidance, and data scaling. All resources, including our model weights, training scripts, and evaluation tools are made available for further research.

7.chemSKI with tokens: world building and economy in the SKI universe

Authors:Marius Buliga

Abstract: chemSKI with tokens is a confluent graph rewrite system where all rewrites are local, which moreover can be used to do SKI calculus reductions. The graph rewrites of chemSKI are made conservative by the use of tokens. We thus achieve several goals: conservative rewrites in a chemical style, a solution to the problem of new edge names in a distributed, decentralized graphical reduction and a new estimation of the cost of a combinatory calculus computation. This formalism can be used either as an artificial chemistry or as a model of a virtual decentralized machine which performs only local reductions. A programs repository and the same article with simulations are available at github at

1.Medication Recommendation via Domain Knowledge Informed Deep Learning

Authors:Sicen Liu, Xiaolong Wang, Xianbing Zhao, Hao Chen

Abstract: Medication recommendation is a fundamental yet crucial branch of healthcare, which provides opportunities to support clinical physicians with more accurate medication prescriptions for patients with complex health conditions. Learning from electronic health records (EHR) to recommend medications is the most common way in previous studies. However, most of them neglect incorporating domain knowledge according to the clinical manifestations in the EHR of the patient. To address these issues, we propose a novel \textbf{D}omain \textbf{K}nowledge \textbf{I}nformed \textbf{Net}work (DKINet) to integrate domain knowledge with observable clinical manifestations of the patient, which is the first dynamic domain knowledge informed framework toward medication recommendation. In particular, we first design a knowledge-driven encoder to capture the domain information and then develop a data-driven encoder to integrate domain knowledge into the observable EHR. To endow the model with the capability of temporal decision, we design an explicit medication encoder for learning the longitudinal dependence of the patient. Extensive experiments on three publicly available datasets verify the superiority of our method. The code will be public upon acceptance.

2.Knowledge Base Question Answering for Space Debris Queries

Authors:Paul Darm, Antonio Valerio Miceli-Barone, Shay B. Cohen, Annalisa Riccardi

Abstract: Space agencies execute complex satellite operations that need to be supported by the technical knowledge contained in their extensive information systems. Knowledge bases (KB) are an effective way of storing and accessing such information at scale. In this work we present a system, developed for the European Space Agency (ESA), that can answer complex natural language queries, to support engineers in accessing the information contained in a KB that models the orbital space debris environment. Our system is based on a pipeline which first generates a sequence of basic database operations, called a %program sketch, from a natural language question, then specializes the sketch into a concrete query program with mentions of entities, attributes and relations, and finally executes the program against the database. This pipeline decomposition approach enables us to train the system by leveraging out-of-domain data and semi-synthetic data generated by GPT-3, thus reducing overfitting and shortcut learning even with limited amount of in-domain training data. Our code can be found at \url{}.

3.Human Control: Definitions and Algorithms

Authors:Ryan Carey, Tom Everitt

Abstract: How can humans stay in control of advanced artificial intelligence systems? One proposal is corrigibility, which requires the agent to follow the instructions of a human overseer, without inappropriately influencing them. In this paper, we formally define a variant of corrigibility called shutdown instructability, and show that it implies appropriate shutdown behavior, retention of human autonomy, and avoidance of user harm. We also analyse the related concepts of non-obstruction and shutdown alignment, three previously proposed algorithms for human control, and one new algorithm.

4.Human or Not? A Gamified Approach to the Turing Test

Authors:Daniel Jannai, Amos Meron, Barak Lenz, Yoav Levine, Yoav Shoham

Abstract: We present "Human or Not?", an online game inspired by the Turing test, that measures the capability of AI chatbots to mimic humans in dialog, and of humans to tell bots from other humans. Over the course of a month, the game was played by over 1.5 million users who engaged in anonymous two-minute chat sessions with either another human or an AI language model which was prompted to behave like humans. The task of the players was to correctly guess whether they spoke to a person or to an AI. This largest scale Turing-style test conducted to date revealed some interesting facts. For example, overall users guessed the identity of their partners correctly in only 68% of the games. In the subset of the games in which users faced an AI bot, users had even lower correct guess rates of 60% (that is, not much higher than chance). This white paper details the development, deployment, and results of this unique experiment. While this experiment calls for many extensions and refinements, these findings already begin to shed light on the inevitable near future which will commingle humans and AI.

1.Temporally Layered Architecture for Efficient Continuous Control

Authors:Devdhar Patel, Terrence Sejnowski, Hava Siegelmann

Abstract: We present a temporally layered architecture (TLA) for temporally adaptive control with minimal energy expenditure. The TLA layers a fast and a slow policy together to achieve temporal abstraction that allows each layer to focus on a different time scale. Our design draws on the energy-saving mechanism of the human brain, which executes actions at different timescales depending on the environment's demands. We demonstrate that beyond energy saving, TLA provides many additional advantages, including persistent exploration, fewer required decisions, reduced jerk, and increased action repetition. We evaluate our method on a suite of continuous control tasks and demonstrate the significant advantages of TLA over existing methods when measured over multiple important metrics. We also introduce a multi-objective score to qualitatively assess continuous control policies and demonstrate a significantly better score for TLA. Our training algorithm uses minimal communication between the slow and fast layers to train both policies simultaneously, making it viable for future applications in distributed control.

2.Large-scale Ridesharing DARP Instances Based on Real Travel Demand

Authors:David Fiedler, Jan Mrkos

Abstract: Accurately predicting the real-life performance of algorithms solving the Dial-a-Ride Problem (DARP) in the context of Mobility on Demand (MoD) systems with ridesharing requires evaluating them on representative instances. However, the benchmarking of state-of-the-art DARP solution methods has been limited to small, artificial instances or outdated non-public instances, hindering direct comparisons. With the rise of large MoD systems and the availability of open travel demand datasets for many US cities, there is now an opportunity to evaluate these algorithms on standardized, realistic, and representative instances. Despite the significant challenges involved in processing obfuscated and diverse datasets, we have developed a methodology using which we have created a comprehensive set of large-scale demand instances based on real-world data. These instances cover diverse use cases, one of which is demonstrated in an evaluation of two established DARP methods: the insertion heuristic and optimal vehicle-group assignment method. We publish the full results of both methods in a standardized format. The results show significant differences between areas in all measured quantities, emphasizing the importance of evaluating methods across different cities.

3.Bottom-Up Grounding in the Probabilistic Logic Programming System Fusemate

Authors:Peter Baumgartner, Elena Tartaglia

Abstract: This paper introduces the Fusemate probabilistic logic programming system. Fusemate's inference engine comprises a grounding component and a variable elimination method for probabilistic inference. Fusemate differs from most other systems by grounding the program in a bottom-up way instead of the common top-down way. While bottom-up grounding is attractive for a number of reasons, e.g., for dynamically creating distributions of varying support sizes, it makes it harder to control the amount of ground clauses generated. We address this problem by interleaving grounding (along program stratification) with a query-guided relevance test. This test prunes ground rules whose heads are inconsistent with the query dynamically extended by the ground rules so far. We present our method in detail and demonstrate it with examples that involve ``time'', such as (hidden) Markov models. Our experiments demonstrate competitive or better performance compared to a state-of-the probabilistic logic programming system, in particular for high branching problems.

4.IDToolkit: A Toolkit for Benchmarking and Developing Inverse Design Algorithms in Nanophotonics

Authors:Jia-Qi Yang, Yu-Cheng Xu, Jia-Lei Shen, Ke-Bin Fan, De-Chuan Zhan, Yang Yang

Abstract: Aiding humans with scientific designs is one of the most exciting of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), due to their potential for the discovery of new drugs, design of new materials and chemical compounds, etc. However, scientific design typically requires complex domain knowledge that is not familiar to AI researchers. Further, scientific studies involve professional skills to perform experiments and evaluations. These obstacles prevent AI researchers from developing specialized methods for scientific designs. To take a step towards easy-to-understand and reproducible research of scientific design, we propose a benchmark for the inverse design of nanophotonic devices, which can be verified computationally and accurately. Specifically, we implemented three different nanophotonic design problems, namely a radiative cooler, a selective emitter for thermophotovoltaics, and structural color filters, all of which are different in design parameter spaces, complexity, and design targets. The benchmark environments are implemented with an open-source simulator. We further implemented 10 different inverse design algorithms and compared them in a reproducible and fair framework. The results revealed the strengths and weaknesses of existing methods, which shed light on several future directions for developing more efficient inverse design algorithms. Our benchmark can also serve as the starting point for more challenging scientific design problems. The code of IDToolkit is available at

5.DHRL-FNMR: An Intelligent Multicast Routing Approach Based on Deep Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning in SDN

Authors:Miao Ye, Chenwei Zhao, Xingsi Xue, Jinqiang Li, Hongwen Hu, Yejin Yang, Qiuxiang Jiang

Abstract: The optimal multicast tree problem in the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) multicast routing is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. Although existing SDN intelligent solution methods, which are based on deep reinforcement learning, can dynamically adapt to complex network link state changes, these methods are plagued by problems such as redundant branches, large action space, and slow agent convergence. In this paper, an SDN intelligent multicast routing algorithm based on deep hierarchical reinforcement learning is proposed to circumvent the aforementioned problems. First, the multicast tree construction problem is decomposed into two sub-problems: the fork node selection problem and the construction of the optimal path from the fork node to the destination node. Second, based on the information characteristics of SDN global network perception, the multicast tree state matrix, link bandwidth matrix, link delay matrix, link packet loss rate matrix, and sub-goal matrix are designed as the state space of intrinsic and meta controllers. Then, in order to mitigate the excessive action space, our approach constructs different action spaces at the upper and lower levels. The meta-controller generates an action space using network nodes to select the fork node, and the intrinsic controller uses the adjacent edges of the current node as its action space, thus implementing four different action selection strategies in the construction of the multicast tree. To facilitate the intelligent agent in constructing the optimal multicast tree with greater speed, we developed alternative reward strategies that distinguish between single-step node actions and multi-step actions towards multiple destination nodes.

6.Strategic Reasoning with Language Models

Authors:Kanishk Gandhi, Dorsa Sadigh, Noah D. Goodman

Abstract: Strategic reasoning enables agents to cooperate, communicate, and compete with other agents in diverse situations. Existing approaches to solving strategic games rely on extensive training, yielding strategies that do not generalize to new scenarios or games without retraining. Large Language Models (LLMs), with their ability to comprehend and generate complex, context-rich language, could prove powerful as tools for strategic gameplay. This paper introduces an approach that uses pretrained LLMs with few-shot chain-of-thought examples to enable strategic reasoning for AI agents. Our approach uses systematically generated demonstrations of reasoning about states, values, and beliefs to prompt the model. Using extensive variations of simple matrix games, we show that strategies that are derived based on systematically generated prompts generalize almost perfectly to new game structures, alternate objectives, and hidden information. Additionally, we demonstrate our approach can lead to human-like negotiation strategies in realistic scenarios without any extra training or fine-tuning. Our results highlight the ability of LLMs, guided by systematic reasoning demonstrations, to adapt and excel in diverse strategic scenarios.

7.Intent-aligned AI systems deplete human agency: the need for agency foundations research in AI safety

Authors:Catalin Mitelut, Ben Smith, Peter Vamplew

Abstract: The rapid advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) systems suggests that artificial general intelligence (AGI) systems may soon arrive. Many researchers are concerned that AIs and AGIs will harm humans via intentional misuse (AI-misuse) or through accidents (AI-accidents). In respect of AI-accidents, there is an increasing effort focused on developing algorithms and paradigms that ensure AI systems are aligned to what humans intend, e.g. AI systems that yield actions or recommendations that humans might judge as consistent with their intentions and goals. Here we argue that alignment to human intent is insufficient for safe AI systems and that preservation of long-term agency of humans may be a more robust standard, and one that needs to be separated explicitly and a priori during optimization. We argue that AI systems can reshape human intention and discuss the lack of biological and psychological mechanisms that protect humans from loss of agency. We provide the first formal definition of agency-preserving AI-human interactions which focuses on forward-looking agency evaluations and argue that AI systems - not humans - must be increasingly tasked with making these evaluations. We show how agency loss can occur in simple environments containing embedded agents that use temporal-difference learning to make action recommendations. Finally, we propose a new area of research called "agency foundations" and pose four initial topics designed to improve our understanding of agency in AI-human interactions: benevolent game theory, algorithmic foundations of human rights, mechanistic interpretability of agency representation in neural-networks and reinforcement learning from internal states.

1.Action valuation of on- and off-ball soccer players based on multi-agent deep reinforcement learning

Authors:Hiroshi Nakahara, Kazushi Tsutsui, Kazuya Takeda, Keisuke Fujii

Abstract: Analysis of invasive sports such as soccer is challenging because the game situation changes continuously in time and space, and multiple agents individually recognize the game situation and make decisions. Previous studies using deep reinforcement learning have often considered teams as a single agent and valued the teams and players who hold the ball in each discrete event. Then it was challenging to value the actions of multiple players, including players far from the ball, in a spatiotemporally continuous state space. In this paper, we propose a method of valuing possible actions for on- and off-ball soccer players in a single holistic framework based on multi-agent deep reinforcement learning. We consider a discrete action space in a continuous state space that mimics that of Google research football and leverages supervised learning for actions in reinforcement learning. In the experiment, we analyzed the relationships with conventional indicators, season goals, and game ratings by experts, and showed the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our approach can assess how multiple players move continuously throughout the game, which is difficult to be discretized or labeled but vital for teamwork, scouting, and fan engagement.

2.On the Correspondence Between Monotonic Max-Sum GNNs and Datalog

Authors:David Tena Cucala, Bernardo Cuenca Grau, Boris Motik, Egor V. Kostylev

Abstract: Although there has been significant interest in applying machine learning techniques to structured data, the expressivity (i.e., a description of what can be learned) of such techniques is still poorly understood. In this paper, we study data transformations based on graph neural networks (GNNs). First, we note that the choice of how a dataset is encoded into a numeric form processable by a GNN can obscure the characterisation of a model's expressivity, and we argue that a canonical encoding provides an appropriate basis. Second, we study the expressivity of monotonic max-sum GNNs, which cover a subclass of GNNs with max and sum aggregation functions. We show that, for each such GNN, one can compute a Datalog program such that applying the GNN to any dataset produces the same facts as a single round of application of the program's rules to the dataset. Monotonic max-sum GNNs can sum an unbounded number of feature vectors which can result in arbitrarily large feature values, whereas rule application requires only a bounded number of constants. Hence, our result shows that the unbounded summation of monotonic max-sum GNNs does not increase their expressive power. Third, we sharpen our result to the subclass of monotonic max GNNs, which use only the max aggregation function, and identify a corresponding class of Datalog programs.

3.Towards a Unifying Model of Rationality in Multiagent Systems

Authors:Robert Loftin, Mustafa Mert Çelikok, Frans A. Oliehoek

Abstract: Multiagent systems deployed in the real world need to cooperate with other agents (including humans) nearly as effectively as these agents cooperate with one another. To design such AI, and provide guarantees of its effectiveness, we need to clearly specify what types of agents our AI must be able to cooperate with. In this work we propose a generic model of socially intelligent agents, which are individually rational learners that are also able to cooperate with one another (in the sense that their joint behavior is Pareto efficient). We define rationality in terms of the regret incurred by each agent over its lifetime, and show how we can construct socially intelligent agents for different forms of regret. We then discuss the implications of this model for the development of "robust" MAS that can cooperate with a wide variety of socially intelligent agents.

4.Reason to explain: Interactive contrastive explanations (REASONX)

Authors:Laura State, Salvatore Ruggieri, Franco Turini

Abstract: Many high-performing machine learning models are not interpretable. As they are increasingly used in decision scenarios that can critically affect individuals, it is necessary to develop tools to better understand their outputs. Popular explanation methods include contrastive explanations. However, they suffer several shortcomings, among others an insufficient incorporation of background knowledge, and a lack of interactivity. While (dialogue-like) interactivity is important to better communicate an explanation, background knowledge has the potential to significantly improve their quality, e.g., by adapting the explanation to the needs of the end-user. To close this gap, we present REASONX, an explanation tool based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP). REASONX provides interactive contrastive explanations that can be augmented by background knowledge, and allows to operate under a setting of under-specified information, leading to increased flexibility in the provided explanations. REASONX computes factual and constrative decision rules, as well as closest constrative examples. It provides explanations for decision trees, which can be the ML models under analysis, or global/local surrogate models of any ML model. While the core part of REASONX is built on CLP, we also provide a program layer that allows to compute the explanations via Python, making the tool accessible to a wider audience. We illustrate the capability of REASONX on a synthetic data set, and on a a well-developed example in the credit domain. In both cases, we can show how REASONX can be flexibly used and tailored to the needs of the user.

5.An Emergency Disposal Decision-making Method with Human--Machine Collaboration

Authors:Yibo Guo, Jingyi Xue, Yingkang Zhang, Mingliang Xu

Abstract: Rapid developments in artificial intelligence technology have led to unmanned systems replacing human beings in many fields requiring high-precision predictions and decisions. In modern operational environments, all job plans are affected by emergency events such as equipment failures and resource shortages, making a quick resolution critical. The use of unmanned systems to assist decision-making can improve resolution efficiency, but their decision-making is not interpretable and may make the wrong decisions. Current unmanned systems require human supervision and control. Based on this, we propose a collaborative human--machine method for resolving unplanned events using two phases: task filtering and task scheduling. In the task filtering phase, we propose a human--machine collaborative decision-making algorithm for dynamic tasks. The GACRNN model is used to predict the state of the job nodes, locate the key nodes, and generate a machine-predicted resolution task list. A human decision-maker supervises the list in real time and modifies and confirms the machine-predicted list through the human--machine interface. In the task scheduling phase, we propose a scheduling algorithm that integrates human experience constraints. The steps to resolve an event are inserted into the normal job sequence to schedule the resolution. We propose several human--machine collaboration methods in each phase to generate steps to resolve an unplanned event while minimizing the impact on the original job plan.

6.Doing the right thing for the right reason: Evaluating artificial moral cognition by probing cost insensitivity