arXiv daily: Optics

arXiv daily: Optics (physics.optics)

1.Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in nonlinear optics

Authors:Victor P. Ruban

Abstract: Paraxial propagation of a quasi-monochromatic light wave with two circular polarizations in a defocusing Kerr medium with anomalous dispersion inside a waveguide of annular cross-section is considered. In the phase-separated regime, the dynamics is similar to a flow of immiscible fluids. For some initial conditions with relative gliding of the fluids along the interface, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in its ``quantum'' variant is developed. Numerical simulations of the corresponding coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations have shown formation of specific structures on the nonlinear stage of the instability. Similar structures have been known in the theory of binary Bose-Einstein condensates, but for optics they are presented here for the first time.

2.Floquet edge solitons in modulated trimer waveguide arrays

Authors:Shuang Shen, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Yongdong Li, Yiqi Zhang

Abstract: We show that one-dimensional Floquet trimer arrays with periodically oscillating waveguides support two different and co-existing types of topological Floquet edge states in two different topological gaps in Floquet spectrum. In these systems nontrivial topology is introduced by longitudinal periodic oscillations of the waveguide centers, leading to the formation of Floquet edge states in certain range of oscillation amplitudes despite the fact that the structure spends half of the period in ``instantaneously'' nontopological phase, and only during other half-period it is ``instantaneously'' topological. Two co-existing Floquet edge states are characterized by different phase relations between bright spots in the unit cell -- in one mode these spots are in-phase, while in other mode they are out-of-phase. We show that in focusing nonlinear medium topological Floquet edge solitons, representing exactly periodic nonlinear localized Floquet states, can bifurcate from both these types of linear edge states. Both types of Floquet edge solitons can be stable and can be created dynamically using two-site excitations.

3.Directional silicon nano-antennas for quantum emitter control designed by evolutionary optimization

Authors:Romain Hernandez, Peter R. Wiecha, Jean-Marie Poumirol, Gonzague Agez, Arnaud Arbouet, Laurence Ressier, Vincent Paillard, Aurélien Cuche

Abstract: We optimize silicon nano-antennas to enhance and steer the emission of local quantum sources. We combine global evolutionary optimization (EO) with frequency domain electrodynamical simulations, and compare design strategies based on resonant and non-resonant building blocks. Specifically, we investigate the performance of models with different degrees of freedom but comparable amount of available material. We find that simpler geometric models allow significantly faster convergence of the optimizer, which, expectedly, comes at the cost of a reduced optical performance. We finally analyze the physical mechanisms underlying the directional emission that also comes with an emission rate enhancement, and find a surprising robustness against perturbations of the source emitter location. This makes the structures highly interesting for actual nano-fabrication. We believe that optimized, all-dielectric silicon nano-antennas have high potential for genuine breakthroughs in a multitude of applications in nanophotonics and quantum technologies.

4.Dual-angle interferometric scattering microscopy for optical multiparametric particle characterization

Authors:Erik Olsén, Berenice Garcia, Fredrik Skärberg, Petteri Parkkila, Giovanni Volpe, Fredrik Höök, Daniel Midtvedt

Abstract: Traditional single-nanoparticle sizing using optical microscopy techniques assesses size via the diffusion constant, which requires suspended particles in a medium of known viscosity. However, these assumptions are typically not fulfilled in complex natural sample environments. Here, we introduce dual-angle interferometric scattering microscopy (DAISY), enabling optical quantification of both size and polarizability of individual nanoparticles without requiring a priori information regarding the surrounding media or super-resolution imaging. DAISY achieves this by combining the information contained in concurrently measured forward and backward scattering images through twilight off-axis holography and interferometric scattering (iSCAT). Going beyond particle size and polarizability, single-particle morphology can be deduced from the fact that hydrodynamic radius relates to the outer particle radius while the scattering-based size estimate depends on the internal mass distribution of the particles. We demonstrate this by optically differentiating biomolecular fractal aggregates from spherical particles in fetal bovine serum at the single particle level.

5.Photochemical reaction enabling the engineering of photonic spin-orbit coupling in organic-crystal optical microcavities

Authors:Qian Liang, Xuekai Ma, Jiahuan Ren, Teng Long, Chunling Gu, Cunbin An, Hongbing Fu, Stefan Schumacher, Qing Liao

Abstract: The control and active manipulation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in photonic systems is fundamental in the development of modern spin optics and topological photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate the control of an artificial Rashba-Dresselhaus (RD) SOC mediated by photochemical reactions in a microcavity filled with an organic single-crystal of photochromic phase-change character. Splitting of the circular polarization components of the optical modes induced by photonic RD SOC is observed experimentally in momentum space. By applying an ultraviolet light beam, we control the spatial molecular orientation through a photochemical reaction and with that we control the energies of the photonic modes. This way we realize a reversible conversion of spin-splitting of the optical modes with different energies, leading to an optically controlled switching between circularly and linearly polarized emission from our device. Our strategy of in situ and reversible engineering of SOC induced by a light field provides a promising approach to actively design and manipulate synthetic gauge fields towards future on-chip integration in photonics and topological photonic devices.

6.Agile chip-scale electro-optic frequency comb spectrometer with millivolt drive voltages

Authors:Kyunghun Han, David A. Long, Sean M. Bresler, Junyeob Song, Yiliang Bao, Benjamin J. Reschovsky, Kartik Srinivasan, Jason J. Gorman, Vladimir A. Aksyuk, Thomas W. LeBrun

Abstract: Here, we present an on-chip spectrometer that leverages an integrated thin-film lithium niobate modulator to produce a frequency-agile electro-optic frequency comb for interrogating chip-scale temperature and acceleration sensors. The low half-wave voltage, $V_{\pi}$, of the modulators and the chirped comb process allows for ultralow radiofrequency drive voltages, which are as much as seven orders of magnitude less than the lowest found in the literature and are generated using a chip-scale, microcontroller-driven direct digital synthesizer. The on-chip comb spectrometer is able to simultaneously interrogate both the on-chip temperature sensor and an off-chip, microfabricated optomechanical accelerometer with cutting-edge sensitivities of $\approx 5 {\mu} \mathrm{K} \cdot \mathrm{Hz} ^{-1/2}$ and $\approx 130 {\mu}\mathrm{m} \cdot \mathrm{s}^{-2} \cdot \mathrm{Hz}^{-1/2}$, respectively. Notable strengths of this platform include the frequency agility of the optical frequency combs, ultralow radiofrequency power requirements and compatibility with a broad range of existing photonic integrated circuit technologies.

7.Optical momentum distributions in monochromatic, isotropic random vector fields

Authors:Titouan Gadeyne, Mark R. Dennis

Abstract: We investigate the decomposition of the electromagnetic Poynting momentum density in three-dimensional random monochromatic fields into orbital and spin parts, using analytical and numerical methods. In sharp contrast with the paraxial case, the orbital and spin momenta in isotropic random fields are found to be identically distributed in magnitude, increasing the discrepancy between the Poynting and orbital pictures of energy flow. Spatial correlation functions reveal differences in the generic organization of different optical momenta in complex natural light fields, with the orbital current typically forming broad channels of unidirectional flow, and the spin current manifesting larger vorticity and changing direction over subwavelength distances. These results are extended to random fields with pure helicity, in relation to the inclusion of electric-magnetic democracy in the definition of optical momenta.

8.Intense high-order harmonic generation in giant fullerene molecule C$_{240}$

Authors:H. K. Avetissian, S. Sukiasyan, T. M. Markosyan, G. F. Mkrtchian

Abstract: In this work the extreme nonlinear optical response of a giant fullerene molecule C$_{240}$ in strong laser field is studied. The investigation of high-order harmonic generation in such quantum nanostructure is presented modeling the C$_{240}$ molecule and its interaction with the laser field in the scope of the tight-binding mean-field approach. Electron-electron interaction is modeled by the parametrized Ohno potentail, which takes into account long-range Coulomb interaction. The essential role of many body Coulomb interaction in determining of harmonics intensities is demonstrated. We also consider vacancy-deffected molecule C$_{240}$. The presence of a single vacancy breaks the icosahedral symmetry leading to the emergence of intense even-order harmonics. We examine the dependence of moderate harmonics on laser frequency that shows the multiphoton resonant nature of high harmonics generation. The dependence of cutoff harmonics on both laser intensity and frequency are examined too.

9.On the interpretation and significance of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in infrared spectroscopy

Authors:Sven Nordebo

Abstract: In this paper we revisit the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem with derivations and interpretations based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). As a starting point we take the widely cited semiclassical expression of the theorem connecting the absorption coefficient with the correlation spectra of a radiating molecular dipole. The literature is suggesting how this connection can be derived in terms of quantum mechanical statistical averages, but the corresponding results in terms of QED seems to be very difficult to trace in detail. The problem is therefore addressed here based on first principles. Interestingly, it turns out that the QED approach applied to the aforementioned statistical averages does not only prove the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, but it also provides a derivation and a quantum mechanical interpretation of Schwarzschild's equation for radiative transfer. In particular, it is found that the classical Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law is due to absorption as well as of stimulated emission, and furthermore that the source term in Schwarzschild's equation (Kirchhoff's law) is due solely to spontaneous emission. The significance of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is finally elaborated on in terms of the appropriate scaling of line strength parameters (including line mixing) which is relevant in far infrared and millimeter wave broadband applications.

10.Single 5-nm quantum dot detection via microtoroid optical resonator photothermal microscopy

Authors:Shuang Hao, Sartanee Suebka, Judith Su

Abstract: Label-free detection techniques for single particles and molecules play an important role in basic science, disease diagnostics, and nanomaterial investigations. While traditional fluorescence-based methods offer powerful tools for single molecule detection and imaging, they are limited by a narrow range of molecular probes and issues such as photoblinking and photobleaching. Photothermal microscopy has emerged as a label-free imaging technique capable of detecting individual nanoabsorbers with high sensitivity. Whispering gallery mode microresonators can confine light in a small volume for enhanced light-matter interaction and thus are a promising ultra-sensitive photothermal microscopy platform. Previously microtoroid optical resonators were combined with photothermal microscopy to detect 250 nm long gold nanorods. Here, we combine whispering gallery mode microtoroid optical resonators with photothermal microscopy to spatially detect 5 nm diameter quantum dots (QDs) with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exceeding $10^4$. To achieve this, we integrated our microtoroid based photothermal microscopy setup with a low amplitude modulated pump laser and utilized the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller output as the photothermal signal source to reduce noise and enhance signal stability. The measured heat dissipation of these 5 nm QDs is below the detectable level from single dye molecules, showcasing the high sensitivity and discrimination capabilities of this platform. We anticipate that our work will have application in a wide variety of fields, including the biological sciences, nanotechnology, materials science, chemistry, and medicine.

1.Dual-recycled interference-based weak value metrology

Authors:Zi-Rui Zhong, Wei-Jun Tan, Yue Chen, Qing-Lin Wu

Abstract: Weak-value-amplification permits small effects to be measured as observable changes at the sacrifice of power due to post-selection. The power recycling scheme has been proven to eliminate this inefficiency of the rare post-selection, thus surpassing the limit of the shot noise and improving the precision of the measurement. However, the improvement is strictly limited by the system setup, especially the system loss. Here we introduce a dual recycling model based on the interferometric weak-value-based deflection measurement. Two mirrors, the power-recycling mirror and signal-recycling mirror, are placed at the bright and dark port of the interferometer respectively, creating a composite resonator. The results show that both the power and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are greatly enhanced in a wider range of experimental parameters compared to the power-recycling scheme. This work considerably loosens the constraint of the system setup and further explores the real advantage of weak measurement over traditional schemes.

2.Self-hybridized vibrational-Mie polaritons in water droplets

Authors:Adriana Canales, Oleg V. Kotov, Betül Küçüköz, Timur O. Shegai

Abstract: We study the self-hybridization between Mie modes supported by water droplets with stretching and bending vibrations in water molecules. Droplets with radii $>2.7~\mu m$ are found to be polaritonic on the onset of the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime. Similarly, the effect is observed in larger deuterated water droplets at lower frequencies. Our results indicate that polaritonic states are ubiquitous in nature and occur in water droplets in mists, fogs, and clouds. This finding may have implications not only for polaritonic physics but also for aerosol and atmospheric sciences.

1.Non-reciprocal absorption and zero reflection in physically separated dual photonic resonators by traveling-wave-induced indirect coupling

Authors:Bojong Kim, Junyoung Kim, Hae-Chan Jeon, Sang-Koog Kim

Abstract: We experimentally explored novel behaviors of non-reciprocal absorption and almost zero reflection in a dual photon resonator system, which is physically separated and composed of two inverted split ring resonators (ISRRs) with varying inter-distances. We also found that an electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT)-like peak at a specific inter-distance of d = 18 mm through traveling waves flowing along a shared microstrip line to which the dual ISRRs are dissipatively coupled. With the aid of CST-simulations and analytical modeling, we found that destructive and/or constructive interferences in traveling waves, indirectly coupled to each ISRR, result in a traveling-wave-induced transparency peak within a narrow window. Furthermore, we observed not only strong non-reciprocal responses of reflectivity and absorptivity at individual inter-distances exactly at the corresponding EIT-like peak positions, but also nearly zero reflection and almost perfect absorption for a specific case of d = 20 mm. Finally, the unidirectional absorptions with zero reflection at d = 20 mm are found to be ascribed to a non-Hermitian origin. This work not only provides a better understanding of traveling-wave-induced indirect coupling between two photonic resonators without magnetic coupling, but also suggests potential implications for the resulting non-reciprocal behaviors of absorption and reflection in microwave circuits and quantum information devices.

2.Supercontinuum generation in a graded-index multimode tellurite fiber

Authors:Ekaterina Krutova, Lauri Salmela, Zahra Eslami, Tanvi Karpate, Mariusz Klimczak, Ryszard Buczynski, Goëry Genty

Abstract: We report a near two-octave spanning supercontinuum (SC) from 790 nm to 2900 nm in a nanostructured tellurite graded-index multimode fiber with a nanostructured core. We study the SC dynamics in different dispersion regimes and observe near-single mode spatial intensity distribution at high input energy values. Numerical simulations of the (3+1)D generalized nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation are in good agreement with our experiments. Our results open a new avenue for the generation of high-power mid-infrared SC sources in soft glass fibers.

3.Forward simulation of coherent beams on grating structures for coherent scatterometry

Authors:Martin Hammerschmidt, Lin Zschiedrich, Lauryna Siaudinyté, Phillip Manley, Philipp-Immanuel Schneider, Sven Burger

Abstract: Modelling the scattering of focused, coherent light by nano-scale structures is oftentimes used to reconstruct or infer geometrical or material properties of structures under investigation in optical scatterometry. This comprises both periodic and aperiodic nano-structures. Coherent Fourier scatterometry with focused light exploits the diffraction pattern formed by the nano-structures in Fourier plane. While the scattering of a focused beam by a spatially isolated scatterer is a standard modelling task for state-of-the art electromagnetic solvers based, e.g., on the finite element method, the case of periodically structured samples is more involved. In particular when the focused light covers several grating periods of as it is commonly the case. We will present a coherent illumination model for scattering of focused beams such as Gaussian -- and Bessel -- beams by periodic structures such as line gratings. The model allows to take into account optical wavefront aberrations in optical systems used for both, the illumination and detection of the scattered fields. We compare the model with strategies implemented on large-scale super-cells and inverse Floquet-transform strategies to superimpose both near- and far- fields coherently.

4.Polarization-selective enhancement of telecom wavelength quantum dot transitions in an elliptical bullseye resonator

Authors:Andrea Barbiero, Ginny Shooter, Tina Müller, Joanna Skiba-Szymanska, R. Mark Stevenson, Lucy E. Goff, David A. Ritchie, Andrew J. Shields

Abstract: Semiconductor quantum dots are promising candidates for the generation of nonclassical light. Coupling a quantum dot to a device capable of providing polarization-selective enhancement of optical transitions is highly beneficial for advanced functionalities such as efficient resonant driving schemes or applications based on optical cyclicity. Here, we demonstrate broadband polarization-selective enhancement by coupling a quantum dot emitting in the telecom O-band to an elliptical bullseye resonator. We report bright single-photon emission with a degree of linear polarization of 96%, Purcell factor of 3.9, and count rates up to 3 MHz. Furthermore, we present a measurement of two-photon interference without any external polarization filtering and demonstrate compatibility with compact Stirling cryocoolers by operating the device at temperatures up to 40 K. These results represent an important step towards practical integration of optimal quantum dot photon sources in deployment-ready setups.

5.Single mode laser in the telecom range by deterministic amplification of the topological interface mode

Authors:Markus Scherrer, Chang-Won Lee, Heinz Schmid, Kirsten E. Moselund

Abstract: Photonic integrated circuits are paving the way for novel on-chip functionalities with diverse applications in communication, computing, and beyond. The integration of on-chip light sources, especially single-mode lasers, is crucial for advancing those photonic chips to their full potential. Recently, novel concepts involving topological designs introduced a variety of options for tuning device properties such as the desired single mode emission. Here we introduce a novel cavity design that allows to amplify the topological interface mode by deterministic placement of gain material within the topological lattice. The proposed design is experimentally implemented by a selective epitaxy process resulting in Si and InGaAs nanorods embedded within the same topological lattice. This results in the first demonstration of a single-mode laser in the telecom band using the concept of amplified topological modes.

6.Cryogenic fiber-coupled electro-optic characterization platform for high-speed photodiodes

Authors:Shekhar Priyadarshi, Hao Tian, Alexander Fernandez Scarioni, Silke Wolter, Oliver Kieler, Johannes Kohlmann, Jaani Nissilä, Mark Bieler

Abstract: We have developed a cryogenic characterization platform for ultrafast photodiodes, whose time domain responses are extracted by electro-optic sampling using femtosecond laser pulses in a pump-probe configuration. The excitation of the photodiodes with the pump beam and the electro-optic sampling crystals with the probe beam are realized in a fully fiber-coupled manner. This allows us to place the characterization platform in almost any temperature environment. As application example, we characterize the time-domain response of commercial p-i-n photodiodes with a nominal bandwidth of 20 GHz and 60 GHz at temperatures of 4 K and 300 K and in a large parameter range of photocurrent and reverse bias. For these photodiodes, we detect frequency components up to approximately 250 GHz, while the theoretical bandwidth of our sampling method exceeds 1 THz. Our measurements demonstrate a significant excitation power and temperature dependence of the photodiodes' ultrafast time responses, reflecting, most likely, changes in carrier mobilities and electric field screening. Since our system is an ideal tool to characterize and optimize the response of fast photodiodes at cryogenic temperatures, it has direct impact on applications in superconducting quantum technology such as the enhancement of optical links to superconducting qubits and quantum-accurate waveform generators.

7.Orbital perspective on high-harmonic generation from solids

Authors:Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Bossaer, G. Ernotte, A. M. Parks, R. E. F. Silva, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, T. Brabec, A. Luican-Mayer, G. Vampa

Abstract: High-harmonic generation in solids allows probing and controlling electron dynamics in crystals on few femtosecond timescales, paving the way to lightwave electronics. In the spatial domain, recent advances in the real-space interpretation of high-harmonic emission in solids allows imaging the field-free, static, potential of the valence electrons with picometer resolution. The combination of such extreme spatial and temporal resolutions to measure and control strong-field dynamics in solids at the atomic scale is poised to unlock a new frontier of lightwave electronics. Here, we report a strong intensity-dependent anisotropy in the high-harmonic generation from ReS$_2$ that we attribute to angle-dependent interference of currents from the different atoms in the unit cell. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the laser parameters control the relative contribution of these atoms to the high-harmonic emission. Our findings provide an unprecedented atomic perspective on strong-field dynamics in crystals and suggest that crystals with a large number of atoms in the unit cell are not necessarily more efficient harmonic emitters than those with fewer atoms.

8.The Nanoplasmonic Purcell Effect in Ultrafast and High-Light-Yield Perovskite Scintillators

Authors:Wenzheng Ye, Zhihua Yong, Michael Go, Dominik Kowal, Francesco Maddalena, Liliana Tjahjana, Wang Hong, Arramel Arramel, Christophe Dujardin, Muhammad Danang Birowosuto, Liang Jie Wong

Abstract: The development of X-ray scintillators with ultrahigh light yields and ultrafast response times is a long sought-after goal. In this work, we theoretically predict and experimentally demonstrate a fundamental mechanism that pushes the frontiers of ultrafast X-ray scintillator performance: the use of nanoscale-confined surface plasmon polariton modes to tailor the scintillator response time via the Purcell effect. By incorporating nanoplasmonic materials in scintillator devices, this work predicts over 10-fold enhancement in decay rate and 38% reduction in time resolution even with only a simple planar design. We experimentally demonstrate the nanoplasmonic Purcell effect using perovskite scintillators, enhancing the light yield by over 120% to 88 $\pm$ 11 ph/keV, and the decay rate by over 60% to 2.0 $\pm$ 0.2 ns for the average decay time, and 0.7 $\pm$ 0.1 ns for the ultrafast decay component, in good agreement with the predictions of our theoretical framework. We perform proof-of-concept X-ray imaging experiments using nanoplasmonic scintillators, demonstrating 182% enhancement in the modulation transfer function at 4 line pairs per millimeter spatial frequency. This work highlights the enormous potential of nanoplasmonics in optimizing ultrafast scintillator devices for applications including time-of-flight X-ray imaging and photon-counting computed tomography.

9.Photoinduced transition from quasi-2D Ruddlesden-Popper to 3D halide perovskites for optical writing multicolor and light-erasable images

Authors:Sergey S. Anoshkin ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia, Ivan I. Shishkin ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia, Daria I. Markina ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia, Lev S. Logunov ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia, Hilmi Volkan Demir UNAM-Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Andrey L. Rogach Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Centre for Functional Photonics, Anatoly P. Pushkarev ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia, Sergey V. Makarov ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Qingdao Innovation and Development Center, Harbin Engineering University, Qingdao, Shandong, P. R. China

Abstract: Development of advanced optical data storage, information encryption, and security labeling technologies requires low-cost materials exhibiting local, pronounced, and diverse modification of their structure-dependent optical properties under external excitation. Herein, for these purposes, we propose and develop a novel platform relying on layered lead halide Ruddlesden-Popper (quasi-2D) phases that undergo a light-induced transition towards bulk (3D) halide perovskite and employ this phenomenon for the direct optical writing of various multicolor patterns. This transition causes the weakening of quantum confinement, and hence the bandgap reduction in these photoluminescent thin films. To significantly extend the color gamut of evolving photoluminescence, we make use of mixed-halide compositions exhibiting photoinduced halide segregation. As a result, the emission wavelength of the resulting films can be widely tuned across the entire 450-600 nm range depending on the illumination conditions. We show that pulsed near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation provides high-resolution direct writing, whereas continuous-wave ultraviolet exposure is suitable for fast recording on larger scales. The luminescent micro- and macro-scale images created on such quasi-2D perovskite films can be erased during the visualization process, by which the persistence of these images to UV light exposure can be controlled and increased further with the increasing number of octahedral layers used in the perovskite stacks. This makes the proposed writing/erasing perovskite-based platform suitable for the manufacturing of both inexpensive optical data storage devices and light-erasable security labels.

1.Deep photonic reservoir computing recurrent network

Authors:Cheng Wang

Abstract: Deep neural networks usually process information through multiple hidden layers. However, most hardware reservoir computing recurrent networks only have one hidden reservoir layer, which significantly limits the capability of solving real-world complex tasks. Here we show a deep photonic reservoir computing (PRC) architecture, which is constructed by cascading injection-locked semiconductor lasers. In particular, the connection between successive hidden layers is all optical, without any optical-electrical conversion or analog-digital conversion. The proof of concept is demonstrated on a PRC consisting of 4 hidden layers and 320 interconnected neurons. In addition, we apply the deep PRC in the real-world signal equalization of an optical fiber communication system. It is found that the deep PRC owns strong ability to compensate the nonlinearity of fibers.

2.Multi-type quantum well semiconductor membrane external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs) for widely tunable continuous wave operation

Authors:Patrik Rajala, Philipp Tatar-Mathes, Hoy-My Phung, Jesse Koskinen, Sanna Ranta, Mircea Guina, Hermann Kahle

Abstract: Membrane external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs) are at the forefront of pushing the performance limits of vertically emitting semiconductor lasers. Their simple idea of using just a very thin (hundreds of nanometers to few microns) gain membrane opens up new possibilities through uniform double side optical pumping and superior heat extraction from the active area. Moreover, these advantages of MECSELs enable more complex band gap engineering possibilities for the active region by the introduction of multiple types of quantum wells (QWs) to a single laser gain structure. In this paper, we present a new design strategy for laser gain structures with several types of QWs. The aim is to achieve broadband gain with relatively high power operation and potentially a flat spectral tuning range. The emphasis in our design is on ensuring sufficient gain over a wide wavelength range, having uniform pump absorption, and restricted carrier mobility between the different quantum wells during laser operation. A full-width half-maximum tuning range of > 70 nm (> 21.7 THz) with more than 125 mW of power through the entire tuning range at room temperature is demonstrated.

3.Phase-matching gating for isolated attosecond pulse generation

Authors:Vasily V. Strelkov, Margarita A. Khokhlova

Abstract: We investigate the production of an isolated attosecond pulse~(IAP) via the phase-matching gating of high-harmonic generation by intense laser pulses. Our study is based on the integration of the propagation equation for the fundamental and generated fields with nonlinear polarisation found via the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation. We study the XUV energy as a function of the propagation distance (or the medium density) and find that the onset of the IAP production corresponds to the change from linear to quadratic dependence of this energy on the propagation distance (or density). Finally, we show that the upper limit of the fundamental pulse duration for which the IAP generation is feasible is defined by the temporal spreading of the fundamental pulse during the propagation. This nonlinear spreading is defined by the difference of the group velocities for the neutral and photoionised medium.

4.Vacancy-Engineered Phonon Polaritons in $α$-MoO$_3$

Authors:Naveed Hussain, Mashnoon Alam Sakib, Zhaoxu Li, William Harris, Shehzad Ahmed, Ruqian Wu, H. Kumar Wickramasinghe, Maxim R. Shcherbakov

Abstract: Low-symmetry van der Waals materials have enabled strong confinement of mid-infrared light through hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) at the nanoscale. Yet, the bottleneck persists in manipulating the intrinsic polaritonic dispersion to drive further progress in phonon-polaritonics. Here, we present a thermomechanical strategy to manipulate the HPhPs in $\alpha$-MoO$_3$ using high pressure and temperature treatment. The hot pressing engineers the stoichiometry of $\alpha$-MoO$_3$ by controllably introducing oxygen vacancy defects (OVDs), which cause a semiconductor-to-semimetal transition. Our density functional theory and finite-difference time-domain results, combined with experimental studies show that the OVDs induce a metastable metallic state by reducing the bandgap while modifying the intrinsic dielectric permittivity of $\alpha$-MoO$_3$. Photo-induced force microscopy confirms an average dielectric permittivity tunability of $|\Delta\varepsilon/\varepsilon|\approx0.35$ within a Reststrahlen band of $\alpha$-MoO$_3$, resulting in drastic shifts in the HPhP dispersion. The polariton lifetimes for pristine and hot-pressed flakes were measured as $0.92 \pm 0.06$ and $0.86 \pm 0.11$ ps, respectively, exhibiting a loss of only 7%, while the group velocity exhibited an increase of $38.8 \pm 0.2$%. The OVDs in $\alpha$-MoO$_3$ provide a low-loss platform that enables active tuning of mid-infrared HPhPs and have a profound impact on applications in super-resolution imaging, nanoscale thermal manipulation, boosted molecular sensing, and on-chip photonic circuits.

5.Ultrafast optical properties of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric refractory metal nitrides TiNx, ZrNx, and HfNx

Authors:Jaroslaw Judek, Rakesh Dhama, Alessandro Pianelli, Piotr Wrobel, Pawel Piotr Michalowski, Jayanta Dana, Humeyra Caglayan

Abstract: Refractory metal nitrides have recently gained attention in various fields of modern photonics due to their cheap and robust production technology, silicon-technology compatibility, high thermal and mechanical resistance, and competitive optical characteristics in comparison to typical plasmonic materials like gold and silver. In this work, we demonstrate that by varying the stoichiometry of sputtered nitride films, both static and ultrafast optical responses of refractory metal nitrides can efficiently be controlled. We further prove that the spectral changes in ultrafast transient response are directly related to the position of the epsilon-near-zero region. At the same time, the analysis of the temporal dynamics allows us to identify three time components - the "fast" femtosecond one, the "moderate" picosecond one, and the "slow" at the nanosecond time scale. We also find out that the non-stoichiometry does not significantly decrease the recovery time of the reflectance value. Our results show the strong electron-phonon coupling and reveal the importance of both the electron and lattice temperature-induced changes in the permittivity near the ENZ region and the thermal origin of the long tail in the transient optical response of refractory nitrides.

1.Ultraviolet Resonant Nanogap Antennas with Rhodium Nanocube Dimers for Enhancing Protein Intrinsic Autofluorescence

Authors:Prithu Roy, Siyuan Zhu, Jean-Benoît Claude, Jie Liu, Jérôme Wenger

Abstract: Plasmonic optical nanoantennas offer compelling solutions for enhancing light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. However, until now, their focus has been mainly limited to the visible and near-infrared regions, overlooking the immense potential of the ultraviolet (UV) range, where molecules exhibit their strongest absorption. Here, we present the realization of UV resonant nanogap antennas constructed from paired rhodium nanocubes. Rhodium emerges as a robust alternative to aluminum, offering enhanced stability in wet environments and ensuring reliable performance in the UV range. Our results showcase the nanoantenna ability to enhance the UV autofluorescence of label-free streptavidin and hemoglobin proteins. We achieve significant enhancements of the autofluorescence brightness per protein by up to 120-fold, and reach zeptoliter detection volumes enabling UV autofluorescence correlation spectroscopy (UV-FCS) at high concentrations of several tens of micromolar. We investigate the modulation of fluorescence photokinetic rates and report excellent agreement between experimental results and numerical simulations. This work expands the applicability of plasmonic nanoantennas into the deep UV range, unlocking the investigation of label-free proteins at physiological concentrations.

2.High-power intracavity few-cycle THz pulse generation using thin lithium niobate

Authors:Yicheng Wang, Tim Vogel, Mohsen Khalili, Samira Mansourzadeh, Kore Hasse, Sergiy Suntsov, Detlef Kip, Clara J. Saraceno

Abstract: Resonant enhancement both in passive and active resonators is a well-known technique for boosting the efficiency of nonlinear frequency conversion at high repetition rates. However, this route has remained poorly explored for the generation of few-cycle broadband THz transients due to the inadequacy of typically employed nonlinear crystals. Here, we demonstrate that thin lithium niobate crystals are a promising platform to circumvent current difficulties. Using a 50-um thin lithium niobate plate intracavity of a compact high-power mode-locked thin-disk laser, we generate broadband THz pulses with a spectrum extending up to 3 THz at 44.8 MHz repetition rate, driven by 264 W of intracavity average power. This approach opens the door to efficient high-power single-cycle THz generation at high repetition rates, scalable to kilowatt-level driving power with low cost and complexity.

3.Multifunction full space graphene assisted metasurface

Authors:Parsa Farzin, Amir saman Nooramin, Mohammad Soleimani

Abstract: In recent years, there has been notable advancement in programmable metasurfaces, primarily attributed to their cost-effectiveness and capacity to manipulate electromagnetic (EM) waves. Nevertheless, a significant limitation of numerous available metasurfaces is their capability to influence wavefronts only in reflection mode or transmission mode, thus catering to only half of the spatial coverage. To the best of our knowledge and for the first time, a novel graphene-assisted reprogrammable metasurface that offers the unprecedented capability to independently and concurrently manipulate EM waves within both half-spaces has been introduced in the THz frequency band.

4.Revealing the preference for correcting separated aberrations in joint optic-image design

Authors:Jingwen Zhou, Shiqi Chen, Zheng Ren, Wenguan Zhang, Jiapu Yan, Huajun Feng, Qi Li, Yueting Chen

Abstract: The joint design of the optical system and the downstream algorithm is a challenging and promising task. Due to the demand for balancing the global optimal of imaging systems and the computational cost of physical simulation, existing methods cannot achieve efficient joint design of complex systems such as smartphones and drones. In this work, starting from the perspective of the optical design, we characterize the optics with separated aberrations. Additionally, to bridge the hardware and software without gradients, an image simulation system is presented to reproduce the genuine imaging procedure of lenses with large field-of-views. As for aberration correction, we propose a network to perceive and correct the spatially varying aberrations and validate its superiority over state-of-the-art methods. Comprehensive experiments reveal that the preference for correcting separated aberrations in joint design is as follows: longitudinal chromatic aberration, lateral chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, field curvature, and coma, with astigmatism coming last. Drawing from the preference, a 10% reduction in the total track length of the consumer-level mobile phone lens module is accomplished. Moreover, this procedure spares more space for manufacturing deviations, realizing extreme-quality enhancement of computational photography. The optimization paradigm provides innovative insight into the practical joint design of sophisticated optical systems and post-processing algorithms.

5.Effect of Electron-Phonon Interactions on Three-Level QD-based Spaser: Linear and Quadratic Potentials

Authors:Ankit Purohit, Vishvendra Singh Poonia, Akhilesh Kumar Mishra

Abstract: In this article, a spaser (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) system consisting of a metal nanoparticle surrounded by a large number of quantum dots (QDs) is studied. Usually, the effect of electron-phonon interaction is neglected in the spaser related literature. But some gain media, attributed by the large Raman scattering cross-section, exhibit stronger electron-phonon interaction. No such study has been performed for a QD-based spaser. Hence, it warrants investigation of the same in spaser system. In the present work, we investigate the effects of electron-phonon interaction on a three-level QD-based spaser. We consider two types of interaction potentials, linear and quadratic, and analyze their effects individually. First, we focus on the linear electron-phonon interaction that perturbs the electrons present in the excited state. This yields a periodic steady-state number of localized surface plasmon (LSP). The accompanying analytic solution reveals that the population inversion of the gain medium depends on the linear potential strength (Frohlich constant) but does not affect the threshold of spaser considerably for the given numerical parameters. In addition to the LSP, phonons may be generated during this process, the temporal dynamics of which are also detailed. Initially, the number of phonons exhibit decaying periodic oscillations, whose amplitude depends on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction. Under continuous pumping, at later times, the number of phonons reaches a steady-state value, which may find application in realization of continuous phonon nanolasers. Further, the effect of the quadratic potential is studied phenomenologically by increasing the excited-state decay rate. This results in a large number of LSP and an intense spaser spectrum.

1.Non-volatile optical phase shift in ferroelectric hafnium zirconium oxide

Authors:Kazuma Taki, Naoki Sekine, Kouhei Watanabe, Yuto Miyatake, Tomohiro Akazawa, Hiroya Sakumoto, Kasidit Toprasertpong, Shinichi Takagi, Mitsuru Takenaka

Abstract: A non-volatile optical phase shifter is a critical component for enabling large-scale, energy-efficient programmable photonic integrated circuits (PICs) on a silicon (Si) photonics platform. While ferroelectric materials like BaTiO3 offer non-volatile optical phase shift capabilities, their compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabs is limited. Hence, the search for a novel CMOS-compatible ferroelectric material for non-volatile optical phase shifting in Si photonics is of utmost importance. Hafnium zirconium oxide (HZO) is an emerging ferroelectric material discovered in 2011, which exhibits CMOS compatibility due to the utilization of high-k dielectric HfO2 in CMOS transistors. Although extensively studied for ferroelectric transistors and memories, its application in photonics remains relatively unexplored. Here, we show the optical phase shift induced by ferroelectric HZO deposited on a SiN optical waveguide. We observed a negative change in refractive index at a 1.55 um wavelength in the pristine device regardless of the direction of an applied electric filed. We achieved approximately pi phase shift in a 4.5-mm-long device with negligible optical loss. The non-volatile multi-level optical phase shift was confirmed with a persistence of > 10000 s. This phase shift can be attributed to the spontaneous polarization within the HZO film along the external electric field. We anticipate that our results will stimulate further research on optical nonlinear effects, such as the Pockels effect, in ferroelectric HZO. This advancement will enable the development of various devices, including high-speed optical modulators. Consequently, HZO-based programmable PICs are poised to become indispensable in diverse applications, ranging from optical fiber communication and artificial intelligence to quantum computing and sensing.

2.Control of spatiotemporal localization of infrared pulses in gas-filled capillaries using weak ultraviolet pulses

Authors:Lize Han, Xiaohui Gao

Abstract: Manipulation of intense pulse propagation in gas-filled capillaries is desirable for various high-field applications. The conventional approach is to adjust the parameters of the driving laser pulse and working gas but it offers limited capability of control. Here we demonstrate through numerical simulations a novel scheme to control the intense infrared pulse propagation. A weak ultraviolet pulse is launched into the capillary with a negative delay with respect to the main infrared pulse. As the main pulse self-compresses, the control pulse becomes temporally overlapped with the main pulse due to dispersion and is red-shifted due to cross phase modulation. The frequency shift of the two pulse mitigates pulse walk-off and allows an efficient coupling, substantially extending the propagation length with an ionizing intensity. This interesting phenomenon not only adds to the rich spatiotemporal dynamics of intense pulse propagation but also has practical importance for applications such as high-order harmonic generation.

3.Focal Surface Projection: Extending Projector Depth-of-Field Using a Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator

Authors:Fumitaka Ueda, Yuta Kageyama, Daisuke Iwai, Kosuke Sato

Abstract: We present a focal surface projection to solve the narrow depth-of-field problem in projection mapping applications. We apply a phase-only spatial light modulator to realize nonuniform focusing distances, whereby the projected contents appear focused on a surface with considerable depth variations. The feasibility of the proposed technique was validated through a physical experiment.

4.Exploring van der Waals materials with high anisotropy: geometrical and optical approaches

Authors:Aleksandr S. Slavich, Georgy A. Ermolaev, Mikhail K. Tatmyshevskiy, Adilet N. Toksumakov, Olga G. Matveeva, Dmitriy V. Grudinin, Arslan Mazitov, Konstantin V. Kravtsov, Alexander V. Syuy, Dmitry M. Tsymbarenko, Mikhail S. Mironov, Sergey M. Novikov, Ivan Kruglov, Davit A. Ghazaryan, Andrey A. Vyshnevyy, Aleksey V. Arsenin, Valentyn S. Volkov, Kostya S. Novoselov

Abstract: The emergence of van der Waals (vdW) materials resulted in the discovery of their giant optical, mechanical, and electronic anisotropic properties, immediately enabling countless novel phenomena and applications. Such success inspired an intensive search for the highest possible anisotropic properties among vdW materials. Furthermore, the identification of the most promising among the huge family of vdW materials is a challenging quest requiring innovative approaches. Here, we suggest an easy-to-use method for such a survey based on the crystallographic geometrical perspective of vdW materials followed by their optical characterization. Using our approach, we found As2S3 as a highly anisotropic vdW material. It demonstrates rare giant in-plane optical anisotropy, high refractive index and transparency in the visible range, overcoming the century-long record set by rutile. Given these benefits, As2S3 opens a pathway towards next-generation nanophotonics as demonstrated by an ultrathin true zero-order quarter-waveplate that combines classical and the Fabry-Perot optical phase accumulations. Hence, our approach provides an effective and easy-to-use method to find vdW materials with the utmost anisotropic properties.

5.Photonic Structures Optimization Using Highly Data-Efficient Deep Learning: Application To Nanofin And Annular Groove Phase Masks

Authors:Nicolas Roy, Lorenzo König, Olivier Absil, Charlotte Beauthier, Alexandre Mayer, Michaël Lobet

Abstract: Metasurfaces offer a flexible framework for the manipulation of light properties in the realm of thin film optics. Specifically, the polarization of light can be effectively controlled through the use of thin phase plates. This study aims to introduce a surrogate optimization framework for these devices. The framework is applied to develop two kinds of vortex phase masks (VPMs) tailored for application in astronomical high-contrast imaging. Computational intelligence techniques are exploited to optimize the geometric features of these devices. The large design space and computational limitations necessitate the use of surrogate models like partial least squares Kriging, radial basis functions, or neural networks. However, we demonstrate the inadequacy of these methods in modeling the performance of VPMs. To address the shortcomings of these methods, a data-efficient evolutionary optimization setup using a deep neural network as a highly accurate and efficient surrogate model is proposed. The optimization process in this study employs a robust particle swarm evolutionary optimization scheme, which operates on explicit geometric parameters of the photonic device. Through this approach, optimal designs are developed for two design candidates. In the most complex case, evolutionary optimization enables optimization of the design that would otherwise be impractical (requiring too much simulations). In both cases, the surrogate model improves the reliability and efficiency of the procedure, effectively reducing the required number of simulations by up to 75% compared to conventional optimization techniques.

6.Optimization of metasurfaces for lasing with symmetry constraints on the modes

Authors:Matthew Parry, Kenneth B. Crozier, Andrey A. Sukhorukov, Dragomir N. Neshev

Abstract: The development of active metasurface systems, such as lasing metasurfaces, requires the optimization of multiple modes at the absorption and lasing wavelength bands, including their quality factor, mode profile and angular dispersion. Often, these requirements are contradictory and impossible to obtain with conventional design techniques. Importantly, the properties of the eigenmodes of a metasurface are directly linked to their symmetry, which offers an opportunity to explore mode symmetry as an objective in optimization routines for active metasurface design. Here, we propose and numerically demonstrate a novel multi-objective optimization technique based on symmetry projection operators to quantify the symmetry of the metasurface eigenmodes. We present, as an example, the optimization of a lasing metasurface based on up-converting nano-particles. Our technique allows us to optimize the absorption mode dispersion, as well as the directionality of the lasing emission and therefore offers advantages for novel lasing systems with high directionality and low lasing threshold.

7.Rayleigh-Jeans thermalization vs beam cleaning in multimode optical fibers

Authors:Kilian Baudin, Josselin Garnier, Adrien Fusaro, Claire Michel, Katarzyna Krupa, Guy Millot, Antonio Picozzi

Abstract: Classical nonlinear waves exhibit, as a general rule, an irreversible process of thermalization toward the Rayleigh-Jeans equilibrium distribution. On the other hand, several recent experiments revealed a remarkable effect of spatial organization of an optical beam that propagates through a graded-index multimode optical fiber (MMF), a phenomenon termed beam self-cleaning. Our aim here is to evidence the qualitative impact of disorder (weak random mode coupling) on the process of Rayleigh-Jeans thermalization by considering two different experimental configurations. In a first experiment, we launch speckle beams in a relatively long MMF. Our results report a clear and definite experimental demonstration of Rayleigh-Jeans thermalization through light propagation in MMFs, over a broad range of kinetic energy (i.e., degree of spatial coherence) of the injected speckle beam. In particular, the property of energy equipartition among the modes is clearly observed in the condensed regime. The experimental results also evidence the double turbulence cascade process: while the power flows toward the fundamental mode (inverse cascade), the energy flows toward the higher-order modes (direct cascade). In a 2nd experiment, a coherent laser beam is launched into a relatively short MMF length. It reveals an effect of beam cleaning driven by an incipient process of Rayleigh-Jeans thermalization. As discussed through numerical simulations, the fast process of Rayleigh-Jeans thermalization observed in the 1st experiment can be attributed due to a random phase dynamics among the modes, which is favoured by the injection of a speckle beam and the increased impact of disorder in the long fiber system.

8.Superefficient microcombs at the wafer level

Authors:Marcello Girardi, Óskar B. Helgason, Carmen H. López Ortega, Israel Rebolledo-Salgado, Victor Torres-Company

Abstract: Photonic integrated circuits utilize planar waveguides to process light on a chip, encompassing functions like generation, routing, modulation, and detection. Similar to the advancements in the electronics industry, photonics research is steadily transferring an expanding repertoire of functionalities onto integrated platforms. The combination of best-in-class materials at the wafer-level increases versatility and performance, suitable for large-scale markets, such as datacentre interconnects, lidar for autonomous driving or consumer health. These applications require mature integration platforms to sustain the production of millions of devices per year and provide efficient solutions in terms of power consumption and wavelength multiplicity for scalability. Chip-scale frequency combs offer massive wavelength parallelization, holding a transformative potential in photonic system integration, but efficient solutions have only been reported at the die level. Here, we demonstrate a silicon nitride technology on a 100 mm wafer that aids the performance requirements of soliton microcombs in terms of yield, spectral stability, and power efficiency. Soliton microcombs are reported with an average conversion efficiency exceeding 50%, featuring 100 lines at 100 GHz repetition rate. We further illustrate the enabling possibilities of the space multiplicity, i.e., the large wafer-level redundancy, for establishing new sensing applications, and show tri-comb interferometry for broadband phase-sensitive spectroscopy. Combined with heterogeneous integration of lasers, we envision a proliferation of high-performance photonic systems for applications in future navigation systems, data centre interconnects, and ranging.

9.Compact Metasurface Terahertz Spectrometer

Authors:Wenye Ji, Jin Chang, Behnam Mirzaei, Marcel Ridder, Willem Jellema, Wilt Kao, Alan Lee, Jian Rong Gao, Paul Urbach, Aurele J. L. Adam

Abstract: The electromagnetic spectrum in the terahertz frequency region is of significant importance for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies and stars throughout the history of the universe and the process of planet formation. Within the star forming clouds the constituent atoms and molecules are excited to produce characteristic emission and absorption lines, many of which happen at the terahertz frequencies. Thus, detecting the spectral signatures as unique fingerprints of molecules and atoms require terahertz spectrometers, which need to be operated in a space observatory because of the water vapor absorption in the earth atmosphere. However, current terahertz spectrometers face several challenges that limit their performances and applications, including a low resolution, limited bandwidth, large volume, and complexity. In this paper, we address the last two issues by demonstrating a concept of a compact terahertz spectrometer using metasurface. We start by modelling, designing, and fabricating a metasurface, aiming to optimize its performance within a band from 1.7 to 2.5 THz. Next, we make use of an array of quantum cascade lasers that operate at slightly different frequencies around 2.1 THz to validate the performance of the spectrometer. Finally, we apply the spectrum inversion method to analyse the measured data to confirm a resolution R of at least 273. Our results demonstrated a miniaturized terahertz spectrometer concept successfully.

1.Design and Numerical Analysis of Hyperbolic Metamaterial Based Ultrasensitive E. Coli Sensor

Authors:Dip Sarker, Ahmed Zubair

Abstract: We proposed an extremely sensitive \textit{E. Coli} sensor based on a hyperbolic metamaterial structure combining ultra-thin Ag-Al$_2$O$_3$ layers to minimize metallic optical loss. The principle relied on detecting the change in the resonance wavelength due to the interaction of bacteria with the surrounding aqueous environment by utilizing the finite-difference time-domain numerical technique. Our proposed hyperbolic metamaterial \textit{E. Coli} sensor operated in the range from visible to near-infrared wavelengths exhibiting strong bulk plasmon polaritons at the hyperbolic regime ($\lambda \geq$ 460 nm). An anisotropic hyperbolic range was obtained theoretically by solving the effective medium theory. An outstanding sensitivity of 9000 nm per bacteria was achieved for a bulk plasmon-polariton mode. The hyperbolic metamaterial was the origin of obtaining such extremely high sensitivity; no bulk plasmon polaritons were found without hyperbolic metamaterial. We analyzed the effect of different shapes in two-dimensional Ag differential grating on sensing performance. Additionally, we compared the performance parameters of our proposed \textit{E. Coli} sensor with recently demonstrated sensors. Our proposed hyperbolic metamaterial structure has the potential as a highly sensitive \textit{E. Coli} sensor operating in a wide range of wavelengths for label-free detection.

2.Robust Super-Resolution Imaging Based on a Ring Core Fiber with Orbital Angular Momentum

Authors:Zheyu Wu, Ran Gao, Sitong Zhou, Fei Wang, Zhipei Li, Huan Chang, Dong Guo, Xiangjun Xin, Qi Zhang, Feng Tian, Qiang Wu

Abstract: Single fiber imaging technology offers unique insights for research and inspection in difficult to reach and narrow spaces. In particular, ultra-compact multimode fiber (MMF) imaging, has received increasing interest over the past decade. However, MMF imaging will be seriously distorted when subjected to dynamic perturbations due to time-varying mode coupling, and the imaging of space objects via Gaussian beam will be relatively degraded at the edge due to insufficient contrast. Here, a robust super-resolution imaging method based on a ring core fiber (RCF) with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The OAM modes propagating in the RCF form a series of weakly-coupled mode groups, making our imaging system robust to external perturbations. In addition, a spiral phase plate is used as a vortex filter to produce OAM for edge enhancement, thus improving the image resolution. Furthermore, a few-shot U-Transformer neural network is proposed to enhance the resilience of the developed RCF-OAM imaging system against environmental perturbations. Finally, the developed RCF-OAM imaging system achieves biological image transmission, demonstrating the practicality of our scheme. This pioneering RCF OAM imaging system may have broad applications, potentially revolutionising fields such as biological imaging and industrial non-destructive testing.

3.Quantum Walk Laser

Authors:Ina Heckelmann, Mathieu Bertrand, Alexander Dikopoltsev, Mattias Beck, Giacomo Scalari, Jérôme Faist

Abstract: Synthetic lattices in photonics enable the exploration of light states in new dimensions, transcending phenomena common only to physical space. We propose and demonstrate a Quantum Walk Laser in synthetic frequency space formed by externally modulating a ring-shaped semiconductor laser with ultrafast recovery times. In this device, the initially ballistic quantum walk does not dissipate into low supermode states of the synthetic lattice; instead, thanks to the fast-gain nonlinearity of our quantum cascade laser active material, the state stabilizes in a broad frequency comb, unlocking the full potential of the lattice. This device produces a low-noise, nearly-flat broadband comb (reaching 100 cm$^{-1}$ bandwidth), well predicted by our models. The proposed Quantum Walk Laser offers a promising platform to generate broadband, tunable and stable frequency combs.

4.Periodic patterns for resolution limit characterization of correlation plenoptic imaging

Authors:Francesco Scattarella, Gianlorenzo Massaro, Bohumil Stoklasa, Milena D'Angelo, Francesco V. Pepe

Abstract: The measurement of the spatio-temporal correlations of light provides an interesting tool to overcome the traditional limitations of standard imaging, such as the strong trade-off between spatial resolution and depth of field. In particular, using correlation plenoptic imaging, one can detect both the spatial distribution and the direction of light in a scene, pushing both resolution and depth of field to the fundamental limit imposed by wave-optics. This allows one to perform refocusing of different axial planes and three-dimensional reconstruction without any spatial scanning. In the present work, we investigate the resolution limit in a particular correlation plenoptic imaging scheme, by considering periodic test patterns, which provide, through analytical results, a deeper insight in the resolution properties of this second-order imaging technique, also in comparison with standard imaging.

1.Near-unity light-matter interaction in mid-infrared van der Waals nanocavities

Authors:Haonan Ling, Milad Nourbakhsh, Vincent R. Whiteside, Joseph G. Tischler, Artur R. Davoyan

Abstract: Accessing mid-infrared radiation is of great importance for a range of applications, including thermal imaging, sensing, and radiative cooling. Here, we study light interaction with hexagonal boron nitride nanocavities and reveal strong and tunable resonances across its hyperbolic transition. In addition to conventional phonon-polariton excitations, we demonstrate that the high refractive index of hexagonal boron nitride outside the Reststrahlen band allows enhanced light-matter interactions in deep subwavelength (<{\lambda}/15) nanostructures across a broad 7-8 {\mu}m range. Near-unity absorption and high quality (Q>80) resonance interaction in the vicinity of the transverse optical phonon is observed. Our study provides new avenues to design highly efficient and ultracompact structures for controlling mid-infrared radiation and accessing strong light-matter interaction.

2.Apply Non-Hermitian Physics to Realize Ultra-High-Quality Factors of Optically Trapped Particles

Authors:Yang Li, Xiao Li

Abstract: Optical trapping and binding systems are non-Hermitian. On one hand, the optical force is non-Hermitian and may pump energy into the trapped particle when the non-Hermiticity is sufficiently large. On the other hand, the ambient damping constitutes a loss to the particle. Here, we show that in a low-friction environment, the interplay between the energy pumped-in by light and the ambient dissipation can give rise to either instability or a periodic vibration characterized by a finite quality factor (Q-factor). Through a comprehensive exploration, we analyze the influence of various parameters on the non-Hermitian force field. Our investigation reveals several strategies for enhancing the non-Hermitian force field, such as augmenting particle radius and refractive index, utilizing triangular lattice optical clusters, and reducing lattice constants.

3.Semidiscrete optical vortex droplets in quasi-phase-matched photonic crystals

Authors:Xiaoxi Xu, Feiyan Zhao, Jiayao Huang, Hehe Xiang, Li Zhang, Zhaopin Chen, Zhongquan Nie, Boris A Malomed, Yongyao Li

Abstract: A new scheme for producing semidiscrete self-trapped vortices (\textquotedblleft swirling photon droplets\textquotedblright ) in photonic crystals with competing quadratic ($\chi ^{(2)}$) and self-defocusing cubic ($\chi ^{(3)}$) nonlinearities is proposed. The photonic crystal is designed with a striped structure, in the form of spatially periodic modulation of the $\chi ^{(2)}$ susceptibility, which is imposed by the quasi-phase-matching technique. Unlike previous realizations of semidiscrete optical modes in composite media, built as combinations of continuous and arrayed discrete waveguides, the semidiscrete vortex droplets are produced here in the fully continuous medium. This work reveals that the system supports two types of semidiscrete vortex droplets, \textit{viz}., onsite- and intersite-centered ones, which feature, respectively, odd and even numbers of stripes, $\mathcal{N}$. Stability areas for the states with different values of $\mathcal{N}$ are identified in the system's parameter space. Some stability areas overlap with each others, giving rise to multistability of states with different $\mathcal{N}$. The coexisting states are mutually degenerate, featuring equal values of the Hamiltonian and propagation constant. An experimental scheme to realize the droplets is outlined, suggesting new possibilities for the long-distance transmission of structured light carrying orbital angular momentum in nonlinear media.

4.Stepped-Frequency THz-wave Signal Generation From a Kerr Microresonator Soliton Comb

Authors:Omnia Nawwar, Kaoru Minoshima, Naoya Kuse

Abstract: Optically generated terahertz (THz) oscillators have garnered considerable attention in recent years due to their potential for wide tunability and low phase noise. Here, for the first time, a dissipative Kerr microresonator soliton comb (DKS), which is inherently in a low noise state, is utilized to produce a stepped-frequency THz signal ($\approx$ 280 GHz). The frequency of one comb mode from a DKS is scanned through an optical-recirculating frequency-shifting loop (ORFSL) which induces a predetermined frequency step onto the carrier frequency. The scanned signal is subsequently heterodyned with an adjacent comb mode, generating a THz signal in a frequency range that is determined by the repetition frequency of the DKS. The proposed method is proved by proof-of-concept experiments with MHz level electronics, showing a bandwidth of 4.15 GHz with a frequency step of 83 MHz and a period of 16 $\mu$s.

5.A Multi-Scale Approach to Simulate the Nonlinear Optical Response of Molecular Nanomaterials

Authors:Benedikt Zerulla, Dominik Beutel, Christof Holzer, Ivan Fernandez-Corbaton, Carsten Rockstuhl, Marjan Krstić

Abstract: Nonlinear optics is essential for many recent photonic technologies. Here, we introduce a novel multi-scale approach to simulate the nonlinear optical response of molecular nanomaterials combining ab initio quantum-chemical and classical Maxwell-scattering computations. In this approach, the first hyperpolarizability tensor is computed with time-dependent density-functional theory and translated into a multi-scattering formalism that considers the optical interaction between neighboring molecules. A novel object is introduce to perform this transition from quantum-chemistry to classical scattering theory: the Hyper-Transition(T)-matrix. With this object at hand, the nonlinear optical response from single molecules and also from entire photonic devices can be computed, incorporating the full tensorial and dispersive nature of the optical response of the molecules. To demonstrate the applicability of our novel approach, the generation of a second-harmonic signal from a thin film of a Urea molecular crystal is computed and compared to more traditional simulations. Furthermore, an optical cavity is designed, which enhances the second-harmonic response of the molecular film by more than two orders of magnitude. Our approach is highly versatile and accurate and can be the working horse for the future exploration of nonlinear photonic molecular materials in structured photonic environments.

6.A device for magnetic-field angle control in magneto-optical filters using a solenoid-permanent magnet pair

Authors:Sharaa A. Alqarni, Jack D. Briscoe, Clare R. Higgins, Fraser D. Logue, Danielle Pizzey, Thomas G. Robertson-Brown, Ifan G. Hughes

Abstract: Atomic bandpass filters are used in a variety of applications due to their narrow bandwidths and high transmission at specific frequencies. Predominantly these filters in the Faraday (Voigt) geometry, using an applied axial(transverse) magnetic field with respect to the laser propagation direction. Recently, there has been interest in filters realized with arbitrary-angle magnetic fields, which have been made by rotating permanent magnets with respect to the $k$-vector of the interrogating laser beam. However, the magnetic-field angle achievable with this method is limited as field uniformity across the cell decreases as the rotation angle increases. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a new method of generating an arbitrary-angle magnetic field, using a solenoid to produce a small, and easily alterable, axial field, in conjunction with fixed permanent magnets to produce a large transverse field. We directly measure the fields produced by both methods, finding them to be very similar over the length of the vapor cell. We then compare the transmission profiles of filters produced using both methods, again finding excellent agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity of filter profile to changing magnetic-field angle (solenoid current), which becomes easier to exploit with the much improved angle control and precision offered by our new design.

7.Carrier diffusion in semiconductor nanoscale resonators

Authors:Marco Saldutti, Yi Yu, George Kountouris, Philip Trøst Kristensen, Jesper Mørk

Abstract: It is shown that semiconductor nanoscale resonators with extreme dielectric confinement accelerate the diffusion of electron-hole pairs excited by nonlinear absorption. These novel cavity designs may lead to optical switches with superior modulation speeds compared to conventional geometries. The response function of the effective carrier density is computed by an efficient eigenmode expansion technique. A few eigenmodes of the diffusion equation conveniently capture the long-timescale carrier decay rate, which is advantageous compared to time-domain simulations. Notably, the eigenmode approach elucidates the contribution to carrier diffusion of the in-plane and out-of-plane cavity geometry, which may guide future designs.

8.Hybrid silicon-organic Huygens' metasurface for phase modulation

Authors:Sydney Mason, Ileana-Cristina Benea-Chelmus

Abstract: Spatial light modulators have desirable applications in sensing and free space communication because they create an interface between the optical and electronic realms. Electro-optic modulators allow for high-speed intensity manipulation of an electromagnetic wavefront. However, most surfaces of this sort pose limitations due to their ability to modulate intensity rather than phase. Here we investigate an electro-optic modulator formed from a silicon-organic Huygens' metasurface. In a simulation-based study, we discover a metasurface design immersed in high-performance electro-optic molecules that can achieve near-full resonant transmission with phase coverage over the full 2$\pi$ range. Through the electro-optic effect, we show 140$^\circ$ (0.79$\pi$) modulation over a range of -100 to 100 V at 1330 nm while maintaining near-constant transmitted field intensity (between 0.66 and 0.8). These results potentiate the fabrication of a high-speed spatial light modulator with the resolved parameters.

1.Optical Linearization of Silicon Photonic Ring-Assisted Mach-Zehnder Modulator

Authors:Md Jubayer Shawon, Vishal Saxena

Abstract: In high-performance RF photonic systems, the Electro-Optic (EO) modulators play a critical role as a key component, requiring low SWaP-C and high linearity. While traditional lithium niobate (LiNbO$_3$) Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZMs) have been extensively utilized due to their superior linearity, silicon-based EO modulators have lagged behind in achieving comparable performance. This paper presents an experimental demonstration of a Ring Assisted Mach Zehnder Modulator (RAMZM) fabricated using a silicon photonic foundry process, addressing the performance gap. The proposed RAMZM modulator enables linearization in the optical domain and can be dynamically reconfigured to linearize around user-specified center frequency and bias conditions, even in the presence of process variations and thermal crosstalk. An automatic reconfiguration algorithm, empowered by Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs), Trans-Impedance Amplifiers (TIAs), and a digital configuration engine, is developed to achieve linearization, resulting in a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) exceeding 113 dB.Hz$^{2/3}$. Furthermore, a biasing scheme is introduced for RAMZMs, significantly enhancing the modulation slope efficiency, which in turn yields a tone gain of over 13 dB compared to its standard operation. This reconfigurable electro-optic modulator can be seamlessly integrated into integrated RF photonic System-on-Chips (SoCs), leveraging the advantages of integration and cost-effectiveness.

2.Liquid-assisted laser nanotexturing of silicon: onset of hydrodynamic processes regulated by laser-induced periodic surface structures

Authors:Yulia Borodaenko, Dmitriy Pavlov, Artem Cherepakhin, Eugeny Mitsai, Andrei Pilnik, Sergey Syubaev, Stanislav O. Gurbatov, Evgeny Modin, Aleksey P. Porfirev, Svetlana N. Khonina, Aleksandr V. Shevlyagin, Evgeny L. Gurevich, Aleksandr A. Kuchmizhak

Abstract: Here, upon systematic studies of femtosecond-laser processing of monocrystalline Si in oxidation-preventing methanol, we showed that the electromagnetic processes dominating at initial steps of the progressive morphology evolution define the onset of the hydrodynamic processes and resulting morphology upon subsequent multi-pulse exposure. In particular, under promoted exposure quasi-regular subwavelength laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) were justified to evolve through the template-assisted development of the Rayleigh-Plateau hydrodynamic instability in the molten ridges forming quasi-regular surface patterns with a supra-wavelength periodicity and preferential alignment along polarization direction of the incident light. Subsequent exposure promotes fusion-assisted morphology rearrangement resulting in a spiky surface with a random orientation, yet constant inter-structure distance correlated with initial LIPSS periodicity. Along with the insight onto the physical picture driving the morphology evolution and supra-wavelength nanostructure formation, our experiments also demonstrated that the resulting quasi-regular and random spiky morphology can be tailored by the intensity/polarization distribution of the incident laser beam allowing on-demand surface nanotexturing with diverse hierarchical surface morphologies exhibiting reduced reflectivity in the visible and shortwave IR spectral ranges. Finally, we highlighted the practical attractiveness of the suggested approach for improving near-IR photoresponse and expanding operation spectral range of vertical p-n junction Si photo-detector operating under room temperature and zero-bias conditions via single-step annealing-free laser nanopatterning of its surface.

3.Label-free image scanning microscopy for kHz super-resolution imaging and single particle tracking

Authors:Duc-Minh Ta XLIM-PHOT, Alberto Aguilar XLIM-PHOT, Pierre Bon XLIM-PHOT

Abstract: We report the modification of a label-free image scanning microscope (ISM) to perform asynchronous 2D imaging at 24kHz while keeping the lateral resolution gain and background rejection of a regular label-free ISM setup. Our method uses a resonant mirror oscillating at 12kHz for one-direction scanning and a chromatic line for instantaneous scanning in the other direction. We adapt optical photon reassignment in this scanning regime to perform fully optical super-resolution imaging. We exploit the kHz imaging capabilities of this confocal imaging system for single nanoparticle tracking down to 20nm for gold and 50nm for silica particles as well as imaging freely moving Lactobacillus with improved resolution.

4.Frequency-comb-linearized, widely tunable lasers for coherent ranging

Authors:Baoqi Shi, Yi-Han Luo, Wei Sun, Yue Hu, Jinbao Long, Xue Bai, Anting Wang, Junqiu Liu

Abstract: Tunable lasers, with the ability to continuously adjust their emission wavelengths, have found widespread applications across various fields such as biomedical imaging, coherent ranging, optical communications and spectroscopy. In these applications, a wide chirp range is advantageous for large spectral coverage and high frequency resolution. Besides, the frequency accuracy and precision also depend critically on the chirp linearity of the laser. While extensive efforts have been made on the development of many kinds of frequency-agile, widely tunable, narrow-linewidth lasers, wideband yet precise methods to characterize and to linearize laser chirp dynamics are also demanded. Here we present an approach to characterize laser chirp dynamics using an optical frequency comb. The instantaneous laser frequency is tracked over terahertz bandwidth with 1 MHz interval. Using this approach we calibrate the chirp performance of twelve tunable lasers from Toptica, Santec, New Focus, EXFO and NKT that are commonly used in fiber optics and integrated photonics. In addition, with acquired knowledge on laser chirp dynamics, we demonstrate a simple frequency-linearization scheme that enables coherent ranging without any optical or electronic linearization units. Our approach not only presents a novel wideband, high-resolution laser spectroscopy, but is also critical for sensing applications with ever-increasing requirements on performance.

5.Photonic time-delayed reservoir computing based on series coupled microring resonators with high memory capacity

Authors:Yijia Li, Ming Li, MingYi Gao, Chang-Ling Zou, Chun-Hua Dong, Jin Lu, Yali Qin, XiaoNiu Yang, Qi Xuan, Hongliang Ren

Abstract: On-chip microring resonators (MRRs) have been proposed to construct the time-delayed reservoir computing (RC), which offers promising configurations available for computation with high scalability, high-density computing, and easy fabrication. A single MRR, however, is inadequate to supply enough memory for the computational task with diverse memory requirements. Large memory needs are met by the MRR with optical feedback waveguide, but at the expense of its large footprint. In the structure, the ultra-long optical feedback waveguide substantially limits the scalable photonic RC integrated designs. In this paper, a time-delayed RC is proposed by utilizing a silicon-based nonlinear MRR in conjunction with an array of linear MRRs. These linear MRRs possess a high quality factor, providing sufficient memory capacity for the entire system. We quantitatively analyze and assess the proposed RC structure's performance on three classical tasks with diverse memory requirements, i.e., the Narma 10, Mackey-Glass, and Santa Fe chaotic timeseries prediction tasks. The proposed system exhibits comparable performance to the MRR with an ultra-long optical feedback waveguide-based system when it comes to handling the Narma 10 task, which requires a significant memory capacity. Nevertheless, the overall length of these linear MRRs is significantly smaller, by three orders of magnitude, compared to the ultra-long feedback waveguide in the MRR with optical feedback waveguide-based system. The compactness of this structure has significant implications for the scalability and seamless integration of photonic RC.

6.Gigahertz modulation of a fully dielectric nonlocal metasurface

Authors:Alessandro Pitanti, Gaia Da Prato, Giorgio Biasiol, Alessandro Tredicucci, Simone Zanotto

Abstract: Nonlocal metasurfaces are currently emerging as advanced tools for the manipulation of electromagnetic radiation, going beyond the widely explored Huygens metasurface concept. Nonetheless, the lack of an unified approach for their fast and efficient tunability still represents a serious challenge to overcome. In this article we report on gigahertz modulation of a dielectric slab-based, nonlocal (i.e. angle-dispersive) metasurface, whose operation relies on the optomechanical coupling with a mechanical wave excited piezoelectrically by a transducer integrated on the same chip. Importantly, the metasurface region is free from any conductive material, thus eliminating optical losses, and making our device of potential interest for delicate environments such as high-power apparatuses or quantum optical systems.

7.Energy and Power requirements for alteration of the refractive index

Authors:Jacob B Khurgin

Abstract: The ability to manipulate the refractive index is a fundamental principle underlying numerous photonic devices. Various techniques exist to modify the refractive index across diverse materials, making performance comparison far from straightforward. In evaluating these methods, power consumption emerges as a key performance characteristic, alongside bandwidth and footprint. Here I undertake a comprehensive comparison of the energy and power requirements for the most well-known index change schemes. The findings reveal that while the energy per volume for index change remains within the same order of magnitude across different techniques and materials, the power consumption required to achieve switching, 100% modulation, or 100% frequency conversion can differ significantly, spanning many orders of magnitude. As it turns out, the material used has less influence on power reduction than the specific resonant or traveling wave scheme employed to enhance the interaction time between light and matter. Though this work is not intended to serve as a design guide, it does establish the limitations and trade-offs involved in index modulation, thus providing valuable insights for photonics practitioners.

8.Fully Non-Linear Neuromorphic Computing with Linear Wave Scattering

Authors:Clara C. Wanjura, Florian Marquardt

Abstract: The increasing complexity of neural networks and the energy consumption associated with training and inference create a need for alternative neuromorphic approaches, e.g. using optics. Current proposals and implementations rely on physical non-linearities or opto-electronic conversion to realise the required non-linear activation function. However, there are significant challenges with these approaches related to power levels, control, energy-efficiency, and delays. Here, we present a scheme for a neuromorphic system that relies on linear wave scattering and yet achieves non-linear processing with a high expressivity. The key idea is to inject the input via physical parameters that affect the scattering processes. Moreover, we show that gradients needed for training can be directly measured in scattering experiments. We predict classification accuracies on par with results obtained by standard artificial neural networks. Our proposal can be readily implemented with existing state-of-the-art, scalable platforms, e.g. in optics, microwave and electrical circuits, and we propose an integrated-photonics implementation based on racetrack resonators that achieves high connectivity with a minimal number of waveguide crossings.

1.Intensity-based dynamic speckle method for analysis of variable-rate dynamic events

Authors:Elena Stoykova, Lian Nedelchev, Blaga Blagoeva, Branimir Ivanov, Mikhail Levchenko, Nataliya Berberova-Buhova, Dimana Nazarova

Abstract: We study efficiency of intensity-based dynamic speckle method for characterization of dynamic events which occur at variable rate in time within the temporal averaging interval. We checked ability of the method to describe the speed evolution by i) numerical simulation at variable speed, ii) processing of speckle patterns obtained from phase distributions fed to a SLM at controllable change of the temporal correlation radius of speckle intensity fluctuations and iii) conducting experiments with a polymer solution drying by using a hot-stage. The numerical and SLM simulation experiments allowed for modification of the used estimates in order to obtain relevant information

2.Exciton-polaritons in GaAsbased slab waveguide photonic crystals

Authors:C. E. Whittaker, T. Isoniemi, S. Lovett, P. M. Walker, S. Kolodny, V. Kozin, I. V. Iorsh, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, D. N. Krizhanovskii

Abstract: We report the observation of band gaps for low loss exciton-polaritons propagating outside the light cone in GaAs-based planar waveguides patterned into two-dimensional photonic crystals. By etching square lattice arrays of shallow holes into the uppermost layer of our structure, we open gaps on the order of 10 meV in the photonic mode dispersion, whose size and light-matter composition can be tuned by proximity to the strongly coupled exciton resonance. We demonstrate gaps ranging from almost fully photonic to highly excitonic. Opening a gap in the exciton-dominated part of the polariton spectrum is a promising first step towards the realization of quantum-Hall-like states arising from topologically nontrivial hybridization of excitons and photons.

3.Sequential phase-locked optical gating of free electrons

Authors:Fatemeh Chahshouri, Nahid Talebi

Abstract: Recent progress in coherent quantum interactions between free-electron pulses and laser-induced near-field light have revolutionized electron wavepacket shaping. Building on these advancements, we numerically explore the potential of sequential interactions between slow electrons and localized dipolar plasmons in a sequential phase-locked interaction scheme. Taking advantage of the prolonged interaction time between slow electrons and optical near-fields, we aim to explore the effect of plasmon dynamics on the free-electron wavepacket modulation. Our results demonstrate that the initial optical phase of the localized dipolar plasmon at the starting point of the interaction, along with the phase offset between the interaction zones, can serve as control parameters in manipulating the transverse and longitudinal recoil of the electron wavefunction. Moreover, it is shown that the polarization state of light is an additional control knop for tailoring the longitudinal and transverse recoils. We show that a sequential phase-locking method can be employed to precisely manipulate the longitudinal and transverse recoil of the electron wavepacket, leading to selective acceleration or deceleration of the electron energy along specific diffraction angles. These findings have important implications for the development of novel techniques for ultrafast electron-light interferometry, shaping the electron wave packet, and quantum information processing.

4.Fundamental charge noise in electro-optic photonic integrated circuits

Authors:Junyin Zhang, Zihan Li, Johann Riemensberger, Grigory Lihachev, Guanhao Huang, Tobias J. Kippenberg

Abstract: Understanding thermodynamical measurement noise is of central importance for electrical and optical precision measurements from mass-fabricated semiconductor sensors, where the Brownian motion of charge carriers poses limits, to optical reference cavities for atomic clocks or gravitational wave detection, which are limited by thermorefractive and thermoelastic noise due to the transduction of temperature fluctuations to the refractive index and length fluctuations. Here, we discover that unexpectedly charge carrier density fluctuations give rise to a novel noise process in recently emerged electro-optic photonic integrated circuits. We show that Lithium Niobate and Lithium Tantalate photonic integrated microresonators exhibit an unexpected Flicker type (i.e. $1/f^{1.2}$) scaling in their noise properties, significantly deviating from the well-established thermorefractive noise theory. We show that this noise is consistent with thermodynamical charge noise, which leads to electrical field fluctuations that are transduced via the strong Pockels effects of electro-optic materials. Our results establish electrical Johnson-Nyquist noise as the fundamental limitation for Pockels integrated photonics, crucial for determining performance limits for both classical and quantum devices, ranging from ultra-fast tunable and low-noise lasers, Pockels soliton microcombs, to quantum transduction, squeezed light or entangled photon-pair generation. Equally, this observation offers optical methods to probe mesoscopic charge fluctuations with exceptional precision.

5.Sinusoidal Transmission Grating Spectrometer for EUV Measure

Authors:N. Kliss, J. Wengrowicz, J. Papeer, E. Porat, A. Zigler, Y. Frank

Abstract: Spectral measurements play a vital role in understanding laser-plasma interactions. The ability to accurately measure the spectrum of radiation sources is crucial for unraveling the underlying physics. In this article, we introduce a novel approach that significantly enhances the efficiency of binary Sinusoidal Transmission Grating Spectrometers (STGS). The grating was tailored especially for Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) measurements. The new design, High Contrast Sinusoidal Transmission Grating (HCSTG), not only suppresses high diffraction orders and retains the advantageous properties of previous designs but also exhibits a fourfold improvement in first-order efficiency. In addition, the HCSTG offers exceptional purity in the first order due to effectively eliminating half-order contributions from the diffraction pattern. The HCSTG spectrometer was employed to measure the emission of laser-produced Sn plasma in the 1-50 nm spectral range, achieving spectral resolution of $\lambda/\Delta\lambda=60$. We provide a comprehensive analysis comparing the diffraction patterns of different STGs, highlighting the advantages offered by the HCSTG design. This novel, enhanced efficiency HCSTG spectrometer, opens new possibilities for accurate and sensitive EUV spectral measurements.

1.Full conversion of unpolarized to fixed-polarization light with topology optimized metasurfaces

Authors:Neuton Li, Shaun Lung, Jihua Zhang, Dragomir N. Neshev, Andrey A. Sukhorukov

Abstract: Conventional polarizers and polarization beam splitters have a fundamental limit of 50\% efficiency when converting unpolarized light into one specific polarization. Here, we overcome this restriction and achieve near-complete conversion of unpolarized light to a single pure polarization state at several outputs of topology-optimized metasurfaces. Our fabricated metasurface achieves an extinction ratio approaching 100, when characterized with laboratory measurements. We further demonstrate that arbitrary power splitting can be achieved between three or more polarized outputs, offering flexibility in target illumination. Our results provide a path toward greatly improving the efficiency of common unpolarized light sources in a variety of applications requiring pure polarizations.

2.Identifying topology of leaky photonic lattices with machine learning

Authors:Ekaterina O. Smolina, Lev A. Smirnov, Daniel Leykam, Franco Nori, Daria A. Smirnova

Abstract: We show how machine learning techniques can be applied for the classification of topological phases in leaky photonic lattices using limited measurement data. We propose an approach based solely on bulk intensity measurements, thus exempt from the need for complicated phase retrieval procedures. In particular, we design a fully connected neural network that accurately determines topological properties from the output intensity distribution in dimerized waveguide arrays with leaky channels, after propagation of a spatially localized initial excitation at a finite distance, in a setting that closely emulates realistic experimental conditions.

3.Coupling to multi-mode waveguides with space-time shaped free-space pulses

Authors:Spencer W. Jolly, Pascal Kockaert

Abstract: Guided wave optics, including most prominently fiber optics and integrated photonics, very often considers only one or very few spatial modes of the waveguides. Despite being known and utilized for decades, multi-mode guided wave optics is currently rapidly increasing in parallel with technological improvements and better simulation tools. The physics of multi-mode interactions are usually driven by some initial energy distribution in a number of spatial modes. In this work we introduce how, with free-space input beams having space-time couplings, the different modes can be excited with different complex frequency or time profiles. We cover fundamentals, the coupling with a few simple space-time aberrations, different waveguides, and a number of technical nuances. This concept of space-time initial conditions in multi-mode waveguides will provide yet another tool to study the rich nonlinear interactions in such systems.

4.Fiber optic computing using distributed feedback

Authors:Brandon Redding, Joseph B. Murray, Joseph D. Hart, Zheyuan Zhu, Shuo S. Pang, Raktim Sarma

Abstract: The widespread adoption of machine learning and other matrix intensive computing algorithms has inspired renewed interest in analog optical computing, which has the potential to perform large-scale matrix multiplications with superior energy scaling and lower latency than digital electronics. However, most existing optical techniques rely on spatial multiplexing to encode and process data in parallel, requiring a large number of high-speed modulators and detectors. More importantly, most of these architectures are restricted to performing a single kernel convolution operation per layer. Here, we introduce a fiber-optic computing architecture based on temporal multiplexing and distributed feedback that performs multiple convolutions on the input data in a single layer (i.e. grouped convolutions). Our approach relies on temporally encoding the input data as an optical pulse train and injecting it into an optical fiber where partial reflectors create a series of delayed copies of the input vector. In this work, we used Rayleigh backscattering in standard single mode fiber as the partial reflectors to encode a series of random kernel transforms. We show that this technique effectively performs a random non-linear projection of the input data into a higher dimensional space which can facilitate a variety of computing tasks, including non-linear principal component analysis, support vector machines, or extreme learning machines. By using a passive fiber to perform the kernel transforms, this approach enables efficient energy scaling with orders of magnitude lower power consumption than GPUs, while using a high-speed modulator and detector maintains low latency and high data-throughput. Finally, our approach is readily integrated with fiber-optic communication links, enabling additional applications such as processing remote sensing data transmitted in the analog domain.

5.Noise analysis in outdoor dynamic speckle measurement

Authors:Mikhail Levchenko, Elena Stoykova, Branimir Ivanov, Lian Nedelchev, Dimana Nazarova, Kihong Choi, Joongki Park

Abstract: Dynamic speckle method is an effective tool for estimation of speed of processes. Speed distribution is encoded in a map built by statistical pointwise processing of time-correlated speckle patterns. For industrial inspection,the outdoor noisy measurement is required. The paper analyzes efficiency of the dynamic speckle method in the presence of environmental noise as phase fluctuations due to lack of vibration isolation and shot noise due to ambient light. Usage of normalized estimates for the case of non-uniform laser illumination is studied. Feasibility of the outdoor measurement has been proven by numerical simulationsof noisy image capture and real experiments with test objects. Good agreement has been demonstrated both in simulation and experiment between the ground truth map and the maps extracted from noisy data.

6.Recovering lossless propagation of polaritons with synthesized complex frequency excitation

Authors:Fuxin Guan, Xiangdong Guo, Shu Zhang, Kebo Zeng, Yue Hu, Chenchen Wu, Shaobo Zhou, Yuanjiang Xiang, Xiaoxia Yang, Qing Dai, Shuang Zhang

Abstract: Surface plasmon polaritons and phonon polaritons offer a means of surpassing the diffraction limit of conventional optics and facilitate efficient energy storage, local field enhancement, high sensitivities, benefitting from their subwavelength confinement of light. Unfortunately, losses severely limit the propagation decay length, thus restricting the practical use of polaritons. While optimizing the fabrication technique can help circumvent the scattering loss of imperfect structures, the intrinsic absorption channel leading to heat production cannot be eliminated. Here, we utilize synthetic optical excitation of complex frequency with virtual gain, synthesized by combining the measurements taken at multiple real frequencies, to restore the lossless propagations of phonon polaritons with significantly reduced intrinsic losses. The concept of synthetic complex frequency excitation represents a viable solution to compensate for loss and would benefit applications including photonic circuits, waveguiding and plasmonic/phononic structured illumination microscopy.

7.Spectral Characterization of Optical Aberrations in Fluidic Lenses

Authors:G. Puentes

Abstract: We report a complete numerical study and supporting experimental results on the spectral characterization of optical aberrations in macroscopic fluidic lenses with tunable focal distance and aperture shape. Using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor we experimentally reconstruct the near-field wave-front transmitted by the fluidic lenses, and we characterize the chromatic aberrations in terms of Zernike polynomials in the visible range. Moreover, we further classify the spectral response of the lenses using clustering techniques, in addition to correlation and convolution measurements. Experimental results are in agreement with our theoretical model of the non-linear deformation of thin ellastic membranes.

1.Controlling Dual-Comb Soliton Motion inside a single Fiber Laser Cavity

Authors:Julia A. Lang, Sarah R. Hutter, Alfred Leitenstorfer, Georg Herink

Abstract: Ultrafast science builds on dynamic compositions of precisely timed light pulses1 and evolving sequences of pulses are observed inside almost every mode-locked laser. However, the underlying physics remains barely controlled and utilized until now. Here, we demonstrate the fast and deterministic control of soliton motion for the generation of programmable ultrashort pulse patterns from a dual-comb mode-locked Er:fiber laser. Specifically, we harness intra-cavity modulation of individual solitons and their laser-intrinsic dynamics to facilitate the rapid tuning of two interlaced soliton combs. Upon extra-cavity temporal recombination of both combs, we obtain reconfigurable pulse patterns at arbitrary delays. Using high-throughput real-time spectral interferometry, we resolve the short-range inter-soliton motion upon external stimuli and we demonstrate the high-speed sweeping of picosecond pump-probe-delays and programmable free-form trajectories. This work introduces a novel approach to soliton control and paves the way for ultrafast instruments at unprecedented high tuning, cycling and acquisition speeds.

1.Influence of Antireflection Si coatings on the Damage Threshold of fused silica upon irradiation with Mid-IR femtosecond laser pulses

Authors:George D. Tsibidis, Emmanuel Stratakis

Abstract: Recent progress in the development of high-power mid-IR laser sources and the exciting laser driven physical phenomena associated with the irradiation of solids via ultrashort laser pulses in that spectral region are aimed to potentially create novel capabilities for material processing. In particularly, the investigation of the underlying physical processes and the evaluation of the optical breakdown threshold (OBT) following irradiation of bulk dielectric materials with Mid-IR femtosecond (fs) pulses has been recently presented. In this report, we will explore the conditions that generate sufficient carrier excitation levels which leads to damage upon irradiated a dielectric material (SiO2) coated with antireflection (AR) semiconducting films (Si) of variable thickness with fs pulses. Simulation results demonstrate that the reflectivity and transmissivity of the Si/SiO2 are thickness-dependent which can be employed to modulate the damage threshold of the substrate. The study is to provide innovative routes for selecting material sizes that can be used for antireflection coatings and applications in the Mid-IR region.

2.Increasing brightness in multiphoton microscopy with low-repetition-rate, wavelength-tunable femtosecond fiber laser

Authors:Jakub Bogusławski, Alicja Kwaśny, Dorota Stachowiak, Grzegorz Soboń

Abstract: Many experiments in biological and medical sciences currently use multiphoton microscopy as a core imaging technique. To date, solid-state lasers are most commonly used as excitation beam sources. However, the most demanding applications require precisely adjusted excitation laser parameters to enhance image quality. Still, the lag in developing easy-to-use laser sources with tunable output parameters makes it challenging. Here, we show that manipulating the temporal and spectral properties of the excitation beam can significantly improve the quality of images. We have developed a wavelength-tunable femtosecond fiber laser that operates within the 760 - 800 nm spectral range and produces ultrashort pulses (below 70 fs) with a clean temporal profile and high pulse energy (1 nJ). The repetition rate could be easily adjusted using an integrated pulse picker unit within the 1 - 25 MHz range and without strongly influencing other parameters of the generated pulses. We integrated the laser with a two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) scanning laser microscope and investigated the effect of tunable wavelength and reducing the pulse repetition rate on the quality of obtained images. Using our laser, we substantially improved the images brightness and penetration depth of native fluorescence and stained samples compared with a standard fiber laser. Our results will contribute to developing imaging techniques using lower average laser power and broader use of tailored fiber-based sources.

3.Achromatic imaging systems with flat lenses enabled by deep learning

Authors:Roy Maman, Eitan Mualem, Noa Mazurski, Jacob Engelberg, Uriel Levy

Abstract: Motivated by their great potential to reduce the size, cost and weight, flat lenses, a category that includes diffractive lenses and metalenses, are rapidly emerging as key components with the potential to replace the traditional refractive optical elements in modern optical systems. Yet, the inherently strong chromatic aberration of these flat lenses is significantly impairing their performance in systems based on polychromatic illumination or passive ambient light illumination, stalling their widespread implementation. Hereby, we provide a promising solution and demonstrate high quality imaging based on flat lenses over the entire visible spectrum. Our approach is based on creating a novel dataset of color outdoor images taken with our flat lens and using this dataset to train a deep-learning model for chromatic aberrations correction. Based on this approach we show unprecedented imaging results not only in terms of qualitative measures but also in the quantitative terms of the PSNR and SSIM scores of the reconstructed images. The results pave the way for the implementation of flat lenses in advanced polychromatic imaging systems.

4.Spectral lens enables a minimalist framework for hyperspectral imaging

Authors:Zhou Zhou Electronic Information School, and School of Microelectronics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 China NUS Graduate School, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore, Yiheng Zhang National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Key Laboratory of Intelligent Optical Sensing and Manipulation, and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 China, Yingxin Xie Electronic Information School, and School of Microelectronics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 China, Tian Huang Electronic Information School, and School of Microelectronics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 China, Zile Li Electronic Information School, and School of Microelectronics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 China Peng Cheng Laboratory, Shenzhen, 518055 China, Peng Chen National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Key Laboratory of Intelligent Optical Sensing and Manipulation, and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 China, Yanqing Lu National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Key Laboratory of Intelligent Optical Sensing and Manipulation, and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 China, Shaohua Yu Peng Cheng Laboratory, Shenzhen, 518055 China, Shuang Zhang New Cornerstone Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, Guoxing Zheng Electronic Information School, and School of Microelectronics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 China Peng Cheng Laboratory, Shenzhen, 518055 China Wuhan Institute of Quantum Technology, Wuhan, 430206 China

Abstract: Conventional lens-based imaging techniques have long been limited to capturing only the intensity distribution of objects, resulting in the loss of other crucial dimensions such as spectral data. Here, we report a spectral lens that captures both spatial and spectral information, and further demonstrate a minimalist framework wherein hyperspectral imaging can be readily achieved by replacing lenses in standard cameras with our spectral lens. As a paradigm, we capitalize on planar liquid crystal optics to implement the proposed framework. Our experiments with various targets show that the resulting hyperspectral camera exhibits excellent performance in both spectral and spatial domains. With merits such as ultra-compactness and strong compatibility, our framework paves a practical pathway for advancing hyperspectral imaging apparatus toward miniaturization, with great potential for portable applications.

5.Non-Hermitian gauged laser arrays with localized excitation: Anomalous threshold and generalized principle of selective pumping

Authors:Li Ge, Zihe Gao, Liang Feng

Abstract: We investigate non-Hermitian skin modes in laser arrays with spatially localized excitation. Intriguingly, we observe an unusual threshold behavior when selectively pumping either the head or the tail of these modes: Both cases exhibit the same lasing threshold and hence defy the conventional principle of selective pumping, which aims to maximize the overlap between the pump profile and the target lasing mode. To shed light on this enigma, we reveal a previously overlooked phenomenon, i.e., energy exchange at non-Hermitian coupling junctions with the photonic environment, which does not occur with uniform gain or loss. Utilizing a transfer matrix approach, we elucidate the mechanism of this anomalous threshold behavior, which is determined by the specific physical realization of the non-Hermitian gauge field (i.e., using gain, loss, or their mixture). Finally, we derive a generalized principle of selective pumping in non-Hermitian arrays, which shows that the decisive spatial overlap is given by the tripartite product of the pump, the lasing mode, and its biorthogonal partner. Our study provides a glimpse into how the two forms of non-Hermiticity, i.e., asymmetric couplings and a complex onsite potential, interact synergetically in laser arrays, which may stimulate further explorations of their collective effects in photonics and related fields.

6.Semi-analytical Framework for Modeling Strong Coupling of Quantum Emitters in Electromagnetic Resonators

Authors:Mohammad Abutoama, George Kountouris, Jesper Mørk, Philip Trøst Kristensen

Abstract: We present a semi-analytical framework for studying interactions between quantum emitters and general electromagnetic resonators. The method relies on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation to calculate the complex resonance frequencies of the coupled system based only on a single calculation for the electromagnetic resonator without the quantum emitter and with no fitting parameters. This is in stark contrast to standard approaches in the literature, in which the properties of the coupled system are fitted from calculated spectra. As an application example, we consider a recent dielectric cavity design featuring deep subwavelength confinement of light. We find the expected anti-crossing of the emitter and cavity resonance frequencies, and comparing to independent reference calculations, we find an extraordinary quantitative agreement with a relative error below one part in ten thousand. In order to unambiguously connect with the Jaynes-Cummings model, we derive an explicit expression relating the classical description of the emitter, as modeled by a spherical inclusion with a Lorentzian material response, to the dipole moment of the corresponding quantum optical model. The combined framework therefore enables classical calculations to be used for evaluating the coupling strength entering quantum optical theories in a transparent way.

1.Negative Refraction in isotropic achiral and chiral materials

Authors:Y. B. Band, Igor Kuzmenko, Marek Trippenbach

Abstract: We show that negative refraction in materials can occur at frequencies $\omega$ where the real part of the permittivity $\veps(\omega)$ and the real part of the permeability $\mu(\omega)$ are of different sign, and that light with such frequencies can propagate just as well as light with frequencies where they are of equal sign. Therefore, in order to have negative refraction one does not need to be in the "double negative" regime. We consider negative refractive index achiral materials using the Drude model, and chiral materials using the Drude-Born-Fedorov model. We find that the time-averaged Poynting vector always points along the wave vector, the time-averaged energy flux density is always positive, and the time-averaged energy density is positive (negative) when the refractive index is positive (negative). The phase velocity is negative when the real part of the refractive index is negative, and the group velocity generally changes sign several times as a function of frequency near resonance.

2.Terahertz imaging through emissivity control

Authors:Michal Mrnka, Harry Penketh, Ian R. Hooper, Sonal Saxena, Nicholas E. Grant, John D. Murphy, David B. Phillips, Euan Hendry

Abstract: Adoption of terahertz technologies is hindered by the lack of cost-effective THz sources. Here we demonstrate a fundamentally new way to generate and control THz radiation, via spatio-temporal emissivity modulation. By patterning the optical photoexcitation of a surface-passivated silicon wafer, we locally control the free-electron density, and thereby pattern the wafer's emissivity in the THz part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show how this unconventional source of controllable THz radiation enables a new form of incoherent computational THz imaging. We use it to image various concealed objects, demonstrating this scheme has the penetrating capability of state-of-the-art THz imaging approaches, without the requirement of femto-second pulsed laser sources. Furthermore, the incoherent nature of thermal radiation also ensures the obtained images are free of interference artifacts. Our spatio-temporal emissivity control paves the way towards a new family of long-wavelength structured illumination, imaging and spectroscopy systems.

3.Tunable ultrafast thermionic emission from femtosecond-laser hot spot on a metal surface: role of laser polarization and angle of incidence

Authors:Mousumi Upadhyay Kahaly, Saibabu Madas, Boris Mesits, Subhendu Kahaly

Abstract: Ultrafast laser induced thermionic emission from metal surfaces has several applications. Here, we investigate the role of laser polarization and angle of incidence on the ultrafast thermionic emission process from laser driven gold coated glass surface. The spatio-temporal evolution of electron and lattice temperatures are obtained using an improved three-dimensional (3D) two-temperature model (TTM) which takes into account the 3D laser pulse profile focused obliquely onto the surface. The associated thermionic emission features are described through modified Richardson-Dushman equation, including dynamic space charge effects and are included self-consistently in our numerical approach. We show that temperature dependent reflectivity influences laser energy absorption. The resulting peak electron temperature on the metal surface monotonically increases with angle of incidence for P polarization, while for S polarization it shows opposite trend. We observe that thermionic emission duration shows strong dependence on angle of incidence and contrasting polarization dependent behaviour. The duration of thermionic current shows strong correlation to the intrinsic electron-lattice thermalization time, in a fluence regime well below the damage threshold of gold. The observations and insights have important consequences in designing ultrafast thermionic emitters based on a metal based architecture.

1.Simultaneous 3D Construction and Imaging of Plant Cells Using Plasmonic Nanoprobe Assisted Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Microscopy

Authors:Kun Liu, Yutian Lei, Dawei Li

Abstract: Nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging has emerged as a promising plant cell imaging technique due to its large optical penetration, inherent 3D spatial resolution, and reduced photodamage, meanwhile exogenous nanoprobes are usually needed for non-signal target cell analysis. Here, we report in-vivo, simultaneous 3D labeling and imaging of potato cell structures using plasmonic nanoprobe-assisted multimodal NLO microscopy. Experimental results show that the complete cell structure could be imaged by the combination of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon luminescence (TPL) when noble metal silver or gold ions are added. In contrast, without noble metal ion solution, no NLO signals from the cell wall could be acquired. The mechanism can be attributed to noble metal nanoprobes with strong nonlinear optical responses formed along the cell walls via a femtosecond laser scan. During the SHG-TPL imaging process, noble metal ions that cross the cell wall could be rapidly reduced to plasmonic nanoparticles by fs laser and selectively anchored onto both sides of the cell wall, thereby leading to simultaneous 3D labeling and imaging of potato cells. Compared with traditional labeling technique that needs in-vitro nanoprobe fabrication and cell labeling, our approach allows for one-step, in-vivo labeling of plant cells, thus providing a rapid, cost-effective way for cellular structure construction and imaging.

2.Temporally and Longitudinally Tailored Dynamic Space-Time Wave Packets

Authors:Xinzhou Su, Kaiheng Zou, Huibin Zhou, Hao Song, Yingning Wang, Ruoyu Zeng, Zile Jiang, Yuxiang Duan, Maxim Karpov, Tobias J. Kippenberg, Moshe Tur, Demetrios N. Christodoulides, Alan E. Willner

Abstract: In general, space-time wave packets with correlations between transverse spatial fields and temporal frequency spectra can lead to unique spatiotemporal dynamics, thus enabling control of the instantaneous light properties. However, spatiotemporal dynamics generated in previous approaches manifest themselves at a given propagation distance yet not arbitrarily tailored longitudinally. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new versatile class of judiciously synthesized wave packets whose spatiotemporal evolution can be arbitrarily engineered to take place at various predesigned distances along the longitudinal propagation path. Spatiotemporal synthesis is achieved by introducing a 2-dimensional spectrum comprising both temporal and longitudinal wavenumbers associated with specific transverse Bessel-Gaussian fields. The resulting spectra are then employed to produce wave packets evolving in both time and axial distance - in full accord with the theoretical analysis. In this respect, various light degrees of freedom can be independently manipulated, such as intensity, polarization, and transverse spatial distribution (e.g., orbital angular momentum). Through a temporal-longitudinal frequency comb spectrum, we simulate the synthesis of the aforementioned wave packet properties, indicating a decrease in relative error compared to the desired phenomena as more spectral components are incorporated. Additionally, we experimentally demonstrate tailorable spatiotemporal fields carrying time- and longitudinal-varying orbital angular momentum, such that the local topological charge evolves every ~1 ps in the time domain and 10 cm axially. We believe that our space-time wave packets can significantly expand the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics in the longitudinal dimension, and potentially enable novel applications in ultrafast microscopy, light-matter interactions, and nonlinear optics.

3.On-chip spatiotemporal optical vortex generation using an integrated metal-dielectric resonator

Authors:Artem I. Kashapov, Leonid L. Doskolovich, Evgeni A. Bezus, Dmitry A. Bykov, Victor A. Soifer

Abstract: We theoretically demonstrate the possibility of generating a spatiotemporal optical vortex (STOV) beam in a dielectric slab waveguide. The STOV is generated upon reflection of a spatiotemporal optical pulse from an integrated metal-dielectric structure consisting of metal strips "buried" in the waveguide. For describing the interaction of the incident pulse with the integrated structure, we derive its "vectorial" spatiotemporal transfer function (TF) describing the transformation of the electromagnetic field components of the incident pulse. We show that if the TF of the structure corresponds to the TF of a spatiotemporal differentiator with a $\pi/2$ phase difference between the terms describing temporal and spatial differentiation, then the envelope of the reflected pulse will contain an STOV in all nonzero components of the electromagnetic field. The obtained theoretical results are in good agreement with the results of rigorous numerical simulation of the STOV generation using a three-strip metal-dielectric integrated structure. We believe that the presented results pave the way for the research and application of STOV beams in the on-chip geometry.

4.$2\cdot 10^{-13}$ fractional laser frequency stability with a 7-cm unequal-arm Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Authors:Victor Huarcaya, Miguel Dovale {Á}lvarez, Daniel Penkert, Stefano Gozzo, Pablo Martínez Cano, Kohei Yamamoto, Juan José Esteban Delgado, Moritz Mehmet, Karsten Danzmann, Gerhard Heinzel

Abstract: To achieve sub-picometer sensitivities in the millihertz band, laser interferometric inertial sensors rely on some form of reduction of the laser frequency noise, typically by locking the laser to a stable frequency reference, such as the narrow-linewidth resonance of an ultra-stable optical cavity or an atomic or molecular transition. In this paper we report on a compact laser frequency stabilization technique based on an unequal-arm Mach-Zehnder interferometer that is sub-nanometer stable at $10\,\mu$Hz, sub-picometer at $0.5\,$mHz, and reaches a noise floor of $7\,\mathrm{fm}/\!\sqrt{\mathrm{Hz}}$ at 1 Hz. The interferometer is used in conjunction with a DC servo to stabilize the frequency of a laser down to a fractional instability below $4 \times 10^{-13}$ at averaging times from 0.1 to 100 seconds. The technique offers a wide operating range, does not rely on complex lock acquisition procedures, and can be readily integrated as part of the optical bench in future gravity missions.

5.Stable higher-charge vortex solitons in the cubic-quintic medium with a ring potential

Authors:Liangwei Dong, Mingjing Fan, Boris A. Malomed

Abstract: We put forward a model for trapping stable optical vortex solitons (VSs) with high topological charges $m$. The cubic-quintic nonlinear medium with an imprinted ring-shaped modulation of the refractive index is shown to support two branches of VSs, which are controlled by the radius, width and depth of the modulation profile. While the lower-branch VSs are unstable in their nearly whole existence domain, the upper branch is completely stable. Vortex solitons with $m\leq 12$ obey the anti-Vakhitov-Kolokolov stability criterion. The results suggest possibilities for the creation of stable narrow optical VSs with a low power, carrying higher vorticities.

6.Transmission of optical communication signals through ring core fiber using perfect vortex beams

Authors:Nelson Villalba, Cristóbal Melo, Sebastián Ayala, Christopher Mancilla, Wladimir Valenzuela, Miguel Figueroa, Erik Baradit, Riu Lin, Ming Tang, Stephen P. Walborn, Gustavo Lima, Gabriel Saavedra, Gustavo Cañas

Abstract: Orbital angular momentum can be used to implement high capacity data transmission systems that can be applied for classical and quantum communications. Here we experimentally study the generation and transmission properties of the so-called perfect vortex beams and the Laguerre-Gaussian beams in ring-core optical fibers. Our results show that when using a single preparation stage, the perfect vortex beams present less ring-radius variation that allows coupling of higher optical power into a ring core fiber. These results lead to lower power requirements to establish fiber-based communications links using orbital angular momentum and set the stage for future implementations of high-dimensional quantum communication over space division multiplexing fibers.

7.Poincaré sphere symmetries in four-wave mixing with orbital angular momentum

Authors:Mateus Rattes Lima da Motta, Gabriel Bié Alves, Antonio Zelaquett Khoury, Sandra Sampaio Vianna

Abstract: We explore a degenerate four-wave mixing process induced by transversely structured light beams in a rubidium vapor cell. In particular, we consider the nonlinear interaction driven by optical modes contained in the orbital angular momentum Poincar\'e sphere, which can be parametrized in terms of a polar and an azimuthal angle. In this context we investigate the transfer of spatial structure to two distinct four-wave mixing signals, possessing different propagation directions in space. We show that under usual assumptions, the output fields can also be described by modes belonging to Poincar\'e spheres, and that the angles describing the input and output modes are related according to well-defined rules. Our experimental results show good agreement with the calculations, which predict intricate field structures and a transition of the FWM transverse profile between the near- and far-field regions.

8.Topological Plasmonic Ring Resonator

Authors:Fatemeh Davoodi, Nahid Talebi

Abstract: Topological plasmonic provides a new insight for the manipulation of light. Analogous to exotic nature of topological edge states in topological photonics, topological plasmonic combines concepts from topology and plasmonics. By utilizing topological protection, plasmons can be made to propagate without significant scattering or decay, even in the presence of defects or disorder. Herein, we present a study on the design, characterization, and manipulation of topological plasmonic chains of discs based on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model made into a ring resonator. The investigation focuses on exploring the unique properties of these resonators and their potential to support topologically protected edge modes, within the continuum of rotationally symmetric optical modes of a ring. To observe the topological edge modes in rotationally symmetric chains, we employ a symmetry-breaking excitation technique based on electron beams. It analyzes the influence of parameters such as dimerization and loop numbers on the presence of topological modes. Additionally, we explore the manipulation of electron impact positions to control the direction of propagation and selectively excite specific bulk or edge modes. The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of topological effects by numerically investigating their design principles and exploring techniques to manipulate topological edge modes. The insights gained from this study have implications for the development of nanoscale plasmonic systems with customized functionalities, potentially impacting areas such as nanophotonics and quantum information processing.

9.Combining ultrahigh index with exceptional nonlinearity in resonant transition metal dichalcogenide nanodisks

Authors:George Zograf, Alexander Yu. Polyakov, Maria Bancerek, Tomasz Antosiewicz, Betul Kucukoz, Timur Shegai

Abstract: Second-order nonlinearity in solids gives rise to a plethora of unique physical phenomena ranging from piezoelectricity and optical rectification to optical parametric amplification, spontaneous parametric down-conversion, and the generation of entangled photon pairs. Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS$_2$, exhibit one of the highest known second-order nonlinear coefficients. However, the monolayer nature of these materials prevents the fabrication of resonant objects exclusively from the material itself, necessitating the use of external structures to achieve optical enhancement of nonlinear processes. Here, we exploit the 3R phase of a molybdenum disulfide multilayer for resonant nonlinear nanophotonics. The lack of inversion symmetry, even in the bulk of the material, provides a combination of a massive second-order susceptibility, an extremely high and anisotropic refractive index in the near-infrared region ($n>$~4.5), and low absorption losses, making 3R-MoS$_2$ highly attractive for nonlinear nanophotonics. We demonstrate this by fabricating 3R-MoS$_2$ nanodisks of various radii, which support resonant anapole states, and observing substantial ($>$ 100-fold) enhancement of second-harmonic generation in a single resonant nanodisk compared to an unpatterned flake of the same thickness. The enhancement is maximized at the spectral overlap between the anapole state of the disk and the material resonance of the second-order susceptibility. Our approach unveils a powerful tool for enhancing the entire spectrum of optical second-order nonlinear processes in nanostructured van der Waals materials, thereby paving the way for nonlinear and quantum high-index TMD-nanophotonics.

10.Theory of Transverse Mode Instability in Fiber Amplifiers with Multimode Excitations

Authors:Kabish Wisal, Chun-Wei Chen, Hui Cao, A. Douglas Stone

Abstract: Transverse Mode Instability (TMI) which results from dynamic nonlinear thermo-optical scattering is the primary limitation to power scaling in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers. It has been proposed that TMI can be suppressed by exciting multiple modes in a highly multimode fiber. We derive a semi-analytic frequency-domain theory of the threshold for the onset of TMI under arbitrary multimode input excitation for general fiber geometries. We show that TMI results from exponential growth of noise in all the modes at downshifted frequencies due to the thermo-optical coupling. The noise growth rate in each mode is given by the sum of signal powers in various modes weighted by pairwise thermo-optical coupling coefficients. We calculate thermo-optical coupling coefficients for all $\sim$$10^4$ pairs of modes in a standard circular multimode fiber and show that modes with large transverse spatial frequency mismatch are weakly coupled resulting in a banded coupling matrix. This short-range behavior is due to the diffusive nature of the heat propagation which mediates the coupling and leads to a lower noise growth rate upon multimode excitation compared to single mode, resulting in significant TMI suppression. We find that the TMI threshold increases linearly with the number of modes that are excited, leading to more than an order of magnitude increase in the TMI threshold in a 82-mode fiber amplifier. Using our theory, we also calculate TMI threshold in fibers with non-circular geometries upon multimode excitation and show the linear scaling of TMI threshold to be a universal property of different fibers.

1.Nonlinear chiral metaphotonics

Authors:Kirill Koshelev, Pavel Tonkaev, Yuri Kivshar

Abstract: We review the physics and some applications of photonic structures designed for the realisation of strong $\textit{nonlinear chiroptical response}$. We pay much attention to the recent strategy of utilizing different types of $\textit{optical resonances}$ in metallic and dielectric subwavelength structures and metasurfaces, including surface plasmon resonances, Mie resonances, lattice guided modes, and bound states in the continuum. We summarize earlier results and discuss more recent developments for achieving large circular dichroism combined with the high efficiency of nonlinear harmonic generation.

2.Anomalous Reflection From Hyperbolic Media

Authors:Ilya Deriy, Kseniia Lezhennikova, Stanislav Glybovsky, Ivan Iorsh, Oleh Yermakov, Mingzhao Song, Redha Abdeddaim, Stefan Enoch, Pavel Belov, Andrey Bogdanov

Abstract: Despite the apparent simplicity, the problem of refraction of electromagnetic waves at the planar interface between two media has an incredibly rich spectrum of unusual phenomena. An example is the paradox that occurs when an electromagnetic wave is incident on the interface between a hyperbolic medium and an isotropic dielectric. At certain orientations of the optical axis of the hyperbolic medium relative to the interface, the reflected and transmitted waves are completely absent. In this paper, we formulate the aforementioned paradox and present its resolution by introduction of infinitesimal losses in a hyperbolic medium. We show that the reflected wave exists, but became extremely decaying as the loss parameter tends to zero. As a consequence, all the energy scattered into the reflected channel is absorbed at the interface. We support our reasoning with analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and an experiment with self-complementary metasurfaces in the microwave region. In addition to the great fundamental interest, this paradox resolution discovers a plethora of applications for the reflectors, refractors, absorbers, lenses, antennas, camouflage and holography applications.

3.Investigation of internal electric fields in graphene/6H-SiC under illumination by Pockels effect

Authors:Vaclav Dedic, Jakub Sanitrak, Tomas Fridrisek, Martin Rejhon, Bohdan Morzhuk, Mykhailo Shestopalov, Jan Kunc

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a method for mapping profiles of internal electric fields in birefringent crystals based on the electro-optic Pockels effect and measuring phase differences of low-intensity polarized light. In the case of the studied 6H-SiC crystal with graphene electrodes, the experiment is significantly affected by birefringence at zero bias voltage applied to the crystal and a strong thermo-optical effect. We dealt with these phenomena by adding a Soleil-Babinet compensator and using considerations based on measurements of crystal heating under laser illumination. The method can be generalized and adapted to any Pockels crystal that can withstand sufficiently high voltages. We demonstrate the significant formation of space charge in semi-insulating 6H-SiC under illumination by above-bandgap light.

4.Self-aligned hybrid nanocavities using atomically thin materials

Authors:C. F. Fong, D. Yamashita, N. Fang, S. Fujii, Y. -R. Chang, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, Y. K. Kato

Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals layered materials with intriguing properties are increasingly being adopted in hybrid photonics. The 2D materials are often integrated with photonic structures including cavities to enhance light-matter coupling, providing additional control and functionality. The 2D materials, however, needs to be precisely placed on the photonic cavities. Furthermore, the transfer of 2D materials onto the cavities could degrade the cavity quality $(Q)$ factor. Instead of using prefabricated PhC nanocavities, we demonstrate a novel approach to form a hybrid nanocavity by partially covering a PhC waveguide post-fabrication with a suitably-sized 2D material flake. We successfully fabricated such hybrid nanocavity devices with hBN, WSe$_2$ and MoTe$_2$ flakes on silicon PhC waveguides, obtaining $Q$ factors as high as $4.0\times10^5$. Remarkably, even mono- and few-layer flakes can provide sufficient local refractive index modulation to induce nanocavity formation. Since the 2D material is spatially self-aligned to the nanocavity, we have also managed to observe cavity PL enhancement in a MoTe$_2$ hybrid cavity device, with a cavity Purcell enhancement factor of about 15. Our results highlights the prospect of using such 2D materials-induced PhC nanocavity to realize a wide range of photonic components for hybrid devices and integrated photonic circuits.

5.Engineering of intelligent reflecting surfaces: Reflection locality and angular stability

Authors:Javad Shabanpour, Vladimir Lenets, Geoffroy Lerosey, Sergei Tretyakov, Constantin Simovski

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are electromagnetically passive controllable structures, deflecting the incident wave beam in directions predefined by the control signal. A usual way to design RIS based on metasurfaces (MSs) is based on the application of the approximation in which the reflective properties of a uniform MS are attributed to a unit cell of the non-uniform one. We call this approximation the reflection locality. In the present paper, we show that this approximation may result in heavy errors. We also find a condition under which this approximation is applicable for a wide range of incidence and deflection angles. This condition is the angular stability of the reflection phase of a uniform MS based on which the non-uniform one is generated. We present an approximate analytical proof of the equivalence of the reflection locality and angular stability. As an example, we report theoretical and experimental results we obtained for a binary RIS whose generic uniform analogue has the angular stability. Meanwhile, for its counterpart without angular stability (the so-called mushroom MS) the same model fails.

6.Solving multi-armed bandit problems using a chaotic microresonator comb

Authors:Jonathan Cuevas, Ryugo Iwami, Atsushi Uchida, Kaoru Minoshima, Naoya Kuse

Abstract: The Multi-Armed Bandit (MAB) problem, foundational to reinforcement learning-based decision-making, addresses the challenge of maximizing rewards amidst multiple uncertain choices. While algorithmic solutions are effective, their computational efficiency diminishes with increasing problem complexity. Photonic accelerators, leveraging temporal and spatial-temporal chaos, have emerged as promising alternatives. However, despite these advancements, current approaches either compromise computation speed or amplify system complexity. In this paper, we introduce a chaotic microresonator frequency comb (chaos comb) to tackle the MAB problem, where each comb mode is assigned to a slot machine. Through a proof-of-concept experiment, we employ 44 comb modes to address an MAB with 44 slot machines, demonstrating performance competitive with both conventional software algorithms and other photonic methods. Further, the scalability of decision making is explored with up to 512 slot machines using experimentally obtained temporal chaos in different time slots. Power-law scalability is achieved with an exponent of 0.96, outperforming conventional software-based algorithms. Moreover, we find that a numerically calculated chaos comb accurately reproduces experimental results, paving the way for discussions on strategies to increase the number of slot machines.

7.Live Iterative Ptychography

Authors:Dieter Weber, Simeon Ehrig, Andreas Schropp, Alexander Clausen, Silvio Achilles, Nico Hoffmann, Michael Bussmann, Rafal Dunin-Borkowski, Christian G. Schroer

Abstract: We demonstrate live-updating ptychographic reconstruction with ePIE, an iterative ptychography method, during ongoing data acquisition. The reconstruction starts with a small subset of the total data, and as the acquisition proceeds the data used for reconstruction is extended. This creates a live-updating view of object and illumination that allows monitoring the ongoing experiment and adjusting parameters with quick turn-around. This is particularly advantageous for long-running acquisitions. We show that such a gradual reconstruction yields interpretable results already with a small subset of the data. We show simulated live processing with various scan patterns, parallelized reconstruction, and real-world live processing at the hard X-ray ptychographic nanoanalytical microscope PtyNAMi at the PETRA III beamline.

1.Nano-Imaging of Chiro-Optical Force

Authors:Junsuke Yamanishi, Hyo-Yong Ahn, Hiromi Okamoto

Abstract: Nanoscopic observation of chiro-optical phenomena is essential in wide scientific areas but has measurement difficulties; hence, its physics are still unknown. Currently, in most cases, chiro-optical phenomena have been investigated by polarized light handling far-field measurements or via predictions by theoretical simulations. To obtain a full understanding of the physics of chiro-optical systems and derive the full potentials, it is essential to perform in situ observation of the chiro-optical effect from the individual parts because the macroscopic chiro-optical effect cannot be translated directly into microscopic effects. In the present study, we observed the chiro-optical responses at the nanoscale level by detecting the chiro-optical forces, which were generated by illumination of the material/probe system with circularly polarized light. The induced optical force was dependent on the handedness of the incident circularly polarized light and well correlated to the electromagnetically simulated differential intensity of the longitudinal electric field. Our results facilitate the clarification of chiro-optical phenomena at the nanoscale level and could innovate chiro-optical nanotechnologies.

2.Dispersive effects in ultrafast non-linear phenomena

Authors:Dusan Lorenc, Zhanybek Alpichshev

Abstract: It is a basic principle that an effect cannot come before the cause. Dispersive relations that follow from this fundamental fact have proven to be an indispensable tool in physics and engineering. They are most powerful in the domain of linear response where they are known as Kramers-Kronig relations. However when it comes to nonlinear phenomena the implications of causality are much less explored, apart from several notable exceptions. Here in this work we demonstrate how to apply the dispersive formalism to analyse the ultrafast nonlinear response in the context of the paradigmatic nonlinear Kerr effect. We find that the requirement of causality introduces a noticeable effect even under assumption that Kerr effect is mediated by quasi-instantaneous off-resonant electronic hyperpolarizability. We confirm this by experimentally measuring the time resolved Kerr dynamics in GaAs by means of a hybrid pump-probe Mach-Zehnder interferometer and demonstrate the presence of an intrinsic lagging between amplitude and phase responses as predicted by dispersive analysis. Our results describe a general property of the time-resolved nonlinear processes thereby highlighting the importance of accounting for dispersive effects in the nonlinear optical processes involving ultrashort pulses.

3.Diffraction limit of light in curved space

Authors:Jingxuan Zhang, Chenni Xu, Patrick Sebbah, Li-Gang Wang

Abstract: Overcoming diffraction limit is crucial for obtaining high-resolution image and observing fine microstructure. With this conventional difficulty still puzzling us and the prosperous development of wave dynamics of light interacting with gravitational fields in recent years, how spatial curvature affect the diffraction limit is an attractive and important question. Here we investigate the issue of diffraction limit and optical resolution on two-dimensional curved spaces - surfaces of revolution (SORs) with constant or variable spatial curvature. We show that the diffraction limit decreases and resolution is improved on SORs with positive Gaussian curvature, opening a new avenue to super-resolution. The diffraction limit is also influenced by propagation direction, as well as the propagation distance in curved space with variable spatial curvature. These results provide a possible method to control optical resolution in curved space or equivalent waveguides with varying refractive index distribution and may allow one to detect the presence of non-uniform strong gravitational effect by probing locally the optical resolution.

4.Anisotropic Virtual Gain and Large Tuning of Particles' Scattering by Complex-Frequency Excitations

Authors:Grigorios P. Zouros, Iridanos Loulas, Evangelos Almpanis, Alex Krasnok, Kosmas L. Tsakmakidis

Abstract: Active tuning of the scattering of particles and metasurfaces is a highly sought-after property for a host of electromagnetic and photonic applications, but it normally requires challenging-to-control tunable (reconfigurable) or active (gain) media. Here, we introduce the concepts of anisotropic virtual gain and oblique Kerker effect, where a completely lossy anisotropic medium behaves exactly as its anisotropic gain counterpart upon excitation by a synthetic complex-frequency wave. The strategy allows one to largely tune the magnitude and angle of a particle's scattering simply by changing the shape (envelope) of the incoming radiation, rather than by an involved medium-tuning mechanism. The so-attained anisotropic virtual gain enables directional super-scattering at an oblique direction with fine-management of the scattering angle. Our study, opening a unique light-management method, is based on analytical techniques that allow multipolar decomposition of the scattered field, and is found, throughout, to be in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations.

5.High-Index Topological Insulator Resonant Nanostructures from Bismuth Selenide

Authors:Sukanta Nandi, Shany Z. Cohen, Danveer Singh, Michal Poplinger, Pilkhaz Nanikashvili, Doron Naveh, Tomer Lewi

Abstract: Topological insulators (TIs) are a class of materials characterized by an insulting bulk and high mobility topologically protected surface states, making them promising candidates for future optoelectronic and quantum devices. Although their electronic and transport properties have been extensively studied, their optical properties and prospective photonic capabilities have not been fully uncovered. Here, we use a combination of far-field and near-field nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy, to study CVD grown Bi2Se3 nanobeams (NBs). We first extract the mid-infrared (MIR) optical constants of Bi2Se3, revealing refractive index values as high as n ~6.4, and demonstrate that the NBs support Mie-resonances across the MIR. Local near-field reflection phase mapping reveals domains of various phase shifts, providing information on the local optical properties of the NBs. We experimentally measure up to 2{\pi} phase-shift across the resonance, in excellent agreement with FDTD simulations. This work highlights the potential of TI Bi2Se3 for quantum circuitry, non-linear generation, high-Q metaphotonics, and IR photodetection.

6.Observation of a Brillouin dynamic grating in silicon nitride waveguides

Authors:Roel Botter, Jasper van den Hoogen, Akhileshwar Mishra, Kaixuan Ye, Albert van Rees, Marcel Hoekman, Klaus Boller, David Marpaung

Abstract: Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing in the form of a Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) enables a uniquely tunable filter, whose properties can be tuned by purely optical means. This makes the BDG a valuable tool in microwave photonics (MWP). BDGs have been studied extensively in fibers, but the only observation in an integrated platform required exotic materials. Unlocking BDG in a standard and mature platform will enable its integration into large-scale circuits. Here we demonstrate the first observation of a BDG in a silicon nitride (Si$_3$N$_4$) waveguide. We also present a new, optimized design, which will enhance the BDG response of the waveguide, unlocking a path to large-scale integration into MWP circuits.

1.Efficient spectral broadening and few-cycle pulse generation with multiple thin water films

Authors:Jiacheng Huang, Xiang Lu, Feilong Hu, Jie Long, Jiajun Tang, Lixin He, Qingbin Zhang, Pengfei Lan, Peixiang Lu

Abstract: High-energy, few-cycle laser pulses are essential for numerous applications in the fields of ultrafast optics and strong-field physics, due to their ultrafast temporal resolution and high peak intensity. In this work, different from the traditional hollow-core fibers and multiple thin solid plates, we represent the first demonstration of the octave-spanning supercontinuum broadening by utilizing multiple ultrathin liquid films (MTLFs) as the nonlinear media. The continuum covers a range from 380 to 1050 nm, corresponding to a Fourier transform limit pulse width of 2.5 fs, when 35 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulse is applied on the MTLFs. The output pulses are compressed to 3.9 fs by employing chirped mirrors. Furthermore, a continuous high-order harmonic spectrum up to the 33rd order is realized by subjecting the compressed laser pulses to interact with Kr gas. The utilization of flowing water films eliminates permanent optical damage and enables wider and stronger spectrum broadening. Therefore, this MTLFs scheme provides new solutions for the generation of highly efficient femtosecond supercontinuum and nonlinear pulse compression, with potential applications in the fields of strong-field physics and attosecond science.

2.Exploring the dynamics of the Kelvin-Helmoltz instability in paraxial fluids of light

Authors:Tiago D. Ferreira, Jakub Garwola, Nuno A. Silva

Abstract: Paraxial fluids of light have recently emerged as promising analogue physical simulators of quantum fluids using laser propagation inside nonlinear optical media. In particular, recent works have explored the versatility of such systems for the observation of two-dimensional quantum-like turbulence regimes, dominated by quantized vortex formation and interaction that results in distinctive kinetic energy power laws and inverse energy cascades. In this manuscript, we explore a regime analogue to Kelvin-Helmoltz instability to look into further detail the qualitative dynamics involved in the transition from smooth laminar flow to turbulence at the interface of two fluids with distinct velocities. Both numerical and experimental results reveal the formation of a vortex sheet as expected, with a quantized number of vortices determined by initial conditions. Using an effective length transformation scale we get a deeper insight into the vortex formation phase, observing the appearance of characteristic power-laws in the incompressible kinetic energy spectrum that are related to the single vortex structures. The results enclosed demonstrate the versatility of paraxial fluids of light and may set the stage for the future observation of distinct classes of phenomena recently predicted to occur in these systems, such as radiant instability and superradiance.

3.Vernier Microcombs for Integrated Optical Atomic Clocks

Authors:Kaiyi Wu, Nathan P. O'Malley, Saleha Fatema, Cong Wang, Marcello Girardi, Mohammed S. Alshaykh, Zhichao Ye, Daniel E. Leaird, Minghao Qi, Victor Torres-Company, Andrew M. Weiner

Abstract: CMOS-compatible Kerr microcombs have drawn substantial interest as mass-manufacturable, compact alternatives to bulk frequency combs. This could enable deployment of many comb-reliant applications previously confined to laboratories. Particularly enticing is the prospect of microcombs performing optical frequency division in compact optical atomic clocks. Unfortunately, it is difficult to meet the self-referencing requirement of microcombs in these systems due to the $\sim$THz repetition rates typically required for octave-spanning comb generation. Additionally, it is challenging to spectrally engineer a microcomb system to align a comb mode with an atomic clock transition with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we adopt a Vernier dual-microcomb scheme for optical frequency division of a stabilized ultranarrow-linewidth continuous-wave laser at 871 nm to a $\sim$235 MHz output frequency. In addition to enabling measurement of the comb repetition rates, this scheme brings the freedom to pick comb lines from either or both of the combs. We exploit this flexibility to shift an ultra-high-frequency ($\sim$100 GHz) carrier-envelope offset beat down to frequencies where detection is possible and to place a comb line close to the 871 nm laser - tuned so that if frequency-doubled it would fall close to the clock transition in $^{171}$Yb$^+$. Moreover, we introduce a novel scheme which suppresses frequency noise arising from interferometric phase fluctuations in our dual-comb system and reduces the frequency instability down to our measurement limit. Our dual-comb system can potentially combine with an integrated ion trap toward future chip-scale optical atomic clocks.

4.Towards Intense Ultra-Broadband High Repetition Rate Terahertz Sources Based on Organic Crystals [Invited]

Authors:Samira Mansourzadeh, Tim Vogel, Alan Omar, Tobias O. Buchmann, Edmund J. R. Kelleher, Peter U. Jepsen, Clara J. Saraceno

Abstract: Increasing the average power of broadband, few-cycle terahertz (THz) sources is currently a topic of intense investigation, fueled by recent immense progress in high average power femtosecond laser driving sources at 1030 nm. However, many crucial applications would benefit not only from an increase in average power, but also from ultra-broad bandwidth, while maintaining high dynamic range at these frequencies. This calls for the challenging combination of high repetition rates and high average power simultaneously. Here, we discuss the recent progress in the promising approach enabled by organic crystals for THz-generation. Specifically, this review article discusses advances with the most commonly used organic crystals BNA, DAST, DSTMS, OH1 and HMQ-TMS. We place special emphasis on nonlinear and thermal properties and discuss future directions for this field.

5.Optically levitated gyroscopes with a MHz rotating micro-rotor

Authors:Kai Zeng, Xiangming Xu, Yulie Wu, Xuezhong Wu, Dingbang Xiao

Abstract: The optically levitated particles have been driven to rotate at an ultra-high speed of GHz, and the gyroscopic application of these levitated particles to measure angular motion have long been explored. However, this gyroscope has not been proven either theoretically or experimentally. Here, a rotor gyroscope based on optically levitated high-speed rotating particles is proposed. In vacuum, an ellipsoidal vaterite particle with 3.58 $\mu$m average diameter is driven to rotate at MHz, and the optical axis orientation of the particle is measured by the particle rotational signal. The external inputted angular velocity makes the optical axis deviate from the initial position, which changes the frequency and amplitude of the rotational signal. The inputted angular velocity is hence detected by the rotational signal, and the angular rate bias instability of the prototype is measured to be $0.08^o/s$. It is the smallest rotor gyroscope in the world, and the bias instability can be further improved up to $10^{-9o}/h$ theoretically by cooling the motion and increasing the angular moment of the levitated particle. Our work opens a new application paradigm of the levitated optomechanical systems and possibly bring the rotor gyroscope to the quantum realm.

6.Feedback Enhanced Phonon Lasing of a Microwave Frequency Resonator

Authors:Peyman Parsa, Prasoon Kumar Shandilya, David P. Lake, Matthew E. Mitchell, Paul E. Barclay

Abstract: The amplitude of self-oscillating mechanical resonators in cavity optomechanical systems is typically limited by nonlinearities arising from the cavity's finite optical bandwidth. We propose and demonstrate a feedback technique for increasing this limit. By modulating the cavity input field with a signal derived from its output intensity, we increase the amplitude of a self-oscillating GHz frequency mechanical resonator by $22\%$ (increase in coherent phonon number of $50\%$) limited only by the achievable optomechanical cooperativity of the system. This technique will advance applications dependent on high dynamic mechanical stress, such as coherent spin-phonon coupling, as well as implementations of sensors based on self-oscillating resonators.

1.Exceptional points and lines and Dirac points and lines in magnetoactive cholesteric liquid crystals

Authors:A. H. Gevorgyan

Abstract: We investigated the properties of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) being in external static magnetic field directed along the helix axis. We have shown that in the case of the wavelength dependence of magneto-optic activity parameter, and in the presence of absorption new features appear in the optics of CLCs. We have shown that in this case new photonic band gaps (PBGs) appear. This new PBG is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light. But if the chirality sign of the polarization of the incident diffracting light for the basic PBG (which exist also at the absence of external magnetic field) is determined only by the chirality sign of the CLC helix, then for the second one it is determined by the external magnetic field direction (i.e., on whether the directions of the external magnetic field and the incident light are parallel, or they are antiparallel). We have shown that in this case besides Dirac points there appear also Dirac lines as well as exceptional points and exceptional lines. And moreover, at some of these points and lines there appear the lines or wide bands of magnetically induced transparency, on others a wide coherent perfect absorption band appears that is insensitive to incident light polarization. And finally on some points the same reflection, transmission and absorption takes place for any polarization of incident light. This system can be applied as tunable narrow-band or broad-band filters and mirrors, a highly tunable broad/narrow-band coherent perfect absorber, transmitter, ideal optical diode, and other devices.

2.Electrically controlled dipolariton circuits

Authors:Dror Liran, Jiaqi Hu, Nathanial Lydick, Hui Deng, Loren Pfeiffer, Ronen Rapaport

Abstract: Electrically controlled photonic circuits hold promise for information technologies with greatly improved energy efficiency and quantum information processing capabilities. However, weak nonlinearity and electrical response of typical photonic materials have been two critical challenges. Therefore hybrid electronic-photonic systems, such as semiconductor exciton-polaritons, have been intensely investigated for their potential to allow higher nonlinearity and electrical control, with limited success so far. Here we demonstrate an electrically-gated waveguide architecture for dipolar-polaritons that allows enhanced and electrically-controllable polariton nonlinearities, enabling an electrically-tuned reflecting switch and transistor of the dipolar-polaritons. The polariton transistor displays blockade and anti-blockade by compressing a dilute dipolar-polariton pulse. We project that a quantum blockade at the single polariton level is feasible in such a device.

3.Plasmon-enhanced circular dichroism spectroscopy of chiral drug solutions

Authors:Matteo Venturi, Raju Adhikary, Ambaresh Sahoo, Carino Ferrante, Isabella Daidone, Francesco Di Stasio, Andrea Toma, Francesco Tani, Hatice Altug, Antonio Mecozzi, Massimiliano Aschi, Andrea Marini

Abstract: We investigate the potential of surface plasmon polaritons at noble metal interfaces for surface-enhanced chiroptical sensing of dilute chiral drug solutions with nano-litre volume. The high quality factor of surface plasmon resonances in both Otto and Kretschmann configurations enables the enhancement of circular dichroism thanks to the large near-field intensity of such plasmonic excitations. Furthermore, the subwavelength confinement of surface plasmon polaritons is key to attain chiroptical sensitivity to small amounts of drug volumes placed around $\simeq$ 100 nm by the metal surface. Our calculations focus on reparixin, a pharmaceutical molecule currently used in clinical studies for patients with community-acquired pneumonia, including COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Considering realistic dilute solutions of reparixin dissolved in water with concentration $\leq$ 5 mg/ml and nl volume, we find a circular-dichroism differential absorption enhancement factor of the order $\simeq$ 20 and chirality-induced polarization distortion upon surface plasmon polariton excitation. Our results are relevant for the development of innovative chiroptical sensors capable of measuring the enantiomeric imbalance of chiral drug solutions with nl volume.

4.All-optical switching at the two-photon limit with interference-localized states

Authors:Ville A. J. Pyykkönen, Grazia Salerno, Jaakko Kähärä, Päivi Törmä

Abstract: We propose a single-photon-by-single-photon all-optical switch concept based on interference-localized states on lattices and their delocalization by interaction. In its 'open' operation, the switch stops single photons while allows photon pairs to pass the switch. Alternatively, in the 'closed' operation, the switch geometrically separates single-photon and two-photon states. We demonstrate the concept using a three-site Stub unit cell and the diamond chain. The systems are modeled by Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonians, and the dynamics is solved by exact diagonalization with Lindblad master equation. We discuss realization of the switch using photonic lattices with nonlinearities, superconductive qubit arrays, and ultracold atoms. We show that the switch allows arbitrary 'ON'/'OFF' contrast while achieving picosecond switching time at the single-photon switching energy with contemporary photonic materials.

1.Broadband, Single wavelength, Continuous Spectral Control in a Polymer-Based Solid-State Random Laser

Authors:Bhupesh Kumar, Sebastian Schulz, Patrick Sebbah

Abstract: In this paper, we present a study on partially pumped, single wavelength random lasing with tunability controlled by temperature in a solid-state random laser based on DCM (4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran) doped PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) dye. By carefully shaping the spatial profile of the pump, we achieve low-threshold, single-mode random lasing with excellent rejection of side lobes. Notably, we observe that varying the temperature induces changes in the refractive index of the PMMA-DCM layer, resulting in a blue-shift of the lasing wavelength. Moreover, we demonstrate continuous tunability of the lasing wavelength over an impressive bandwidth of 8 nm.

2.The Impact of Surface Roughness on Light Absorption

Authors:V. Gareyan, Zh. Gevorkian

Abstract: We report on a comprehensive study carried out to reveal the impact of surface roughness on the incident light absorption. In practice, we have used analytical approach of solving Maxwell equations by modifying boundary conditions that take into account the surface roughness in metallic or dielectric films. Our approach reveals interference linked terms that modify the absorption dependence on the surface roughness characteristics, light wavelength,polarization and incidence angle. We have discussed the limits of our approach that hold valid from optics to microwave region. Polarization and angular dependences of roughness induced absorption are revealed. Existence of an incident angle and a wavelength for which the absorptance of rough surface becomes equal to the absorptance of flat surface is predicted. Relaying on this phenomena a method of determination of roughness correlation length is suggested.

3.Miniaturized Computational Photonic Molecule Spectrometer

Authors:Yujia Zhang, Xuhan Guo, Tom Albrow-Owen, Zhenyu Zhao, Yaotian Zhao, Tawfique Hasan, Zongyin Yang, Yikai Su

Abstract: Miniaturized spectrometry system is playing an essential role for materials analysis in the development of in-situ or portable sensing platforms across research and industry. However, there unavoidably exists trade-offs between the resolution and operation bandwidth as the device scale down. Here, we report an extreme miniaturized computational photonic molecule (PM) spectrometer utilizing the diverse spectral characteristics and mode-hybridization effect of split eigenfrequencies and super-modes, which effectively eliminates the inherent periodicity and expands operation bandwidth with ultra-high spectral resolution. These results of dynamic control of the frequency, amplitude, and phase of photons in the photonic multi-atomic systems, pave the way to the development of benchtop sensing platforms for applications previously unfeasible due to resolution-bandwidth-footprint limitations, such as in gas sensing or nanoscale biomedical sensing.

1.Nonlinear dielectric epsilon near-zero hybrid nanogap antennas

Authors:Romain Tirole, Benjamin Tilmann, Leonardo de S. Menezes, Stefano Vezzoli, Riccardo Sapienza, Stefan A. Maier

Abstract: High-index Mie-resonant dielectric nanostructures provide a new framework to manipulate light at the nanoscale. In particular their local field confinement together with their inherently low losses at frequencies below their band-gap energy allows to efficiently boost and control linear and nonlinear optical processes. Here, we investigate nanoantennas composed of a thin indium-tin oxide layer in the center of a dielectric Gallium Phosphide nanodisk. While the linear response is similar to that of a pure GaP nanodisk, we show that the second and third-harmonic signals of the nanogap antenna are boosted at resonance. Linear and nonlinear finite-difference time-domain simulations show that the high refractive index contrast leads to strong field confinement inside the antenna's ITO layer. Measurement of ITO and GaP nonlinear susceptibilities deliver insight on how to engineer nonlinear nanogap antennas for higher efficiencies for future nanoscale devices.

2.Extremely thin perfect absorber by generalized multipole bianisotropic effect

Authors:Hao Ma, Andrey B. Evlyukhin, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, Fengjie Zhu, Siyu Duan, Jingbo Wu, Caihong Zhang, Jian Chen, Biao-Bing Jin, Willie J. Padilla, Kebin Fan

Abstract: Symmetry breaking plays a crucial role in understanding the fundamental physics underlying numerous physical phenomena, including the electromagnetic response in resonators, giving rise to intriguing effects such as directional light scattering, supercavity lasing, and topologically protected states. In this work, we demonstrate that adding a small fraction of lossy metal (as low as $1\times10^{-6}$ in volume), to a lossless dielectric resonator breaks inversion symmetry thereby lifting its degeneracy, leading to a strong bianisotropic response. In the case of the metasurface composed of such resonators, this effect leads to unidirectional perfect absorption while maintaining nearly perfect reflection from the opposite direction. We have developed more general Onsager-Casimir relations for the polarizabilities of particle arrays, taking into account the contributions of quadrupoles, which shows that bianisotropy is not solely due to dipoles, but also involves high-order multipoles. Our experimental validation demonstrates an extremely thin terahertz-perfect absorber with a wavelength-to-thickness ratio of up to 25,000, where the material thickness is only 2% of the theoretical minimum thickness dictated by the fundamental limit. Our findings have significant implications for a variety of applications, including energy harvesting, thermal management, single-photon detection, and low-power directional emission.

3.Numerical experiments of tomographic optical imaging inside scattering media

Authors:Zeyu Wang, Yiwen Zhang, Chia Wei Hsu

Abstract: Optical imaging deep inside scattering media is an outstanding problem across many disciplines. Numerical modeling can accelerate progress by providing the ground truth, the flexibility to tailor the system and the imaging scheme, and the ease of comparing different methods. Here we realize quantitative modeling of five scattering-based imaging methods through multi-source simulations of the inhomogeneous wave equation in a two-dimensional scattering medium that is roughly 800 wavelengths by 550 wavelengths in size. These large-scale simulations are enabled by a new "augmented partial factorization" numerical approach. We analyze the recently proposed scattering matrix tomography method, reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence microscopy, and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy for imaging embedded nanoparticle targets. Having access to the ground-truth configuration, we can rigorously assess the performance and the limit of these methods while identifying artifacts that are otherwise impossible to detect. Such numerical experiments are cheap, convenient, versatile, and provide an ideal testbed for developing new imaging methods and algorithms.

1.Metasurface absorber enhanced thermoelectric conversion

Authors:Ryosuke Nakayama, Sohei Saito, Takuo Tanaka, Wakana Kubo

Abstract: Metasurfaces are artificial thin materials that achieve optical thickness through thin geometrical structure. This feature of metasurfaces results in unprecedented benefits for enhancing the performance of optoelectronic devices. In this study, we report that this metasurface feature is also essential to drive photo-thermoelectric conversion, which requires the accumulation of thermal energy and effective heat conduction. For example, a metasurface-attached thermoelectric device placed in an environment with uniform thermal radiation generates an output voltage by gathering the thermal energies existing in the environment and creating an additional thermal gradient across the thermoelectric element. In contrast, when a 100-um-thick-carbon-black-coated electrode was used instead of the metasurface, the device showed low-er thermoelectric performance than that of the metasurface-attached device although carbon black exhibits higher infrared absorption than the metasurface. These results indicate that metasurface characteristics of optical thickness and thin geometrical structure for achieving the high thermal conductance are essential in enhancing the performance of photo-thermoelectric devices in terms of the effective collection of thermal energies and conduction of local heating.

2.Soliton frequency comb generation in a low Q microcavity coupled to a gain microcavity

Authors:Zihao Cheng, Dongmei Huang, Feng Li, Chao Lu, P. K. A. Wai

Abstract: Soliton frequency comb generation in coupled nonlinear microcavities is attractive because a coupled microcavity offers more flexibility and possibilities compared to a single nonlinear microcavity. In this paper, we investigate how an amplifying auxiliary cavity affects the bistability region of the main cavity and soliton frequency comb generation. When the auxiliary cavity has a small gain, it can partially compensate for the loss of the main cavity allowing the generation of soliton combs with a relatively low Q-factor in the main cavity. A low Q-factor microcavity would reduce the difficulty of fabrication and extend the microcavity platform to different types of materials. However, if the gain of the auxiliary cavity is too large, a frequency comb cannot be generated because the coupled nonlinear microcavity system is no longer dissipative. Our results provide a theoretical understanding and experimental guidance for the bistability region and soliton frequency comb generation in coupled nonlinear microcavities with an amplifying auxiliary cavity. The results will facilitate the development of chip-scale integrated optical frequency comb sources.

3.High-dimensional broadband non-Abelian holonomy in silicon nitride photonics

Authors:Youlv Chen, Xuhan Guo, Xulin Zhang, Yikai Su

Abstract: Non-Abelian geometry phase has attracted significant attention for the robust holonomic unitary behavior exhibited, which arises from the degenerate subspace evolving along a trajectory in Hilbert space. It has been regarded as a promising approach for implementing topologically protected quantum computation and logic manipulation. However, due to the challenges associated with high-dimensional parameters manipulation, this matrix-valued geometry phase has not been realized on silicon integrated photonic platform, which is CMOS compatible and regarded as the most promising flatform for next-generation functional devices. Here, we demonstrate the first non-Abelian holonomic high-dimensional unitary matrices on multilayer silicon nitride integrated platform. By leveraging the advantage of integrated platform and geometry phase, ultracompact footprint, highest order (up to six) and broadband operation (larger than 100nm) non-Abelian holonomy unitary matrices are experimentally realized. Our work paves the way for versatile non-Abelian optical computing devices in integrated photonics.

4.Optical near-field enhancement by guided Bloch modes in plasmonic metasurfaces

Authors:Xiaorun Zang, Andriy Shevchenko

Abstract: Local enhancement of light intensity by plasmonic nanostructures is essential for many optical applications, such as Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and fluorescence- or scattering-based plasmonic sensing. The enhancement is usually localized on the surface of each individual metal nanoparticle playing the role of a plasmonic resonator. In some cases, however, the particles are arranged in a periodic lattice and the excitations in them can be coupled to the surface lattice resonances (SLRs), which can additionally enhance the field. In this work, we report a field-enhancement mechanism that is based on the coupling between surface plasmon resonances in metal nanoparticles and Bloch modes guided by a dielectric-metal slab waveguide in a plasmonic metasurface. We demonstrate an extra factor of the local intensity enhancement of about 80 and the corresponding additional SERS enhancement of more than 6000 compared to isolated plasmonic nanoparticles on a thick glass substrate. This mechanism opens the possibility to design extraordinarily efficient metal-dielectric metasurfaces for many applications in optics and photonics, including SERS, fluoresence spectroscopy, nonlinear optics, and solar energy harvesting.

5.High efficiency spin-decoupled modulation using chiral C2-symmetric meta-atoms

Authors:Haohan Chen, Jiepeng Wu, Minglei He, Hao Wang, Xinen Wu, Kezhou Fan, Haiying Liu, Qiang Li, Lijun Wu, Kam Sing Wong

Abstract: Orthogonal circularly polarized light is essential for multiplexing tunable metasurfaces. Mainstream spin-decoupled metasurfaces, consisting of numerous meta-atoms with mirror symmetry, rely on the cooperative modulation of the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase and the propagation phase. This paper demonstrates spin-decoupled functionality through the synergistic utilization of planar chiral meta-atom phase response and PB phase. Based on the Jones calculus, it has been found that meta-atoms with chiral C2-symmetry owns a larger geometric parameter range with high cross-polarization ratio compared to those with mirror symmetry or higher symmetries at the same aspect ratio. This characteristic is advantageous in terms of enabling high-efficiency manipulation and enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio. As an example, 10 kinds of C2-symmetry chiral meta-atoms with a H-like shape are selected by the self-adaptive genetic algorithm to attain a full 2$\pi$ phase span with an interval of $\pi$/5. To mitigate the additional propagation phase change of the guided modes originated from the arrangement alternation upon the rotation of the meta-atoms, the enantiomer of chiral meta-atoms and its PB phase delay are adopted to minimize the difference between the actual and desired target phases. A polarization-insensitive metalens and a chiral virtual-moving metalens array are designed to demonstrate the spin-decoupled function with both high efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio. The work in this paper may trigger more exciting and interesting spin-decoupled multiplexing metasurfaces and broaden the prospect of chiroptical applications.

6.Manipulating the Quasi-Normal Modes of Radially Symmetric Resonators

Authors:James R Capers, Dean A Patient, Simon A R Horsley

Abstract: We derive two methods for simultaneously controlling the resonance frequency, linewidth and multipolar nature of the resonances of radially symmetric structures. Firstly, we formulate an eigenvalue problem for a global shift in the permittivity of the structure to place a resonance at a particular complex frequency. Next, we employ quasi-normal mode perturbation theory to design radially graded structures with resonances at desired frequencies.

7.Polarized and Un-Polarized Emission from a Single Emitter in a Bullseye Resonator

Authors:Giora Peniakov, Quirin Buchinger, Mohamed Helal, Simon Betzold, Yorick Reum, Michele B. Rota, Giuseppe Ronco, Mattia Beccaceci, Tobias M. Krieger, Saimon F. Covre Da Silva, Armando Rastelli, Rinaldo Trotta, Andreas Pfenning, Sven Hoefling, Tobias Huber-Loyola

Abstract: We present polarized |S|=0.99$\pm$0.01, and unpolarized |S|=0.03$\pm$0.01 emission from a single emitter embedded in a single, cylindrically symmetric device design. We show that the polarization stems from a position offset of the single emitter with respect to the cavity center, which breaks the cylindrical symmetry, and a position-dependent coupling to the frequency degenerate eigenmodes of the resonator structure. The experimental results are interpreted by using numerical simulations and by experimental mapping of the polarization-resolved far-field emission patterns. Our findings can be generalized to any nanophotonic structure where two orthogonal eigenmodes are not fully spatially overlapping.

8.Fundamental Limits on Subwavelength Range Resolution

Authors:Andrew N. Jordan, John C. Howell

Abstract: We establish fundamental bounds on subwavelength resolution for the radar ranging problem, ``super radar''. Information theoretical metrics are applied to probe the resolution limits for the case of both direct electric field measurement and photon-counting measurements. To establish fundamental limits, we begin with the simplest case of range resolution of two point targets from a metrology perspective. These information-based metrics establish fundamental bounds on both the minimal discrimination distance of two targets as well as the precision on the separation of two subwavelength resolved targets. For the minimal separation distance, both the direct field method and photon counting method show that the discriminability vanishes quadratically as the target separation goes to zero, and is proportional to the variance of the second derivative of the electromagnetic field profile. Nevertheless, robust subwavelength estimation is possible. Several different band-limited function classes are introduced to optimize discrimination. We discuss the application of maximum likelihood estimation to improve the range precision with optimal performance. The general theory of multi-parameter estimation is analyzed, and a simple example of estimating both the separation and relative strength of the two point reflectors is presented.

1.Photoelectronic mapping of spin-orbit interaction of intense light fields

Authors:Yiqi Fang, Meng Han, Peipei Ge, Zhenning Guo, Xiaoyang Yu, Yongkai Deng, Chengyin Wu, Qihuang Gong, Yunquan Liu

Abstract: The interaction between a quantum particle's spin angular momentum and its orbital angular momentum is ubiquitous in nature. In optics, the spin-orbit optical phenomenon is closely related with the light-matter interaction and has been of great interest. With the development of laser technology, the high-power and ultrafast light sources now serve as a crucial tool in revealing the behaviour of matters under extreme conditions. The comprehensive knowledge of the spin-orbit interaction for the intense light is of utmost importance. Here, we achieve the in-situ modulation and visualization of the optical orbital-to-spin conversion in strong-field regime. We show that, through manipulating the morphology of femtosecond cylindrical vector vortex pulses by a slit, the photons' orbital angular momentum can be controllably transformed into spin after focusing. By employing strong-field ionization experiment, the orbital-to-spin conversion can be imaged and measured through the photoelectron momentum distributions. Such detection and consequent control of spin-orbit dynamics of intense laser fields have implications on controlling the photoelectron holography and coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation.

2.Controlling Photon Transverse Orbital Angular Momentum in High Harmonic Generation

Authors:Yiqi Fang, Shengyue Lu, Yunquan Liu

Abstract: High harmonic generation (HHG) with longitudinal optical orbital angular momentum has attracted much attention over the past decade. Here, we present the first study on the HHG with transverse orbital angular momentum driven by the spatiotemporal optical vortex (STOV) pulses. We show that the produced spatial resolved harmonic spectra reveal unique structures, such as the spatially spectral tilt and the fine interference patterns. We show these spatio-spectral structures originate from both the macroscopic and microscopic effect of spatiotemporal optical singularity in HHG. Employing two-color counter-spin and counter-vorticity STOV pulses, we further discuss a robust method to control the spatiotemporal topological charge and spectral structure of high-order harmonics. The conservation rule of photon transverse orbital angular momentum in HHG process is also discussed when mixing with photon spin angular momenta.

3.Thermo-optical bistability enabled by bound states in the continuum in silicon metasurfaces

Authors:Alexander Barulin, Olesia Pashina, Daniil Riabov, Olga Sergaeva, Zarina Sadrieva, Alexey Shcherbakov, Viktoriia Rutckaia, Jorg Schilling, Andrey Bogdanov, Ivan Sinev, Alexander Chernov, Mihail Petrov

Abstract: The control of light through all-optical means is a fundamental challenge in nanophotonics and a key effect in optical switching and logic. The optical bistability effect enables this control and can be observed in various planar photonic systems such as microdisk and photonic crystal cavities and waveguides. However, the recent advancements in flat optics with wavelength-thin optical elements require nonlinear elements based on metastructures and metasurfaces. The performance of these systems can be enhanced with high-Q bound states in the continuum (BIC), which leads to intense harmonic generation, improved light-matter coupling, and pushes forward sensing limits. In this study, we report on the enhanced thermo-optical nonlinearity and the observation of optical bistability in an all-dielectric metasurface membrane with BICs. Unlike many other nanophotonic platforms, metasurfaces allow for fine control of the quality factor of the BIC resonance by managing the radiative losses. This provides an opportunity to control the parameters of the observed hysteresis loop and even switch from bistability to optical discrimination by varying the angle of incidence. Additionally, we propose a mechanism of nonlinear critical coupling that establishes the conditions for maximal hysteresis width and minimal switching power, which has not been reported before. Our work suggests that all-dielectric metasurfaces supporting BICs can serve as a flat-optics platform for optical switching and modulation based on strong thermo-optical nonlinearity.

4.Generation and control of extreme ultraviolet free-space optical skyrmions with high harmonic generation

Authors:Yiqi Fang, Yunquan Liu

Abstract: Optical skyrmion serves as a crucial interface between optics and topology. Recently, it has attracted great interest in linear optics. Here, we theoretically introduce a framework for the all-optical generation and control of freespace optical skyrmions in extreme ultraviolet regions via high harmonic generation. We show that by employing full Poincare beams, the created extreme ultraviolet fields manifest as skyrmionic structures in Stokes vector fields, whose skyrmion number is relevant to harmonic orders. We reveal that the generation of skyrmionics structure is attributed to spatial-resolved spin constraint of high harmonic generation. Through qualifying the geometrical parameters of full Poincar\'e beams, the topological texture of extreme ultraviolet fields can be completely manipulated, generating the Bloch-type, Neel-type, anti-type, and higher-order skyrmions, etc. This work promotes the investigation of topological optics in optical highly nonlinear processes, with potential applications towards ultrafast spintronics with structured light fields.

5.Highly Nonlinear Dynamics of Deep Tissue upon in vivo Interaction with Femtosecond Laser Pulses at 1030 nm

Authors:Soyeon Jun, Andreas Herbst, Kilian Scheffter, Nora John, Julia Kolb, Daniel Wehner, Hanieh Fattahi

Abstract: We report on the highly nonlinear behavior observed in the central nervous system tissue of zebrafish (Danio rerio) when exposed to femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. At this irradiation wavelength, photo damage becomes detectable only after exceeding a specific peak intensity threshold, which is independent of the photon flux and irradiation time, distinguishing it from irradiation at shorter wavelengths. Furthermore, we investigate and quantify the role of excessive heat in reducing the damage threshold, particularly during high-repetition-rate operations, which are desirable for label-free and multi-dimensional microscopy techniques. To verify our findings, we examined cellular responses to tissue damage, including apoptosis and the recruitment of macrophages and fibroblasts at different time points post-irradiation. These findings substantially contribute to advancing the emerging nonlinear optical microscopy techniques and provide a strategy for inducing deep-tissue, precise and localized injuries using near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses.

6.Efficient detection of multidimensional single-photon time-bin superpositions

Authors:Adam Widomski, Maciej Ogrodnik, Michał Karpiński

Abstract: The ability to detect quantum superpositions lies at the heart of fundamental and applied aspects of quantum mechanics. The time-frequency degree of freedom of light enables encoding and transmitting quantum information in a multi-dimensional fashion compatible with fiber and integrated platforms. However, the ability to efficiently detect time-frequency superpositions is not yet available. Here we show, that multidimensional time-bin superpositions can be detected using a single time-resolved photon detector. Our approach uses off-the shelf components and is based on the temporal Talbot effect -- a time-frequency counterpart of the well-know near field diffraction effect. We provide experimental results and discuss the possible applications in quantum communication, quantum information processing, and time-frequency quantum state tomography.

7.Quantum Cascade Surface Emitting Lasers

Authors:David Stark, Filippos Kapsalidis, Sergej Markmann, Mathieu Bertrand, Bahareh Marzban, Emilio Gini, Mattias Beck, Jérôme Faist

Abstract: A low-cost single frequency laser emitting in the mid-infrared spectral region and dissipating minimal electrical power is a key ingredient for the next generation of portable gas sensors for high-volume applications involving chemical sensing of important greenhouse and pollutant gases. We propose here a Quantum Cascade Surface Emitting Laser (QCSEL), which we implement as a short linear cavity with high reflectivity coated end-mirrors to suppress any edge emission and use a buried semiconductor diffraction grating to extract the light from the surface. By wafer-level testing we investigate the cavity length scaling, extract mirror reflectivities larger than 0.9, and achieve a pulsed threshold power dissipation of 237 mW for an emission wavelength near 7.5 $\mu$m. Finally, we demonstrate single mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio larger than 33 dB of a 248 $\mu$m short cavity mounted with the epitaxial layer up and operated in continuous wave at 20 $^\circ$C.

1.Fast simulation of light scattering and harmonic generation in axially symmetric structures in COMSOL

Authors:Sergei Gladyshev, Olesia Pashina, Alexey Proskurin, Anna Nikolaeva, Zarina Sadrieva, Andrey Bogdanov, Mihail Petrov, Kristina Frizyuk

Abstract: In the field of optics and nanophotonics, simulation of electromagnetic scattering plays a major role in the study of complex nanostructures and optical devices. The numerical analysis of scattering spectra, even for nanocavities with simple geometry, is associated with significant computational difficulties. However, when the system exhibits certain symmetries, it becomes possible to simplify the problem through the process of separation of variables, which leads to a decrease in its dimension. In this paper, we aim to provide a practical guide to a fast simulation of linear and non-linear scattering problems in COMSOL Multiphysics for axisymmetric objects including computation of scattering cross-section as well as its multipolar decomposition, optical forces, and second harmonic generation. We also accompany the provided guide with the ready-to-run COMSOL models.

2.Symmetry Broken Vectorial Kerr Frequency Combs for Fabry-Pérot Resonators

Authors:Lewis Hill, Eva-Maria Hirmer, Graeme Campbell, Toby Bi, Alekhya Ghosh, Pascal Del'Haye, Gian-Luca Oppo

Abstract: Optical frequency combs find many applications in metrology, frequency standards, communications and photonic devices. We consider field polarization properties and describe a vector comb generation through the spontaneous symmetry breaking of temporal cavity solitons within coherently driven, passive, Fabry-P\'erot cavities with Kerr nonlinearity. Global coupling effects due to the interactions of counter-propagating light restrict the maximum number of soliton pairs within the cavity - even down to a single soliton pair - and force long range polarization conformity in trains of vector solitons.

3.Training neural networks with end-to-end optical backpropagation

Authors:James Spall, Xianxin Guo, A. I. Lvovsky

Abstract: Optics is an exciting route for the next generation of computing hardware for machine learning, promising several orders of magnitude enhancement in both computational speed and energy efficiency. However, to reach the full capacity of an optical neural network it is necessary that the computing not only for the inference, but also for the training be implemented optically. The primary algorithm for training a neural network is backpropagation, in which the calculation is performed in the order opposite to the information flow for inference. While straightforward in a digital computer, optical implementation of backpropagation has so far remained elusive, particularly because of the conflicting requirements for the optical element that implements the nonlinear activation function. In this work, we address this challenge for the first time with a surprisingly simple and generic scheme. Saturable absorbers are employed for the role of the activation units, and the required properties are achieved through a pump-probe process, in which the forward propagating signal acts as the pump and backward as the probe. Our approach is adaptable to various analog platforms, materials, and network structures, and it demonstrates the possibility of constructing neural networks entirely reliant on analog optical processes for both training and inference tasks.

1.Graphene thermal infrared emitters integrated into silicon photonic waveguides

Authors:Nour Negm, Sarah Zayouna, Shayan Parhizkar, Pen-Sheng Lin, Po-Han Huang, Stephan Suckow, Stephan Schroeder, Eleonora De Luca, Floria Ottonello Briano, Arne Quellmalz, Georg S. Duesberg, Frank Niklaus, Kristinn B. Gylfason, Max C. Lemme

Abstract: Cost-efficient and easily integrable broadband mid-infrared (mid-IR) sources would significantly enhance the application space of photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Thermal incandescent sources are superior to other common mid-IR emitters based on semiconductor materials in terms of PIC compatibility, manufacturing costs, and bandwidth. Ideal thermal emitters would radiate directly into the desired modes of the PIC waveguides via near-field coupling and would be stable at very high temperatures. Graphene is a semi-metallic two-dimensional material with comparable emissivity to thin metallic thermal emitters. It allows maximum coupling into waveguides by placing it directly into their evanescent fields. Here, we demonstrate graphene mid-IR emitters integrated with photonic waveguides that couple directly into the fundamental mode of silicon waveguides designed for a wavelength of 4,2 {\mu}m relevant for CO${_2}$ sensing. High broadband emission intensity is observed at the waveguide-integrated graphene emitter. The emission at the output grating couplers confirms successful coupling into the waveguide mode. Thermal simulations predict emitter temperatures up to 1000{\deg}C, where the blackbody radiation covers the mid-IR region. A coupling efficiency {\eta}, defined as the light emitted into the waveguide divided by the total emission, of up to 68% is estimated, superior to data published for other waveguide-integrated emitters.

2.Single-shot experimental-numerical twin-image removal in lensless digital holographic microscopy

Authors:Piotr Arcab, Mikolaj Rogalski, Maciej Trusiak

Abstract: Lensless digital holographic microscopy (LDHM) offers very large field-of-view label-free imaging crucial, e.g., in high-throughput particle tracking and biomedical examination of cells and tissues. Compact layouts promote point-of-case and out-of-laboratory applications. The LDHM, based on the Gabor in-line holographic principle, is inherently spoiled by the twin-image effect, which complicates the quantitative analysis of reconstructed phase and amplitude maps. Popular family of solutions consists of numerical methods, which tend to minimize twin-image upon iterative process based on data redundancy. Additional hologram recordings are needed, and final results heavily depend on the algorithmic parameters, however. In this contribution we present a novel single-shot experimental-numerical twin-image removal technique for LDHM. It leverages two-source off-axis hologram recording deploying simple fiber splitter. Additionally, we introduce a novel phase retrieval numerical algorithm specifically tailored to the acquired holograms, that provides twin-image-free reconstruction without compromising the resolution. We quantitatively and qualitatively verify proposed method employing phase test target and cheek cells biosample. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique enables low-cost, out-of-laboratory LDHM imaging with enhanced precision, achieved through the elimination of twin-image errors. This advancement opens new avenues for more accurate technical and biomedical imaging applications using LDHM, particularly in scenarios where cost-effective and portable imaging solutions are desired.

3.Multi-level Optical Switching by Amorphization in Single- and Multi- Phase Change Material Structures

Authors:Simon Wredh, Yunzheng Wang, Joel K. W. Yang, Robert E. Simpson

Abstract: The optical properties of phase-change materials (PCM) can be tuned to multiple levels by controlling the transition between their amorphous and crystalline phases. In multi-material PCM structures, the number of discrete reflectance levels can be increased according to the number of PCM layers. However, the effect of increasing number of layers on quenching and reversibility has not been thoroughly studied. In this work, the phase-change physics and thermal conditions required for reversible switching of single and multi-material PCM switches are discussed based on thermo-optical phase-change models and laser switching experiments. By using nanosecond laser pulses, 16 different reflectance levels in Ge2Sb2Te5 are demonstrated via amorphization. Furthermore, a multi-material switch based on Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe with four discrete reflectance levels is experimentally proven with a reversible multi-level response. The results and design principles presented herein will impact active photonics applications that rely on dynamic multi-level operation, such as optical computing, beam steering, and next-generation display technologies.

4.Quadruplets of exceptional points and bound states in the continuum in dielectric rings

Authors:Nikolay Solodovchenko, Kirill Samusev, Mikhail Limonov

Abstract: In photonics, most systems are non-Hermitian due to radiation into open space and material losses. At the same time, non-Hermitianity defines a new physics, in particular, it gives rise to a new class of degenerations called exceptional points, where two or more resonances coalesce in both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. The point of coalescence is a square root singularity of the energy spectrum as a function of interaction parameter. We investigated analytically and numerically the photonic properties of a narrow dielectric resonator with a rectangular cross section. It is shown that the exceptional points in such a resonator exist in pairs, and each of the points is adjacent in the parametric space to a bound state in the continuum, as a result of which quadruples of singular photonic states are formed. We also showed that the field distribution in the cross section of the ring is a characteristic fingerprint of both the bound state in the continuum and the exceptional point.

5.Non steady-state thermometry with optical diffraction tomography

Authors:Adarsh B Vasista, Bernard Ciraulo, Jaime Ortega Arroyo, Romain Quidant

Abstract: Measurement of local temperature using label-free optical methods has gained importance as a pivotal tool in both fundamental and applied research. Yet, most of these approaches are limited to steady-state measurements of planar heat sources. However, the time taken to reach steady-state is a complex function of the volume of the heated system, the size of the heat source, and the thermal conductivity of the surroundings. As such, said time can be significantly longer than expected and many relevant systems involve 3D heat sources, thus compromising reliable temperature retrieval. Here, we systematically study the thermal landscape in a model system consisting of optically excited gold nanorods (AuNRs) in a microchamber using optical diffraction tomography (ODT) thermometry. We experimentally unravel the effect of thermal conductivity of the surroundings, microchamber height, and pump pulse duration on the thermodynamics of the microchamber. We benchmark our experimental observations against 2D numerical sumulations and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) thermometry. We also demonstrate the advantage of ODT thermometry by measuring thermal landscapes inaccessible by QPI thermometry in the form of non-planar heat sources embedded in complex environments such as biological cells. Finally, we apply ODT thermometry to a complex dynamic system consisting of colloidal AuNRs in a microchamber.

6.Exceptional Point Degeneracy as Desirable Operation Point of Oscillator Array with Discrete Nonlinear Gain and Radiating Elements

Authors:Alireza Nikzamir, Filippo Capolino

Abstract: An oscillator array prefers to operate at an exceptional point of degeneracy (EPD) occurring in a waveguide periodically loaded with discrete nonlinear gain and radiating elements. The system maintains a steady-state degenerate mode of oscillation at a frequency of 3 GHz, even when the small-signal nonlinear gain values are nonuniform along the array. Contrarily to the original expectation of zero phase shift associated to the designed EPD using small-signal gain, after reaching saturation, the time domain signal in consecutive unit cells displays a $\pi$ phase shift. Hence, we demonstrate that the saturated system oscillates at a distinct EPD, associated to a $\pi$ phase shift between consecutive cells, than the one at which the system was originally designed using small-signal gain. This new EPD at which the nonlinear system is landing is associated to higher power efficiency. Finally, we demonstrate that the oscillation frequency is independent of the length of the array, contrarily to what happens ordinary oscillating systems based on one-dimensional cavity resonances. These findings may have a high impact on high-power radiating arrays with distributed active elements.

7.Chiral Optical Nano-Cavity with Atomically Thin Mirrors

Authors:Daniel G. Suárez-Forero, Ruihao Ni, Supratik Sarkar, Mahmoud Jalali Mehrabad, Erik Mechtel, Valery Simonyan, Andrey Grankin, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Suji Park, Houk Jang, Mohammad Hafezi, You Zhou

Abstract: A fundamental requirement for photonic technologies is the ability to control the confinement and propagation of light. Widely utilized platforms include two-dimensional (2D) optical microcavities in which electromagnetic waves are confined between either metallic or multi-layer dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors. However, the fabrication complexities of thick Bragg reflectors and high losses in metallic mirrors have motivated the quest for efficient and compact mirrors. Recently, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides hosting tightly bound excitons with high optical quality have emerged as promising atomically thin mirrors. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a sub-wavelength 2D nano-cavity using two atomically thin mirrors with degenerate resonances. Remarkably, we show how the excitonic nature of the mirrors enables the formation of chiral and tunable optical modes upon the application of an external magnetic field. Moreover, temperature-dependent reflectance measurements indicate robustness and tunability up to $\approx\!100$ K for the device. Our work establishes a new regime for engineering intrinsically chiral sub-wavelength optical cavities and opens avenues for realizing spin-photon interfaces and exploring chiral many-body cavity electrodynamics.

8.Vibrational coupling to quasi-bound states in the continuum under tailored coupling conditions

Authors:Keisuke Watanabe, Hemam Rachna Devi, Masanobu Iwanaga, Tadaaki Nagao

Abstract: Photonic resonance modes can be spectrally coupled to the vibrational modes of molecules in the mid-infrared regime through interactions between localized electric fields and nearby molecules. According to recent studies, radiative loss engineering of coupled systems is a promising approach for tailoring coupling conditions and enhancing the molecular signals. However, this strategy has only been realized using the localized surface plasmon resonances of metal nanostructures, which suffer from increased ohmic loss in the mid-infrared region and face serious limitations in achieving high quality (Q) factors. In this study, we adopt silicon-based metasurfaces formed on silicon-on-insulator wafers to achieve high Q factors and tune the coupling conditions between the quasi-bound states in the continuum (qBICs) and molecular vibrations. The coupling between the resonance mode and polymethyl methacrylate molecules is tailored from weak to strong coupling regimes by simply changing the structural asymmetry parameter and utilizing the intrinsically high Q factors of the qBIC modes. In addition, we identify the optimal asymmetry parameter that maximizes the enhanced molecular signal, opening a route toward realizing highly sensitive surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible all-dielectric materials.

9.Decoding phase and time-dependent interferograms of high-order harmonics

Authors:C. Granados, Ching-Ling Hsiao, Marcelo F. Ciappina, Khadga J. Karki

Abstract: Interferometric measurements of high-harmonics induced by multiple laser fields in an emerging field of research that promises optimized yield of harmonics, and time and space-resolved nonlinear spectroscopy. Most of the measurements have been done by controlling the time-delay between the pulses. Here, we show that by changing one additional parameter, i.e. the phase-difference between the fields, together with the time-delay, one can, on the one hand, enhance the harmonic yield and, on the other hand, obtain in-depth information about the physical mechanisms that control the electron trajectories contributing to the high-harmonic generation. The two-dimensional interferograms obtained from such investigations can be used to find the values of time-delay and phase between the laser fields that maximize the yield of a particular harmonic. Results show that maximum yields of certain harmonics can be orders of magnitude larger than when using a single field or two fields with zero time-delay and phase difference. Our high-harmonics two-dimensional interferograms-based method paves the way for a simpler analysis of the attosecond electron dynamics in complex molecules and solids.

1.Terahertz Twistoptics -- engineering canalized phonon polaritons

Authors:Maximilian Obst, Tobias Nörenberg, Gonzalo Álvarez-Pérez, Thales V. A. G. de Oliveira, Javier Taboada-Gutiérrez, Flávio H. Feres, Felix G. Kaps, Osama Hatem, Andrei Luferau, Alexey Y. Nikitin, J. Michael Klopf, Pablo Alonso-González, Susanne C. Kehr, Lukas M. Eng

Abstract: The terahertz (THz) frequency range is key to study collective excitations in many crystals and organic molecules. However, due to the large wavelength of THz radiation, the local probing of these excitations in smaller crystalline structures or few-molecular arrangements, requires sophisticated methods to confine THz light down to the nanometer length scale, as well as to manipulate such a confined radiation. For this purpose, in recent years, taking advantage of hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhP) in highly anisotropic van der Waals (vdW) materials has emerged as a promising approach, offering a multitude of manipulation options such as control over the wavefront shape and propagation direction. Here, we demonstrate the first THz application of twist-angle-induced HPhP manipulation, designing the propagation of confined THz radiation between 8.39 and 8.98 THz in the vdW material alpha-molybdenum trioxide ($\alpha-MoO_{3}$), hence extending twistoptics to this intriguing frequency range. Our images, recorded by near-field optical microscopy, show the frequency- and twist-angle-dependent change between hyperbolic and elliptic polariton propagation, revealing a polaritonic transition at THz frequencies. As a result, we are able to allocate canalization (highly collimated propagation) of confined THz radiation by carefully adjusting these two parameters, i.e. frequency and twist angle. Specifically, we report polariton canalization in $\alpha-MoO_{3}$ at 8.67 THz for a twist angle of 50{\deg}. Our results demonstrate an unprecedented control and the manipulation of highly-confined collective excitations at THz frequencies, offering novel possibilities for nanophotonic applications.

2.Transparent Multispectral Photonic Electrode for All-Weather Stable and Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors:George Perrakis, Anna C. Tasolamprou, George Kakavelakis, Konstantinos Petridis, Michael Graetzel, George Kenanakis, Stelios Tzortzakis, Maria Kafesaki

Abstract: Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are the most promising technology for advancing current photovoltaic performance. However, the main challenge for their practical deployment and commercialization is their operational stability, affected by solar illumination and heating, as well as the electric field that is generated in the PV device by light exposure. Here, we propose a transparent multispectral photonic electrode placed on top of the glass substrate of solar cells, which simultaneously reduces the device solar heating and enhances its efficiency. Specifically, the proposed photonic electrode, composed of a low-resistivity metal and a conductive layer, simultaneously serves as a highly-efficient infrared filter and an ultra-thin transparent front contact, decreasing devices' solar heating and operating temperature. At the same time, it simultaneously serves as an anti-reflection coating, enhancing the efficiency. We additionally enhance the device cooling by coating the front glass substrate side with a visibly transparent film (PDMS), which maximizes substrate's thermal radiation. To determine the potential of our photonic approach and fully explore the cooling potential of PSCs, we first provide experimental characterizations of the absorption properties (in both visible and infrared wavelengths) of state-of-the-art PSCs among the most promising ones regarding the efficiency, stability, and cost. We then numerically show that applying our approach to promising PSCs can result in lower operating temperatures by over 9.0 oC and an absolute efficiency increase higher than 1.3%. These results are insensitive to varying environmental conditions. Our approach is simple and only requires modification of the substrate; it therefore points to a feasible photonic approach for advancing current photovoltaic performance with next-generation solar cell materials.

3.Low-Threshold Lasing with Frozen Mode Regime and Stationary Inflection Point in Three Coupled Waveguide Structure

Authors:Kessem Zamir- Abramovich, Nathaniel Furman, Albert Herrero-Parareda, Filippo Capolino, Jacob Scheuer

Abstract: The frozen mode regime is a unique slow-light scenario in periodic structures, where the flat-bands (zero group velocity) are associated with the formation of high-order stationary points (aka exceptional points). The formation of exceptional points is accompanied by enhancement of various optical properties such as gain, Q-factor and absorption, which are key properties for the realization of wide variety of devices such as switches, modulators and lasers. Here we present and study a new integrated optical periodic structure consisting of three waveguides coupled via micro-cavities and directional coupler. We study this design theoretically, demonstrating that a proper choice of parameters yields a third order stationary inflection point (SIP). We also show that the structure can be designed to exhibit two almost-overlapping SIPs at the center of the Brillouin Zone. We study the transmission and reflection of light propagating through realistic devices comprising a finite number of unit-cells and investigate their spectral properties in the vicinity of the stationary points. Finally, we analyze the lasing frequencies and threshold level of finite structures (as a function of the number of unit-cells) and show that it outperforms conventional lasers utilizing regular band edge lasing (such as DFB lasers).

4.Fano resonance-assisted all-dielectric array for enhanced near-field optical trapping of nanoparticles

Authors:Donato Conteduca, Saba N. Khan, Manuel A. Martínez Ruiz, Graham D. Bruce, Thomas F. Krauss, Kishan Dholakia

Abstract: Near-field optics can overcome the diffraction limit by creating strong optical gradients to enable the trapping of nanoparticles. However, it remains challenging to achieve efficient stable trapping without heating and thermal effects. Dielectric structures have been used to address this issue, but they usually offer weak trap stiffness. In this work, we exploit the Fano resonance effect in an all-dielectric quadrupole nanostructure to realize a twenty-fold enhancement of trap stiffness, compared to the off-resonance case. This enables a high effective trap stiffness of $1.19$ fN/nm for 100 nm diameter polystyrene nanoparticles with 3.5 mW/$\mu$m$^{2}$ illumination. Furthermore, we demonstrate the capability of the structure to simultaneously trap two particles at distinct locations within the nanostructure array.

1.Macroscopic effects in generation of attosecond XUV pulses via high-order frequency mixing in gases and plasma

Authors:V. A. Birulia, M. A. Khokhlova, V. V. Strelkov

Abstract: We study the generation of attosecond XUV pulses via high-order frequency mixing (HFM) of two intense generating fields, and compare this process with the more common high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process. We calculate the macroscopic XUV signal by numerically integrating the 1D propagation equation coupled with the 3D time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation. We analytically find the length scales which limit the quadratic growth of the HFM macroscopic signal with propagation length. Compared to HHG these length scales are much longer for a group of HFM components, with orders defined by the frequencies of the generating fields. This results in a higher HFM macroscopic signal despite the microscopic response being lower than for HHG. In our numerical simulations, the intensity of the HFM signal is several times higher than that for HHG in a gas, and it is up to three orders of magnitude higher for generation in plasma; it is also higher for longer generating pulses. The HFM provides very narrow XUV lines ($\delta \omega / \omega = 4.6 \times 10^{-4}$) with well-defined frequencies, thus allowing for a simple extension of optical frequency standards to the XUV range. Finally, we show that the group of HFM components effectively generated due to macroscopic effects provides a train of attosecond pulses such that the carrier-envelope phase of an individual attosecond pulse can be easily controlled by tuning the phase of one of the generating fields.

2.Topological constraints on the dynamics of vortex formation in a bi-dimensional quantum fluid

Authors:Thibault Congy, Pierre Azam, Robin Kaiser, Nicolas Pavloff

Abstract: We present experimental and theoretical results on formation of quantum vortices in a laser beam propagating in a nonlinear medium. Topological constrains richer that the mere conservation of vorticity impose an elaborate dynamical behavior to the formation and annihilation of vortex/anti-vortex pairs. We identify two such mechanisms, both described by the same fold-Hopf bifurcation. One of them is particularly efficient although it is not observed in the context of liquid helium films or stationary linear systems because it relies on the finite compressibility and on the non-stationnarity of the fluid of light we consider.

3.Hyperscaling in the coherent hyperspin machine

Authors:Marcello Calvanese Strinati, Claudio Conti

Abstract: Classical or quantum physical systems can simulate the Ising Hamiltonian for large-scale optimization and machine learning. However, devices such as quantum annealers and coherent Ising machines suffer an exponential drop in the probability of success in finite-size scaling. We show that by exploiting high dimensional embedding of the Ising Hamiltonian and subsequent dimensional annealing, the drop is counteracted by an exponential improvement in the performance. Our analysis relies on extensive statistics of the convergence dynamics by high-performance computing. We propose a realistic experimental implementation of the new annealing device by off-the-shelf coherent Ising machine technology. The hyperscaling heuristics can also be applied to other quantum or classical Ising machines by engineering nonlinear gain, loss, and non-local couplings.

4.Super stealth dicing of transparent solids with nanometric precision

Authors:Zhen-Ze Li, Hua Fan, Lei Wang, Xin-Jing Zhao, Xu Zhang, Yan-Hao Yu, Yi-Shi Xu, Yi Wang, Xiao-Jie Wang, Saulius Juodkazis, Qi-Dai Chen, Hong-Bo Sun

Abstract: Laser cutting of semiconductor wafers and transparent dielectrics has become a dominant process in manufacturing industries, encompassing a wide range of applications from flat display panels to microelectronic chips. Limited by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle imposed on the beam width and divergence angle of laser focus, a trade-off must be made between cutting accuracy and aspect ratio in conventional laser processing, which are typically at a micrometer and a hundred level. Herein, we propose a method to circumvent this limitation. It is based on the laser modification induced by a back-scattering interference crawling mechanism, which creates a positive feedback loop for elongating and homogenizing longitudinal energy deposition during laser-matter interaction. Consequently, cutting width on the scale of tens of nanometers and aspect ratio $\sim 10^4$ were simultaneously achieved. We refer to this technique as ``super stealth dicing'', which is based on an analytical model and validated through numerical simulations, ensuring its broad applicability. It can be applied to various transparent functional solids, such as glass, laser crystal, ferroelectric, and semiconductor, and is elevating the precision of future advanced laser dicing, patterning, and drilling into the nanometric era.

5.High-Power Quantum-Limited Photodiode and Classical Laser Noise Squashing

Authors:Vincent Dumont, Jiaxing Ma, Eamon Eagan, Jack C. Sankey

Abstract: To benefit high-power interferometry and the creation of low-noise light sources, we develop a simple lead-compensated photodetector enabling quantum-limited readout from 0.3 mW to 10 mW and 10 k$\Omega$ transimpedance gain from 85 Hz - 35 MHz. Feeding the detector output back to an intensity modulator, we squash the classical amplitude noise of a commercial 1550 nm fiber laser to the shot noise limit over a bandwidth of 700 Hz - 200 kHz, observing no degradation to its (nominally ~100 Hz) linewidth.

1.Improving specificity and axial spatial resolution of refractive index imaging by exploiting uncorrelated subcellular dynamics

Authors:Herve Hugonnet, HyunJun Han, Weisun Park, YongKeun Park

Abstract: Holotomography, a three-dimensional quantitative phase imaging technique, presents an innovative, non-invasive approach to studying biological samples by exploiting the refractive index as an intrinsic imaging contrast. Despite offering label-free quantitative imaging capabilities, its potential in cell biology research has been stifled due to limitations in molecular specificity and axial resolution. Here, we propose and experimentally validate a solution to overcome these constraints by capitalizing on the intrinsic dynamic movements of subcellular organelles and biological molecules within living cells. Our findings elucidate that leveraging such sample motions enhances axial resolution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the extraction of uncorrelated dynamic signals from refractive index distributions unveils a trove of previously unexplored dynamic imaging data. This enriched dataset paves the way for fresh insights into cellular morphologic dynamics and the metabolic shifts occurring in response to external stimuli. This promising development could broaden the utility of holotomography in cell biology.

2.Strategies for optimizing plasmonic grating couplers with topology-based inverse design

Authors:Michael Efseaff, Mark C. Harrison

Abstract: Numerical simulations have become a cornerstone technology in the development of nanophotonic devices. Specifically, 3D finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations are a widely used due to their flexibility and powerful design capabilities. More recently, FDTD simulations in conjunction with a design methodology called inverse design has become a popular way to optimize device topology, reducing a device's footprint and increasing performance. We implement a commercial inverse design tool to generate complex grating couplers and explore a variety of grating coupler design methodologies. We compare the conventionally designed grating couplers to those generated by the inverse design tool. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the inverse design tool and how different design strategies for grating couplers affect inverse design performance, both in terms of computational cost and performance of the resulting device.

1.Brillouin light storage for 100 pulse widths

Authors:Birgit Stiller, Kevin Jaksch, Johannes Piotrowski, Moritz Merklein, Mikolaj K. Schmidt, Khu Vu, Pan Ma, Stephen Madden, Michael J. Steel, Christopher G. Poulton, Benjamin J. Eggleton

Abstract: Signal processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is limited by the narrow linewidth of the optoacoustic response, which confines many Brillouin applications to continuous wave signals or optical pulses longer than several nanoseconds. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate Brillouin interactions at the 150 ps time scale and a delay for a record 15 ns which corresponds to a delay of 100 pulse widths. This breakthrough experimental result was enabled by the high local gain of the chalcogenide waveguides as the optoacoustic interaction length reduces with pulse width. We successfully transfer 150ps-long pulses to traveling acoustic waves within a Brillouin-based memory setup. The information encoded in the optical pulses is stored for 15 ns in the acoustic field. We show the retrieval of eight amplitude levels, multiple consecutive pulses and low distortion in pulse shape. The extension of Brillouin-based storage to the ultra-short pulse regime is an important step for the realisation of practical Brillouin-based delay lines and other optical processing applications.

2.Control of vortex orientation of ultrashort optical pulses using spatial chirp

Authors:Spencer W. Jolly, Miguel A. Porras

Abstract: Introducing a spatial chirp into a pulse with a longitudinal vortex, such as a standard pulsed Laguerre-Gauss beam, results in a vortex pulse with an arbitrary orientation of the line phase singularity between longitudinal and transverse, depending on the amount of chirp. Analytical expressions are given for such pulses with arbitrary topological charge valid at any propagation distance.

3.Integrating transfer matrix method into SCAPS-1D for addressing optical losses and per-layer optical properties in perovskite/Silicon tandem solar cells

Authors:Peymaneh Rafieipour, Aminreza Mohandes, Mohammad Moaddeli, Mansour Kanani

Abstract: SCAPS-1D software ignores optical losses and recombination junction (RJ) layer in studying tandem solar cells (TSCs). This paper presents an optoelectronic study of a perovskite/Silicon TSC, comparing the effects of using two different methods of calculating filtered spectra on the photovoltaic performance parameters of tandem device. It is shown that integrating transfer matrix (TM) method into SCAPS-1D addresses per-layer optical losses and provides a platform for optimizing the RJ layer in TSCs. Using Beer-Lambert (BL) method for calculating the filtered spectra transmitted from the perovskite top sub-cell is revealed to overestimate the cell efficiency by ~4%, due to its inability to fully address optical losses. Also, the BL method fails to tackle any issues regarding optical improvement through ITO ad-layer on the RJ. Using TM formalism, the efficiency of the proposed perovskite/Silicon TSC is shown to be increased from 19.81% to 23.10%, by introducing the ITO ad-layer on the RJ. It is the first time that the effect of filtered spectrum calculation method is clearly investigated in simulating TSCs with SCAPS-1D. The results pave the way to introduce the optical loss effects in SCAPS-1D and demonstrate that the BL method that has been used before needs to be revised.

4.Quantitative and dark field ghost imaging with ultraviolet light

Authors:Jiaqi Song, Baolei Liu, Yao Wang, Chaohao Chen, Xuchen Shan, Xiaolan Zhong, Ling-An Wu, Fan Wang

Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) imaging enables a diverse array of applications, such as material composition analysis, biological fluorescence imaging, and detecting defects in semiconductor manufacturing. However, scientific-grade UV cameras with high quantum efficiency are expensive and include a complex thermoelectric cooling system. Here, we demonstrate a UV computational ghost imaging (UV-CGI) method to provide a cost-effective UV imaging and detection strategy. By applying spatial-temporal illumination patterns and using a 325 nm laser source, a single-pixel detector is enough to reconstruct the images of objects. To demonstrate its capability for quantitative detection, we use UV-CGI to distinguish four UV-sensitive sunscreen areas with different densities on a sample. Furthermore, we demonstrate dark field UV-CGI in both transmission and reflection schemes. By only collecting the scattered light from objects, we can detect the edges of pure phase objects and small scratches on a compact disc. Our results showcase a feasible low-cost solution for non-destructive UV imaging and detection. By combining it with other imaging techniques, such as hyperspectral imaging or time-resolved imaging, a compact and versatile UV computational imaging platform may be realized for future applications.

1.Macroscopic Zeno effect in Su-Schrieffer-Heeger photonic topological insulator

Authors:S. K. Ivanov, S. A. Zhuravitskii, N. N. Skryabin, I. V. Dyakonov, A. A. Kalinkin, S. P. Kulik, Y. V. Kartashov, V. V. Konotop, V. N. Zadkov

Abstract: The quantum Zeno effect refers to slowing down of the decay of a quantum system that is affected by frequent measurements. Nowadays, the significance of this paradigm is extended far beyond quantum systems, where it was introduced, finding physical and mathematical analogies in such phenomena as the suppression of output beam decay by sufficiently strong absorption introduced in guiding optical systems. In the latter case, the effect is often termed as macroscopic Zeno effect. Recent studies in optics, where enhanced transparency of the entire system was observed upon the increase of the absorption, were largely focused on the systems obeying parity-time symmetry, hence, the observed effect was attributed to the symmetry breaking. While manifesting certain similarities in the behavior of the transparency of the system with the mentioned studies, the macroscopic Zeno phenomenon reported here in topological photonic system is far more general in nature. In particular, we show that it does not require the existence of exceptional points, and that it is based on the suppression of decay for only a subspace of modes that can propagate in the system, alike the quantum Zeno dynamics. By introducing controlled losses in one of the arms of a topological insulator comprising two closely positioned Su-Schrieffer-Heeger arrays, we demonstrate the macroscopic Zeno effect, which manifests itself in an increase of the transparency of the system with respect to the topological modes created at the interface between two arrays. The phenomenon remains robust against disorder in the non-Hermitian topological regime. In contrast, coupling a topological array with a non-topological one results in a monotonic decrease in output power with increasing absorption.

1.Magnetic nanoparticle detection based on nonlinear Faraday rotation

Authors:Xinchao Cui, Feidi Xiang, Chong Lu, Chunping Liu, Wenzhong Liu

Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) has attracted interest in various research fields due to its special superparamagnetic and strong magneto-optical effects, especially as contrast agents to enhance the contrast of medical imaging. By introducing the interaction coefficient, we propose a model of the nonlinear Faraday rotation of MNP under the excitation of an external alternating magnetic field. In our homemade device (which can detect the rotation angle as low as about 2e-7 rad), it has been verified that the higher harmonics of the Faraday rotation can avoid the interference of paramagnetic and diamagnetic background at lower concentrations. What's more, the higher harmonics of the Faraday rotation of MNP can be detected in real time and they have a linear relationship with concentration. In the future, it is expected to use MNP as a magneto-optical contrast agent to achieve high-resolution imaging in vivo.

2.Silicon Photonics Mode-Selective Phase Shifter

Authors:Seyed Mohammad Reza Safaee Hassan, Kaveh Hassan, Rahbardar Mojaver, Guowu Zhang, Odile Liboiron-Ladouceur

Abstract: A novel mode-selective thermo-optic phase shifter (MS-TOPS) enabled by subwavelength grating (SWG) structures is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a 220 nm waveguide thick silicon photonics chip for the first two quasi-transverse electric modes (TE0, TE1). Mode-selective relative phase manipulation of modes unlocks several processing tasks in mode division multiplexing systems. This integrated solution provides a direct phase manipulation of modes without converting them to their fundamental modes. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is deployed as a test structure incorporating the proposed MS-TOPS in one arm and a mode-insensitive thermo-optic phase shifter (MI-TOPS) in another. The effect of the SWG duty cycle ratio is investigated by both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. A mode-selectivity of 1.44 is experimentally demonstrated. In other words, the thermo-optic coefficient of TE0 is 44% larger than the one for TE1. The phase shifter's insertion loss is at most 2.5 dB and a worst-case crosstalk of -13.1 dB over a 40 nm wavelength range from 1520 to 1560 nm. A cascaded configuration of the proposed MS-TOPS and an MI-TOPS provides sufficient degrees of freedom to manipulate the relative phase of each mode independently. Potential numerous applications of such devices include optical switching, multimode quantum optical processors, and scaling-up conventional optical processors with a mode selective building block.

3.Formation, stability, and highly nonlinear optical response of excitons to intense light fields interacting with two-dimensional materials

Authors:Eduardo B. Molinero, Bruno Amorim, Mikhail Malakhov, Giovanni Cistaro, Álvaro Jiménez-Galán, Misha Ivanov, Antonio Picón, Pablo San-José, Rui E. F. Silva

Abstract: Excitons play a key role in the linear optical response of 2D materials. However, their significance in the highly nonlinear optical response to intense mid-infrared light has often been overlooked. Using hBN as a prototypical example, we theoretically demonstrate that excitons play a major role in this process. Specifically, we illustrate their formation and stability in intense low-frequency fields, where field strengths surpass the Coulomb field binding the electron-hole pair in the exciton. Additionally, we establish a parallelism between these results and the already-known physics of Rydberg states using an atomic model. Finally, we propose an experimental setup to test the effect of excitons in the nonlinear optical response

4.Topological $n$-root Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model in a non-Hermitian photonic ring system

Authors:David Viedma, Anselmo M. Marques, Ricardo G. Dias, Verònica Ahufinger

Abstract: Square-root topology is one of the newest additions to the ever expanding field of topological insulators (TIs). It characterizes systems that relate to their parent TI through the squaring of their Hamiltonians. Extensions to $2^n$-root topology, where $n$ is the number of squaring operations involved in retrieving the parent TI, were quick to follow. Here, we go one step further and develop the framework for designing general $n$-root TIs, with $n$ any positive integer, using the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model as the parent TI from which the higher-root versions are constructed. The method relies on using loops of unidirectional couplings as building blocks, such that the resulting model is non-Hermitian and embedded with a generalized chiral symmetry. Edge states are observed at the $n$ branches of the complex energy spectrum, appearing within what we designate as a ring gap, shown to be irreducible to the usual point or line gaps. We further detail on how such an $n$-root model can be realistically implemented in photonic ring systems. Near perfect unidirectional effective couplings between the main rings can be generated via mediating auxiliary rings with modulated gains and losses. These induce high imaginary gauge fields that strongly supress couplings in one direction, while enhancing them in the other. We use these photonic lattices to validate and benchmark the analytical predictions. Our results introduce a new class of high-root topological models, as well as a route for their experimental realization.

1.Conflict-free joint decision by lag and zero-lag synchronization in laser network

Authors:Hisako Ito, Takatomo Mihana, Ryoichi Horisaki, Makoto Naruse

Abstract: With the end of Moore's Law and the increasing demand for computing, photonic accelerators are garnering considerable attention. This is due to the physical characteristics of light, such as high bandwidth and multiplicity, and the various synchronization phenomena that emerge in the realm of laser physics. These factors come into play as computer performance approaches its limits. In this study, we explore the application of a laser network, acting as a photonic accelerator, to the competitive multi-armed bandit problem. In this context, conflict avoidance is key to maximizing environmental rewards. We experimentally demonstrate cooperative decision-making using zero-lag and lag synchronization within a network of four semiconductor lasers. Lag synchronization of chaos realizes effective decision-making and zero-delay synchronization is responsible for the realization of the collision avoidance function. We experimentally verified a low collision rate and high reward in a fundamental 2-player, 2-slot scenario, and showed the scalability of this system. This system architecture opens up new possibilities for intelligent functionalities in laser dynamics.

2.Bilayer Metasurface: Induced Transparency and Fabry Perot Resonance

Authors:G. Alagappan, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, C. E. Png

Abstract: A Fabry-Perot resonator utilizes two solid, non-resonating, reflecting mirrors to form resonant patterns when the separation between the mirrors satisfies the resonance conditions. The resonant mode concentrates at the middle of the cavity. In this study, we constructed a Fabry-Perot cavity with nanostructured resonant metasurfaces as meta-mirrors. The individual metasurfaces exhibit resonant transmission dips with a minimum transmission and a quality factor of t0 and Qs, respectively. The coherent interference between the two metasurfaces changes the behavior of the entire resonant system, generating an induced transparency in the original spectrum. The sharpness of the induced transparency peak is linearly related to the group delay of the single metasurface. Assuming a Lorentzian lineshape, we show that for small t0, the quality factor of the induced transparency peak is Qs/t0^3. The field confines to the meta-mirrors region rather than at the middle of the Fabry-Perot cavity. We provide examples of practical metasurfaces made from dielectric scatters composed of silicon thin nanodisks and demonstrate high quality factors and phase dispersion that are unattainable by any nano or microscale flat optics systems.

3.Dense and Sharp Resonance Peaks in Stretched Moiré Waveguides

Authors:G. Alagappan, C. E. Png

Abstract: In this article, we demonstrate dense resonant peaks in the transmission spectra of a rectangular waveguide inscribed with a stretched moir\'e pattern. We investigated an array of silicon waveguides with sinusoidally modulated cladding of varying depth of modulation. The investigation reveals a critical depth of modulation that splits the geometries into weakly scattering and strongly scattering regimes. Geometries in the weakly scattering regime resemble Bragg waveguides with shallow cladding modulation, whereas in the strongly scattering regime, the geometries resemble chains of isolated dielectric particles. The guided mode photonic bandgap for geometries in the strongly scattering regime is much larger than that of the weakly scattering regime. By inscribing stretched moir\'e patterns in the strongly scattering regime, we show that a large number of sharp peaks can be created in the transmission spectra of the waveguide. All periodic stretched moir\'e patterns can be identified with an R parameter. The R parameter indicates the ratio of the supercell period of the stretched system to the unstretched system. Our empirical study shows that the density of peaks linearly increases with R. The multiple resonance peaks evolve along well-defined trajectories with quality factor defined by exponential functions of R.

4.Impact of feedback time-distribution on laser dynamics

Authors:Martin Skenderas, Spencer W. Jolly, Martin Virte

Abstract: Time-distributed optical feedback in semiconductor lasers has gained attention for its ability to produce high-quality chaos and effectively suppress the time-delay signature. However, the fundamental impact of the distribution of feedback in time on laser dynamics remains unexplored. In this paper, we investigate this topic by using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) feedback. We theoretically study the laser response using FBGs of different lengths but similar reflectivity, effectively stretching the impulse response over a longer period while maintaining its overall shape. We observe that above a critical value corresponding to a grating length of approximately $1$\,cm, fluctuations in laser stability emerge. We attribute this phenomenon to the damping of relaxation oscillations when the zeros of the FBG reflectivity spectrum align with the laser side lobes around the relaxation oscillation frequency. We also uncover an asymmetrical dynamical behavior of the laser for positive and negative frequency detuning. We deduce that this asymmetry is a characteristic feature of FBG feedback and delve into the specificities that trigger such behavior.

5.High efficiency coupling of free electrons to sub-$λ^3$ modal volume, high-Q photonic cavities

Authors:Malo Bézard, Imène Si Hadj Mohand, Luigi Ruggierio, Arthur Le Roux, Yves Auad, Paul Baroux, Luiz H. G. Tizei, Xavier Chécoury, Mathieu Kociak

Abstract: We report on the design, realization and experimental investigation by spatially resolved monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of high quality factor cavities with modal volumes smaller than $\lambda^3$, with $\lambda$ the free-space wavelength of light. The cavities are based on a slot defect in a 2D photonic crystal slab made up of silicon. They are optimized for high coupling of electrons accelerated to 100 kV, to quasi-Transverse Electrical modes polarized along the slot direction. We studied the cavities in two geometries. The first geometry, for which the cavities have been designed, corresponds to an electron beam travelling along the slot direction. The second consists in the electron beam travelling perpendicular to the slab. In both cases, a large series of modes is identified. The dielectric slot modes energies are measured to be in the 0.8- 0.85 eV range, as per design, and surrounded by two bands of dielectric and air modes of the photonic structure. The dielectric even slot modes, to which the cavity mode belongs, are highly coupled to the electrons with up to 3.2$\%$ probability of creating a slot photon per incident electron. Although the experimental spectral resolution (around 30 meV) alone does not allow to disentangle cavity photons from other slot photons, the remarkable agreement between the experiments and FDTD simulations permits us to deduce that amongst the photons created in the slot, around 30$\%$ are stored in the cavity mode. A systematic study of the energy and coupling strength as a function of the photonic band gap parameters permits to foresee increase of coupling strength by fine-tuning phase matching. Our work demonstrates free electron coupling to high quality factor cavities with low mode density, sub-$\lambda^3$ modal volume, making it an excellent candidate for applications such as quantum nano-optics with free electrons.

6.Quantum-noise-limited optical neural networks operating at a few quanta per activation

Authors:Shi-Yuan Ma, Tianyu Wang, Jérémie Laydevant, Logan G. Wright, Peter L. McMahon

Abstract: Analog physical neural networks, which hold promise for improved energy efficiency and speed compared to digital electronic neural networks, are nevertheless typically operated in a relatively high-power regime so that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is large (>10). What happens if an analog system is instead operated in an ultra-low-power regime, in which the behavior of the system becomes highly stochastic and the noise is no longer a small perturbation on the signal? In this paper, we study this question in the setting of optical neural networks operated in the limit where some layers use only a single photon to cause a neuron activation. Neuron activations in this limit are dominated by quantum noise from the fundamentally probabilistic nature of single-photon detection of weak optical signals. We show that it is possible to train stochastic optical neural networks to perform deterministic image-classification tasks with high accuracy in spite of the extremely high noise (SNR ~ 1) by using a training procedure that directly models the stochastic behavior of photodetection. We experimentally demonstrated MNIST classification with a test accuracy of 98% using an optical neural network with a hidden layer operating in the single-photon regime; the optical energy used to perform the classification corresponds to 0.008 photons per multiply-accumulate (MAC) operation, which is equivalent to 0.003 attojoules of optical energy per MAC. Our experiment used >40x fewer photons per inference than previous state-of-the-art low-optical-energy demonstrations, to achieve the same accuracy of >90%. Our work shows that some extremely stochastic analog systems, including those operating in the limit where quantum noise dominates, can nevertheless be used as layers in neural networks that deterministically perform classification tasks with high accuracy if they are appropriately trained.

1.Eigenenergy braids in 2D photonic crystals

Authors:Janet Zhong, Charles C. Wojcik, Dali Cheng, Shanhui Fan

Abstract: We consider non-Hermitian energy band theory in two-dimensional systems, and study eigenenergy braids on slices in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone. We show the consequences of reciprocity and geometric symmetry on such eigenenergy braids. The point-gap topology of the energy bands can be found from the projection of the eigenenergy braid onto the complex energy plane. We show that the conjugacy class transitions in the eigenenergy braid results in the changes in the number of bands in a complete point-gap loop. This transition occurs at exceptional points. We numerically demonstrate these concepts using two-dimensional reciprocal and nonreciprocal photonic crystals.

2.Super-resolution enabled widefield quantum diamond microscopy

Authors:Feng Xu, Jialong Chen, Yong Hou, Juan Cheng, Tony KC Hui, Shih-Chi Chen, Zhiqin Chu

Abstract: Widefield quantum diamond microscopy (WQDM) based on Kohler-illumination has been widely adopted in the field of quantum sensing, however, practical applications are still limited by issues such as unavoidable photodamage and unsatisfied spatial-resolution. Here, we design and develop a super-resolution enabled WQDM using a digital micromirror device (DMD)-based structured illumination microscopy. With the rapidly programmable illumination patterns, we have firstly demonstrated how to mitigate phototoxicity when imaging nanodiamonds in cell samples. As a showcase, we have performed the super-resolved quantum sensing measurements of two individual nanodiamonds not even distinguishable with conventional WQDM. The DMD-powered WQDM presents not only excellent compatibility with quantum sensing solutions, but also strong advantages in high imaging speed, high resolution, low phototoxicity, and enhanced signal-to-background ratio, making it a competent tool to for applications in demanding fields such as biomedical science.

1.Characterisation of the waveplate associated to layers in interferential mirrors

Authors:J. Agil, B. Letourneur, S. George, R. Battesti, C. Rizzo

Abstract: In this paper, first we present a review of experimental data corresponding to phase retardation per reflection of interferential mirrors. Then, we report our new measurements on both commercial and tailor-made mirrors. To be able to measure the phase retardation as a function of the number of layers, additional pairs of layers are deposited on some of the mirrors. The results obtained with this special set of mirrors allow us to fully characterise the waveplate associated with the additional pairs of layers. We finally implemented a computational study whose results are compared with the experimental ones. Thanks to the additional layers, we have achieved reflectivity never measured before at $\lambda=1064$~nm, with an associated finesse of $\mathcal{F}=895~000$.

2.An intriguing interpretation of Cosine beams

Authors:Srinivasa Rao Allam

Abstract: We provide a simple analysis based on ray optics and Dirac notation for one and two-dimensional Cosine beams. We then went on to understand the properties of the Bessel beams. For the first time, we report on a generation of three-dimensional needle structures based on interference of one-dimensional Cosine beams. Straightforward mathematical calculations are used to derive the analytical expressions for Cosine beams. The present method of demonstration of Cosine beams may be utilized to understand other structured modes. The Dirac notation-based interference explanation used here can render new researchers to discover an easy way to understand the wave nature of light in fundamental interferometric experiments as well as in advanced-level experiments such as beam engineering technology, imaging, particle manipulation, light sheet microscopy, and light-matter interaction. We also provide an in-depth analysis of similarities among Cosine, Bessel, and Hermite-Gaussian beams.

1.Extreme events generated in microcavity lasers and their predictions by reservoir computing

Authors:T. Wang, H. X. Zhou, Q. Fang, Y. N. Han, X. X. Guo, Y. H. Zhang, C. Qian, H. S. Chen, S. Barland, S. Y. Xiang, G. L. Lippi

Abstract: Extreme events generated by complex systems have been intensively studied in many fields due to their great impact on scientific research and our daily lives. However, their prediction is still a challenge in spite of the tremendous progress that model-free machine learning has brought to the field. We experimentally generate, and theoretically model, extreme events in a current-modulated, single-mode microcavity laser operating on orthogonal polarizations, where their strongly differing thresholds -- due to cavity birefringence -- give rise to giant light pulses initiated by spontaneous emission. Applying reservoir-computing techniques, we identify in advance the emergence of an extreme event from a time series, in spite of coarse sampling and limited sample length. Performance is optimized through new hybrid configurations that we introduce in this paper. Advance warning times can reach 5ns, i.e. approximately ten times the rise time of the individual extreme event.

2.Nonlinear Wavepacket Dynamics in Proximity to a Stationary Inflection Point

Authors:Serena Landers, Arkady Kurnosov, William Tuxbury, Ilya Vitebskiy, Tsampikos Kottos

Abstract: A stationary inflection point (SIP) in the Bloch dispersion relation of a periodic waveguide is an exceptional point degeneracy where three Bloch eigenmodes coalesce forming the so-called frozen mode with a divergent amplitude and vanishing group velocity of its propagating component. We have developed a theoretical framework to study the time evolution of wavepackets centered at an SIP. Analysis of the evolution of statistical moments distribution of linear pulses shows a strong deviation from the conventional ballistic wavepacket dynamics in dispersive media. The presence of nonlinear interactions dramatically changes the situation, resulting in a mostly ballistic propagation of nonlinear wavepackets with the speed and even the direction of propagation essentially dependent on the wavepacket amplitude. Such a behavior is unique to nonlinear wavepackets centered at an SIP.

3.Two-micron dual-comb spectroscopy of CO2 and N2O with a novel design of dispersion-controlled highly nonlinear fiber

Authors:Alix Malfondet, Moise Deroh, Sidi-Ely Ahmedou, Alexandre Parriaux, Kamal Hammani, Romain Dauliat, Laurent Labonté, Sébastien Tanzilli, Jean-Christophe Delagnes, Philippe Roy, Raphaël Jamier, Guy Millot

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce an all-fibered dual-comb spectrometer based on a new design of highly nonlinear fiber to efficiently convert frequency combs from 1.55 micron to 2 micron We show that our spectrometer can be used to measure absorption profiles of rovibrational transitions of CO2 and N2O molecules, and especially their collisional self-broadening coefficients. The results show very good agreement with the HITRAN database and thus further measurements have been performed on a mixture CO2 /N2O to measure the broadening of the CO2 absorption lines resulting from the presence of N2O.

4.High performance artificial visual system with plasmon-enhanced 2D material neural network

Authors:Tian Zhang, Xin Guo, Pan Wang, Linjun Li, Limin Tong

Abstract: Artificial visual systems (AVS) have gained tremendous momentum because of its huge potential in areas such as autonomous vehicles and robotics as part of artificial intelligence (AI) in recent years. However, current machine visual systems composed of complex circuits based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform usually contains photosensor array, format conversion, memory and processing module. The large amount of redundant data shuttling between each unit, resulting in large latency and high power consumption, which greatly limits the performance of the AVS. Here, we demonstrate an AVS based on a new design concept, which consists of hardware devices connected in an artificial neural network (ANN) that can simultaneously sense, pre-process and recognize optical images without latency. The Ag nanograting and the two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure integrated plasmonic phototransistor array (PPTA) constitute the hardware ANN, and its synaptic weight is determined by the adjustable regularized photoresponsivity matrix. The eye-inspired pre-processing function of the device under photoelectric synergy ensures the considerable improvement of the efficiency and accuracy of subsequent image recognition. The comprehensive performance of the proof-of-concept device demonstrates great potential for machine vision applications in terms of large dynamic range (180 dB), high speed (500 ns) and ultralow energy consumption per spike (2.4e(-17) J).

5.Theory of modulation instability in Kerr Fabry-Perot resonators beyond the mean field limit

Authors:Zoheir Ziani, Thomas Bunel, Auro M. Perego, Arnaud Mussot, Matteo Conforti

Abstract: We analyse the nonlinear dynamics of Fabry-Perot cavities of arbitrary finesse filled by a dispersive Kerr medium, pumped by a continuous wave laser or a synchronous train of flat-top pulses. The combined action of feedback, group velocity dispersion and Kerr nonlinearity leads to temporal instability with respect to perturbations at specified frequencies. We characterise the generation of new spectral bands by deriving the exact dispersion relation and we find approximate analytical expressions for the instabilities threshold and gain spectrum of modulation instability (MI). We show that, in contrast to ring-resonators, both the stationary solutions and the gain spectrum are dramatically affected by the duration of the pump pulse. We derive the extended Lugiato-Lefever equation for the Fabry-Perot resonator (FP-LLE) starting from coupled nonlinear Schr\"odinger equations (rather than Maxwell-Bloch equations) and we compare the outcome of the stability analysis of the two models. While FP-LLE gives overall good results, we show regimes that are not captured by the mean-field limit, namely the period-two modulation instability, which may appear in highly detuned or nonlinear regimes. We report numerical simulations of the generation of MI-induced Kerr combs by solving FP-LLE and the coupled Schr\"odinger equations.

1.Emerging Optics from Structured Nanoscale Optical Cavities

Authors:Danqing Wang, Ankun Yang

Abstract: Miniaturized and rationally assembled nanostructures exhibit extraordinarily distinct physical properties beyond their individual units. This review will focus on structured small-scale optical cavities that show unique electromagnetic near fields and collective optical coupling. By harnessing different material systems and structural designs, various light-matter interactions can be engineered, such as nanoscale lasing, nonlinear optics, exciton-polariton coupling, and energy harvesting. Key device performance of nanoscale lasers, including low power threshold, optical multiplexing, and electrical pump, will be discussed. This review will also cover emerging applications of nanoscale optical cavities in quantum engineering and topological photonics. Structured nanocavities can serve as a scalable platform for integrated photonic circuits and hybrid quantum photonic systems.

2.Stimulated Brillouin scattering in tellurite-covered silicon nitride waveguides

Authors:Roel A. Botter, Yvan Klaver, Randy te Morsche, Bruno L. Segat Frare, Batoul Hashemi, Kaixuan Ye, Akhileshwar Mishra, Redlef B. G. Braamhaar, Jonathan D. B. Bradley, David Marpaung

Abstract: Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), a coherent nonlinear effect coupling acoustics and optics, can be used in a wide range of applications such as Brillouin lasers and tunable narrowband RF filtering. Wide adoption of such technologies however, would need a balance of strong Brillouin interaction and low optical loss in a structure compatible with large scale fabrication. Achieving these characteristics in scalable platforms such as silicon and silicon nitride remains a challenge. Here, we investigate a scalable Brillouin platform combining low loss Si$_3$N$_4$ and tellurium oxide (TeO$_2$) exhibiting strong Brillouin response and enhanced acoustic confinement. In this platform we measure a Brillouin gain coefficient of 8.5~m$^{-1}$W$^{-1}$, exhibiting a twenty fold improvement over the largest previously reported Brillouin gain in a Si$_3$N$_4$ platform. Further, we demonstrate cladding engineering to control the strength of the Brillouin interaction. We utilized the Brillouin gain and loss resonances in this waveguide for an RF photonic filter with more than 15 dB rejection and 250 MHz linewidth. Finally, we present a pathway by geometric optimization and cladding engineering to a further enhancement of the gain coefficient to 155~m$^{-1}$W$^{-1}$, a potential 400 times increase in the Brillouin gain coefficient.

3.Observation of $π$ solitons in oscillating waveguide arrays

Authors:Antonina A. Arkhipova, Yiqi Zhang, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Sergei A. Zhuravitskii, Nikolay N. Skryabin, Ivan V. Dyakonov, Alexander A. Kalinkin, Sergei P. Kulik, Victor O. Kompanets, Sergey V. Chekalin, Victor N. Zadkov

Abstract: Floquet systems with periodically varying in time parameters enable realization of unconventional topological phases that do not exist in static systems with constant parameters and that are frequently accompanied by appearance of novel types of the topological states. Among such Floquet systems are the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger lattices with periodically-modulated couplings that can support at their edges anomalous $\pi$ modes of topological origin despite the fact that the lattice spends only half of the evolution period in topologically nontrivial phase, while during other half-period it is topologically trivial. Here, using Su-Schrieffer-Heeger arrays composed from periodically oscillating waveguides inscribed in transparent nonlinear optical medium, we report experimental observation of photonic anomalous $\pi$ modes residing at the edge or in the corner of the one- or two-dimensional arrays, respectively, and demonstrate a new class of topological $\pi$ solitons bifurcating from such modes in the topological gap of the Floquet spectrum at high powers. $\pi$ solitons reported here are strongly oscillating nonlinear Floquet states exactly reproducing their profiles after each longitudinal period of the structure. They can be dynamically stable in both one- and two-dimensional oscillating waveguide arrays, the latter ones representing the first realization of the Floquet photonic higher-order topological insulator, while localization properties of such $\pi$ solitons are determined by their power.

4.Near-ultraviolet photon-counting dual-comb spectroscopy

Authors:Bingxin Xu, Zaijun Chen, Theodor W. Hänsch, Nathalie Picqué

Abstract: Ultraviolet spectroscopy provides unique insights into the structure of matter with applications ranging from fundamental tests to photochemistry in the earth's atmosphere and astronomical observations from space telescopes. At longer wavelengths, dual-comb spectroscopy with two interfering laser frequency combs has evolved into a powerful technique that can offer simultaneously a broad spectral range and very high resolution. Here we demonstrate a photon-counting approach that can extend the unique advantages of this method into ultraviolet regions where nonlinear frequency-conversion tends to be very inefficient. Our spectrometer, based on two frequency combs of slightly different repetition frequencies, provides broad span, high resolution, frequency calibration within the accuracy of an atomic clock, and overall consistency of the spectra. We demonstrate a signal-to-noise ratio at the quantum limit and optimal use of the measurement time, provided by the multiplex recording of all spectral data on a single photo-counter. Our initial experiments are performed in the near-ultraviolet and in the visible spectral ranges with alkali-atom vapor, with a power per comb line as low as a femtowatt. This crucial step towards precision broadband spectroscopy at short wavelengths clears the path to extreme-ultraviolet dual-comb spectroscopy and, more generally, generates a new realm of applications for diagnostics at photon level, as encountered e.g., when driving single atoms or molecules.

5.Wide Field-of-View, Large-Area Long-wave Infrared Silicon Metalenses

Authors:Hung-I Lin, Jeffrey Geldmeier, Erwan Baleine, Fan Yang, Sensong An, Ying Pan, Clara Rivero-Baleine, Tian Gu, Juejun Hu

Abstract: Long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-12 $\mu m$ wavelengths) is a spectral band of vital importance to thermal imaging. Conventional LWIR optics made from single-crystalline Ge and chalcogenide glasses are bulky and fragile. The challenge is exacerbated for wide field-of-view (FOV) optics, which traditionally mandates multiple cascaded elements that severely add to complexity and cost. Here we designed and experimentally realized a LWIR metalens platform based on bulk Si wafers featuring 140$^\circ$ FOV. The metalenses, which have diameters exceeding 4 cm, were fabricated using a scalable wafer-level process involving photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. Using a metalens-integrated focal plane array, we further demonstrated wide-angle thermal imaging.

1.Broadband Thermal Imaging using Meta-Optics

Authors:Luocheng Huang, Zheyi Han, Anna Wirth-Singh, Vishwanath Saragadam, Saswata Mukherjee, Johannes E. Fröch, Joshua Rollag, Ricky Gibson, Joshua R. Hendrickson, Phillip W. C. Hon, Orrin Kigner, Zachary Coppens, Karl F. Böhringer, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Arka Majumdar

Abstract: Subwavelength diffractive optics known as meta-optics have demonstrated the potential to significantly miniaturize imaging systems. However, despite impressive demonstrations, most meta-optical imaging systems suffer from strong chromatic aberrations, limiting their utilities. Here, we employ inverse-design to create broadband meta-optics operating in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) regime (8 - 12 $\mu$m). Via a deep-learning assisted multi-scale differentiable framework that links meta-atoms to the phase, we maximize the wavelength-averaged volume under the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the meta-optics. Our design framework merges local phase-engineering via meta-atoms and global engineering of the scatterer within a single pipeline. We corroborate our design by fabricating and experimentally characterizing all-silicon LWIR meta-optics. Our engineered meta-optic is complemented by a simple computational backend that dramatically improves the quality of the captured image. We experimentally demonstrate a six-fold improvement of the wavelength-averaged Strehl ratio over the traditional hyperboloid metalens for broadband imaging.

2.Site-specific stable deterministic single photon emitters with low Huang-Rhys value in layered hexagonal boron nitride at room temperature

Authors:Amit Bhunia, Pragya Joshi, Nitesh Singh, Biswanath Chakraborty, Rajesh V Nair

Abstract: Development of stable room-temperature bright single-photon emitters using atomic defects in hexagonal-boron nitride flakes (h-BN) provides significant promises for quantum technologies. However, an outstanding challenge in h-BN is creating site-specific, stable, high emission rate single photon emitters with very low Huang-Rhys (HR) factor. Here, we discuss the photonic properties of site-specific, isolated, stable quantum emitter that emit single photons with a high emission rate and unprecedented low HR value of 0.6 at room temperature. Scanning confocal image confirms site-specific single photon emitter with a prominent zero-phonon line at ~578 nm with saturation photon counts of 105 counts/second. The second-order intensity-intensity correlation measurement shows an anti-bunching dip of ~0.25 with an emission lifetime of 2.46 ns. Low-energy electron beam irradiation and subsequent annealing are important to achieve stable single photon emitters.

3.Second-Order Coherence Across the Brillouin Lasing Threshold

Authors:E. A. Cryer-Jenkins, G. Enzian, L. Freisem, N. Moroney, J. J. Price, A. Ø. Svela, K. D. Major, M. R. Vanner

Abstract: Brillouin-Mandelstam scattering is one of the most accessible nonlinear optical phenomena and has been widely studied since its theoretical discovery one hundred years ago. The scattering mechanism is a three-wave mixing process between two optical fields and one acoustic field and has found a broad range of applications spanning microscopy to ultra-narrow-linewidth lasers. Building on the success of utilizing this nonlinearity at a classical level, a rich avenue is now being opened to explore Brillouin scattering within the paradigm of quantum optics. Here, we take a key step in this direction by employing quantum optical techniques yet to be utilized for Brillouin scattering to characterize the second-order coherence of Stokes scattering across the Brillouin lasing threshold. We use a silica microsphere resonator and single-photon counters to observe the expected transition from bunched statistics of thermal light below the lasing threshold to Poissonian statistics of coherent light above the threshold. Notably, at powers approaching the lasing threshold, we also observe super-thermal statistics, which arise due to instability and a ``flickering'' in and out of lasing as the pump field is transiently depleted. The statistics observed across the transition, including the ``flickering'', are a result of the full nonlinear three-wave mixing process and cannot be captured by a linearized model. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical solutions of the three-wave Langevin equations and are well demarcated by analytical expressions for the instability and the lasing thresholds. These results demonstrate that applying second-order-coherence and photon-counting measurements to Brillouin scattering provides new methods to advance our understanding of Brillouin scattering itself and progress toward quantum-state preparation and characterization of acoustic modes.

4.Quantitative scattering theory of near-field response for 1D polaritonic structures

Authors:Lorenzo Orsini, Iacopo Torre, Hanan Herzig-Sheinfux, Frank H. L. Koppens

Abstract: Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy is a powerful imaging technique for studying materials beyond the diffraction limit. However, interpreting near-field measurements poses challenges in mapping the response of polaritonic structures to meaningful physical properties. To address this, we propose a theory based on the transfer matrix method to simulate the near-field response of 1D polaritonic structures. Our approach provides a computationally efficient and accurate analytical theory, relating the near-field response to well-defined physical properties. This work enhances the understanding of near-field images and complex polaritonic phenomena. Finally, this scattering theory can extend to other systems like atoms or nanoparticles near a waveguide.

5.Sol-gel Barium Titanate Nanohole Array as a Nonlinear Metasurface and a Photonic Crystal

Authors:Ülle-Linda Talts, Helena C. Weigand, Grégoire Saerens, Peter Benedek, Joel Winiger, Vanessa Wood, Jürg Leuthold, Viola Vogler-Neuling, Rachel Grange

Abstract: The quest of a nonlinear optical material that can be easily nanostructured over a large surface area is still ongoing. Here, we demonstrate a nanoimprinted nonlinear barium titanate 2D nanohole array that shows optical properties of a 2D photonic crystal and metasurface, depending on the direction of the optical axis. The challenge of nanostructuring the inert metal-oxide is resolved by direct soft nanoimprint lithography with sol-gel derived barium titanate enabling critical dimensions of 120 nm with aspect ratios of 5. The nanohole array exhibits a photonic bandgap in the infrared range when probed along the slab axis while lattice resonant states are observed in out-of-plane transmission configuration. The enhanced light-matter interaction from the resonant structure enables to increase the second-harmonic generation in the near-UV by a factor of 18 illustrating the potential in the flexible fabrication technique for barium titanate photonic devices.

6.Adapted poling to break the nonlinear efficiency limit in nanophotonic lithium niobate waveguides

Authors:Pao-Kang Chen, Ian Briggs, Chaohan Cui, Liang Zhang, Manav Shah, Linran Fan

Abstract: Nonlinear frequency mixing is of critical importance in extending the wavelength range of optical sources. It is also indispensable for emerging applications such as quantum information and photonic signal processing. Conventional lithium niobate with periodic poling is the most widely used device for frequency mixing due to the strong second-order nonlinearity. The recent development of nanophotonic lithium niobate waveguides promises improvements of nonlinear efficiencies by orders of magnitude with sub-wavelength optical conferment. However, the intrinsic nanoscale inhomogeneity in nanophotonic lithium niobate limits the coherent interaction length, leading to low nonlinear efficiencies. Therefore, the performance of nanophotonic lithium niobate waveguides is still far behind conventional counterparts. Here, we overcome this limitation and demonstrate ultra-efficient second order nonlinearity in nanophotonic lithium niobate waveguides significantly outperforming conventional crystals. This is realized by developing the adapted poling approach to eliminate the impact of nanoscale inhomogeneity in nanophotonic lithium niobate waveguides. We realize overall secondharmonic efficiency near 10^4 %/W without cavity enhancement, which saturates the theoretical limit. Phase-matching bandwidths and temperature tunability are improved through dispersion engineering. The ideal square dependence of the nonlinear efficiency on the waveguide length is recovered. We also break the trade-off between the energy conversion ratio and pump power. A conversion ratio over 80% is achieved in the single-pass configuration with pump power as low as 20 mW.

7.Time-domain Compressed Sensing

Authors:Kilian Scheffter, Jonathan Will, Claudius Riek, Herve Jousselin, Sebastien Coudreau, Nicolas Forget, Hanieh Fattahi

Abstract: Ultrashort time-domain spectroscopy, particularly field-resolved spectroscopy, are established methods for identifying the constituents and internal dynamics of samples. However, these techniques are often encumbered by the Nyquist criterion, leading to prolonged data acquisition and processing times as well as sizable data volumes. To mitigate these issues, we have successfully implemented the first instance of time-domain compressed sensing, enabling us to pinpoint the primary absorption peaks of atmospheric water vapor in response to tera-hertz light transients that exceed the Nyquist limit. Our method demonstrates successful identification of water absorption peaks up to 2.5 THz, even for sampling rates where the Nyquist frequency is as low as 0.75 THz, with a mean squared error of 12*10-4. Time-domain sparse sampling achieves considerable data compression while also expediting both the measurement and data processing time, representing a significant stride towards the realm of real-time spectroscopy

1.Subwavelength Raman Laser Driven by Quasi Bound State in the Continuum

Authors:Daniil Riabov ITMO University, Department of Physics and Engineering, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Ruslan Gladkov ITMO University, Department of Physics and Engineering, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Olesia Pashina ITMO University, Department of Physics and Engineering, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Andrey Bogdanov ITMO University, Department of Physics and Engineering, Saint-Petersburg, Russia Qingdao Innovation and Development Center, Harbin Engineering University, Qingdao, Shandong, China, Sergey Makarov ITMO University, Department of Physics and Engineering, Saint-Petersburg, Russia Qingdao Innovation and Development Center, Harbin Engineering University, Qingdao, Shandong, China

Abstract: Raman lasers is an actively developing field of nonlinear optics aiming to create efficient frequency converters and various optical sensors. Due to the growing importance of ultracompact chip-scale technologies, there is a constant demand for optical devices miniaturization, however, the development of a nanoscale Raman laser remains a challenging endeavor. In this work, we propose a fully subwavelength Raman laser operating in visible range based on a gallium phosphide nanocylinder resonator supporting a quasi bound state in the continuum (quasi-BIC). We perform precise spectral matching of nanoparticle's high-$Q$ modes with the pump and detuned Raman emission wavelengths. As a result of our simulations, we demonstrate a design of Raman nanolaser, ready for experimental realization, with the lasing threshold expected to be as low as $P_{\mathrm{th}} \approx 21~\mathrm{mW}$. The suggested configuration, to the best of our knowledge, represents the very first prototype of a low-threshold Raman nanolaser with all the dimensions smaller than the operational wavelength.

2.Direct coupling of nonlinear integrated cavities for all-optical reservoir computing

Authors:Ivan Boikov, Daniel Brunner, Alfredo De Rossi

Abstract: We consider theoretically a network of directly coupled optical microcavities to implement a space-multiplexed optical neural network in an integrated nanophotonic circuit. Nonlinear photonic network integrations based on direct coupling ensures a highly dense integration, reducing the chip footprint by several orders of magnitude compared to other implementations. Different nonlinear effects inherent to such microcavities are studied when used for realizing an all-optical autonomous computing substrate, here based on the reservoir computing concept. We provide an in-depth analysis of the impact of basic microcavity parameters on computational metrics of the system, namely, the dimensionality and the consistency. Importantly, we find that differences between frequencies and bandwidths of supermodes formed by the direct coupling is the determining factor of the reservoir's dimensionality and its scalability. The network's dimensionality can be improved with frequency-shifting nonlinear effects such as the Kerr effect, while two-photon absorption has an opposite effect. Finally, we demonstrate in simulation that the proposed reservoir is capable of solving the Mackey-Glass prediction and the optical signal recovery tasks at GHz timescale.

3.Integrated Photonic Fractional Convolution Accelerator

Authors:Kevin Zelaya, Mohammad-Ali Miri

Abstract: An integrated photonic circuit architecture to perform a modified-convolution operation based on the Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform (DFrFT) is introduced. This is accomplished by utilizing two nonuniformly-coupled waveguide lattices with equally-spaced eigenmode spectra and with different lengths that perform DFrDT operations of complementary orders sandwiching a modulator array. Numerical simulations show that smoothing and edge detection tasks are indeed performed even for noisy input signals.

1.Semi-linear all-polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser oscillator manifesting dual operation regime at net anomalous dispersion

Authors:Mateusz Pielach, Agnieszka Jamrozik, Katarzyna Krupa, Yuriy Stepanenko

Abstract: Ultrafast all-fiber Yb-doped fiber oscillators are usually associated with all-normal-dispersion cavities, which operate in a dissipative soliton regime, quintessential for pulsed operation at the wavelength of 1 {\mu}m. This work presents an all-polarization-maintaining Yb-doper fiber laser oscillator that operates in a dispersion-managed dissipative soliton regime, thanks to incorporating a chirped fiber Bragg grating. The oscillator, mode-locked via a nonlinear optical loop mirror, has an unconventional semi-linear cavity of net anomalous dispersion. Unlike in standard ring resonators, the ultrashort pulse undergoes amplification twice per cavity roundtrip. Additionally, we report a duality of pulsed operation states depending on the pumping power. Strikingly, the oscillator can work in a~subregime similar to the standard dissipative soliton, facilitating further energy scaling at anomalous dispersion. We characterize the low-noise setup capable of delivering pulse energy as high as 6.4 nJ using standard single-mode polarization-maintaining optical fibers.

2.$π$-solitons on a ring of waveguides

Authors:Sergey K. Ivanov, Yaroslav V. Kartashov

Abstract: We study the existence and stability of $\pi$-solitons on a ring of periodically oscillating waveguides. The array is arranged into Su-Schrieffer-Heeger structure placed on a ring, with additional spacing between two ends of the array. Due to longitudinal oscillations of waveguides, this Floquet structure spends half of the longitudinal period in topological phase, while on the other half it is nontopological. Nevertheless, waveguide oscillations lead to the emergence of anomalous topological $\pi$-modes at both ends of the structure that strongly couple in our ring geometry, leading to the formation of previously unexplored in-phase and out-of-phase $\pi$-modes. We study topological solitons bifurcating from such linear $\pi$-modes and demonstrate how their properties and stability depend on the size of the ring and on spacing between two ends of the array.

3.Superfast and sub-wavelength orbital rotation of plasmonic particles in focused Gaussian beams

Authors:Lei-Ming Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhu, Yu Zheng, Long Wang, Chan Huang, Xiaoyun Jiang, Yuzhi Shi, Fang-Wen Sun, Jigang Hu

Abstract: The use of nanophotonics for optical manipulation has continuously attracted interest in both fundamental research and practical applications, due to its significantly enhanced capabilities at the nanoscale. In this work, we showed that plasmonic particles can be trapped at off-axis location in Gaussian beams assisted by surface plasmon resonance. The off-axis displacement can be tuned at the sub-wavelength scale by the incident light beams. Based on these, we propose that a superfast orbital rotation of particles in continuous-wave laser beam can be realized in tightly focused circularly polarized Gaussian beams. The rotation has a tunable orbital radius at the sub-wavelength scale and a superfast rotation speed (more than 10^4 r/s in water under common laboratory conditions). Our work will aid in the development of optically driven nanomachines, and find applications in micro/nano-rheology, micro-fluid mechanics, and biological research at the nanoscale.

1.Enhanced sensing mechanism based on shifting an exceptional point

Authors:Xuan Mao, Guo-Qing Qin, Hao Zhang, Bo-Yang Wang, Dan Long, Gui-Qin Li, Gui-Lu Long

Abstract: Non-Hermitian systems associated with exceptional points (EPs) are expected to demonstrate a giant response enhancement for various sensors. The widely investigated enhancement mechanism based on diverging from an EP should destroy the EP and further limits its applications for multiple sensing scenarios in a time sequence. To break the above limit, here we proposed a new enhanced sensing mechanism based on shifting an EP. Different from the mechanism of diverging from an EP, our scheme is an EP non-demolition and the giant enhancement of response is acquired by a slight shift of the EP along the parameter axis induced by perturbation. The new sensing mechanism can promise the most ffective response enhancement for all sensors in the case of multiple sensing in a time sequence. To verify our sensing mechanism, we construct a mass sensor and a gyroscope with concrete physical implementations. Our work will deepen the understanding of EP-based sensing and inspire designing various high sensitivity sensors in different physical systems.

2.Self-modulation of nonlinear light in vacuum enhanced by orbital angular momentum

Authors:Akitaka Watanabe, Kazunori Shibata

Abstract: Nonlinear optical effects in vacuum have been investigated as a means to verify quantum electrodynamics in a region of low photon energy. By considering nonlinear electromagnetic waves in a three-dimensional cylindrical cavity, we report that the orbital angular momentum of light strongly affects self-modulations in a long timescale. The variation in optical phase is shown to enhance the vacuum nonlinearity. Moreover, we demonstrate the time evolution of the energy transfer between cavity modes and of the phase shift, paving new possibility for verification experiments.

3.Synthesized complex-frequency excitation for ultrasensitive molecular sensing

Authors:Kebo Zeng, Chenchen Wu, Xiangdong Guo, Fuxin Guan, Yu Duan, Lauren L Zhang, Xiaoxia Yang, Na Liu, Qing Dai, Shuang Zhang

Abstract: Detecting trace molecules remains a significant challenge. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) based on plasmonic nanostructures, particularly graphene, has emerged as a promising approach to enhance sensing sensitivity. While graphene-based SEIRA offers advantages such as ultrahigh sensitivity and active tunability, intrinsic molecular damping weakens the interaction between vibrational modes and plasmons. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh-sensitive molecular sensing based on synthesized complex-frequency waves (CFW). Our experiment shows that CFW can amplify the molecular signals (~1.2-nm-thick silk protein layer) detected by graphene-based sensor by at least an order of magnitude and can be universally applied to molecular sensing in different phases. Our approach is highly scalable and can facilitate the investigation of light-matter interactions, enabling diverse potential applications in fields such as optical spectroscopy, metasurfaces, optoelectronics, biomedicine and pharmaceutics.

4.Recent Advances in Metasurface Design and Quantum Optics Applications with Machine Learning, Physics-Informed Neural Networks, and Topology Optimization Methods

Authors:Wenye Ji, Jin Chang2, He-Xiu Xu, Jian Rong Gao, Simon Gröblacher, Paul Urbach, Aurèle J. L. Adam

Abstract: As a two-dimensional planar material with low depth profile, a metasurface can generate non-classical phase distributions for the transmitted and reflected electromagnetic waves at its interface. Thus, it offers more flexibility to control the wave front. A traditional metasurface design process mainly adopts the forward prediction algorithm, such as Finite Difference Time Domain, combined with manual parameter optimization. However, such methods are time-consuming, and it is difficult to keep the practical meta-atom spectrum being consistent with the ideal one. In addition, since the periodic boundary condition is used in the meta-atom design process, while the aperiodic condition is used in the array simulation, the coupling between neighboring meta-atoms leads to inevitable inaccuracy. In this review, representative intelligent methods for metasurface design are introduced and discussed, including machine learning, physics-information neural network, and topology optimization method. We elaborate on the principle of each approach, analyze their advantages and limitations, and discuss their potential applications. We also summarise recent advances in enabled metasurfaces for quantum optics applications. In short, this paper highlights a promising direction for intelligent metasurface designs and applications for future quantum optics research and serves as an up-to-date reference for researchers in the metasurface and metamaterial fields.

5.Optical Tellegen metamaterial with spontaneous magnetization

Authors:S. S. Jazi, I. Faniayeu, R. Cichelero, D. C. Tzarouchis, M. M. Asgari, A. Dmitriev, S. Fan, V. Asadchy

Abstract: The nonreciprocal magnetoelectric effect, also known as the Tellegen effect, promises a number of groundbreaking phenomena connected to fundamental (e.g., electrodynamics of axion and relativistic matter) and applied physics (e.g., magnetless isolators). We propose a three-dimensional metamaterial with an isotropic and resonant Tellegen response in the visible frequency range. The metamaterial is formed by randomly oriented bi-material nanocylinders in a host medium. Each nanocylinder consists of a ferromagnet in a single-domain magnetic state and a high-permittivity dielectric operating near the magnetic Mie-type resonance. The proposed metamaterial requires no external magnetic bias and operates on the spontaneous magnetization of the nanocylinders. By leveraging the emerging magnetic Weyl semimetals, we further show how a giant bulk effective magnetoelectric effect can be achieved in a proposed metamaterial, exceeding that of natural materials by almost four orders of magnitude.

1.Narrow-linewidth 852-nm DBR-LD with self-injection lock based on high-fineness optical cavity filtering

Authors:Lili Hao, Rui Chang, Xiaokai Hou, Jun He, Junmin Wang

Abstract: Narrow-linewidth lasers have high spectral purity, long coherent length and low phase noise, so they have important applications in cold atom physics, quantum communication, quantum information processing and optical precision measurement. We inject transmitted laser from a narrow-linewidth (15 kHz) flat-concave Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity made of ultra-low expansion (ULE) optical glass into 852-nm distributed-Bragg-reflector type laser diode (DBR-LD), of which the comprehensive linewidth of 1.67 MHz for the free running case. With the increase of self-injection power, the laser linewidth is gradually narrowed, and the inject-locking current range is gradually increased. The narrowest linewidth measured by the delayed frequency-shifted self-heterodyne (DFSSH) method is 263 Hz. Moreover, to characterize the laser phase noise, we use a detuned F-P cavity to measure the conversion signal from laser phase noise to intensity noise for both the free running case and self-injection lock case. Laser phase noise for the self-injection lock case is significantly suppressed in the analysis frequency range of 0.1-10 MHz compared to the free running case. Especially, the phase noise is suppressed by more than 30dB at the analysis frequency of 100 kHz.

2.Towards mid-infrared computational temporal ghost imaging

Authors:Han Wu, Bo Hu, Fei Peng, Zinan Wang, Goëry Genty, Houkun Liang

Abstract: Ghost imaging in the time domain opens new possibilities to reconstruct an unknown temporal object by correlating the multiple probing temporal intensity patterns with the integrated signal measured after transmission through the temporal object. By using the pre-programmed temporal patterns as the probe, computational temporal ghost imaging (TGI) can reconstruct the fast temporal object with only one slow photodetector and significantly reduce the number of measurement realizations. However, direct implementation of computational TGI requires the use of suitable instrumentation such as, e.g., ultrafast modulators to pre-program temporal patterns at the source wavelength, which are not necessarily available in all wavelength regions, such as mid-infrared region. Here, we experimentally demonstrated MIR computational TGI for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, based on the frequency down-conversion scheme. Instead of directly pre-programming temporal patterns at MIR light, in the frequency down-conversion temporal ghost imaging, the pre-programmed temporal patterns are modulated at 1.5 um light and then the pre-programmed 1.5 um light is interacted with another 1 um continuous-wave light to realize difference-frequency generation (DFG) process in periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. In this way, the pre-programmed temporal patterns can be transferred from 1.5 um light to the generated DFG light source at 3.4 um, and computational TGI could be performed to image a fast temporal object in MIR with a MIR slow detector. With the use of near-infrared optical modulator and wavelength-versatile near-infrared fiber lasers, the concept of frequency down-conversion based ghost imaging unlocks new possibilities to realized computational imaging in the spectral region where preprogrammed modulation is difficult to applied, such as the mid-infrared and THz regions.

3.Manipulate Quantum Emission by Interface States between Multi-component Moiré Lattice and Metasurface

Authors:Z. N. Liu, X. Q. Zhao, Y. L. Zhao, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu

Abstract: In recent years, moir\'e lattice has become a hot topic and inspired the research upsurge of moir\'e lattice. In this work, we propose a method of constructing a multi-composite moir\'e lattice, which is composed of over three periodic component structures. Moreover, we propose the moir\'e lattice-metasurface structure, which can realize the multi-wavelength interface states between these kinds of moir\'e lattices and metasurfaces. The wavelength, polarization, and number of moir\'e interface states can be manipulated flexibly, with anisotropic metasurfaces. These multi-wavelength interface states are employed to enhance quantum emission (QE) and over 20 times QE efficiency can be obtained.

4.Nonlinear Processing with Linear Optics

Authors:Mustafa Yildirim, Niyazi Ulas Dinc, Ilker Oguz, Demetri Psaltis, Christophe Moser

Abstract: Deep neural networks have achieved remarkable breakthroughs by leveraging multiple layers of data processing to extract hidden representations, albeit at the cost of large electronic computing power. To enhance energy efficiency and speed, the optical implementation of neural networks aims to harness the advantages of optical bandwidth and the energy efficiency of optical interconnections. In the absence of low-power optical nonlinearities, the challenge in the implementation of multilayer optical networks lies in realizing multiple optical layers without resorting to electronic components. In this study, we present a novel framework that uses multiple scattering that is capable of synthesizing programmable linear and nonlinear transformations concurrently at low optical power by leveraging the nonlinear relationship between the scattering potential, represented by data, and the scattered field. Theoretical and experimental investigations show that repeating the data by multiple scattering enables non-linear optical computing at low power continuous wave light.

5.Deep Learning with Passive Optical Nonlinear Mapping

Authors:Fei Xia, Kyungduk Kim, Yaniv Eliezer, Liam Shaughnessy, Sylvain Gigan, Hui Cao

Abstract: Deep learning has fundamentally transformed artificial intelligence, but the ever-increasing complexity in deep learning models calls for specialized hardware accelerators. Optical accelerators can potentially offer enhanced performance, scalability, and energy efficiency. However, achieving nonlinear mapping, a critical component of neural networks, remains challenging optically. Here, we introduce a design that leverages multiple scattering in a reverberating cavity to passively induce optical nonlinear random mapping, without the need for additional laser power. A key advantage emerging from our work is that we show we can perform optical data compression, facilitated by multiple scattering in the cavity, to efficiently compress and retain vital information while also decreasing data dimensionality. This allows rapid optical information processing and generation of low dimensional mixtures of highly nonlinear features. These are particularly useful for applications demanding high-speed analysis and responses such as in edge computing devices. Utilizing rapid optical information processing capabilities, our optical platforms could potentially offer more efficient and real-time processing solutions for a broad range of applications. We demonstrate the efficacy of our design in improving computational performance across tasks, including classification, image reconstruction, key-point detection, and object detection, all achieved through optical data compression combined with a digital decoder. Notably, we observed high performance, at an extreme compression ratio, for real-time pedestrian detection. Our findings pave the way for novel algorithms and architectural designs for optical computing.

6.A newcomer's guide to deep learning for inverse design in nano-photonics

Authors:Abdourahman Khaireh-Walieh, Denis Langevin, Pauline Bennet, Olivier Teytaud, Antoine Moreau, Peter R. Wiecha

Abstract: Nanophotonic devices manipulate light at sub-wavelength scales, enabling tasks such as light concentration, routing, and filtering. Designing these devices is a challenging task. Traditionally, solving this problem has relied on computationally expensive, iterative methods. In recent years, deep learning techniques have emerged as promising tools for tackling the inverse design of nanophotonic devices. While several review articles have provided an overview of the progress in this rapidly evolving field, there is a need for a comprehensive tutorial that specifically targets newcomers without prior experience in deep learning. Our goal is to address this gap and provide practical guidance for applying deep learning to individual scientific problems. We introduce the fundamental concepts of deep learning and critically discuss the potential benefits it offers for various inverse design problems in nanophotonics. We present a suggested workflow and detailed, practical design guidelines to help newcomers navigate the challenges they may encounter. By following our guide, newcomers can avoid frustrating roadblocks commonly experienced when venturing into deep learning for the first time. In a second part, we explore different iterative and direct deep learning-based techniques for inverse design, and evaluate their respective advantages and limitations. To enhance understanding and facilitate implementation, we supplement the manuscript with detailed Python notebook examples, illustrating each step of the discussed processes. While our tutorial primarily focuses on researchers in (nano-)photonics, it is also relevant for those working with deep learning in other research domains. We aim at providing a solid starting point to empower researchers to leverage the potential of deep learning in their scientific pursuits.

1.Direct Frequency-Mode-Stable Laser Amplification at Terahertz Burst Rates

Authors:Vinzenz Stummer, Tobias Flöry, Matthias Schneller, Markus Zeiler, Audrius Pugžlys, Andrius Baltuška

Abstract: Generation of high-fidelity amplified pulse bursts with a regular interpulse interval yields, in the spectral domain, an equidistant pattern of narrowband spectral modes, similar to frequency combs produced by cw mode-locked lasers, but with greatly increased pulse energy. Despite their great potential for nonlinear spectroscopy, material processing, etc., such long frequency-stable bursts are difficult to generate and amplify because of prominent temporal intensity modulation even after strong dispersive pulse stretching. This study presents a burst generation method based on a master-oscillator regenerative-amplifier system that allows for chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) with high scalability in pulse number. A gradual smoothing of temporal intensity profiles at an increasing number of pulses is discovered, demonstrating an unexpected recovery of the CPA performance at terahertz (THz) intraburst repetition rates. In consequence, a self-referenced stable burst spectral peak structure with megahertz (MHz) peak width is generated, without risk of amplifier damage caused by interference of chirped pulses. This result eliminates limitations in burst amplification and paves the way for advancements in ultrashort-pulse burst technology, particularly for its use in nonlinear optical applications.

2.Precision Doppler Shift Measurements with a Frequency Comb Calibrated Laser Heterodyne Radiometer

Authors:Ryan K. Cole, Connor Fredrick, Newton H. Nguyen, Scott A. Diddams

Abstract: We report precision atmospheric spectroscopy of $CO_2$ using a laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) calibrated with an optical frequency comb. Using the comb-calibrated LHR, we record spectra of atmospheric $CO_2$ near 1572.33 nm with a spectral resolution of 200 MHz using sunlight as a light source. The measured $CO_2$ spectra exhibit frequency shifts by approximately 11 MHz over the course of the five-hour measurement, and we show that these shifts are caused by Doppler effects due to wind along the spectrometer line of sight. The measured frequency shifts are in excellent agreement with an atmospheric model, and we show that our measurements track the wind-induced Doppler shifts with a relative frequency precision of 100 kHz (15 cm/s), equivalent to a fractional precision of a few parts in $10^{10}$. These results demonstrate that frequency-comb-calibrated LHR enables precision velocimetry that can be of use in applications ranging from climate science to astronomy.

3.Generative adversarial networks for data-scarce spectral applications

Authors:Juan José García-Esteban, Juan Carlos Cuevas, Jorge Bravo-Abad

Abstract: Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are one of the most robust and versatile techniques in the field of generative artificial intelligence. In this work, we report on an application of GANs in the domain of synthetic spectral data generation, offering a solution to the scarcity of data found in various scientific contexts. We demonstrate the proposed approach by applying it to an illustrative problem within the realm of near-field radiative heat transfer involving a multilayered hyperbolic metamaterial. We find that a successful generation of spectral data requires two modifications to conventional GANs: (i) the introduction of Wasserstein GANs (WGANs) to avoid mode collapse, and, (ii) the conditioning of WGANs to obtain accurate labels for the generated data. We show that a simple feed-forward neural network (FFNN), when augmented with data generated by a CWGAN, enhances significantly its performance under conditions of limited data availability, demonstrating the intrinsic value of CWGAN data augmentation beyond simply providing larger datasets. In addition, we show that CWGANs can act as a surrogate model with improved performance in the low-data regime with respect to simple FFNNs. Overall, this work highlights the potential of generative machine learning algorithms in scientific applications beyond image generation and optimization.

4.Cryogenic Optical Packaging Using Photonic Wire Bonds

Authors:Becky Lin, Donald Witt, Jeff F. Young, Lukas Chrostowski

Abstract: We present the required techniques for the successful low loss packaging of integrated photonic devices capable of operating down to 970 mK utilizing photonic wire bonds. This scalable technique is shown to have an insertion loss of less than 2 dB per connection between a SMF-28 single mode fibre and a silicon photonic chip at these temperatures. This technique has shown robustness to thermal cycling and is ultra-high vacuum compatible without the need for any active alignment.

5.Maximal visualization-enhancement of latent fingermarks on polymer banknotes using columnar thin films

Authors:Muhammad Faryad, Akhlesh Lakhtakia

Abstract: Polymer banknotes are being increasingly adopted to replace older banknotes. Since banknotes are forensically important substrates for fingermark detection and identification, we present a single-step process to enhance the visualization of fingermarks on banknotes using columnar thin films (CTFs) of nickel. This single-step vacuum technique enhances the quality grade of fingermarks maximally, whether the fingermarks are aged for one or seven days before CTF deposition. This work represents progress over currently available sequences of diverse techniques for enhancing fingermarks on polymer banknotes.

1.Metasurface array for single-shot spectroscopic ellipsometry

Authors:Shun Wen, Xinyuan Xue, Liqun Sun, Yuanmu Yang

Abstract: Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a potent method that is widely adopted for the measurement of thin film thickness and refractive index. However, a conventional ellipsometer, which utilizes a mechanically rotating polarizer and grating-based spectrometer for spectropolarimetric detection, is bulky, complex, and does not allow real-time measurements. Here, we demonstrated a compact metasurface array-based spectroscopic ellipsometry system that allows single-shot spectropolarimetric detection and accurate determination of thin film properties without any mechanical movement. The silicon-based metasurface array with a highly anisotropic and diverse spectral response is combined with iterative optimization to reconstruct the full Stokes polarization spectrum of the light reflected by the thin film with high fidelity. Subsequently, the film thickness and refractive index can be determined by fitting the measurement results to a proper material model with high accuracy. Our approach opens up a new pathway towards a compact and robust spectroscopic ellipsometry system for the high throughput measurement of thin film properties.

2.Unveiling the origins of quasi-phase matching spectral imperfections in thin-film lithium niobate frequency doublers

Authors:Jie Zhao, Xiaoting Li, Ting-Chen Hu, Ayed Al Sayem, Haochuan Li, Al Tate, Kwangwoong Kim, Rose Kopf, Pouria Sanjari, Mark Earnshaw, Nicolas K. Fontaine, Cheng Wang, Andrea Blanco-Redondo

Abstract: Thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN) based frequency doublers have been widely recognized as essential components for both classical and quantum optical communications. Nonetheless, the efficiency of these devices is hindered by imperfections present in the quasi-phase matching (QPM) spectrum. In this study, we present a thorough analysis of the spectral imperfections in TFLN frequency doublers with varying lengths, ranging from 5 mm to 15 mm. Employing a non-destructive diagnostic method based on scattered light imaging, we identify the sources and waveguide sections that contribute to the imperfections in the QPM spectrum. Furthermore, by mapping the TFLN film thickness across the entire waveguiding regions, we successfully reproduce the QPM spectra numerically, thus confirming the prominent influence of film thickness variations on the observed spectral imperfections. This comprehensive investigation provides valuable insights into the identification and mitigation of spectral imperfections in TFLN-based frequency doublers, paving the way toward the realization of nonlinear optical devices with enhanced efficiency and improved spectral fidelity.

3.Reciprocity Violation for Mie Scatterers at the Interface and a Scattering Solar Concentrator

Authors:Ilya Sychugov

Abstract: It is shown that reciprocity of the optical path can be violated through asymmetric strength coupling via near-field from resonant Mie scatterers to total internal reflection modes in a dielectric slab. Numerical simulations for silicon nanospheres separated by a nanogap from the glass substrate reveal that at least two orders of magnitude rectification ratio can be realized for such an optical diode configuration. Implementation to a solar light harvesting device, a scattering solar concentrator, is discussed, indicating a similar efficiency is achievable as for the state-of-the-art devices based on luminescence.

4.Sensing directional forces in levitated optomechanics

Authors:J. M. H. Gosling, A. Pontin, J. H. Iacoponi, P. F. Barker, T. S. Monteiro

Abstract: Optomechanical devices are being harnessed as sensors of ultraweak forces for applications ranging from inertial sensing to the search for the elusive dark matter; For the latter, the focus is on detection of either higher energy single recoils or ultralight, narrowband sources; a directional signal is expected. However, the possibility of searching for a directional broadband signal need not be excluded; with this and other applications in mind, we apply a stochastic signal with a well defined direction, $\Psi$, to a trapped and cooled levitated nanosphere. We find that cross-correlation power spectra offer a calibration-free distinctive signature of the presence of a directional force, and its orientation quadrant, unlike normal power spectral densities (PSDs). With calibration we are able to accurately measure the angle $\Psi$, akin to a force compass in a plane.

5.Graphene/silicon heterojunction for reconfigurable phase-relevant activation function in coherent optical neural networks

Authors:Chuyu Zhong, Kun Liao, Tianxiang Dai, Maoliang Wei, Hui Ma, Jianghong Wu, Zhibin Zhang, Yuting Ye, Ye Luo, Zequn Chen, Jialing Jian, Chulei Sun, Bo Tang, Peng Zhang, Ruonan Liu, Junying Li, Jianyi Yang, Lan Li, Kaihui Liu, Xiaoyong Hu, Hongtao Lin

Abstract: Optical neural networks (ONNs) herald a new era in information and communication technologies and have implemented various intelligent applications. In an ONN, the activation function (AF) is a crucial component determining the network performances and on-chip AF devices are still in development. Here, we first demonstrate on-chip reconfigurable AF devices with phase activation fulfilled by dual-functional graphene/silicon (Gra/Si) heterojunctions. With optical modulation and detection in one device, time delays are shorter, energy consumption is lower, reconfigurability is higher and the device footprint is smaller than other on-chip AF strategies. The experimental modulation voltage (power) of our Gra/Si heterojunction achieves as low as 1 V (0.5 mW), superior to many pure silicon counterparts. In the photodetection aspect, a high responsivity of over 200 mA/W is realized. Special nonlinear functions generated are fed into a complex-valued ONN to challenge handwritten letters and image recognition tasks, showing improved accuracy and potential of high-efficient, all-component-integration on-chip ONN. Our results offer new insights for on-chip ONN devices and pave the way to high-performance integrated optoelectronic computing circuits.

6.Recoil momentum of an atom absorbing light in a gaseous medium and the Abraham-Minkowski debate

Authors:João G. L. Condé, Pablo L. Saldanha

Abstract: We discuss a fundamental question regarding the Abraham-Minkowski debate about the momentum of light in a medium: If an atom in a gas absorbs a photon, what is the momentum transferred to it? We consider a classical model for the internal degrees of freedom of the absorbing atom, computing the absorbed energy and momentum using the Lorentz force law due to the microscopic electromagnetic fields. Each non-absorbing atom from the gas is treated as a dielectric sphere, with the set of atoms forming a linear, dielectric, non-magnetic, and non-absorbing medium with a refractive index $n$ close to one. Our numerical results indicate that if the atoms are classically localized, the average absorbed momentum increases with $n$, but is smaller than Minkowski's momentum $np_0$, $p_0$ being the photon momentum in vacuum. However, experiments performed with Bose-Einstein condensates [Phys. Rev. Lett. $\mathbf{94}$, 170403 (2005)] are consistent with the atom absorbing Minkowski's momentum. We argue that there is no contradiction between these results since, in a Bose-Einstein condensate, the atoms are in a quantum state spatially superposed in a relatively large volume, forming a ``continuous'' medium. In this sense, the experimental verification of an atomic momentum recoil compatible with Minkowski's momentum would be a quantum signature of the medium state.

1.Effect of polarisation on two-photon resonance in a large Zeeman manifold

Authors:Nayan Sharma, Ranjit Kumar Singh, Souvik Chatterjee, Prasanta K. Panigrahi, Ajay Tripathi

Abstract: In this study, we present numerical investigations on a large Zeeman manifold in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium, focusing on the D1 and D2 lines of 87 Rb as our model system. We examine two distinct models comprising 13 and 16 energy levels, respectively, using pump-probe spectroscopy with varying polarization of the light fields. A longitudinal magnetic field is used, and the ellipticity of both light fields is varied with the constraint that both lights have orthogonal polarization. We discover that in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field, the change in ellipticity of light polarization induces optical anisotropy. This anisotropy results from the uneven distribution of population among the ground Zeeman levels, leading to the absorption of weak probe light. For a large number of states interacting with different field components, the existence of a steady state depends upon the multi-photon resonance and phase matching conditions. A comment is made on why such conditions are not required in our model, and the assumptions and limitations of the model are also discussed. To validate our numerical findings, we perform experimental measurements at two different magnetic field strengths in the D2 line of 87 Rb. The experimental results align well with our numerical simulations. Specifically, we conclude that the probe transmission spectra at lower magnetic field values (up to 20 G) exhibit similarity for both the D1 and D2 lines of 87 Rb, effectively described by the 13-level model. However, at higher magnetic field values, a more complicated 16-level (or higher) system is necessary to accurately capture the response of the probe in D2 line.

2.A series of avoided crossings of resonances in the system of several different dielectric resonators results in giant Q-factors

Authors:Konstantin Pichugin, Almas Sadreev, Evgeny Bulgakov

Abstract: We perform optimization of Q-factor in the system of freestanding three/four/five/six coaxial subwavelength dielectric disks over all scales. Each parameter contributes almost one order of magnitude of the Q-factor due to multiple avoided crossings of resonances to give totally the unprecedented values for the Q-factors: $6.6\cdot10^4$ for the three, $4.8\cdot10^6$ for four, $8.5\cdot10^7$ for five and one billion for six freestanding silicon disks. By multipole analysis of the resulting hybridized resonant mode we observe that such extremely large values of the $Q$-factor are attributed to strong redistribution of radiation that originates from almost exact destructive interference of dominating complex multipole radiation amplitudes.

3.Merging toroidal dipole bound states in the continuum without up-down symmetry in Lieb lattice metasurfaces

Authors:Guodong Zhu Sen Yang, Justus C. Ndukaife

Abstract: The significance of bound states in the continuum (BICs) lies in their potential for theoretically infinite quality factors. However, their actual quality factors are limited by imperfections in fabrication, which lead to coupling with the radiation continuum. In this study, we present a novel approach to address this issue by introducing a merging BIC regime based on a Lieb lattice. By utilizing this approach, we effectively suppress the out-of-plane scattering loss, thereby enhancing the robustness of the structure against fabrication artifacts. Notably, unlike previous merging systems, our design does not rely on the up-down symmetry of metasurfaces. This characteristic grants more flexibility in applications that involve substrates and superstrates with different optical properties, such as microfluidic devices. Furthermore, we incorporate a lateral band gap mirror into the design to encapsulate the BIC structure. This mirror serves to suppress the in-plane radiation resulting from finite-size effects, leading to a remarkable ten-fold improvement in the quality factor. Consequently, our merged BIC metasurface, enclosed by the Lieb lattice photonic crystal mirror, achieves an exceptionally high-quality factor of 105 while maintaining a small footprint of 26.6X26.6 um. Our findings establish an appealing platform that capitalizes on the topological nature of BICs within compact structures. This platform holds great promise for various applications, including optical trapping, optofluidics, and high-sensitivity biodetection, opening up new possibilities in these fields.

4.Compact dual-band spectral analysis via multiplexed rotated chirped volume Bragg gratings

Authors:Oussama Mhibik, Murat Yessenov, Leonid Glebov, Ayman F. Abouraddy, Ivan Divliansky

Abstract: Chirped Bragg volume gratings (CBGs) offer a useful alternative for spectral analysis, but increasing the bandwidth necessitates increasing the device area. In contrast, recently developed rotated CBGs (r-CBGs), in which the Bragg structure is rotated by $45^{\circ}$ with respect to the device facets, require increasing only the device length to extend the bandwidth, in addition to the convenience of resolving the spectrum at normal incidence. Here, we multiplex r-CBGs in the same device to enable spectral analysis in two independent spectral windows without increasing the system volume. This new device, which we term an X-CBG, allows for compact multi-band spectroscopy in contiguous or separated spectral windows in the visible and near-infrared for applications in nonlinear microscopy and materials identification and sensing.

5.Functional light diffusers based on hybrid CsPbBr$_3$/SiO$_2$ aero-framework structures for laser light illumination and conversion

Authors:Lena M. Saure Functional Nanomaterials, Department for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, Jonas Lumma Functional Nanomaterials, Department for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany, Niklas Kohlmann Synthesis and Real Structure, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, Torge Hartig Chair for Multicomponent Materials, Department for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, Ercules E. S. Teotonio Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraíba, Paraíba, Brazil, Shwetha Shetty Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, Narayanan Ravishankar Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, Lorenz Kienle Synthesis and Real Structure, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany Kiel Nano, Surface and Interface Science KiNSIS, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, Franz Faupel Chair for Multicomponent Materials, Department for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, Stefan Schröder Chair for Multicomponent Materials, Department for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, Rainer Adelung Functional Nanomaterials, Department for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany Kiel Nano, Surface and Interface Science KiNSIS, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, Huayna Terraschke Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany Kiel Nano, Surface and Interface Science KiNSIS, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, Fabian Schütt Functional Nanomaterials, Department for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany Kiel Nano, Surface and Interface Science KiNSIS, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany

Abstract: The new generation of laser-based solid-state lighting (SSL) white light sources requires new material systems capable of withstanding, diffusing and converting high intensity laser light. State-of-the-art systems use a blue light emitting diode (LED) or laser diode (LD) in combination with color conversion materials, such as yellow emitting Ce-doped phosphors or red and green emitting quantum dots (QD), to produce white light. However, for laser-based high-brightness illumination in particular, thermal management is a major challenge, and in addition, a light diffuser is required to diffuse the highly focused laser beam. Here, we present a hybrid material system that simultaneously enables efficient, uniform light distribution and color conversion of a blue LD, while ensuring good thermal management even at high laser powers of up to 5W. A highly open porous (> 99%) framework structure of hollow SiO$_2$ microtubes is utilized as an efficient light diffuser that can drastically reduce speckle contrast. By further functionalizing the microtubes with halide perovskite QDs (SiO$_2$@CsPbBr$_3$ as model system) color conversion from UV to visible light is achieved. Under laser illumination, the open porous structure prevents heat accumulation and thermal quenching of the QDs. By depositing an ultrathin (~ 5.5 nm) film of poly(ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate) (pEGDMA) via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), the luminescent stability of the QDs against moisture is enhanced. The demonstrated hybrid material system paves the way for the design of advanced and functional laser light diffusers and converters that can meet the challenges associated with laser-based SSL applications.

6.An Open-Source Multi-functional Testing Platform for Optical Phase Change Materials

Authors:Cosmin-Constantin Popescu, Khoi Phuong Dao, Luigi Ranno, Brian Mills, Louis Martin, Yifei Zhang, David Bono. Brian Neltner, Tian Gu, Juejun Hu, Kiumars Aryana, William M. Humphreys, Hyun Jung Kim, Steven Vitale, Paul Miller, Christopher Roberts, Sarah Geiger, Dennis Callahan, Michael Moebius, Myungkoo Kang, Kathleen Richardson, Carlos A. Ríos Ocampo

Abstract: Owing to their unique tunable optical properties, chalcogenide phase change materials are increasingly being investigated for optics and photonics applications. However, in situ characterization of their phase transition characteristics is a capability that remains inaccessible to many researchers. In this article, we introduce a multi-functional silicon microheater platform capable of in situ measurement of structural, kinetic, optical, and thermal properties of these materials. The platform can be fabricated leveraging industry-standard silicon foundry manufacturing processes. We fully open-sourced this platform, including complete hardware design and associated software codes.

7.Direct x-ray scattering signal measurements in edge-illumination/beam-tracking imaging and their interplay with the variance of the refraction signals

Authors:Ian Buchanan, Silvia Cipiccia, Carlo Peiffer, Carlos Navarrete-León, Alberto Astolfo, Tom Partridge, Michela Esposito, Luca Fardin, Alberto Bravin, Charlotte K Hagen, Marco Endrizzi, Peter RT Munro, David Bate, Alessandro Olivo

Abstract: X-ray dark-field or ultra-small angle scatter imaging has become increasingly important since the introduction of phase-based x-ray imaging and is having transformative impact in fields such as in vivo lung imaging and explosives detection. Here we show that dark-field images acquired with the edge-illumination method (either in its traditional double mask or simplified single mask implementation) provide a direct measurement of the scattering function, which is unaffected by system-specific parameters such as the autocorrelation length. We show that this is a consequence both of the specific measurement setup and of the mathematical approach followed to retrieve the dark-field images. We show agreement with theoretical models for datasets acquired both with synchrotron and laboratory x-ray sources. We also introduce a new contrast mechanism, the variance of refraction, which is extracted from the same dataset and provides a direct link with the size of the scattering centres. We show that this can also be described by the same theoretical models. We study the behaviour of both signals vs. key parameters such as x-ray energy and scatterer radius. We find this allows quantitative, direct, multi-scale scattering measurements during imaging, with implications in all fields where dark-field imaging is used.

1.Multimode resonance transition to collapsed snaking in normal dispersion Kerr resonators: Bright versus dark solitons

Authors:Yifan Sun, Stefan Wabnitz, Pedro Parra-Rivas

Abstract: We study the dynamics of Kerr cavity solitons in the normal dispersion regime, in the presence of an intracavity phase modulation. The associated parabolic potential introduces multimode resonances, which promote the formation of high-order bright solitons. By gradually reducing the potential strength, bright solitons undergo a transition into dark solitons. We describe this process as a shift from a multimode resonance to a collapsed snaking bifurcation structure. This work offers a comprehensive overview of cavity dynamics and may provide a potential pathway to access multi-stable states by effectively varying the phase modulation.

2.Super-resolution imaging through a multimode fiber: the physical upsampling of speckle-driven

Authors:Chuncheng Zhang, Tingting Liu, Zhihua Xie, Yu Wang, Tong Liu, Qian Chen, Xiubao Sui

Abstract: Following recent advancements in multimode fiber (MMF), miniaturization of imaging endoscopes has proven crucial for minimally invasive surgery in vivo. Recent progress enabled by super-resolution imaging methods with a data-driven deep learning (DL) framework has balanced the relationship between the core size and resolution. However, most of the DL approaches lack attention to the physical properties of the speckle, which is crucial for reconciling the relationship between the magnification of super-resolution imaging and the quality of reconstruction quality. In the paper, we find that the interferometric process of speckle formation is an essential basis for creating DL models with super-resolution imaging. It physically realizes the upsampling of low-resolution (LR) images and enhances the perceptual capabilities of the models. The finding experimentally validates the role played by the physical upsampling of speckle-driven, effectively complementing the lack of information in data-driven. Experimentally, we break the restriction of the poor reconstruction quality at great magnification by inputting the same size of the speckle with the size of the high-resolution (HR) image to the model. The guidance of our research for endoscopic imaging may accelerate the further development of minimally invasive surgery.

3.Programmable and arbitrary-trajectory ultrafast flying focus pulses

Authors:M. V. Ambat, J. L. Shaw, J. J. Pigeon, K. G. Miller, T. T. Simpson, D. H. Froula, J. P. Palastro

Abstract: "Flying focus" techniques produce laser pulses with dynamic focal points that travels distances much greater than a Rayleigh length. The implementation of these techniques in laser-based applications requires the design of optical configurations that can both extend the focal range and structure the radial group delay. This article describes a method for designing optical configurations that produce ultrashort flying focus pulses with arbitrary-trajectory focal points. The method is illustrated by several examples that employ an axiparabola for extending the focal range and either a reflective echelon or a deformable mirror-spatial light modulator pair for structuring the radial group delay. The latter configuration enables rapid exploration and optimization of flying foci, which could be ideal for experiments.

1.Chromatic dispersion and thermal coefficients of hygroscopic liquids: 5 glycols and glycerol

Authors:Daniel Jakubczyk, Gennadiy Derkachov, Kwasi Nyandey, Sima Alikhanzadeh-Arani, Anastasiya Derkachova

Abstract: Chromatic dispersion and thermal coefficients of 6 hygroscopic liquids: ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, propylene glycol (propane-1,2-diol), and glycerol were measured in the range from 390 to 1070 nm for temperatures from 1 to 45degC. A modified Abbe refractometer was utilised. Special care was taken to avoid contamination of the liquids under the test with water and solid particles. The measurement uncertainties were analysed. It was noticed that (in the given range and within the available measurement accuracy) the dependence of the refractive indices on the wavelength and temperature could be considered independently. Thus, thermal coefficients were found for each wavelength used, and their weak dependence on the wavelength was recognised. Then the Sellmeier equation was fitted to the experimental results for each temperature.

2.Poles and zeros of electromagnetic quantities in photonic systems

Authors:Felix Binkowski, Fridtjof Betz, Rémi Colom, Patrice Genevet, Sven Burger

Abstract: We present an approach to investigate poles and zeros in resonant photonic systems. The theory is based on contour integration of electromagnetic quantities and allows to compute the zeros, to extract their sensitivities with respect to geometrical or other parameters, and to perform modal expansions in the complex frequency plane. The approach is demonstrated using an example from the field of nanophotonics, an illuminated metasurface, where the emergence of reflection zeros due to the underlying resonance poles is explored.

3.Pixelation with concentration-encoded effective photons for molecular optical sectioning microscopy

Authors:Geng Wang, Rishyashring R. Iyer, Janet E. Sorrells, Edita Aksamitiene, Eric J. Chaney, Carlos A. Renteria, Jaena Park, Jindou Shi, Yi Sun, Stephen A. Boppart, Haohua Tu

Abstract: Quality control in molecular optical sectioning microscopy is indispensable for transforming acquired digital images from qualitative descriptions to quantitative data. Although numerous tools, metrics, and phantoms have been developed, accurate quantitative comparisons of data from different microscopy systems with diverse acquisition conditions remains a challenge. Here, we develop a simple tool based on an absolute measurement of bulk fluorophore solutions with related Poisson photon statistics, to overcome this obstacle. Demonstrated in a prototypical multiphoton microscope, our tool unifies the unit of pixelated measurement to enable objective comparison of imaging performance across different modalities, microscopes, components/settings, and molecular targets. The application of this tool in live specimens identifies an attractive methodology for quantitative imaging, which rapidly acquires low signal-to-noise frames with either gentle illumination or low-concentration fluorescence labeling.

1.10-GHz-clock time-multiplexed non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator network with a variable planar lightwave circuit interferometer

Authors:Yuya Yonezu, Kensuke Inaba, Yasuhiro Yamada, Takuya Ikuta, Takahiro Inagaki, Toshimori Honjo, Hiroki Takesue

Abstract: A coherent XY machine (CXYM) is a physical spin simulator that can simulate the XY model by mapping XY spins onto the continuous phases of non-degenerate optical parametric oscillators (NOPOs). Here, we demonstrated a large-scale CXYM with >47,000 spins by generating 10-GHz-clock time-multiplexed NOPO pulses via four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber inside a fiber ring cavity. By implementing a unidirectional coupling from the i-th pulse to the (i+1)-th pulse with a variable 1-pulse delay planar lightwave circuit interferometer, we successfully controlled the effective temperature of a one-dimensional XY spin network within two orders of magnitude.

2.Supergrowth and sub-wavelength object imaging

Authors:Tathagata Karmakar, Abhishek Chakraborty, A. Nick Vamivakas, Andrew N. Jordan

Abstract: We further develop the concept of supergrowth [Jordan, Quantum Stud.: Math. Found. $\textbf{7}$, 285-292 (2020)], a phenomenon complementary to superoscillation, defined as the local amplitude growth rate of a function being higher than its largest wavenumber. We identify the superoscillating and supergrowing regions of a canonical oscillatory function and find the maximum values of local growth rate and wavenumber. Next, we provide a quantitative comparison of lengths and relevant intensities between the superoscillating and the supergrowing regions of a canonical oscillatory function. Our analysis shows that the supergrowing regions contain intensities that are exponentially larger in terms of the highest local wavenumber compared to the superoscillating regions. Finally, we prescribe methods to reconstruct a sub-wavelength object from the imaging data using both superoscillatory and supergrowing point spread functions. Our investigation provides an experimentally preferable alternative to the superoscillation based superresolution schemes and is relevant to cutting-edge research in far-field sub-wavelength imaging.

3.Enhancing the ultrafast third order nonlinear optical response by charge transfer in VSe2-reduced graphene oxide hybrid

Authors:Vinod Kumar, Afreen, K. A. Sree Raj, Pratap mane, Brahmananda Chakraborty, Chandra S. Rout, K. V. Adarsh

Abstract: Nonlinear optical phenomena play a critical role in understanding microscopic light-matter interactions and have far-reaching applications across various fields, such as biosensing, quantum information, optical switching, and all-optical data processing. Most of these applications require materials with high third-order absorptive and refractive optical nonlinearities. However, most materials show weak nonlinear optical responses due to their perturbative nature and often need to be improved for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate that the charge donor-acceptor hybrid of VSe2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid exhibits enhanced ultrafast third-order absorptive and refractive nonlinearities compared to the pristine systems, at least by one order of magnitude. Through density functional theory and Bader charge analysis, we elucidate the strong electronic coupling in the VSe2-rGO hybrid, involving the transfer of electrons from VSe2 to rGO. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm the electronic coupling and charge transfer. Furthermore, we fabricate an ultrafast optical limiter device with better performance parameters, such as an onset threshold of 2.5 mJ cm-2 and differential transmittance of 0.42.

4.Polarization Imaging and Edge Detection with Image-Processing Metasurfaces

Authors:Michele Cotrufo, Sahitya Singh, Akshaj Arora, Alexander Majewski, Andrea Alù

Abstract: Optical metasurfaces have been recently explored as ultrathin analog image differentiators. By tailoring the momentum transfer function, they can perform efficient Fourier-filtering - and thus potentially any linear mathematical operation - on an input image, replacing bulky 4f systems. While this approach has been investigated in different platforms, and several techniques have been explored to achieve the required angular response, little effort has been devoted so far to tailor and control also the polarization response of an image-processing metasurface. Here, we show that edge-detection metasurfaces can be designed with tailored polarization responses while simultaneously preserving an isotropic response. In particular, we demonstrate single-layer silicon metasurfaces yielding efficient Laplacian operation on a 2D image with either large polarization asymmetry, or nearly polarization-independent response. In the former case, we show that a strongly asymmetric polarization response can be used to unlock more sophisticated on-the-fly image processing functionalities, such as dynamically tunable direction-dependent edge detection. In parallel, metasurfaces with dual-polarized response are shown to enable efficient operation for unpolarized or arbitrarily polarized images, ensuring high efficiency. For both devices, we demonstrate edge detection within relatively large numerical apertures, with excellent isotropy and intensity throughput. Our study paves the way for the broad use of optical metasurfaces for sophisticated, massively parallel analog image processing with zero energy requirements.

5.Enhancement from plasmonic-molecular coupling for mass transduction

Authors:Giuseppina Simone

Abstract: The plasmon-mechanical resonators are frequently used in the development of sensors. Active frameworks impose mechanical motion into the lasing dynamics through the use of an optical gain and achieve better sensitivity. Here plasmon-mechanical coupling is demonstrated in a multilayer when a surface plasmon polariton/Fabry-P\'erot hybrid mode is excited in a Kretschmann configuration, while it is observed that the strong plasmonic dispersion allows the deformation of the mechanical domain at several frequencies. After a dye is adsorbed on the surface of the cavity, the layout of the optomechanics is schematized by a spring-mass oscillator mounted onto the surface of the cavity-end mirror. The system is defined by its capability to determine the experimental settings with the best resolution before a controlled experiment in which the oscillator senses a mass. The advantages and disadvantages of the procedure are presented once the data have been assessed and modeled.

6.Towards near-unity $β$ factor and collection efficiency in single-photon sources: employing dielectric rings to suppress the emission into radiation modes

Authors:Martin Arentoft Jacobsen, Luca Vannucci, Julien Claudon, Jean-Michel Gérard, Niels Gregersen

Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate that a few-period circular Bragg reflector around an infinite nanowire can increase the $\beta$ factor of the fundamental mode up to 0.999 due to further suppression of the emission into radiation modes caused by a photonic band gap effect. We then apply this strategy in the practically relevant case of the finite-sized SPS based on tapered nanowires and demonstrate that the collection efficiency can be further increased. Additionally, we also show the beneficial effects of adding optimized high-index rings around the micropillar SPS.

7.Fast reconstruction of programmable integrated interferometers

Authors:B. I. Bantysh, K. G. Katamadze, A. Yu. Chernyavskiy, Yu. I. Bogdanov

Abstract: Programmable linear optical interferometers are important for classical and quantum information technologies, as well as for building hardware-accelerated artificial neural networks. Recent results showed the possibility of constructing optical interferometers that could implement arbitrary transformations of input fields even in the case of high manufacturing errors. The building of detailed models of such devices drastically increases the efficiency of their practical use. The integral design of interferometers complicates its reconstruction since the internal elements are hard to address. This problem can be approached by using optimization algorithms [Opt. Express 29, 38429 (2021)]. In this paper, we present a novel efficient algorithm based on linear algebra only, which does not use computationally expensive optimization procedures. We show that this approach makes it possible to perform fast and accurate characterization of high-dimensional programmable integrated interferometers. Moreover, the method provides access to the physical characteristics of individual interferometer layers.

8.Constructing various paraxial beams out of regular and modified Bessel-Gaussian modes

Authors:Tomasz Radożycki

Abstract: Various superpositions of Bessel-Gaussian beams and modified Bessel Gaussian beams are considered. Two selected parameters characterizing these beams, with respect to which the superpositions are constructed, are the topological index $n$ associated with the orbital angular momentum carried by the beam, and $\chi$ related to the dilation of the beam. It is shown that, from these modes, by choosing appropriate weighting factors, it is possible to create a number of well- and less-known solutions of the paraxial equation: Gaussian (shifted and non-shifted) beam, $\gamma$ beam, Kummer-Gaussian beam, special hyperbolic Bessel-Gaussian beam, a certain special Laguerre-Gaussian beam, and generalized paraxial beams in hyperbolic and regular versions.

9.Complex refraction metasurfaces for locally enhanced propagation through opaque media

Authors:Sinuhé Perea-Puente, Francisco J. Rodríguez-Fortuño

Abstract: Metasurfaces with linear phase gradients can redirect light beams. We propose controlling both phase and amplitude of a metasurface to extend Snell's law to the realm of complex angles, enabling a non-decaying transmission through opaque media with complex refractive indices. This leads to the discovery of non-diffracting and non-decaying solutions to the wave equation in opaque media, in the form of generalised cosine and Bessel-beams with a complex argument. While these solutions present nonphysical exponentially growing side tails, we address this via a windowing process, removing the side tails of the field profile while preserving significant transmission enhancement through an opaque slab on a small localized region. Such refined beam profiles may be synthesized by passive metasurfaces with phase and amplitude control at the opaque material's interface. Our findings, derived from rigorous solutions of the wave equation, promise new insights and enhanced control of light propagation in opaque media.

10.Properties of "special'' hyperbolic Bessel-Gaussian optical beams

Authors:Tomasz Radożycki

Abstract: An explicit formula for a new type of beams, which in this work are called the "special" hyperbolic Bessel-Gaussian (SHBG) beams, has been derived, using the method of the Hankel transform formulated in our previous work. The fundamental properties of these beams are analyzed. The parameters that define the beam shape have been identified and related to those of the fundamental Gaussian beam. The analytical expressions for the SHBG beams include an additional parameter $\gamma$, which allows the beam's shape to be modified to some extent. In the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction, these beams exhibit the annular nature. Interestingly, initially (i.e. near the beam's spot) a single ring splits into a number of rings as one is moving along the beam. This is especially apparent for $\gamma$ close to unity, as this effect then appears for values of $z$ relatively small compared to the Rayleigh length i.e., where the energy concentration in the beam is still high. The phase of the wave, whose behavior is in certain aspects typical of modes having the vortex character, is also studied in this paper.

1.Generation of robust temporal soliton trains by the multiple-temporal-compression (MTC) method

Authors:André C. A. Siqueira, Guillermo Palacios, Albert S. Reyna, Boris A. Malomed, Edilson L. Falcão-Filho, Cid B. de Araújo

Abstract: We report results of systematic numerical analysis for multiple soliton generation by means of the recently reported multiple temporal compression (MTC) method, and compare its efficiency with conventional methods based on the use of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) and fused silica waveguides (FSWs). The results show that the MTC method is more efficient to control the soliton fission, giving rise to a larger number of fundamental solitons with high powers, that remain nearly constant over long propagation distances. The high efficiency of the MTC method is demonstrated, in particular, in terms of multiple soliton collisions and the Newton's-cradle phenomenology.

2.Excitation of Wannier-Stark states in a chain of coupled optical resonators with linear gain and nonlinear losses

Authors:A. Verbitskiy, A. Yulin

Abstract: In this paper we theoretically study the nonlinear dynamics of Wannier-Stark states in the dissipative system consisting of interacting optical resonators, whose resonant frequencies depend linearly on their number. It is shown that the negative losses in some resonators can switch the system into a lasing regime with Wannier-Stark states serving as working modes. It is shown by extensive numerical simulations that there may be single-frequency stationary regimes as well as multi-frequency regimes. In the latter case Bloch oscillations can appear in the system. The possibility of selective excitation of Wannier-Stark states by the appropriate choice of the dissipation profile is investigated. A simple perturbation theory describing the quasi-linear regimes is developed and compared against the numerical results.

3.High-speed 4 ${\times}$ 4 silicon photonic electro-optic switch, operating at the 2 μm waveband

Authors:Jiawei Wang, Jia Xu Brian Sia, Xiang Li, Xin Guo, Wanjun Wang, Zhongliang Qiao, Callum G. Littlejohns. Chongyang Liu, Graham T. Reed, Rusli, Hong Wang

Abstract: The escalating need for expansive data bandwidth, and the resulting capacity constraints of the single mode fiber (SMF) have positioned the 2-${\mu}$m waveband as a prospective window for emerging applications in optical communication. This has initiated an ecosystem of silicon photonic components in the region driven by CMOS compatibility, low cost, high efficiency and potential for large-scale integration. In this study, we demonstrate a plasma dispersive, 4 ${\times}$ 4 electro-optic switch operating at the 2-${\mu}$m waveband with the shortest switching times. The demonstrated switch operates across a 45-nm bandwidth, with 10-90% rise and 90-10% fall time of 1.78 ns and 3.02 ns respectively. In a 4 ${\times}$ 4 implementation, crosstalk below -15 dB and power consumption below 19.15 mW across all 16 ports are indicated. The result brings high-speed optical switching to the portfolio of devices at the promising waveband.

4.Walk-off induced dissipative breathers and dissipative breather gas in microresonators

Authors:A. Villois, D. N. Puzyrev, D. V. Skryabin, M. Onorato

Abstract: Dissipative solitons in optical microcavities have attracted significant attention in recent years due to their direct association with the generation of optical frequency combs. Here, we address the problem of dissipative soliton breathers in a microresonator with second-order nonlinearity, operating at the exact phase-matching for efficient second-harmonic generation. We elucidate the vital role played by the group velocity difference between the first and second harmonic pulses for the breather existence. We report the dissipative breather gas phenomenon, when multiple breathers propagate randomly in the resonator and collide nearly elastically. Finally, when the breather gas reaches an out-of-equilibrium statistical stationarity, we show how the velocity locking between first and second harmonic is still preserved, naming such phenomena turbulence locking.

5.Spatio-Spectral Vector Beams

Authors:Lea Kopf, Rafael Barros, Robert Fickler

Abstract: Increasing the complexity of a light field through the advanced manipulation of its degrees of freedom (DoF) provides new opportunities for fundamental studies and technologies. Correlating polarization with the light's spatial or spectral shape results in so-called spatial or spectral vector beams that are fully polarized and have a spatially or spectrally varying polarization structure. Here, we extend the general idea of vector beams by combining both approaches and structuring a novel state of light in three non-separable DoF's, i.e. space, wavelength, and polarization. We study in detail their complex polarization structure, show that the degree of polarization of the field is only unveiled when the field is narrowly defined in space and wavelength, and demonstrate the analogy to the loss of coherence in non-separable quantum systems. Such light fields allow fundamental studies on the non-separable nature of a classical light field and new technological opportunities, e.g. through applications in imaging or spectroscopy.

6.Strong Purcell enhancement of an optical magnetic dipole transition

Authors:Sebastian P. Horvath, Christopher M. Phenicie, Salim Ourari, Mehmet T. Uysal, Songtao Chen, Łukasz Dusanowski, Mouktik Raha, Paul Stevenson, Adam T. Turflinger, Robert J. Cava, Nathalie P. de Leon, Jeff D. Thompson

Abstract: Engineering the local density of states with nanophotonic structures is a powerful tool to control light-matter interactions via the Purcell effect. At optical frequencies, control over the electric field density of states is typically used to couple to and manipulate electric dipole transitions. However, it is also possible to engineer the magnetic density of states to control magnetic dipole transitions. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the optical magnetic Purcell effect using a single rare earth ion coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. We engineer a new single photon emitter, Er$^{3+}$ in MgO, where the electric dipole decay rate is strongly suppressed by the cubic site symmetry, giving rise to a nearly pure magnetic dipole optical transition. This allows the unambiguous determination of a magnetic Purcell factor $P_m=1040 \pm 30$. We further extend this technique to realize a magnetic dipole spin-photon interface, performing optical spin initialization and readout of a single Er$^{3+}$ electron spin. This work demonstrates the fundamental equivalence of electric and magnetic density of states engineering, and provides a new tool for controlling light-matter interactions for a broader class of emitters.

7.Plasmon-enhanced optical control of magnetism at the nanoscale via the inverse Faraday effect

Authors:Sergii Parchenko, Kevin Hofhuis, Agne Ciuciulkaite, Vassilios Kapaklis, Valerio Scagnoli, Laura Heyderman, Armin Kleibert

Abstract: The relationship between magnetization and light has been the subject of intensive research for the past century, focusing on the impact of magnetic moments on light polarization. Conversely, the manipulation of magnetism through polarized light is being investigated to achieve all-optical control of magnetism in spintronics. While remarkable discoveries such as single pulse all-optical switching of the magnetization in thin films and sub-micrometer structures have been reported, the demonstration of local optical control of magnetism at the nanoscale has remained elusive. Here, we show that exciting gold nanodiscs with circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses leads to the generation of sizeable local magnetic fields that enable ultrafast local control of the magnetization of an adjacent magnetic film. In addition, we find that the highest magnetic fields are generated when exciting the sample at a wavelength larger than that of the actual plasmonic resonance of the gold nanodiscs, so avoiding undesired heating effects due to absorption. Our study paves the way for light-driven control in nanoscale spintronic devices and provides important insights into the generation of magnetic fields in plasmonic nanostructures.

1.Near-zero-index waveguide for beam steering

Authors:Chih-Zong Deng, Eri Igarashi, Yoshihiro Honda

Abstract: Zero-index materials (ZIMs) have become popular because of their unique optical behaviors, such as infinite effective wavelengths and spatially uniform electromagnetic distributions. The all-dielectric ZIMs, Dirac-like cone-based zero-index materials (DCZIMs) are used in various photonic applications owing to their superior optical properties, such as finite impedances, zero Ohmic losses, and high compatibility with photonic circuits. We propose a more general and simple approach that is independent of the Dirac-like cone mode for realizing near-zero index (NZI) behavior in all-dielectric waveguides. This approach can be applied to various dielectric materials up to the necessary NZI bandwidth. Si3N4 and Ge NZI waveguides are demonstrated for achieving broadband and narrowband NZI, respectively. The proposed broadband NZI waveguide achieves a bandwidth of 140 nm for neff < 0.1 (neff = effective refractive index) at telecommunication wavelengths, which is 2 times larger than that of the reported NZI waveguides. Further, NZI waveguide-based beam steering was demonstrated with a wide steering range delta theta 105 degrees across the radiation angle of theta 0 degree. The proposed NZI-waveguide design principle and beam steering present a feasible approach for the development of photonic circuits and zero-index-based photonic applications.

2.Huygens'Principle Reveals Dispersion in Inhomogeneous Media

Authors:Li Mingcong, Zhao Zhenming

Abstract: Dispersion is an important factor of optical materials. Due to the effect of techniques and equipment in the manufacturing process of optical materials, the inhomogeneity of the material may be caused. In this paper, microsphere optical media are used to replace the inhomogeneous zones, and Huygens'principle is used to study the dispersion caused by the material inhomogeneity. First, we study the effect of a single inhomogeneous zone, and then the effect of a thin medium with a large number of inhomogeneous zones. It is deduced that the dispersion law of a macro-optical medium is also consistent with Cauchy formula. Finally, it is pointed out that Huygens'principle is suitable for studying the interaction between light and particles.

3.Comparative Analysis of THz Signal Emission from SiO$_2$/CoFeB/Metal Heterostructures: Wideband and High-Frequency THz Signal Advantage of PtBi-based Emitter

Authors:Tristan Joachim Winkel, Tahereh Sadat Parvini, Finn-Frederik Stiewe, Jakob Walowski, Farshad Moradi, Markus Münzenberg

Abstract: Spintronic THz emitters have attracted much attention due to their desirable properties, such as affordability, ultra-wideband capability, high efficiency, and tunable polarization. In this study, we investigate the characteristics of THz signals, including their frequency, bandwidth, and amplitude, emitted from a series of heterostructures with ferromagnetic (FM) and nonmagnetic (NM) materials. The FM layer consists of a wedge-shaped CoFeB layer with a thickness of 0 to 5 nm, while the NM materials include various metals such as Pt, Au, W, Ru, Pt$_{\%92}$Bi$_{\%8}$, and Ag$_{\%90}$Bi$_{\%10}$ alloys. Our experiments show that the emitter with Pt-NM layer has the highest amplitude of the emitted THz signal. However, the PtBi-based emitter exhibits a higher central THz peak and wider bandwidth, making it a promising candidate for broadband THz emitters. These results pave the way for further exploration of the specific compositions of Pt$_{1-x}$Bi$_{x}$ for THz emitter design, especially with the goal of generating higher frequency and wider bandwidth THz signals. These advances hold significant potential for applications in various fields such as high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, communications, medical diagnostics, and more.

4.Exploring inert-shell coating for enhanced laser refrigeration: application in levitated optomechanics

Authors:Cyril Laplane, Peng Ren, Reece P. Roberts, Yiqing Lu, Thomas Volz

Abstract: Here we report on a study exploring the design of nanoparticles that can enhance their laser refrigeration efficiency for applications in levitated optomechanics. In particular, we developed lanthanide-doped nanocrystals with an inert shell coating and compared their performance with bare nanocrystals. While optically levitated, we studied the refrigeration of both types of nanoparticles while varying the pressure. We found that the core-shell design shows an improvement in the minimum final temperature: a fourth of the core-shell nanoparticles showed a significant cooling compared to almost none of the bare nanoparticles. Specifically, We measured a core-shell nanoparticle cooling down to a temperature of 147 K at 26 mbar in the underdamped regime. Our study is a first step towards engineering nanoparticles that are suitable for achieving absolute (centre-of-mass and internal temperature) cooling in levitation, opening new avenues for force sensing and the realization of macroscopic quantum superpositions.

5.Unlocking optical coupling tunability in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials through liquid crystal nanocavities

Authors:Giuseppe Emanuele Lio, Antonio Ferraro, Bruno Zappone, Janusz Parka, Ewa Schab-Balcerzak, Cesare Paolo Umeton, Francesco Riboli, Rafał Kowerdziej, Roberto Caputo

Abstract: Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials represent a powerful toolkit for selectively transmitting and localizing light through cavity resonances, enabling the study of mesoscopic phenomena and facilitating the design of photonic devices. In this experimental study, we demonstrate the feasibility of engineering and actively controlling cavity modes, as well as tuning their mutual coupling, in an ENZ multilayer structure. Specifically, by employing a high-birefringence liquid crystal film as a tunable nanocavity, the polarization-dependent coupling of resonant modes with narrow spectral width and spatial extent was achieved. Surface forces aparatus (SFA) allowed us to continuously and precisely control the thickness of the liquid crystal film contained between the nanocavities and thus vary the detuning between the cavity modes. Hence, we were able to manipulate nanocavities anti-crossing behaviors. The suggested methodology unlocks the full potential of tunable optical coupling in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and provides a versatile approach to the creation of tunable photonic devices, including bio-photonic sensors, and/or tunable planar metamaterials for on-chip spectrometers.

6.Vortex phase deterioration common path interferometry

Authors:Pritam P Shetty, Hemalatha V, Mahalingam Babu, Jayachandra Bingi

Abstract: Common path interferometers (CPI) are significant due to their compactness and vibration resistance. The usual challenge in CPI would arise due to a very small separation between reference and sample beams, where sending a reference beam through a sample is considered as a limitation. But this limitation also makes it difficult to probe the interaction of beams with material as a function of their phase structure. This study can pave the way for a new kind of interferometry that can provide unique phase signatures to study the sample. The paper proposes and demonstrates a novel approach based on thermo-optic refraction, to send both beams through the sample and probe the phase deterioration due to the relative interaction of beams in the material medium. Here, thermo-optic refraction interferometry (TORI) allows the superposition of a higher order vortex beam with a non-vortex beam through the phenomenon of thermal lensing. The non-vortex beam is made to expand in a controlled fashion by another laser. The relative interaction of the expanding non-vortex beam and the vortex beam within the sample, results in the output interferogram. The phase deterioration analysis of the output interferogram elucidate medium driven phase changes. This technique is demonstrated using the milk samples by recording the RMS azimuthal phase deterioration of the OAM beam.

7.High-resolution electro-optically sampled broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across mid-IR to terahertz at video rate

Authors:Dmitrii Konnov, Andrey Muraviev, Sergey Vasilyev, Konstantin Vodopyanov

Abstract: Ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling with few-cycle optical pulses is known to be an extremely sensitive technique to detect electric field amplitudes. By combining this method with dual-comb spectroscopy and with a new class of ultrafast lasers, we perform high-resolution (<10 MHz, 0.0003 wavenumbers) spectroscopic measurements across the whole frequency range of 1.5 to 45 THz (6.6-200 microns) with an instantaneous spectral coverage exceeding an octave (e.g., 9-22 microns). As a driving source, we use a pair of highly mutually-coherent low-noise frequency combs centered at 2.35 microns produced by mode-locked solid-state Cr: ZnS lasers. One of the two combs is frequency downconverted via intrapulse difference frequency generation to produce a molecular sensing comb, while the second comb is frequency doubled to produce a near-IR comb for electro-optic sampling (EOS). An ultra-low intensity and phase noise of our dual-comb system allows capturing a vast amount of longwave spectral information (>200,000 comb-mode spectral lines) at up to a video rate of 69 Hz and with the high dynamic range limited by the shot noise of the near-IR EOS balanced detection. Our long-wavelength IR measurements with low-pressure gases: ethanol, isoprene, and dimethyl sulfide reveal spectroscopic features that had never been explored before.

1.Direct electrical modulation of surface response in a single plasmonic nanoresonator

Authors:Luka Zurak, Christian Wolff, Jessica Meier, René Kullock, N. Asger Mortensen, Bert Hecht, Thorsten Feichtner

Abstract: Classical electrodynamics describes the optical response of macroscopic systems, where the boundaries between materials is treated as infinitesimally thin. However, due to the quantum nature of electrons, interfaces acquires a finite thickness. To include non-classical surface effects in the framework of Maxwell's equations, surface-response functions can be introduced, also known as Feibelman $d$-parameters. Surface response impacts systems with strong field localization at interfaces, which is encountered in noble metal nanoparticles supporting surface plasmon polaritons. However, studying surface response is challenging as it necessitates sub-nanometer control of geometric features, e.g. the gap size in a dimer antenna, while minimizing uncertainties in morphology. In contrast, electrical gating is convenient since the static screening charges are confined exclusively to the surface, which alleviates the need for precise control over the morphology. Here, we study the perturbation of Feibelman $d$-parameters by direct electric charging of a single plasmonic nanoresonator and investigate the resulting changes of the resonance in experiment and theory. The measured change of the resonance frequency matches the theory by assuming a perturbation of the tangential surface current. However, we also observe an unforeseen narrowing in the resonance width when adding electrons to the surface of a plasmonic nanoresonator. These reduced losses cannot be explained by electron spill-out within the local-response approximation (LRA). Such an effect is likely caused by nonlocality and the anisotropy of the perturbed local permittivity. Our findings open up possibilities to reduce losses in plasmonic resonators and to develop ultrafast and extremely small electrically driven plasmonic modulators and metasurfaces by leveraging electrical control over non-classical surface effects.

2.Spatiotemporal coupled-mode equations for arbitrary pulse transformation

Authors:Zhaohui Dong, Xianfeng Chen, Luqi Yuan

Abstract: Spatiotemporal modulation offers a variety of opportunities for light manipulations. In this paper, we propose a way towards arbitrary transformation for pulses sequentially propagating within one waveguide in space via temporal waveguide coupling. The temporal waveguide coupling operation is achieved by spatiotemporally modulating the refractive index of the spatial waveguide with a traveling wave through segmented electrodes. We derive the temporal coupled-mode equations and discuss how systematic parameters affect the temporal coupling coefficients. We further demonstrated a temporal Mach-Zehnder interferometer and universal multiport interferometer, which enables arbitrary unitary transformation for pulses. We showcase a universal approach for transforming pulses among coupled temporal waveguides, which requires only one spatial waveguide under spatiotemporal modulation, and hence provide a flexible, compact, and highly compatible method for optical signal processing in time domain.

3.Bistable scattering of nano-silicon for super-linear super-resolution imaging

Authors:Po-Hsueh Tseng, Kentaro Nishida, Pang-Han Wu, Yu-Lung Tang, Yu-Chieh Chen, Chi-Yin Yang, Jhen-Hong Yang, Wei-Ruei Chen, Olesiya Pashina, Mihail Petrov, Kuo-Ping Chen, Shi- Wei Chu

Abstract: Optical bistability is fundamental for all-optical switches, but typically requires high-Q cavities with micrometer sizes. Through boosting nonlinearity with photo-thermo-optical effects, we achieve bistability in a silicon Mie resonator with a volume size of 10-3 um3 and Q-factor < 10, both are record-low. Furthermore, bistable scattering naturally leads to large super-linear emission-excitation power dependence, which we applied to enhance optical resolution by more than 3 times. Our work paves the way toward nanoscale photonics computation and label-free semiconductor nano-inspection.

4.Merging and band transition of bound states in the continuum in leaky-mode photonic lattices

Authors:Sun-Goo Lee, Seong-Han Kim, Wook-Jae Lee

Abstract: Bound states in the continuum (BICs) theoretically have the ability to confine electromagnetic waves in limited regions with infinite radiative quality ($Q$) factors. However, in practical experiments, resonances can only exhibit finite $Q$ factors due to unwanted scattering losses caused by fabrication imperfections. Recently, it has been shown that ultrahigh-$Q$ guided-mode resonances (GMRs), which are robust to fabrication imperfections, can be realized by merging multiple BICs in momentum space. In this study, we analytically and numerically investigate the merging and band transition of accidental BICs in planar photonic lattices. Accidental BICs can merge at the edges of the second stop band, either with or without a symmetry-protected BIC. We show that as the thickness of the photonic lattice gradually increases, the merged state of BICs transitions from the upper to the lower band edge. Using coupled-mode analysis, we present the analytical merging thickness at which multiple accidental BICs merge at the second-order $\Gamma$ point. Our coupled-mode analysis could be beneficial for achieving ultrahigh-$Q$ GMRs in various photonic lattices composed of materials with different dielectric constants.

5.Surface relief grating near-eye display waveguide design

Authors:Haodong Wang, Donglin Ma

Abstract: A near-eye display device (NED) is a visual optical system that places a miniature display in front of the human eye to provide an immersive viewing experience. NEDs have been playing an irreplaceable role in both early military flight applications and today's civil and entertainment applications. In this paper, we propose an easy-to-machine design of a near-eye display based on surface relief grating waveguides, taking into account the experience of previous designs of near-eye displays, the superior performance of the design, and the accuracy level of existing grating processing. The design is designed to meet the requirements of large field of view and large outgoing pupil extension as much as possible. The design is insensitive to the incident angle and achieves a full-field field-of-view angle of 40{\deg}, an angular uniformity error of 20% for diffraction efficiency, and an average diffraction efficiency of 80% for the full field of view. Based on the design, the overall simulation of the optical path of the NED device is completed, and the illumination uniformity of the outgoing pupil expansion of the device is analyzed through simulation.

6.Photonic bound states in the continuum governed by heating

Authors:A. I. Krasnov, P. S. Pankin, G. A. Romanenko, V. S. Sutormin, D. N. Maksimov, S. Ya. Vetrov, I. V. Timofeev

Abstract: A photonic crystal microcavity with the liquid crystal resonant layer tunable by heating has been implemented. The multiple vanishing resonant lines corresponding to optical bound states in the continuum are observed. The abrupt behaviour of the resonant linewidth near the vanishing point can be used for temperature sensing.

7.Mechanisms of chiral plasmonics -- scattering, absorption and photoluminescence

Authors:Yuqing Cheng, Mengtao Sun

Abstract: Chirality is a concept that one object is not superimposable on its mirror image by translation and rotation. In particular, chiral plasmonics have been widely investigated due to the their excellent optical chiral properties, and have led to numerous applications such as optical polarizing element etc. In this study, we develop a model based on the concept of the interaction between harmonic oscillators to investigate and explain the optical chiral mechanisms of strongly coupled metal nanoparticles (MNPs). The chirality of the scattering, absorption, and photoluminescence spectra are carefully discussed in detail. The results show that the chirality of the system originates not only from the orientations of the MNPs, but also from the different eigen parameters between them. Specifically, the derived three factors contribute to the chirality: the symmetry, the coupling strength, and the coherent superposition of the emitted electric field. This work provides a deeper understanding on the chiral plasmonics and may guide relevant applications in theory.

8.Design of a vector multi-foci metalens for full stokes imaging polarimetry

Authors:Shuyi Wang, Tie Hu, Shichuan Wang, Ming Zhao, Zhenyu Yang

Abstract: Imaging polarimetry based on dielectric metasurface is well-known for its ultra-compactness and high integration. However, previous works suffer from low energy efficiency, limited restrictions on choice of target polarization states, or inability to focus light. Here, by inverse design, we numerically demonstrate a multi-foci metalens-based polarimetry that can simultaneously separate and focus the four free-chosen elliptical polarization states at the wavelength of 10.6 \mu m. Such a full-stokes polarimetry features an average absolute efficiency up to 54.63%, and an average relative error as low as 0.00137%. This spatial-multiplexing-free full stokes polarimetry exceeds the theoretical maximum efficiency of traditional polarization-filtering counterparts, and resolves the restriction faced by the orthogonal polarization-multiplexed method.

9.Precise characterization of nanometer-scale systems using interferometric scattering microscopy and Bayesian analysis

Authors:Xander M. de Wit, Amelia W. Paine, Caroline Martin, Aaron M. Goldfain, Rees F. Garmann, Vinothan N. Manoharan

Abstract: Interferometric scattering microscopy (iSCAT) can image the dynamics of nanometer-scale systems. The typical approach to analyzing interferometric images involves intensive processing, which discards data and limits the precision of measurements. We demonstrate an alternative approach: modeling the interferometric point spread function (iPSF) and fitting this model to data within a Bayesian framework. This approach yields best-fit parameters, including the particle's three-dimensional position and polarizability, as well as uncertainties and correlations between these parameters. Building on recent work, we develop a model that is parameterized for rapid fitting. The model is designed to work with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo techniques that leverage automatic differentiation. We validate this approach by fitting the model to interferometric images of colloidal nanoparticles. We apply the method to track a diffusing particle in three dimensions, to directly infer the diffusion coefficient of a nanoparticle without calculating a mean-square displacement, and to quantify the ejection of DNA from an individual lambda phage virus, demonstrating that the approach can be used to infer both static and dynamic properties of nanoscale systems.

10.Hard X-ray grazing incidence ptychography: Large field-of-view nanostructure imaging with ultra-high surface sensitivity

Authors:P. S. Jørgensen, L. Besley, A. M. Slyamov, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Odstrcil, M. Holler, C. Silvestre, B. Chang, C. Detlefs, J. W. Andreasen

Abstract: We demonstrate a technique that allows highly surface sensitive imaging of nanostructures on planar surfaces over large areas, providing a new avenue for research in materials science, especially for \textit{in situ} applications. The capabilities of hard X-ray grazing incidence ptychography combine aspects from imaging, reflectometry and grazing incidence small angle scattering in providing large field-of-view images with high resolution transverse to the beam, horizontally and along the surface normal. Thus, it yields data with resolutions approaching electron microscopy, in two dimensions, but over much larger areas and with a poorer resolution in the third spatial dimension, along the beam propagation direction. Similar to grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering, this technique facilitates the characterization of nanostructures across statistically significant surface areas or volumes within potentially feasible time frames for \textit{in situ} experiments, while also providing spatial information.

11.All-optical free-space routing of upconverted light by metasurfaces via nonlinear interferometry

Authors:Agostino Di Francescantonio, Attilio Zilli, Davide Rocco, Laure Coudrat, Fabrizio Conti, Paolo Biagioni, Lamberto Duò, Aristide Lemaître, Costantino De Angelis, Giuseppe Leo, Marco Finazzi, Michele Celebrano

Abstract: All-optical modulation yields the promise of high-speed information processing. In this frame, metasurfaces are rapidly gaining traction as ultrathin multifunctional platforms for light management. Among the featured functionalities, they enable light wavefront manipulation and, more recently, demonstrated the ability to perform light-by-light manipulation through nonlinear optical processes. Here, by employing a nonlinear periodic metasurface, we demonstrate all-optical routing of telecom photons upconverted to the visible range. This is achieved via the interference between two frequency-degenerate upconversion processes, namely third-harmonic and sum-frequency generation, stemming from the interaction of a pump pulse with its frequency-doubled replica. By tuning the relative phase and polarization between these two pump beams, and concurrently engineering the nonlinear emission of the individual elements of the metasurfaces (meta-atoms) along with its pitch, we route the upconverted signal among the diffraction orders of the metasurface with a modulation efficiency up to 90%. Thanks to the phase control and the ultrafast dynamics of the underlying nonlinear processes, free-space all-optical routing could be potentially performed at rates close to the employed optical frequencies divided by the quality factor of the optical resonances at play. Our approach adds a further twist to optical interferometry, which is a key-enabling technique in a wide range of applications, such as homodyne detection, radar interferometry, LiDAR technology, gravitational waves detection, and molecular photometry. In particular, the nonlinear character of light upconversion combined with phase sensitivity is extremely appealing for enhanced imaging and biosensing.

12.Comparative analysis of full-field OCT and optical transmission tomography

Authors:Samer Alhaddad, Olivier Thouvenin, Martine Boccara, Claude Boccara, Viacheslav Mazlin

Abstract: This work compares two tomographic imaging technologies, time-domain full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) working in reflection and optical transmission tomography (OTT), using a new optical setup that combines both. We show that, due to forward-scattering properties, the axial sectioning and contrast in OTT can be optimized by tuning illumination. The influence of sample scattering and thickness are discussed. We illustrate the comparison of the two methods in static (morphology) and dynamic (metabolic contrast) regimes using cell cultures, tissues and entire organisms emphasizing the advantages of both approaches.

1.Rotationally symmetric momentum flow produced by scattering on an anisotropic random medium

Authors:Yi Ding

Abstract: As is well known that the distribution of the scattered radiation generated by an anisotropic scatterer usually lacks rotational symmetry about the direction of incidence due to the spatial anisotropy of the scatterer itself. Here we show that the rotationally symmetric distribution of the far-zone scattered momentum flow may be realized provided that the structural parameters of both the medium and the source are chosen suitably, when a polychromatic electromagnetic plane wave is scattered by an anisotropic Gaussian Schell-model medium. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for producing such a symmetric distribution, and further elucidated the relationship between the spectral degree of polarization of the incident source and the rotationally symmetric momentum flow of the scattered field in the far zone. It is found that the realization of the rotationally symmetric scattered momentum flow is independent of the spectral degree of polarization of the source, i.e., the rotationally symmetric distribution of the far-zone scattered momentum flow is always realizable regardless of whether the incident source is fully polarized, partially polarized or completely unpolarized. Our results may find useful application in optical micromanipulation, especially when the optical force used to manipulate particles requires to be rotationally symmetric.

2.Enhanced Spectral Density of a Single Germanium Vacancy Center in a Nanodiamond by Cavity-Integration

Authors:Florian Feuchtmayr, Robert Berghaus, Selene Sachero, Gregor Bayer, Niklas Lettner, Richard Waltrich, Patrick Maier, Viatcheslav Agafonov, Alexander Kubanek

Abstract: Color centers in diamond, among them the negatively-charged germanium vacancy (GeV$^-$), are promising candidates for many applications of quantum optics such as a quantum network. For efficient implementation, the optical transitions need to be coupled to a single optical mode. Here, we demonstrate the transfer of a nanodiamond containing a single ingrown GeV- center with excellent optical properties to an open Fabry-P\'erot microcavity by nanomanipulation utilizing an atomic force microscope. Coupling of the GeV- defect to the cavity mode is achieved, while the optical resonator maintains a high finesse of F = 7,700 and a 48-fold spectral density enhancement is observed. This article demonstrates the integration of a GeV- defect with a Fabry-P\'erot microcavity under ambient conditions with the potential to extend the experiments to cryogenic temperatures towards an efficient spin-photon platform.

3.Spatiotemporal torquing of light

Authors:S. W. Hancock, S. Zahedpour, A. Goffin, H. M. Milchberg

Abstract: We demonstrate the controlled spatiotemporal transfer of transverse orbital angular momentum (OAM) to electromagnetic waves: the spatiotemporal torquing of light. This is a radically different situation than OAM transfer to longitudinal, spatially-defined OAM light by stationary or slowly varying refractive index structures such as phase plates or air turbulence. We show that transverse OAM can be imparted to a short light pulse only for (1) sufficiently fast transient phase perturbations overlapped with the pulse in spacetime, or (2) energy removal from a pulse that already has transverse OAM. Our OAM theory for spatiotemporal optical vortex (STOV) pulses [Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 193901 (2021)] correctly quantifies the light-matter interaction of this experiment, and provides a torque-based explanation for the first measurement of STOVs [Phys. Rev. X 6, 031037 (2016)].

4.Applications of Bound States in the Continuum in Photonics

Authors:Meng Kang, Tao Liu, C. T. Chan, Meng Xiao

Abstract: The intriguing properties of bound states in the continuum (BICs) have attracted a lot of attention in photonics. Besides being effective in confining light in a counter-intuitive way, the correspondence between the near-field mode pattern and the far-field radiation of BICs manifests the fascinating topological characteristics of light. Early works on photonic BICs were mainly focused on designing artificial structures to facilitate their realization, while recent advances have shifted to exploring their exceptional properties in applications. In this review, we survey important breakthroughs and recent advances in this field. We detail the unique properties of BICs, including light confinement enhancement, sharp Fano resonances, and topological characteristics. We provide insights into the unique phenomena derived from BICs and the impact of BICs on various applications. We also discuss the paradigm shift enabled or facilitated by BICs in several emerging research frontiers, such as parity-time symmetric systems, higher-order topology, exciton-photon coupling, and moir\'e superlattices.

5.Design, fabrication, and characterization of electrostatic comb-drive actuators for nanoelectromechanical silicon photonics

Authors:Thor August Schimmell Weis, Babak Vosoughi Lahijani, Konstantinos Tsoukalas, Marcus Albrechtsen, Søren Stobbe

Abstract: Nanoelectromechanical systems offer unique functionalities in photonics: The ability to elastically and reversibly deform dielectric beams with subwavelength dimensions enable electrical control of the propagation of light with a power consumption orders of magnitude below that of competing technologies, such as thermo-optic tuning. We present a study of the design, fabrication, and characterization of compact electrostatic comb-drive actuators tailored for integrated nanoelectromechanical silicon photonic circuits. Our design has a footprint of $1.2 \times 10^{3} \mu$m$^{2}$ and is found to reach displacements beyond 50 nm at 5 V with a mechanical resonance above 200 kHz, or, using different spring constants and skeletonization, a mechanical resonance above 2.5 MHz with displacements beyond 50 nm at 28 V. This is sufficient to induce very large phase shifts and other optical effects in nanoelectromechanical reconfigurable photonic circuits.

6.Ultrafast electro-optic Time-Frequency Fractional Fourier Imaging at the Single-Photon Level

Authors:Michał Lipka, Michał Parniak

Abstract: The Fractional Fourier Transform (FRT) corresponds to an arbitrary-angle rotation in the phase space, e.g. the time-frequency (TF) space, and generalizes the fundamentally important Fourier Transform. FRT applications range from classical signal processing (e.g. time-correlated noise optimal filtering) to emerging quantum technologies (e.g. super-resolution TF imaging) which rely on or benefit from coherent low-noise TF operations. Here a versatile low-noise single-photon-compatible implementation of the FRT is presented. Optical TF FRT can be synthesized as a series of a spectral disperser, a time-lens, and another spectral disperser. Relying on the state-of-the-art electro-optic modulators (EOM) for the time-lens, our method avoids added noise inherent to the alternatives based on non-linear interactions (such as wave-mixing, cross-phase modulation, or parametric processes). Precise control of the EOM-driving radio-frequency signal enables fast all-electronic control of the FRT angle. In the experiment, we demonstrate FRT angles of up to 1.63 rad for pairs of coherent temporally separated 11.5 ps-wide pulses in the near-infrared (800 nm). We observe a good agreement between the simulated and measured output spectra in the bright-light and single-photon-level regimes, and for a range of pulse separations (20 ps to 26.67 ps). Furthermore, a tradeoff is established between the maximal FRT angle and bandwidth, with the current setup accommodating up to 248 GHz of bandwidth. With the ongoing progress in EOM on-chip integration, we envisage excellent scalability and vast applications in all-optical TF processing both in the classical and quantum regimes

7.Spin-momentum locking breakdown on plasmonic metasurfaces

Authors:Fernando Lorén, Cyriaque Genet, Luis Martín-Moreno

Abstract: We present a scattering formalism to analyze the spin-momentum locking in structured holey plasmonic metasurfaces. It is valid for any unit cell for arbitrary position and orientation of the holes. The spin-momentum locking emergence is found to originate from the unit cell configuration. Additionally, we find that there are several breakdown terms spoiling the perfect spin-momentum locking polarization. We prove that this breakdown also appears in systems with global symmetries of translation and rotation of the whole lattice, like the Kagome lattice. Finally, we present the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons as the paramount example of the spin-momentum locking breakdown.

8.High-performance ultrafast pulse compression in the visible spectral range for extreme nonlinear optics at kHz-MHz repetition rates

Authors:Siyang Wang, Jieyu Yan, Sirius Song, Alexander Atanassov, Zhihan Wu, Will Brunner, Dimitar Popmintchev, Tenio Popmintchev

Abstract: We demonstrate a remarkably effective single-stage compression technique for ultrafast pulses in the visible electromagnetic spectrum using second-harmonic pulses at 515 nmderived from a 1030 nm Yb-based femtosecond regenerative amplifier. By employing an advanced multi-plate scheme, we achieve more than fourfold compression from 180 fs to 40 fs with an extremely high spectral broadening efficiency of over 95%, and a temporal compression efficiency exceeding 75%. In addition, our method leverages a low nonlinearity medium to attain the shortest pulse durations for a single compressor while maintaining a superb spatial beam quality with 97% of the energy confined in the main lobe of the Arie disk. Moreover, our technique enhances the temporal pulse quality at 515 nm without generating substantial femtosecond-to-picosecond pulse pedestals. The resulting intense visible laser pulses with excellent spatio-temporal parameters and high repetition rate of 100 kHz to 1 MHz open up new frontiers for extreme nonlinear optics and ultrabright EUV and X-ray high-harmonic generation using short VIS wavelength.

9.Continuously Red-Shift and Blue-Shift Wavelength-Tuneable, Narrowband, High Harmonics in the EUV - X-ray Regime for Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopies

Authors:Dimitar Popmintchev, Aref Imani, Paolo Carpegiani, Joris Roman, Siyang Wang, Jieyu Yan, Sirius Song, Ryan Clairmont, Zhihan Wu, Elizaveta Gangrskaia, Edgar Kaksis, Tobias FlÖry, Audrius PugŽLys, Andrius BaltuŠKa, Tenio Popmintchev

Abstract: We demonstrate a novel technique for producing high-order harmonics with designer spectral combs in the extreme ultraviolet-soft X-ray range for resonance applications using spectrally controlled visible lasers. Our approach enables continuous tunability of the harmonic peaks while maintaining superb laser-like features such as coherence, narrow bandwidth, and brightness. The harmonics are conveniently shifted towards lower or higher energies by varying the infrared pulse parameters, second harmonic generation phase-matching conditions, and gas density inside a spectral-broadening waveguide. In the time domain, the X-rays are estimated to emerge as a train of sub-300 attosecond pulses, making this source ideal for studying dynamic processes in ferromagnetic nanostructures and other materials through resonant multidimensional coherent diffractive imaging or other X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. Moreover, the visible driving laser beams exhibit an ultrashort sub-10 fs pulse dues to nonlinear self-compression with a more than 30-fold enhancement in peak intensity that also extends the tunability of the linewidth of the harmonic combs.

10.Spatio-Temporal Coupled Mode Theory for Nonlocal Metasurfaces

Authors:Adam Overvig, Sander A. Mann, Andrea Alù

Abstract: Diffractive nonlocal metasurfaces have recently opened a broad range of exciting developments in nanophotonics research and applications, leveraging spatially extended (yet locally patterned) resonant modes to control light with new degrees of freedom. While conventional grating responses are elegantly captured by temporal coupled mode theory (TCMT), TCMT is not well equipped to capture the more sophisticated responses observed in the nascent field of nonlocal metasurfaces. Here, we introduce spatio-temporal coupled mode theory (STCMT), capable of elegantly capturing the key features of the resonant response of wavefront-shaping nonlocal metasurfaces. This framework can quantitatively guide nonlocal metasurface design, and is compatible with local metasurface frameworks, making it a powerful tool to rationally design and optimize a broad class of ultrathin optical components. We validate this STCMT framework against full-wave simulations of various nonlocal metasurfaces, demonstrating that this tool offers a powerful semi-analytical framework to understand and model the physics and functionality of these devices, without the need for computationally intense full-wave simulations. We also discuss how this model may shed physical insights into nonlocal phenomena in photonics and into the functionality of the resulting devices. As a relevant example, we showcase STCMT's flexibility by applying it to study and rapidly prototype nonlocal metasurfaces that spatially shape thermal emission.

11.Wavefunction tomography of topological dimer chains with long-range couplings

Authors:F. Pellerin, R. Houvenaghel, W. A. Coish, I. Carusotto, P. St-Jean

Abstract: The ability to tailor with a high accuracy the inter-site connectivity in a lattice is a crucial tool for realizing novel topological phases of matter. Here, we report the experimental realization of photonic dimer chains with long-range hopping terms of arbitrary strength and phase, providing a rich generalization of the celebrated Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Our experiment is based on a synthetic dimension scheme involving the frequency modes of an optical fiber loop platform. This setup provides direct access to both the band dispersion and the geometry of the Bloch wavefunctions throughout the entire Brillouin zone allowing us to extract the winding number for any possible configuration. Finally, we highlight a topological phase transition solely driven by a time-reversal-breaking synthetic gauge field associated with the phase of the long-range hopping, providing a route for engineering topological bands in photonic lattices belonging to the AIII symmetry class.

12.Optical Second Harmonic Generation in Anisotropic Multilayers with Complete Multireflection Analysis of Linear and Nonlinear Waves using #SHAARP.ml Package

Authors:Rui Zu, Bo Wang, Jingyang He, Lincoln Weber, Akash Saha, Long-Qing Chen, Venkatraman Gopalan

Abstract: Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) is a nonlinear optical effect widely used for nonlinear optical microscopy and laser frequency conversion. Closed-form analytical solution of the nonlinear optical responses is essential for evaluating the optical responses of new materials whose optical properties are unknown a priori. A recent open-source code, SHAARP(si), can provide such closed form solutions for crystals with arbitrary symmetries, orientations, and anisotropic properties at a single interface. However, optical components are often in the form of slabs, thin films on substrates, and multilayer heterostructures with multiple reflections of both the fundamental and up to ten different SHG waves at each interface, adding significant complexity. Many approximations have therefore been employed in the existing analytical approaches, such as slowly varying approximation, weak reflection of the nonlinear polarization, transparent medium, high crystallographic symmetry, Kleinman symmetry, easy crystal orientation along a high-symmetry direction, phase matching conditions and negligible interference among nonlinear waves, which may lead to large errors in the reported material properties. To avoid these approximations, we have developed an open-source package named Second Harmonic Analysis of Anisotropic Rotational Polarimetry in Multilayers (SHAARP(ml)). The reliability and accuracy are established by experimentally benchmarking with both the SHG polarimetry and Maker fringes predicted from the package using standard materials.

13.Raising the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold power by longitudinal compression gradient in a fiber amplifier

Authors:Anasthase Liméry, François Gustave, Laurent Lombard, Anne Durécu, Julien Le Gouët

Abstract: We demonstrate and analyse a novel approach to enhance the threshold power of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fibers, using a longitudinal compressive strain gradient. We derive analytical expressions for the power spectral density of the backscattered Stokes wave in the general case of passive and amplifying optical fibers, by considering the strain and optical power distributions. Our method provides an accurate prediction of the SBS gain spectrum, that we illustrate with a quantitative comparison between measurements and calculations of the SBS Stokes spectra, before and after applying the compression gradient. Our experimental results demonstrate the successful enhancement of the SBS threshold power by a factor of about 3 for the passive fiber and 2 for the amplifying fiber. The enhancement that we manage to calculate in the case of the passive fiber is in perfect agreement with the experimental result.

1.Photonic integrated processor for structured light detection and distinction

Authors:Johannes Bütow, Varun Sharma, Dorian Brandmüller, Jörg S. Eismann, Peter Banzer

Abstract: Integrated photonic devices have become pivotal elements across most research fields that involve light-based applications. A particularly versatile category of this technology are programmable photonic integrated processors, which are being employed in an increasing variety of applications, like communication or photonic computing. Such processors accurately control on-chip light within meshes of programmable optical gates. Free-space optics applications can utilize this technology by using appropriate on-chip interfaces to couple distributions of light to the photonic chip. This enables, for example, access to the spatial properties of free-space light, particularly to phase distributions, which is usually challenging and requires either specialized devices or additional components. Here we discuss and show the detection of amplitude and phase of structured higher-order light beams using a multipurpose photonic processor. Our device provides measurements of amplitude and phase distributions which can be used to, e.g., directly distinguish light's orbital angular momentum without the need for further elements interacting with the free-space light. Paving a way towards more convenient and intuitive phase measurements of structured light, we envision applications in a wide range of fields, specifically in microscopy or communications where the spatial distributions of lights properties are important.

2.Vorticity of polariton condensates in rotating traps

Authors:A. V. Yulin, I. A. Shelykh, E. S. Sedov, A. V. Kavokin

Abstract: This work is inspired by recent experiments on the formation of vortices in exciton-polariton condensates placed in rotating optical traps. We study theoretically the dynamics of formation of such vortices and elucidate the fundamental role of the mode competition effect in determining the properties of stationary polariton states triggered by stimulated scattering of exciton-polaritons. The interplay between linear and non-linear effects is shown to result in a peculiar polariton dynamics. However, near the lasing threshold, the predominant contribution of the nonlinear effects is the saturation of the linear gain.

3.Mass and Shape Determination of Optically Levitated Nanoparticles

Authors:Bart Schellenberg, Mina Morshed Behbahani, Nithesh Balasubramanian, Ties H. Fikkers, Steven Hoekstra

Abstract: When introducing a nanoparticle into an optical trap, its mass and shape are not immediately apparent. We combine a number of methods to determine the mass and shape of trapped nanoparticles, which have previously only been used separately. We demonstrate that the use of multiple classification techniques is in certain cases required to avoid incorrect or ambiguous results. The ability to identify these parameters is a key step for a range of experiments on precision measurements and sensing using optically levitated nanoparticles.

4.Time Interfaces in Bianisotropic Media

Authors:M. S. Mirmoosa, M. H. Mostafa, S. A. Tretyakov

Abstract: Wave phenomena in bianisotropic media have been broadly studied in classical electrodynamics, as these media offer different degrees of freedom to engineer electromagnetic waves. However, they have been always considered to be stationary (time-invariant) in the studies. Temporally varying the magnetoelectric coupling manifesting bianisotropy engenders an alluring prospect to manipulate wave-matter interactions in new ways. In this paper, we theoretically contemplate electromagnetic effects in all classes of nondispersive bianisotropic media when the corresponding magnetoelectric coupling parameter suddenly jumps in time, creating a time interface in those bianisotropic media. We investigate scattering effects at such time interfaces, revealing new polarization- and direction-dependent phenomena. Hopefully, this work can pave the road for exploring bianisotropic time metamaterials (metasurfaces), and bianisotropic photonic time crystals, opening up interesting possibilities to control wave polarization and amplitude in reciprocal and nonreciprocal ways.

5.Multipass wide-field phase imager

Authors:Álvaro Cuevas, Daniel Tiemann, Robin Camphausen, Iris Cusini, Antonio Panzani, Rajdeep Mukherjee, Federica Villa, Valerio Pruneri

Abstract: Advances in optical imaging always look for an increase in sensitivity and resolution among other practicability aspects. Within the same scope, in this work we report a versatile interference contrast imaging technique, capable of sub-nm sample-thickness resolution, with a large field-ofview of several mm2. Sensitivity is increased through the use of a self-imaging non-resonant cavity, which causes photons to probe the sample in multiple rounds before being detected, where the configuration can be transmissive or reflective. Phase profiles can be resolved individually for each round thanks to a specially designed single-photon camera with time-of-flight capabilities and true pixels-off gating. Measurement noise is reduced by novel data processing combining the retrieved sample profiles from multiple rounds. Our protocol is specially useful under extremely low light conditions as require by biological or photo-sensitive samples. Results demonstrate more than a four-fold reduction in phase measurement noise, compared to single round imaging, and close valuesto the predicted sensitivity in case of the best possible cavity configuration, where all photons are maintained until n rounds. We also find a good agreement with the theoretical predictions for low number of rounds, where experimental imperfections would place a minor role. The absence of a laser or cavity lock-in mechanism makes the technique an easy to use inspection tool.

6.Ab initio insights on the ultrafast strong-field dynamics of anatase TiO$_2$

Authors:Sruthil Lal S. B, Lokamani, Kushal Ramakrishna, Attila Cangi, D Murali, Matthias Posselt, Assa Aravindh Sasikala Devi, Alok Sharan

Abstract: Electron dynamics of anatase TiO$_2$ under the influence of ultrashort and intense laser field is studied using the real-time time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of TDDFT calculations in modeling the electron dynamics of solids during ultrashort laser excitation, providing valuable insights for designing and optimizing nonlinear photonic devices. We analyze the perturbative and non-perturbative responses of TiO$_2$ to 30 fs laser pulses at 400 and 800 nm wavelengths, elucidating the underlying mechanisms. At 400 nm, ionization via single photon absorption dominates, even at very low intensities. At 800 nm, we observe ionization through two-photon absorption within the intensity range of $1\times10^{10}$ to $9\times10^{12}$ W/cm$^2$, with a transition from multiphoton to tunneling ionization occurring at $9\times10^{12}$ W/cm$^2$. We observe a sudden increase in energy and the number of excited electrons beyond $1\times10^{13}$ W/cm$^2$, leading to their saturation and subsequent laser-induced damage. We estimate the damage threshold of TiO$_2$ for 800 nm to be 0.1 J/cm$^2$. In the perturbative regime, induced currents exhibit a phase shift proportional to the peak intensity of the laser pulse. This phase shift is attributed to the intensity-dependent changes in the number of free carriers, indicative of the optical Kerr effect. Leveraging the linear dependence of phase shift on peak intensities, we estimate the nonlinear refractive index ($n_2$) of TiO$_2$ to be $3.54\times10^{-11}$ cm$^2$/W.

7.Perfect Linear Optics using Silicon Photonics

Authors:Miltiadis Moralis-Pegios, George Giamougiannis, Apostolos Tsakyridis, David Lazovsky, Nikos Pleros

Abstract: In recent years, there has been growing interest in using photonic technology to perform the underlying linear algebra operations required by different applications, including neuromorphic photonics, quantum computing and microwave processing, mainly aiming at taking advantage of the silicon photonics' (SiPho) credentials to support high-speed and energy-efficient operations. Mapping, however, a targeted matrix with absolute accuracy into the optical domain remains a huge challenge in linear optics, since state-of-the-art linear optical circuit architectures are highly sensitive to fabrication imperfections. This leads to reduced fidelity metrics that degrade faster as the insertion losses of the constituent optical matrix node or the matrix dimensions increase. In this work, we present for the first time a novel coherent SiPho crossbar (Xbar) that can support on-chip fidelity restoration while implementing linear algebra operations, realizing the first experimental demonstration of perfect on-chip arbitrary linear optical transformations. We demonstrate the experimental implementation of 10000 arbitrary linear transformations in the photonic domain achieving a record high fidelity of 99.997%+-0.002, limited mainly by the statistical error enforced by the measurement equipment. Our work represents the first integrated universal linear optical circuit that provides almost unity and loss-independent fidelity in the realization of arbitrary matrices, opening new avenues for exploring the use of light in resolving universal computational tasks.

8.High accuracy, high dynamic range optomechanical accelerometry enabled by dual comb spectroscopy

Authors:D. A. Long, J. R. Stroud, B. J. Reschovsky, Y. Bao, F. Zhou, S. M. Bresler, T. W. LeBrun, D. F. Plusquellic, J. J. Gorman

Abstract: Cavity optomechanical sensors can offer exceptional sensitivity; however, interrogating the cavity motion with high accuracy and dynamic range has proven to be challenging. Here we employ a dual optical frequency comb spectrometer to readout a microfabricated cavity optomechanical accelerometer, allowing for rapid simultaneous measurements of the cavity's displacement, finesse, and coupling at accelerations up to 24 g (236 m/s$^2$). With this approach, we have achieved a displacement sensitivity of 3 fm/Hz$^{1/2}$, a measurement rate of 100 kHz, and a dynamic range of 3.9 $\times$ 10$^5$ which is the highest we are aware of for a microfabricated cavity optomechanical sensor. In addition, comparisons of our optomechanical sensor coupled directly to a commercial reference accelerometer show agreement at the 0.5% level, a value which is limited by the reference's reported uncertainty. Further, the methods described herein are not limited to accelerometry but rather can be readily applied to nearly any optomechanical sensor where the combination of high speed, dynamic range, and sensitivity is expected to be enabling.

9.Quasi-bound states in the continuum in photonic-crystal-based optomechanical microcavities

Authors:Cindy Peralle, Sushanth Kini Manjeshwar, Anastasiia Ciers, Witlef Wieczorek, Philippe Tassin

Abstract: We present a detailed study of mechanically compliant, photonic-crystal-based microcavities featuring a quasi-bound state in the continuum. Such systems have recently been predicted to reduce the optical loss in Fabry-Perot-type optomechanical cavities. However, they require two identical photonic-crystal slabs facing each other, which poses a considerable challenge for experimental implementation. We investigate how such an ideal system can be simplified and still exhibit a quasi-bound state in the continuum. We find that a suspended photonic-crystal slab facing a distributed Bragg reflector realizes an optomechanical system with a quasi-bound state in the continuum. In this system, the radiative cavity loss can be eliminated to the extent that the cavity loss is dominated by dissipative loss originating from material absorption only. These proposed optomechanical cavity designs are predicted to feature optical quality factors in excess of 10^5.

10.Driven-dissipative Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

Authors:Maciej Pieczarka, Marcin Gębski, Aleksandra N. Piasecka, James A. Lott, Axel Pelster, Michał Wasiak, Tomasz Czyszanowski

Abstract: Many bosons can occupy a single quantum state without a limit, which is described by quantum-mechanical Bose-Einstein statistics and allows the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate at low temperatures and high particle densities. Photons, historically the first considered bosonic gas, were among the last to show this phenomenon, which was observed in rhodamine-filled microlaser cavities or doped fiber cavities. These more recent findings have raised the natural question as to whether condensation is common in laser systems, potentially implying its technological application. Here, we show the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with positive cavity-gain energy detuning. We observed a Bose-Einstein condensate in the ground mode at the critical phase-space density. Experimental results follow the equation of state for a two-dimensional gas of bosons in thermal equilibrium, although the extracted spectral temperatures were lower than those of the device. This is interpreted as originating from the driven-dissipative nature of the condensate being not in full thermal equilibrium with the device. In contrast, non-equilibrium lasing action is observed in higher-order modes in a negatively detuned device. Our work enables the potential exploration of superfluid physics of interacting photons mediated by semiconductor optical non-linearities. It also shows great promise for single-mode high-power emission from a large aperture device.

11.A chip-scale second-harmonic source via injection-locked all-optical poling

Authors:Marco Clementi, Edgars Nitiss, Elena Durán-Valdeiglesias, Sofiane Belahsene, Junqiu Liu, Tobias J. Kippenberg, Hélène Debrégeas, Camille-Sophie Brès

Abstract: Second-harmonic generation allows for coherently bridging distant regions of the optical spectrum, with applications ranging from laser technology to self-referencing of frequency combs. However, accessing the nonlinear response of a medium typically requires high-power bulk sources, specific nonlinear crystals, and complex optical setups, hindering the path toward large-scale integration. Here we address all of these issues by engineering a chip-scale second-harmonic (SH) source based on the frequency doubling of a semiconductor laser self-injection-locked to a silicon nitride microresonator. The injection-locking mechanism, combined with a high-Q microresonator, results in an ultra-narrow intrinsic linewidth at the fundamental harmonic frequency as small as 57 Hz. Owing to the extreme resonant field enhancement, quasi-phase-matched second-order nonlinearity is photoinduced through the coherent photogalvanic effect and the high coherence is mapped on the generated SH field. We show how such optical poling technique can be engineered to provide efficient SH generation across the whole C and L telecom bands, in a reconfigurable fashion, overcoming the need for poling electrodes. Our device operates with milliwatt-level pumping and outputs SH power exceeding 2 mW, for an efficiency as high as 280%/W under electrical driving. Our findings suggest that standalone, highly-coherent, and efficient SH sources can be integrated in current silicon nitride photonics, unlocking the potential of $\chi^{(2)}$ processes in the next generation of integrated photonic devices.

1.Dispersion and Thickness Control in Evaporation-induced Self-Assembly of Opal Photonic Crystals

Authors:Alex Grant, Alex Lonergan, Colm O'Dwyer

Abstract: Opals are naturally occurring photonic crystals which can be formed easily using low-cost self-assembly methods. While the optical behaviour of opals has received significant attention over the last number of decades, there is limited information on the effect of crystal thickness on the optical properties they display. Here, the relationship between volume fraction and crystal thickness is established with an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method of formation. The extent to which thickness can be used to manipulate the optical properties of the crystals is explored, focusing on the change in the photonic band gap (PBG). Microscopical structural characterization and angle-resolved transmission spectroscopy are used to examine the quality of the photonic crystals formed using different volume fractions of polystyrene spheres, with thicknesses up to 37 layers grown from volume fractions of 0.125%. This work provides a direct correlation between sphere solution volume fraction and crystal thickness, and the associated optical fingerprint of opal photonic crystals. Maximum thickness is examined, which is shown to converge to a narrow range over several evaporation rates. We identify the criteria required to achieve thickness control in relatively fast evaporation induced self-assembly while maintaining structural quality, and the change to the spectroscopic signature to the (111) stopband and higher order (220) reflections, under conditions where a less ordered photonic crystals are formed.

2.Polarization coherence

Authors:Alfredo Luis

Abstract: We address polarization coherence in terms of correlations of Stokes variables. We develop an scalar polarization mutual coherence function with an associated polarization-coherence time and spectral polarization density. With these tools we address the polarization-coherence versions of two celebrated theorems in classical-optics coherence. These are the Wiener-Khintchine and van Cittert- Zernike theorems, dealing with the most preeminent time-frequency and spatial manifestations of coherence. This is illustrated with the examples of stationary fields and Gaussian statistics.

3.Nonreciprocal electromagnetic wave manipulation via a single reflection

Authors:Lu Wang

Abstract: Electric field manipulation plays a key role in applications such as electron acceleration, nonlinear light-matter interaction, and radiation engineering. Nonreciprocal materials, such as Weyl semimetals, enable the manipulation of the electric field in a full photonic manner, owing to their intrinsic time-reversal symmetry breaking, leading to asymmetric material response for photons with +k and -k momenta. Here, the results suggest that a simple planar interface between semi-infinite air and a nonreciprocal material can achieve spatio-temporal manipulation of the electric field. In particular, this work presents three compelling scenarios for electromagnetic wave manipulation: radiation pattern redistribution (with closed-form expressions provided), carrier-envelope phase control, and spatial profile control. The presented results pave the way for electric field manipulation using pattern-free nonreciprocal materials.

4.Unveiling Chirality: Exploring Nature's Blueprint for Engineering Nanostructured Materials

Authors:Alexa Guglielmelli, Liliana Valente, Giovanna Palermo, Giuseppe Strangi

Abstract: Chirality, the property of asymmetry, is of great importance in biological and physical phenomena. This prospective offers an overview of the emerging field of chiral bioinspired plasmonics and metamaterials, aiming to uncover nature's blueprint for engineering nanostructured materials. These materials possess unique chiral structures, resulting in fascinating optical properties and finding applications in sensing, photonics, and catalysis. The first part of the prospective focuses on the design and fabrication of chiral metamaterials that mimic intricate structures found in biological systems. By employing self-assembly and nanofabrication techniques, researchers have achieved remarkable control over the response to light, opening up new avenues for manipulating light and controlling polarization. Chiral metamaterials hold significant promise for sensing applications, as they can selectively interact with chiral molecules, allowing for highly sensitive detection and identification. The second part delves into the field of plasmonics nanostructures, which mediate enantioselective recognition through optical chirality enhancement. Plasmonic nanostructures, capable of confining and manipulating light at the nanoscale, offer a platform for amplifying and controlling chirality-related phenomena. Integrating plasmonic nanostructures with chiral molecules presents unprecedented opportunities for chiral sensing, enantioselective catalysis, and optoelectronic devices. By combining the principles of chiral bioinspired plasmonics and metamaterials, researchers are poised to unlock new frontiers in designing and engineering nanostructured materials with tailored chiroptical properties.

5.Ultimate parameters of an all-optical MX resonance in Cs in ultra-weak magnetic field

Authors:M. V. Petrenko, A. S. Pazgalev, A. K. Vershovskii

Abstract: We present the results of studying the parameters of the magnetic MX resonance in an all-optical sensor built according to the two-beam Bell-Bloom scheme in nonzero ultra-weak magnetic fields in which the effects of spin-exchange broadening suppression are partially manifested. We report on the features of the resonance under these conditions. We also optimize the resonance parameters to achieve maximum sensitivity in magnetoencephalographic sensors. We demonstrate an improvement in the ultimate achievable sensitivity of an all-optical MX sensor by a factor of four or more, which in our experiment corresponds to a decrease from 13 to 3 fT/Hz1/2 in a volume of 0.13 cm3. We also report the effect of incomplete suppression of spin-exchange broadening under conditions of strong transverse modulated optical pumping, and propose a semi-empirical model to describe it.

6.Joined optical and thermal characterization of a III-nitride semiconductor membrane by micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy and Raman thermometry

Authors:Mahmoud Elhajhasan, Wilken Seemann, Katharina Dudde, Daniel Vaske, Gordon Callsen, Ian Rousseau, Thomas F. K. Weatherley, Jean-François Carlin, Raphaël Butté, Nicolas Grandjean, Nakib H. Protik, Guiseppe Romano

Abstract: We present the simultaneous optical and thermal analysis of a freestanding photonic semiconductor membrane made from wurtzite III-nitride material. By linking micro-photoluminescence ($\mu$PL) spectroscopy with Raman thermometry, we demonstrate how a robust value for the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ can be obtained using only optical, non-invasive means. For this, we consider the balance of different contributions to thermal transport given by, e.g., excitons, charge carriers, and heat carrying phonons. Further complication is given by the fact that this membrane is made from direct bandgap semiconductors, designed to emit light based on an In$_{x}$Ga$_{1-x}$N ($x=0.15$) quantum well embedded in GaN. To meet these challenges, we designed a novel experimental setup that enables the necessary optical and thermal characterizations in parallel. We perform micro-Raman thermometry, either based on a heating laser that acts as a probe laser (1-laser Raman thermometry), or based on two lasers, providing the heating and the temperature probe separately (2-laser Raman thermometry). For the latter technique, we obtain temperature maps over tens of micrometers with a spatial resolution less than $1\,\mu\text{m}$, yielding $\kappa\,=\,95^{+11}_{-7}\,\frac{\text{W}}{\text{m}\cdot \text{K}}$ for the $\textit{c}$-plane of our $\approx\,250\text{-nm}$-thick membrane at around room temperature, which compares well to our $\textit{ab initio}$ calculations applied to a simplified structure. Based on these calculations, we explain the particular relevance of the temperature probe volume, as quasi-ballistic transport of heat-carrying phonons occurs on length scales beyond the penetration depths of the heating laser and even its focus spot radius. The present work represents a significant step towards non-invasive, highly spatially resolved, and still quantitative thermometry performed on a photonic membrane.

7.On the suitability of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for fast optical force simulations

Authors:Bo Gao, Henkjan Gersen, Simon Hanna

Abstract: Optical force responses underpin nanophotonic actuator design, which requires a large number of force simulations to optimize structures. Commonly used computation methods, such as the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, are resource intensive and require large amounts of calculation time when multiple structures need to be compared during optimization. This research demonstrates that performing optical force calculations on periodic structures using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method is typically on the order of 10 times faster than FDTD with sufficient accuracy to suit optical design purposes. Moreover, this speed increase is available on consumer grade laptops with a CUDA-compatible GPU avoiding the need for a high performance computing resource.

8.Towards rapid extracellular vesicles colorimetric detection using optofluidics-enhanced color-changing optical metasurface

Authors:Chuchuan Hong, Ikjun Hong, Sen Yang, Justus C. Ndukaife

Abstract: Efficient transportation and delivery of analytes to the surface of optical sensors are crucial for overcoming limitations in diffusion-limited transport and analyte sensing. In this study, we propose a novel approach that combines metasurface optics with optofluidics-enabled active transport of extracellular vesicles (EVs). By leveraging this combination, we show that we can rapidly capture EVs and detect their adsorption through a color change generated by a specially designed optical metasurface that produces structural colors. Our results demonstrate that the integration of optofluidics and metasurface optics enables robust colorimetric read-out for EV concentrations as low as 107 EVs/ml, achieved within a short incubation time of two minutes, while using a CCD camera or naked eye for the read-out. This approach offers the potential for rapid sensing without the need for spectrometers and provides a short response time. Our findings suggest that the synergy between optofluidics and metasurface platforms can enhance the detection efficiency of low concentration bioparticle samples by overcoming the diffusion limits.

1.Statistics of modal condensation in nonlinear multimode fibers

Authors:Mario Zitelli, Fabio Mangini, Stefan Wabnitz

Abstract: Optical pulses propagating in multimode optical fibers are affected by linear disorder and nonlinearity, and experience chaotic exchange of power among modes. On the other hand, complex systems can attain steady states characterized by energy condensation into single as well multiple sub-systems. In this work, we study beam propagation in multimode optical fibers in the presence of linear random mode coupling and Kerr nonlinearity; both effects lead to a mode power redistribution at the fiber output. We use a new 3D mode decomposition method to obtain, with unprecedented accuracy, measurements of the modal distribution from long spans of graded-index fiber; we perform numerical simulations using a new model for the linear disorder; we introduce a weighted Bose-Einstein law and show that it is suitable for describing steady-state modal power distributions both in the linear and nonlinear regimes. We show that, at power levels intermediate between the linear and the soliton regimes, energy condensation is attained locally by the second, third and fourth modal groups, before global condensation to the fundamental mode is reached in the soliton regime. Our results extend the thermodynamic approach to multimode fibers to unexplored optical states, which acquire the characteristics of optical glass.

2.Complex switching dynamics of interacting light in a ring resonator

Authors:Rodrigues D. Dikandé Bitha, Andrus Giraldo, Neil G. R. Broderick, Bernd Krauskopf

Abstract: Microresonators are micron-scale optical systems that confine light using total internal reflection. These optical systems have gained interest in the last two decades due to their compact sizes, unprecedented measurement capabilities, and widespread applications. The increasingly high finesse (or $Q$ factor) of such resonators means that nonlinear effects are unavoidable even for low power, making them attractive for nonlinear applications, including optical comb generation and second harmonic generation. In addition, light in these nonlinear resonators may exhibit chaotic behavior across wide parameter regions. Hence, it is necessary to understand how, where, and what types of such chaotic dynamics occur before they can be used in practical devices. We consider a pair of coupled differential equations that describes the interactions of two optical beams in a single-mode resonator with symmetric pumping. Recently, it was shown that this system exhibits a wide range of fascinating behaviors, including bistability, symmetry breaking, chaos, and self-switching oscillations. We employ here a dynamical system approach to identify, delimit, and explain the regions where such different behaviors can be observed. Specifically, we find that different kinds of self-switching oscillations are created via the collision of a pair of asymmetric periodic orbits or chaotic attractors at Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcations, which acts as a gluing bifurcation. We present a bifurcation diagram that shows how these global bifurcations are organized by a Belyakov transition point (where the stability of the homoclinic orbit changes). In this way, we map out distinct transitions to different chaotic switching behavior that should be expected from this optical device.

3.Strong coupling of monolayer WS2 excitons and surface plasmon polaritons in a planar Ag/WS2 hybrid structure

Authors:Nicolas Zorn Morales, Daniel Steffen Rühl, Sergey Sadofev, Giovanni Ligorio, Emil List-Kratochvil, Günter Kewes, Sylke Blumstengel

Abstract: Monolayer (1L) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) are of strong interest in nanophotonics due to their narrow-band intense excitonic transitions persisting up to room temperature. When brought into resonance with surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitations of a conductive medium opportunities for studying and engineering strong light-matter coupling arise. Here, we consider a most simple geometry, namely a planar stack composed of a thin silver film, an Al2O3 spacer and a monolayer of WS2. We perform total internal reflection ellipsometry which combines spectroscopic ellipsometry with the Kretschmann-Raether-type surface plasmon resonance configuration. The combined amplitude and phase response of the reflected light at varied angle of incidence proves that despite the atomic thinness of 1L-WS2, the strong coupling (SC) regime between A excitons and SPPs propagating in the thin Ag film is reached. The phasor representation of rho corroborates SC as rho undergoes a topology change indicated by the occurrence of a double point at the cross over from the weak to the strong coupling regime. Our findings are validated by both analytical transfer matrix method calculations and numerical Maxwell simulations. The findings open up new perspectives for applications in plasmonic modulators and sensors benefitting from the tunability of the optical properties of 1L-TMDCs by electric fields, electrostatic doping, light and the chemical environment.

4.Deep-subwavelength Phase Retarders at Mid-Infrared Frequencieswith van der Waals Flakes

Authors:Michael T. Enders, Mitradeep Sarkar, Aleksandra Deeva, Maxime Giteau, Hanan Herzig Sheinfux, Mehrdad Shokooh-Saremi, Frank H. L. Koppens, Georgia T. Papadakis

Abstract: Phase retardation is a cornerstone of modern optics, yet, at mid-infrared (mid-IR) frequencies, it remains a major challenge due to the scarcity of simultaneously transparent and birefringent crystals. Most materials resonantly absorb due to lattice vibrations occurring at mid-IR frequencies, and natural birefringence is weak, calling for hundreds of microns to millimeters-thick phase retarders for sufficient polarization rotation. We demonstrate mid-IR phase retardation with flakes of $\alpha$-molybdenum trioxide ($\alpha$-MoO$_3$) that are more than ten times thinner than the operational wavelength, achieving 90 degrees polarization rotation within one micrometer of material. We report conversion ratios above 50% in reflection and transmission mode, and wavelength tunability by several micrometers. Our results showcase that exfoliated flakes of low-dimensional crystals can serve as a platform for mid-IR miniaturized integrated polarization control.

5.Controlling lasing around Exceptional Points in Coupled Nanolasers

Authors:Anna Fischer, T. V. Raziman, Wai Kit Ng, Jente Clarysse, Jakub Dranczewski, Dhruv Saxena, Stefano Vezzoli, Heinz Schmid, Kirsten Moselund, Riccardo Sapienza

Abstract: Coupled nanolasers are of growing interest for on-chip optical computation and data transmission, which requires an understanding of how lasers interact to form complex systems. The non-Hermitian interaction between two coupled resonators, when excited selectively, can lead to parity-time symmetry, the formation of exceptional points, and subsequently spectral control and increased sensitivity. These investigations have been limited to pump energies close to the lasing threshold, and large or narrow-line lasers. Here, by programmable optical excitation we study two coupled nanolasers significantly above threshold, where mode instability plays an important role. We map the mode evolution around two exceptional points, and observe lasing gaps due to reversed pump dependence which compare well with nonlinear theory. Finally, the coupling can be exploited to control the lasing threshold and wavelength, and for frequency switching around the lasing gap. Controlled and integrated nanolasers constitutes a promising platform for future highly sensitive and programmable on-chip laser sources.

6.Fundamental precision limits of fluorescence microscopy: a new perspective on MINFLUX

Authors:Matteo Rosati, Miranda Parisi, Ilaria Gianani, Marco Barbieri, Gabriella Cincotti

Abstract: In the past years, optical fluorescence microscopy (OFM) made steady progress towards increasing the localisation precision of fluorescent emitters in biological samples. The high precision achieved by these techniques has prompted new claims, whose rigorous validation is an outstanding problem. For this purpose, local estimation theory (LET) has emerged as the most used mathematical tool. We establish a novel multi-parameter estimation framework that captures the full complexity of single-emitter localisation in an OFM experiment. Our framework relies on the fact that there are other unknown parameters alongside the emitter's coordinates, such as the average number of photons emitted (brightness), that are correlated to the emitter position, and affect the localisation precision. The increasing complexity of a multi-parameter approach allows for a more accountable assessment of the precision. We showcase our method with MINFLUX microscopy, the OFM approach that nowadays generates images with the best resolution. Introducing the brightness as an unknown parameter, we shed light on features that remain obscure in the conventional approach: the precision can be increased only by increasing the brightness, (i.e., illumination power or exposition time), whereas decreasing the beam separation offers limited advantages. We demonstrate that the proposed framework is a solid and general method for the quantification of single-emitter localisation precision for any OFM approach on equal footing, evaluating the localization precision of stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and making a comparison with MINFLUX microscopy.

7.Extinction coefficients from aerosol measurements

Authors:Christoph Gnendiger, Thorsten Schultze, Kristian Börger, Alexander Belt, Lukas Arnold

Abstract: In this contribution, we develop a model based on classical electrodynamics that describes light extinction in the presence of arbitrary aerosols. We do this by combining aerosol and light-intensity measurements performed with the well-proven measuring systems ELPI+ and MIREX, respectively. The developed model is particularly simple and depends on only a few input parameters, namely on densities and refractive indices of the constituting aerosol particles. As proof of principle, the model is in first applications used to determine extinction coefficients as well as mass-specific extinction for an infrared light source with a peak wave length of ${\lambda} = 0.88\ {\mu}m$. In doing so, detailed studies concentrate on two aerosols exemplary for characteristic values of the input parameters: a non-absorbing paraffin aerosol in a bench-scale setup and soot from a flaming n-heptane fire in a room-scale setup (test fire TF5 according to standard EN54). As main results, we find numerical values for mass-specific extinction that are first of all different in the two considered cases. Moreover, obtained results differ in part more than a factor of three from literature values typically used in practical applications. Based on the developed model, we explicitly address and assess underlying reasons for the deviations found. Finally, we propose a simple way how future light-extinction studies can be performed comparatively easily by means of the ELPI+-system or measuring devices that work in a similar way.

8.Optically stimulated electron paramagnetic resonance: simplicity, versatility, information content

Authors:V. O. Kozlov, A. A. Fomin, I. I. Ryzhov, G. G. Kozlov

Abstract: A simple technique for observing optically stimulated electron paramagnetic resonance (OSEPR) is proposed and investigated. The versatility and information content of the described technique is demonstrated by the example of the OSEPR spectra of systems that are unpopular for this type of spectroscopy: a crystal with rare-earth ions Nd$^{3+}$ and a doped semiconductor GaAs. In addition, the OSEPR spectrum of atomic cesium is presented, in which an optical nonlinearity is observed that makes it possible to estimate the Rabi frequency for the relevant optical transition. The effects observed in the described experiments (switching of peaks to dips, light-induced splitting of the OSEPR lines, and the appearance of a spectral feature at the double-Larmor frequency) are interpreted using the model proposed in the theoretical part of the work. The suggested interpretation shows the possibility of using the described OSEPR technique to estimate not only `magnetic' parameters of the model Hamiltonian (g-factors, spin relaxation times), but also the Rabi frequencies characterizing optical transitions.

9.Compact realization of all-attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy

Authors:Martin Kretschmar, Evaldas Svirplys, Mikhail Volkov, Tobias Witting, Tamás Nagy, Marc J. J. Vrakking, Bernd Schütte

Abstract: The ability to perform attosecond-pump attosecond-probe spectroscopy (APAPS) is a longstanding goal in ultrafast science. While first pioneering experiments demonstrated the feasibility of APAPS, the low repetition rates (10-120 Hz) and the large footprints of existing setups have so far hindered the widespread exploitation of APAPS. Here we demonstrate two-color APAPS using a commercial laser system at 1 kHz, straightforward post-compression in a hollow-core fiber and a compact high-harmonic generation (HHG) setup. The latter enables the generation of intense extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by using an out-of-focus HHG geometry and by exploiting a transient blueshift of the driving laser in the HHG medium. Near-isolated attosecond pulses are generated, as demonstrated by one-color and two-color XUV-pump XUV-probe experiments. Our concept allows selective pumping and probing on extremely short timescales and permits investigations of fundamental processes that are not accessible by other pump-probe techniques.

10.Synchrotron-based X-ray Fluorescence Ghost Imaging

Authors:Mathieu Manni, Adi Ben-Yehuda, Yishay Klein, Bratislav Lukic, Andrew Kingston, Alexander Rack, Sharon Shwartz, Nicola Viganò

Abstract: X-ray Fluorescence Ghost Imaging (XRF-GI) was recently demonstrated for x-ray lab sources. It has the potential to reduce acquisition time and deposited dose by choosing their trade-off with spatial resolution, while alleviating the focusing constraints of the probing beam. Here, we demonstrate the realization of synchrotron-based XRF-GI: We present both an adapted experimental setup and its corresponding required computational technique to process the data. This not only extends the above-mentioned advantages to synchrotron XRF imaging, it also presents new possibilities for developing strategies to improve precision in nano-scale imaging measurements.

1.Efficient Photonic Integration of Diamond Color Centers and Thin-Film Lithium Niobate

Authors:Daniel Riedel, Hope Lee, Jason F. Herrmann, Jakob Grzesik, Vahid Ansari, Jean-Michel Borit, Hubert S. Stokowski, Shahriar Aghaeimeibodi, Haiyu Lu, Patrick J. McQuade, Nick A. Melosh, Zhi-Xun Shen, Amir H. Safavi-Naeini, Jelena Vučković

Abstract: On-chip photonic quantum circuits with integrated quantum memories have the potential to radically progress hardware for quantum information processing. In particular, negatively charged group-IV color centers in diamond are promising candidates for quantum memories, as they combine long storage times with excellent optical emission properties and an optically-addressable spin state. However, as a material, diamond lacks many functionalities needed to realize scalable quantum systems. Thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN), in contrast, offers a number of useful photonic nonlinearities, including the electro-optic effect, piezoelectricity, and capabilities for periodically-poled quasi-phase matching. Here, we present highly efficient heterogeneous integration of diamond nanobeams containing negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers with TFLN waveguides. We observe greater than 90\% transmission efficiency between the diamond nanobeam and TFLN waveguide on average across multiple measurements. By comparing saturation signal levels between confocal and integrated collection, we determine a $10$-fold increase in photon counts channeled into TFLN waveguides versus that into out-of-plane collection channels. Our results constitute a key step for creating scalable integrated quantum photonic circuits that leverage the advantages of both diamond and TFLN materials.

2.Bose-Einstein Condensation of Light in a Semiconductor Quantum Well Microcavity

Authors:Ross C. Schofield, Ming Fu, Edmund Clarke, Ian Farrer, Aristotelis Trapalis, Himadri S. Dhar, Rick Mukherjee, Jon Heffernan, Florian Mintert, Robert A. Nyman, Rupert F. Oulton

Abstract: When particles with integer spin accumulate at low temperature and high density they undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). Atoms, solid-state excitons and excitons coupled to light all exhibit BEC, which results in high coherence due to massive occupation of the respective system's ground state. Surprisingly, photons were shown to exhibit BEC much more recently in organic dye-filled optical microcavities, which, owing to the photon's low mass, occurs at room temperature. Here we demonstrate that photons within an inorganic semiconductor microcavity also thermalise and undergo BEC. Although semiconductor lasers are understood to operate out of thermal equilibrium, we identify a region of good thermalisation in our system where we can clearly distinguish laser action from BEC. Based on well-developed technology, semiconductor microcavities are a robust system for exploring the physics and applications of quantum statistical photon condensates. Notably, photon BEC is an alternative to exciton-based BECs, which dissociate under high excitation and often require cryogenic operating conditions. In practical terms, photon BECs offer their critical behaviour at lower thresholds than lasers. Our study shows two further advantages of photon BEC in semiconductor materials: the lack of dark electronic states allows these BECs to be sustained continuously; and semiconductor quantum wells offer strong photon-photon scattering. We measure an unoptimised interaction parameter, $\tilde{g}=0.0023\pm0.0003$, which is large enough to access the rich physics of interactions within BECs, such as superfluid light or vortex formation.

3.Vortex solitons in moire optical lattices

Authors:Sergey K. Ivanov, Vladimir V. Konotop, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Lluis Torner

Abstract: We show that optical moire lattices enable the existence of vortex solitons of different types in self-focusing Kerr media. We address the properties of such states both in lattices having commensurate and incommensurate geometries (i.e., constructed with Pythagorean and non-Pythagorean twist angles, respectively), in the different regimes that occur below and above the localization-delocalization transition. We find that the threshold power required for the formation of vortex solitons strongly depends on the twist angle and, also, that the families of solitons exhibit intervals where their power is a nearly linear function of the propagation constant and they exhibit strong stability. Also, in the incommensurate phase above the localization-delocalization transition, we found stable embedded vortex solitons whose propagation constants belong to the linear spectral domain of the system.

4.Dynamical phase transition of light in time-varying nonlinear dispersive media

Authors:Nicolas Cherroret

Abstract: We demonstrate the existence of a prethermal dynamical phase transition (DPT) for fluctuating optical beams propagating in nonlinear dispersive media. The DPT can be probed by suddenly changing in time the dispersion and nonlinearity parameters of the medium (thus realizing a "temporal interface"), a procedure that emulates a quench in a massive $\varphi^4$ model. Above a critical value of the quench identifying the transition, the fluctuating beam after the temporal interface is characterized by a correlation length that diverges algebraically at the transition. Below the critical quench, the beam exhibits an algebraic relaxation and a self-similar scaling. Our analysis also reveals a dimensional cross-over of the critical exponent, a characteristic feature of the optical DPT.

5.Graph model for multiple scattering in lithium niobate on insulator integrated photonic networks

Authors:Xiyue Sissi Wang, Romolo Savo, Andreas Maeder, Fabian Kaufmann, Jost Kellner, Andrea Morandi, Stefan Rotter, Riccardo Sapienza, Rachel Grange

Abstract: We present a graph-based model for multiple scattering of light in integrated lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) networks, which describes an open network of single-mode integrated waveguides with tunable scattering at the network nodes. We first validate the model at small scale with experimental LNOI resonator devices and show consistent agreement between simulated and measured spectral data. Then, the model is used to demonstrate a novel platform for on-chip multiple scattering in large-scale optical networks up to few hundred nodes, with tunable scattering behaviour and tailored disorder. Combining our simple graph-based model with material properties of LNOI, this platform creates new opportunities to control randomness in large optical networks.

6.Wide-range Angle-sensitive Plasmonic Color Printing on Lossy-Resonator Substrates

Authors:Sarah N. Chowdhury, Jeffrey Simon, Michał P. Nowak, Karthik Pagadala, Piotr Nyga, Colton Fruhling, Esteban Garcia Bravo, Sebastian Maćkowski, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Alexander V. Kildishev, Alexandra Boltasseva

Abstract: We demonstrate a sustainable, lithography-free process for generating non fading plasmonic colors with a prototype device that produces a wide range of vivid colors in red, green, and blue (RGB) ([0-1], [0-1], [0-1]) color space from violet (0.7, 0.72, 1) to blue (0.31, 0.80, 1) and from green (0.84, 1, 0.58) to orange (1, 0.58, 0.46). The proposed color-printing device architecture integrates a semi-transparent random metal film (RMF) with a metal back mirror to create a lossy asymmetric Fabry-P\'erot resonator. This device geometry allows for advanced control of the observed color through the five-degree multiplexing (RGB color space, angle, and polarization sensitivity). An extended color palette is then obtained through photomodification process and localized heating of the RMF layer under various femtosecond laser illumination conditions at the wavelengths of 400 nm and 800 nm. Colorful design samples with total areas up to 10 mm2 and 100 {\mu}m resolution are printed on 300-nm-thick films to demonstrate macroscopic high-resolution color generation. The proposed printing approach can be extended to other applications including laser marking, anti-counterfeiting and chromo-encryption.

7.Radiation of Optical Angular Momentum from a Dipole Source in a Magneto-birefringent Environment

Authors:R. Le Fournis, B. A. Van Tiggelen

Abstract: We investigate the radiation of optical angular momentum by a dipole gas under uniform magnetic field with an unpolarized source at its center. Conservation of angular momentum implies that the radiation of angular momentum results in a torque on both the source and the surrounding environment. Moreover, we study the spin and orbital contributions to the radiated angular momentum.

8.Measurement Accuracy in Silicon Photonic Ring Resonator Thermometers: Identifying and Mitigating Intrinsic Impairments

Authors:Siegfried Janz, Sergey Dedyulin, D. -X. Xu, Martin Vachon, Shurui Wang, Ross Cheriton, John Weber

Abstract: Silicon photonic ring resonator thermometers have been shown to provide temperature measurements with a 10 mK accuracy. In this work we identify and quantify the intrinsic on-chip impairments that may limit further improvement in temperature measurement accuracy. The impairments arise from optically induced changes in the waveguide effective index, and from back-reflections and scattering at defects and interfaces inside the ring cavity and along the path between light source and detector. These impairments are characterized for 220 x 500 nm Si waveguide rings by experimental measurement in a calibrated temperature bath and by phenomenological models of ring response. At different optical power levels both positive and negative light induced resonance shifts are observed. For a ring with L = 100 um cavity length, the self-heating induced resonance red shift can alter the temperature reading by 200 mK at 1 mW incident power, while a small blue shift is observed below 100 uW. The effect of self-heating is shown to be effectively suppressed by choosing longer ring cavities. Scattering and back-reflections often produce split and distorted resonance line shapes. Although these distortions can vary with resonance order, they are almost completely invariant with temperature for a given resonance and do not lead to measurement errors in themselves. The effect of line shape distortions can largely be mitigated by tracking only selected resonance orders with negligible shape distortion, and by measuring the resonance minimum wavelength directly, rather than attempting to fit the entire resonance line shape. The results demonstrate the temperature error due to these impairments can be limited to below the 3 mK level through appropriate design choices and measurement procedures.

1.Virtual perfect absorption in resonant media and their PT-symmetric generalizations

Authors:Denis Novitsky

Abstract: Virtual perfect absorption (VPA) is an effect simulating real absorption of light by using excitation at a complex frequency corresponding to a scattering zero. We theoretically study VPA in resonantly absorbing and amplifying media irradiated by two counterpropagating waves with exponentially growing amplitudes. We show that VPA critically depends on the medium density (i.e., level of loss or gain) deteriorating in the high-density limit. In contrast, almost ideal VPA persists in the PT-symmetric loss-gain bilayer. For high enough gain, the powerful quasilasing pulses are observed at later times symmetrically (single amplifying layer) or asymmetrically (PT-symmetric structure) generated in both propagation directions.

2.Dynamic structured illumination for confocal microscopy

Authors:Guillaume Noetinger, Fabrice Lemoult, Sébastien M. Popoff

Abstract: Structured illumination enables the tailoring of an imaging device's optical transfer function to enhance resolution. We propose the incorporation of a temporal periodic modulation, specifically a rotating mask, to encode multiple transfer functions in the temporal domain. This approach is demonstrated using a confocal microscope configuration. At each scanning position, a temporal periodic signal is recorded. By filtering around each harmonic of the rotation frequency, multiple images of the same object can be constructed. The image carried by the $n{\mathrm{th}}$ harmonic is a convolution of the object with a phase vortex of topological charge $n$, similar to the outcome when using a vortex phase plate as an illumination. This enables the collection of chosen high spatial frequencies from the sample, thereby enhancing the spatial resolution of the confocal microscope.

3.Dynamic manipulation of graphene plasmonic skyrmions

Authors:Ni Zhang, Xinrui Lei, Jiachen Liu, Qiwen Zhan

Abstract: With the characteristics of ultrasmall, ultrafast and topological protection, optical skyrmions has great prospects in application of high intensity data stroage, high resolution microscopic imaging and polarization sensing. The flexible control of the optical skyrmions is the premise of practical application. At present, the manipulation of optical skyrmions usually relies upon the change of spatial structure, which results in a limited-tuning range and a discontinuous control in the parameter space. Here, we propose continuous manipulation of the graphene plasmons skyrmions based on the electrotunable properties of graphene. By changing the Fermi energy of one pair of the standing waves and the phase of the incident light can achieve the transformation of the topological state of the graphene plasmons skyrmions, which can be illustrated by the change of the skyrmion number from 1 to 0.5. The direc manipulation of the graphene plasmons skyrmions is demonstrated by the simulation results based on the finite element method. Our work suggests a feasible way to flexibly control the optical skyrmions topological field, which can be used for novel integrated photonics devices in the future.

4.Soap bubble lasers

Authors:Zala Potočnik, Matjaž Humar

Abstract: Soap bubbles are simple, yet very unique and marvelous objects. They exhibit a number of interesting properties such as beautiful interference colors and the formation of minimal surfaces. Various optical phenomena have been studied in soap films and bubbles, but so far they were not employed as optical cavities. Here we demonstrate, that dye doped soap or smectic liquid crystal bubbles can support whispering gallery mode lasing, which is observed in the spectrum as hundreds of regularly spaced peaks, resembling a frequency comb. The lasing enabled the measurement of size changes as small as 10 nm in a millimeter-sized, ~100 nm thick bubble. Bubble lasers were used as extremely sensitive electric field sensors with a sensitivity of 11 Vm$^{-1}$Hz$^{-1/2}$. They also enable the measurement of pressures up to a 100 bar with a resolution of 1.5 Pa, resulting in a dynamic range of almost 10$^7$. By connecting the bubble to a reservoir of air, almost arbitrarily low pressure changes can be measured while maintaining an outstanding dynamic range. The demonstrated soap bubble lasers are a very unique type of microcavities which are one of the best electric field and pressure microsensors to date and could in future also be employed to study thin films and cavity optomechanics.

5.Role of blue-shift length in macroscopic properties of high-harmonic generation

Authors:Margarita Khokhlova, Vasily Strelkov

Abstract: The production of brighter coherent XUV radiation by intense laser pulses through the process of high-harmonic generation (HHG) is a central challenge in contemporary nonlinear optics. We study the generation and spatial propagation of high harmonics analytically and via ab initio simulations. We focus on the length scales defining the growth of the harmonic signal with propagation distance and show that the well-known coherence length limits HHG only for relatively low driving intensities. For higher intensities, the photoionisation of the medium, naturally accompanying HHG, leads to essentially transient phase matching and laser frequency blue shift. By systematically taking both of these factors into account, we demonstrate that the behaviour of the harmonic signal at higher intensities is defined by another length scale -- the blue-shift length. In this generation regime the XUV intensity at a given frequency first grows quadratically and then saturates passing the blue-shift length, but the total harmonic efficiency continues growing linearly due to the linear increase of the harmonic line bandwidth. The changeover to this generation regime takes place for all harmonic orders roughly simultaneously. The rate of the efficiency growth is maximal if the static dispersion is compensated by photoelectrons near the centre of the laser pulse. Our theory offers a robust way to choose the generation conditions that optimise the growth of the harmonic signal with propagation.

6.A system-on-chip microwave photonic processor solves dynamic RF interference in real time with picosecond latency

Authors:Weipeng Zhang, Joshua C. Lederman, Thomas Ferreira de Lima, Jiawei Zhang, Simon Bilodeau, Leila Hudson, Alexander Tait, Bhavin J. Shastri, Paul R. Prucnal

Abstract: Radio-frequency interference is a growing concern as wireless technology advances, with potentially life-threatening consequences like interference between radar altimeters and 5G cellular networks. Mobile transceivers mix signals with varying ratios over time, posing challenges for conventional digital signal processing (DSP) due to its high latency. These challenges will worsen as future wireless technologies adopt higher carrier frequencies and data rates. However, conventional DSPs, already on the brink of their clock frequency limit, are expected to offer only marginal speed advancements. This paper introduces a photonic processor to address dynamic interference through blind source separation (BSS). Our system-on-chip processor employs a fully integrated photonic signal pathway in the analogue domain, enabling rapid demixing of received mixtures and recovering the signal-of-interest in under 15 picoseconds. This reduction in latency surpasses electronic counterparts by more than three orders of magnitude. To complement the photonic processor, electronic peripherals based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) assess the effectiveness of demixing and continuously update demixing weights at a rate of up to 305 Hz. This compact setup features precise dithering weight control, impedance-controlled circuit board and optical fibre packaging, suitable for handheld and mobile scenarios. We experimentally demonstrate the processor's ability to suppress transmission errors and maintain signal-to-noise ratios in two scenarios, radar altimeters and mobile communications. This work pioneers the real-time adaptability of integrated silicon photonics, enabling online learning and weight adjustments, and showcasing practical operational applications for photonic processing.

7.Noise-induced servo errors in optical clocks utilizing Rabi interrogation

Authors:T. Lindvall, A. E. Wallin, K. J. Hanhijärvi, T. Fordell

Abstract: We show that in optical clocks based on Rabi interrogation, both laser-frequency and magnetic-field flicker ($1/f$) noise with zero mean can lead to servo errors at the $10^{-18}$ level if the negative-detuning (red) and positive-detuning (blue) sides of the transition are always probed in the same order. This is due to the strong correlations of flicker noise in combination with an imbalance in the response of the servo discriminator to positive and negative differential frequency noise between the red- and blue-side probing. This imbalance is particularly large for a normalized discriminator. We derive an analytical expression for the servo error based on the correlation function of the laser-frequency or magnetic-field noise and compare it to numerical servo simulations to demonstrate how the error depends on the noise level, servo parameters, and probing sequence. We also show that the servo error can be avoided by normalizing the discriminator with a moving mean or by reversing the red/blue probing order for every second servo cycle.

8.Nonvolatile Tuning of Bragg Structures Using Transparent Phase-Change Materials

Authors:Nicholas A. Nobile, Chuanyu Lian, Hongyi Sun, Yi-Siou Huang, Brian Mills, Cosmin Constantin Popescu, Dennis Callahan, Juejun Hu, Carlos A. Ríos Ocampo, Nathan Youngblood

Abstract: Bragg gratings offer high-performance filtering and routing of light on-chip through a periodic modulation of a waveguide's effective refractive index. Here, we model and experimentally demonstrate the use of Sb2Se3, a nonvolatile and transparent phase-change material, to tune the resonance conditions in two devices which leverage periodic Bragg gratings: a stopband filter and Fabry-Perot cavity. Through simulations, we show that similar refractive indices between silicon and amorphous Sb2Se3 can be used to induce broadband transparency, while the crystalline state can enhance the index contrast in these Bragg devices. Our experimental results show the promise and limitations of this design approach and highlight specific fabrication challenges which need to be addressed in future implementations.

1.Super bound states in the continuum through merging in grating

Authors:Evgeny Bulgakov Kirensky Institute of Physics Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, Galina Shadrina Institute of Computational Modelling SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, Russia, Almas Sadreev Kirensky Institute of Physics Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, Konstantin Pichugin Kirensky Institute of Physics Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Abstract: Bound states in the continuum (BICs) in gratings composed of infinitely long silicon rods of rectangular cross-section are considered. We reveal merging off-$\Gamma$ Friedrich-Wintgen BIC with symmetry protected BIC. We present CMT and multipole decomposition theory complementary each other to analyze the merging phenomenon. The theories show a crossover of the behavior of $Q$-factor from standard inverse square law $k_{x,z}^{-2}$ towards to extremely fast boosting law $k_{x,z}^{-6}$ in momentum space. In turn that crossover gives rise to another crossover from $Q\sim N^2$ to $Q\sim N^3$ for symmetry protected quasi BIC in finite grating of $N$ rods owing to suppression of radiation leakage of quasi BIC mode from surface of grating. As a result the $Q$-factor of quasi BIC is determined by residual leakage from ends of grating. We show numerically that this leakage also can be suppressed considerably if to stretch grating from the ends.

2.Neural 360$^\circ$ Structured Light with Learned Metasurfaces

Authors:Eunsue Choi, Gyeongtae Kim, Jooyeong Yun, Yujin Jeon, Junseok Rho, Seung-Hwan Baek

Abstract: Structured light has proven instrumental in 3D imaging, LiDAR, and holographic light projection. Metasurfaces, comprised of sub-wavelength-sized nanostructures, facilitate 180$^\circ$ field-of-view (FoV) structured light, circumventing the restricted FoV inherent in traditional optics like diffractive optical elements. However, extant metasurface-facilitated structured light exhibits sub-optimal performance in downstream tasks, due to heuristic pattern designs such as periodic dots that do not consider the objectives of the end application. In this paper, we present neural 360$^\circ$ structured light, driven by learned metasurfaces. We propose a differentiable framework, that encompasses a computationally-efficient 180$^\circ$ wave propagation model and a task-specific reconstructor, and exploits both transmission and reflection channels of the metasurface. Leveraging a first-order optimizer within our differentiable framework, we optimize the metasurface design, thereby realizing neural 360$^\circ$ structured light. We have utilized neural 360$^\circ$ structured light for holographic light projection and 3D imaging. Specifically, we demonstrate the first 360$^\circ$ light projection of complex patterns, enabled by our propagation model that can be computationally evaluated 50,000$\times$ faster than the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld propagation. For 3D imaging, we improve depth-estimation accuracy by 5.09$\times$ in RMSE compared to the heuristically-designed structured light. Neural 360$^\circ$ structured light promises robust 360$^\circ$ imaging and display for robotics, extended-reality systems, and human-computer interactions.

3.Nonlinear optical pulses in media with asymmetric gain

Authors:Sergei K. Turitsyn, Anastasia E. Bednyakova, Evgeniy V. Podivilov

Abstract: A generic novel model governing optical pulse propagation in a nonlinear dispersive amplifying medium with asymmetric (linear spectral slope) gain is introduced. We examine the properties of asymmetric optical pulses formed in such gain-skewed media, both theoretically and numerically. We derive a dissipative optical modification of the classical shallow water equations that highlights an analogy between this phenomenon and hydrodynamic wave-breaking. We observe the development of spectral optical shock waves, and discuss the conditions and origins of this spectral wave-breaking in media with asymmetric gain. These findings provide insight into the nature of asymmetric optical pulses capable of accumulating large nonlinear phase without wave-breaking, a crucial aspect in the design of nonlinear fiber amplifiers.

4.An electroplating-based plasmonic platform for giant emission enhancement in monolayer semiconductors

Authors:Abhay Anand V S, Mihir Kumar Sahoo, Faiha Mujeeb, Abin Varghese, Subhabrata Dhar, Saurabh Lodha, Anshuman Kumar

Abstract: Two dimensional semiconductors have attracted considerable attention owing to their exceptional electronic and optical characteristics. However, their practical application has been hindered by the limited light absorption resulting from their atomically thin thickness and low quantum yield. A highly effective approach to manipulate optical properties and address these limitations is integrating subwavelength plasmonic nanostructures with these monolayers. In this study, we employed electron beam lithography and electroplating technique to fabricate a gold nanodisc (AuND) array capable of enhancing the photoluminescence (PL) of monolayer MoS$_2$ giantly. Monolayer MoS$_2$ placed on the top of the AuND array yields up to 150-fold PL enhancement compared to that on a gold film. We explain our experimental findings based on electromagnetic simulations.

5.Continuous Ultraviolet to Blue-Green Astrocomb

Authors:Yuk Shan Cheng, Kamalesh Dadi, Toby Mitchell, Samantha Thompson, Nikolai Piskunov, Lewis D. Wright, Corin B. E. Gawith, Richard A. McCracken, Derryck T. Reid

Abstract: The characterization of Earth-like exoplanets and precision tests of cosmological models using next-generation telescopes such as the ELT will demand precise calibration of astrophysical spectrographs in the visible region, where stellar absorption lines are most abundant. Astrocombs--lasers providing a broadband sequence of ultra-narrow, drift-free, regularly spaced optical frequencies on a multi-GHz grid--promise an atomically-traceable, versatile calibration scale, but their realization is challenging because of the need for ultra-broadband frequency conversion of mode-locked infrared lasers into the blue-green region. Here, we introduce a new concept achieving a broad, continuous spectrum by combining second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency-mixing in an aperiodically-poled MgO:PPLN waveguide to generate gap-free 390-520 nm light from a 1 GHz Ti:sapphire laser frequency comb. We lock a low-dispersion Fabry-Perot etalon to extract a sub-comb of bandwidth from 392-472 nm with a spacing of 30 GHz, visualizing the thousands of resulting comb modes on a high resolution cross-dispersion spectrograph. Complementary experimental data and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach for eliminating the spectral gaps present in second-harmonic-only conversion, in which weaker fundamental frequencies are suppressed by the quadratic \{chi}^((2)) nonlinearity. Requiring only ~100 pJ pulse energies, our concept establishes a practical new route to broadband UV-visible generation at GHz repetition rates.

6.Topological learning for the classification of disorder: an application to the design of metasurfaces

Authors:Tristan Madeleine, Nina Podoliak, Oleksandr Buchnev, Ingrid Membrillo Solis, Giampaolo D'Alessandro, Jacek Brodzki, Malgosia Kaczmarek

Abstract: Structural disorder can improve the optical properties of metasurfaces, whether it is emerging from some large-scale fabrication methods, or explicitly designed and built lithographically. Correlated disorder, induced by a minimum inter-nanostructure distance or by hyperuniformity properties, is particularly beneficial in some applications such as light extraction. We introduce numerical descriptors inspired from topology to provide quantitative measures of disorder whose universal properties make them suitable for both uncorrelated and correlated disorder, where statistical descriptors are less accurate. We prove theoretically and experimentally the accuracy of these topological descriptors of disorder by using them to design plasmonic metasurfaces of controlled disorder, that we correlate to the strength of their surface lattice resonances. These tools can be used for the fast and accurate design of disordered metasurfaces, or to help tuning large-scale fabrication methods.

7.Ultraviolet astronomical spectrograph calibration with laser frequency combs from nanophotonic waveguides

Authors:Markus Ludwig, Furkan Ayhan, Tobias M. Schmidt, Thibault Wildi, Thibault Voumard, Roman Blum, Zhichao Ye, Fuchuan Lei, François Wildi, Francesco Pepe, Mahmoud A. Gaafar, Ewelina Obrzud, Davide Grassani, François Moreau, Bruno Chazelas, Rico Sottile, Victor Torres-Company, Victor Brasch, Luis G. Villanueva, François Bouchy, Tobias Herr

Abstract: Astronomical precision spectroscopy underpins searches for life beyond Earth, direct observation of the expanding Universe and constraining the potential variability of physical constants across cosmological scales. Laser frequency combs can provide the critically required accurate and precise calibration to the astronomical spectrographs. For cosmological studies, extending the calibration with such astrocombs to the ultraviolet spectral range is highly desirable, however, strong material dispersion and large spectral separation from the established infrared laser oscillators have made this exceedingly challenging. Here, we demonstrate for the first time astronomical spectrograph calibrations with an astrocomb in the ultraviolet spectral range below 400 nm. This is accomplished via chip-integrated highly nonlinear photonics in periodically-poled, nano-fabricated lithium niobate waveguides in conjunction with a robust infrared electro-optic comb generator, as well as a chip-integrated microresonator comb. These results demonstrate a viable route towards astronomical precision spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and may contribute to unlocking the full potential of next generation ground- and future space-based astronomical instruments.

8.Thermally-Switchable Metalenses Based on Quasi-Bound States in the Continuum

Authors:Stephanie C. Malek, Cheng-Chia Tsai, Nanfang Yu

Abstract: Dynamic wavefront shaping with optical metasurfaces has presented a major challenge and inspired a large number of highly elaborate solutions. Here, we experimentally demonstrate thermo-optically reconfigurable, nonlocal metasurfaces using simple device architectures and conventional CMOS-compatible dielectric materials. These metasurfaces support quasi-bound states in the continuum (q-BICs) derived from symmetry breaking and encoded with a spatially varying geometric phase, such that they shape optical wavefront exclusively on spectrally narrowband resonances. Due to the enhanced light-matter interaction enabled by the resonant q-BICs, a slight variation of the refractive index introduced by heating and cooling the entire device leads to a substantial shift of the resonant wavelength and a subsequent change to the optical wavefront associated with the resonance. We experimentally demonstrate a metalens modulator, the focusing capability of which can be thermally turned on and off, and reconfigurable metalenses, which can be thermo-optically switched to produce two distinct focal patterns. Our devices offer a pathway to realize reconfigurable, multifunctional meta-optics using established manufacturing processes and widely available dielectric materials that are conventionally not considered "active" materials due to their small thermo-optic or electro-optic coefficients.

1.Self-compression of femtosecond pulses in normally dispersive media

Authors:Renjing Chen, Wenhai Liang, Yilin Xu, Xiong Shen, Peng Wang, Jun Liu, Ruxin Li

Abstract: Self-compression is a simple method to achieve ultrashort and ultraintense pulses. By solving a modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation considering the fifth-order susceptibility, it is found that self-compression appeared even in normally dispersive media owing to the negative fifth-order susceptibility inducing a mass of negative frequency chirp. Furthermore, negatively pre-chirped pulses help to achieve pulse self-compression at lower input peak intensity which will avoid the damage of media. The optimized-choosing of pre-chirp, input intensity and length of media are numerically analyzed. Proof-of-principle experiments successfully prove the above theoretical findings. It is expected that petawatt laser pulses with 25 fs/15 fs transform limited pulse duration can be self-compressed to about 10.7 fs/8.8 fs in normally dispersive media such as fused silica glass plates.

2.On the origin of the Kerker phenomena

Authors:Jon Lasa-Alonso, Chiara Devescovi, Carlos Maciel-Escudero, Aitzol García-Etxarri, Gabriel Molina-Terriza

Abstract: We provide an insight into the origin of the phenomena reported 40 years ago by Kerker, Wang and Giles (Journal of the Optical Society of America, 73, 6, pp. 765-767, (1983)). We show that the impedance and refractive index matching conditions, discussed in Sections II and IV of the seminal paper, are intimately related with space-time symmetries. We derive our results starting from the theory of representations of the Poincar\'e group, as it is the theory on which one of the most elemental descriptions of electromagnetic waves is based. We show that fundamental features of electromagnetic waves in material environments can be derived from group theoretical arguments. In particular, we identify the Casimir invariants of $P_{\scriptscriptstyle{{3,1}}}$ subgroup as the magnitudes which describe the nature of monochromatic electromagnetic waves propagating in matter. Finally, we show that the emergence of the Kerker phenomena is associated with the conservation of such Casimir invariants in piecewise homogeneous media.

3.The theory of electromagnetic line waves

Authors:S. A. R. Horsley, A. Dwivedi

Abstract: Whereas electromagnetic surface waves are confined to a planar interface between two media, line waves exist at the one-dimensional interface between three materials. Here we derive a non-local integral equation for computing the properties of line waves, valid for surfaces characterised in terms of a general tensorial impedance. We find a good approximation -- in many cases -- is to approximate this as a local differential equation, where line waves are one-dimensional analogues of surface plasmons bound to a spatially dispersive metal. For anisotropic surfaces we find the oscillating decay of recently discovered `ghost' line waves can be explained in terms of an effective gauge field induced by the surface anisotropy. These findings are validated using finite element simulations.

4.Strong coupling of plasmonic bright and dark modes with two eigenmodes of a photonic crystal cavity

Authors:Fanqi Meng, Lei Cao, Aristeidis Karalis, Hantian Gu, Mark D. Thomson, Hartmut G. Roskos

Abstract: Dark modes represent a class of forbidden transitions or transitions with weak dipole moments between energy states. Due to their low transition probability, it is difficult to realize their interaction with light, let alone achieve the strong interaction of the modes with the photons in a cavity. However, by mutual coupling with a bright mode, the strong interaction of dark modes with photons is possible. This type of mediated interaction is widely investigated in the metamaterials community and is known under the term electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Here, we report strong coupling between a plasmonic dark mode of an EIT-like metamaterial with the photons of a 1D photonic crystal cavity in the terahertz frequency range. The coupling between the dark mode and the cavity photons is mediated by a plasmonic bright mode, which is proven by the observation of a frequency splitting which depends on the strength of the inductive interaction between the plasmon bright and dark modes of the EIT-like metamaterial. In addition, since the plasmonic dark mode strongly couples with the cavity dark mode, we observes four polariton modes. The frequency splitting by interaction of the four modes (plasmonic bright and dark mode and the two eigenmodes of the photonic cavity) can be reproduced in the framework of a model of four coupled harmonic oscillators.

5.Coupled air lasing gain and Mie scattering loss: aerosol effect in filament-induced plasma spectroscopy

Authors:Jiayun Xue, Zhi Zhang, Yuezheng Wang, Binpeng Shang, Jiewei Guo, Shishi Tao, Nan Zhang, Lanjunguo, Pengfei Qi, Lie Lin, Weiwei Liu

Abstract: Femtosecond laser filament-induced plasma spectroscopy (FIPS) demonstrates great potentials in the remote sensing for identifying atmospheric pollutant molecules. Due to the widespread aerosols in atmosphere, the remote detection based on FIPS would be affected from both the excitation and the propagation of fingerprint fluorescence, which still remain elusive. Here the physical model of filament-induced aerosol fluorescence is established to reveal the combined effect of Mie scattering and amplification spontaneous emission, which is then proved by the experimental results, the dependence of the backward fluorescence on the interaction length between filament and aerosols. These findings provide an insight into the complicated aerosol effect in the overall physical process of FIPS including propagation, excitation and emission, paving the way to its practical application in atmospheric remote sensing.

6.Watt-class CMOS-compatible power amplifier

Authors:Neetesh Singh, Jan Lorenzen, Kai Wang, Mahmoud A. Gaafar, Milan Sinobad, Henry Francis, Marvin Edelmann, Michael Geiselmann, Tobias Herr, Sonia M Garcia-Blanco, Franz X. Kaertner

Abstract: Power amplifier is becoming a critical component for integrated photonics as the integrated devices try to carve out a niche in the world of real-world applications of photonics. That is because the signal generated from an integrated device severely lacks in power which is due mainly to the small size which, although gives size and weight advantage, limits the energy storage capacity of an integrated device due to the small volume, causing it to rely on its bench-top counterpart for signal amplification downstream. Therefore, an integrated high-power signal booster can play a major role by replacing these large solid-state and fiber-based benchtop systems. For decades, large mode area (LMA) technology has played a disruptive role by increasing the signal power and energy by orders of magnitude in the fiber-based lasers and amplifiers. Thanks to the capability of LMA fiber to support significantly larger optical modes the energy storage and handling capability has significantly increased. Such an LMA device on an integrated platform can play an important role for high power applications. In this work, we demonstrate LMA waveguide based CMOS compatible watt-class power amplifier with an on-chip output power reaching ~ 1W within a footprint of ~4mm2.The power achieved is comparable and even surpasses many fiber-based amplifiers. We believe this work opens up opportunities for integrated photonics to find real world application on-par with its benchtop counterpart.

1.Topological state transitions in electromagnetic topological defects

Authors:Peng Shi, Qiang Zhang, Xiaocong Yuan

Abstract: The recent emergence of electromagnetic topological defects has attracted wide interest in fields from topological photonics to deep-subwavelength light-mater interactions. Previously, much of the research has focused on constructing specific topological defects but the fundamental theory describing the physical mechanisms underlying their formation and transitions is lacking. Here, we present a spin-orbit coupling based theory describing such mechanisms for various configurations of spin topological defects in confined electromagnetic fields. The results reveal that their formation originates from the conservation of total angular momentum and that their transitions are determined by anisotropic spin-orbit couplings. By engineering the spin-orbit couplings, we observe the formation and transitions of Neel-type, twisted-type, and Bloch-type spin topological defects in confined electromagnetic fields. A stable Block-type spin topological defect is reported for the first time. Our theory can also describe the transitions of field topological defects. The findings enrich the portfolio of electromagnetic topological defects, deepen our understanding of conserved laws, spin-orbit couplings and transitions of topological defects in confined electromagnetic systems, and predict applications in high-density optical data transmissions and chiral quantum optics.

2.Large-volume focus control at 10 MHz refresh rate via fast line-scanning amplitude-encoded scattering-assisted holography

Authors:Atsushi Shibukawa, Ryota Higuchi, Gookho Song, Hideharu Mikami, Yuki Sudo, Mooseok Jang

Abstract: The capability of focus control has been central to optical technologies that require both high temporal and spatial resolutions. However, existing varifocal lens schemes are commonly limited to the response time on the microsecond timescale and share the fundamental trade-off between the response time and the tuning power. Here, we propose an ultrafast holographic focusing method enabled by translating the speed of a fast 1D beam scanner into the speed of the complex wavefront modulation of a relatively slow 2D spatial light modulator. Using a pair of a digital micromirror device and a resonant scanner, we demonstrate an unprecedented refresh rate of focus control of 31 MHz, which is more than 1,000 times faster than the switching rate of a digital micromirror device. We also show that multiple micrometer sized focal spots can be independently addressed in a range of over 1 MHz within a large volume of 5 mm x 5 mm x 5.5 mm, validating the superior spatiotemporal characteristics of the proposed technique - high temporal and spatial precision, high tuning power, and random accessibility in a three-dimensional space. The demonstrated scheme offers a new route towards three-dimensional light manipulation in the 100 MHz regime.

3.Low-coherence digital holographic microscope with Fizeau interferometer

Authors:Mohit Rathor, Shivam Kumar Chaubey, Neha Choudhary, Rakesh Kumar Singh

Abstract: We present a new digital holographic microscope (DHM) with a low coherent source for the quantitative imaging of smooth and optically rough objects. The experimental design of the microscope uses an in-line experimental geometry based on the Fizeau interferometer and shows the depth sectioning capability due to the limited longitudinal coherence of the source. A polarization-phase shifting approach is implemented to extract the quantitative and speckle-free image from the experimentally recorded interference fringes. To test and experimentally demonstrate the working of the proposed DHM, we present the results of the quantitative images for different objects.

4.Pyroelectric Influence on Lithium Niobate During the Thermal Transition for Cryogenic Integrated Photonics

Authors:Frederik Thiele, Thomas Hummel, Nina Amelie Lange, Felix Dreher, Maximilian Protte, Felix vom Bruch, Sebastian Lengeling, Harald Herrmann, Christof Eigner, Christine Silberhorn, Tim J. Bartley

Abstract: Lithium niobate has emerged as a promising platform for integrated quantum optics, enabling efficient generation, manipulation, and detection of quantum states of light. However, integrating single-photon detectors requires cryogenic operating temperatures, since the best performing detectors are based on narrow superconducting wires. While previous studies have demonstrated the operation of quantum light sources and electro-optic modulators in LiNbO3 at cryogenic temperatures, the thermal transition between room temperature and cryogenic conditions introduces additional effects that can significantly influence device performance. In this paper, we investigate the generation of pyroelectric charges and their impact on the optical properties of lithium niobate waveguides when changing from room temperature to 25K, and vice versa. We measure the generated pyroelectric charge flow and correlate this with fast changes in the birefringence acquired through the Senarmont method. Both electrical and optical influence of the pyroelectric effect occurs predominantly at temperatures above 100K.

5.Organic molecules as origin of visible-range single photon emission from hexagonal boron nitride and mica

Authors:Michael Neumann, Xu Wei, Luis Morales-Inostroza, Seunghyun Song, Sung-Gyu Lee, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Stephan Götzinger, Young Hee Lee

Abstract: The discovery of room-temperature single-photon emitters (SPEs) hosted by two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D hBN) has sparked intense research interest. Although emitters in the vicinity of 2 eV have been studied extensively, their microscopic identity has remained elusive. The discussion of this class of SPEs has centered on point defects in the hBN crystal lattice, but none of the candidate defect structures have been able to capture the great heterogeneity in emitter properties that is observed experimentally. Employing a widely used sample preparation protocol but disentangling several confounding factors, we demonstrate conclusively that heterogeneous single-photon emission ~2 eV associated with hBN originates from organic molecules, presumably aromatic fluorophores. The appearance of those SPEs depends critically on the presence of organic processing residues during sample preparation, and emitters formed during heat treatment are not located within the hBN crystal as previously thought, but at the hBN/substrate interface. We further demonstrate that the same class of SPEs can be observed in a different 2D insulator, fluorophlogopite mica.

1.Chip-to-chip optical multimode communication with universal mode processors

Authors:Bo Wu, Wenkai Zhang, Hailong Zhou, Jianji Dong, Dongmei Huang, P. K. A. Wai, Xinliang Zhang

Abstract: The increasing amount of data exchange requires higher-capacity optical communication links. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is considered as a promising technology to support the higher data throughput. In an MDM system, the mode generator and sorter are the backbone. However, most of the current schemes lack the programmability and universality, which makes the MDM link susceptible to the mode crosstalk and environmental disturbances. In this paper, we propose an intelligent multimode optical communication link using universal mode processing (generation and sorting) chips. The mode processor consists of a programmable 4*4 Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) network and can be intelligently configured to generate or sort both quasi linearly polarized (LP) modes and orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in any desired routing state. We experimentally establish a chip-to-chip MDM communication system. The mode basis can be freely switched between four LP modes and four OAM modes. We also demonstrate the multimode optical communication capability at a data rate of 25 Gbit/s. The proposed scheme shows significant advantages in terms of universality, intelligence, programmability and resistance to mode crosstalk, environmental disturbances and fabrication errors, demonstrating that the MZI-based reconfigurable mode processor chip has great potential in long-distance chip-to-chip multimode optical communication systems.

2.Quartic beams of temporal solitons in a nearly-degenerate laser cavity

Authors:S. V. Gurevich, F. Maucher, N. Vigne, A. Bartolo, M. Marconi, G. Beaudoin, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, A. Garnache, M. Giudici, J. Javaloyes

Abstract: The engineering of chromatic dispersion opened new avenues of research and extended the level of control upon pattern formation in the temporal domain. In this manuscript, we propose the use of a nearly-degenerate laser cavity as a general framework allowing for the exploration of higher contributions to diffraction in the spatial domain. Our approach leverages the interplay between optical aberrations and the proximity to the self-imaging condition, which allows cancelling, or reverse, paraxial diffraction. As an example, we show how spherical aberrations materialize into a transverse bilaplacian operator and fully explain the stabilization of off-axis temporal solitons in an unstable cavity. We disclose a clear analogy between these quartic beams of temporal solitons and the dynamics of a quantum particle in a double well potential. Our predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results from a mode-locked broad-area Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting laser.

3.Mueller matrix based characterization of Cervical tissue sections: A quantitative comparison of Polar and Differential decomposition methods

Authors:Nishkarsh Kumar, Jeeban Kumar Nayak, Asima Pradhan, Nirmalya Ghosh

Abstract: Detection of cervical intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) at the early stage enables prevention of cervical cancer, which is one of the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Recently there is a great interest to use the optical polarimetry as a non-invasive diagnosis tool to characterize the cervical tissues. In this context, it is crucial to validate the performance of various Mueller matrix decomposition techniques, that are utilized to extract the intrinsic polarization properties of complex turbid media, such as biological tissues. The aim of the work is to quantitatively compare the performance of polar and differential MM decomposition methods for probing the polarization properties in various complex optical media. Complete polarization responses of the cervical tissue sections, and other media are recorded by preparing a home-built Mueller matrix imaging set up with a spatial resolution of 400 nm. The Mueller matrices are then processed with the polar and differential decomposition methods to separate, and quantify the individual polarization parameters. ronounced differences in the extracted polarization properties are observed for different CIN grades with both the decomposition methods. Our results indicate that the differential decomposition of MM have certain advantages over the polar decomposition method to extract the intrinsic polarization properties of a complex tissue medium. The quantified polarization parameters obtained through the decomposition methods can be used as useful metrics to distinguish between the different grades of CIN, and to describe the healing efficiency of a self-healing organic crystal. Thus the Mueller matrix polarimetry shows great potential as an label-free, non-invasive diagnostic and imaging tool with potential applications in biomedical clinical research, and in various other disciplines.

4.A low-cost integrated hyperspectral imaging sensor with full temporal and spatial resolution at VIS-NIR wide range

Authors:Liheng Bian, Zhen Wang, Yuzhe Zhang, Yinuo Zhang, Chen Yang, Lianjie Li, Wen Fang, Jiajun Zhao, Chunli Zhu, Dezhi Zheng, Jun Zhang

Abstract: Hyperspectral imaging provides optical information with high-dimensional spatial-temporal-spectral data cubes revealing intrinsic matter characteristics. It has been widely applied in various intelligent inspection applications. The existing hyperspectral imaging systems employ individual optical prism or grating to separate different spectra, which require complicated optical design that takes a heavy load for integration. The emerging multispectral imaging sensor integrates narrow-band filters on each pixel element, wasting most light throughput and trapped in the rigorous tradeoff between spatial and spectral resolution. In this work, we report an on-chip computational hyperspectral imaging framework with full spatial and temporal resolution. By integrating different broadband filtering materials on the imaging sensor, the target spectral information is non-uniformly and intrinsically coupled on each pixel with high light throughput. Using intelligent reconstruction algorithms, multi-channel images can be recovered from each frame, realizing real-time hyperspectral imaging. Following such a framework, we for the first time fabricated a broadband (400-1700 nm) hyperspectral imaging sensor with an average light throughput of 71.8$\%$ (enabling 32.5 dB peak signal-to-noise ratio of spectral reconstruction on ColorChecker Classic chart) and 89 wavelength channels (10 nm interval within 400-1000 nm and 25 nm interval within 1000-1700 nm). The average spectral resolution achieves 2.65 nm at 400-1000 nm and 8.59 nm at 1000-1700 nm. The demonstrated spatial resolution is 2048x2048 pixels at 47 fps, with $\sim$3.43 arc minute resolving ability at a 39-degree field of view. We employed the prototype sensor to collect a large-scale hyperspectral image dataset (210 scenes over 8 categories), and demonstrated the sensor's wide application potentials on a series of experiments, including chlorophyll and sugar quantification for agriculture growth, blood oxygen and water quality monitoring for human health, and face recognition for social security. The integrated hyperspectral imaging sensor is only 33.9 grams in weight without an imaging lens, and can be assembled on various resource-limited platforms such as unmanned aerial vehicles and nanosatellites, or equipped with off-the-shelf optical systems such as a microscope for direct real-time hyperspectral imaging. The technique integrates innovations from multiple fields of material, integrated circuits, computer science, and optics. It transforms the general challenge of high-dimensional imaging from one that is coupled to the physical limitations of high-cost optics manufacture and complex system design to one that is solvable through agile computation.

5.Mid-Infrared Ring Interband Cascade Laser: Operation at the Standard Quantum Limit

Authors:Georg Marschick, Jacopo Pelini, Tecla Gabbrielli, Francesco Cappelli, Robert Weih, Hedwig Knötig, Johannes Koeth, Sven Höfling, Paolo De Natale, Gottfried Strasser, Simone Borri, Borislav Hinkov

Abstract: Many precision applications in the mid-infrared spectral range have strong constraints based on quantum effects that are expressed in particular noise characteristics. They limit, e.g., sensitivity and resolution of mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic systems as well as the bit-error rate in optical free-space communication. Interband cascade lasers (ICLs) are a class of mid-infrared laser exploiting interband transitions in type-II band alignment geometry. They are currently gaining significant importance for mid-infrared applications from <3 {\mu}m to >6 {\mu}m wavelength, enabled by novel types of high-performance ICLs such as ring-cavity devices. Their noise-behavior is an important feature that still needs to be thoroughly analyzed, including its potential reduction with respect to the shot noise limit. In this work, we provide a comprehensive characterization of {\lambda} = 3.8 {\mu}m-emitting, continuous-wave ring-ICLs operating at room temperature. It is based on an in-depth study of their main physical intensity noise features, such as their bias-dependent intensity noise power spectral density (INPSD) and relative intensity noise (RIN). We obtain shot-noise-limited statistics for Fourier frequencies above 100 kHz. This is an important result for precision applications, e.g. interferometry or advanced spectroscopy, which benefit from exploiting the advantage of using such a shot-noise limited source, enhancing the setup sensitivity. Moreover, it is an important feature for novel quantum optics schemes including testing specific light states below the shot noise level, such as squeezed states.

6.Compact Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings for Single-Photon Generation from Quantum Dots

Authors:Vikas Remesh, Ria G. Krämer, René Schwarz, Florian Kappe, Yusuf Karli, Malte Per Siems, Thomas K. Bracht, Saimon Filipe Covre da Silva, Armando Rastelli, Doris E. Reiter, Daniel Richter, Stefan Nolte, Gregor Weihs

Abstract: A scalable source of single photons is a key constituent of an efficient quantum photonic architecture. To realize this, it is beneficial to have an ensemble of quantum emitters that can be collectively excited with high efficiency. Semiconductor quantum dots hold great potential in this context, due to their excellent photophysical properties. Spectral variability of quantum dots is commonly regarded as a drawback introduced by the fabrication method. However, this is beneficial to realize a frequency-multiplexed single-photon platform. Chirped pulse excitation, relying on the so-called adiabatic rapid passage, is the most efficient scheme to excite a quantum dot ensemble due to its immunity to individual quantum dot parameters. Yet, the existing methods of generating chirped laser pulses to excite a quantum emitter are bulky, lossy, and mechanically unstable, which severely hampers the prospects of a quantum dot photon source. Here, we present a compact, robust, and high-efficiency alternative for chirped pulse excitation of solid-state quantum emitters. Our simple plug-and-play module consists of chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs), fabricated via femtosecond inscription, to provide high values of dispersion in the near-infrared spectral range, where the quantum dots emit. We characterize and benchmark the performance of our method via chirped excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, establishing high-fidelity single-photon generation. Our highly versatile chirping module coupled to a photon source is a significant milestone toward realizing practical quantum photonic devices.

7.Comprehensive evidence of lasing from a 2D material enabled by a dual-resonance metasurface

Authors:Isabel Barth, Manuel Deckart, Donato Conteduca, Guilherme S Arruda, Zeki Hayran, Sergej Pasko, Simonas Krotkus, Michael Heuken, Francesco Monticone, Thomas F Krauss, Emiliano R Martins, Yue Wang

Abstract: Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have gained significant attention as a gain medium for nanolasers, owing to their unique ability to be easily placed and stacked on virtually any substrate. However, the atomically thin nature of the active material in existing TMD nanolasers presents a challenge, as their limited output power makes it difficult to distinguish between true laser operation and other "laser-like" phenomena. Here, we present comprehensive evidence of lasing from a CVD-grown tungsten disulphide (WS$_2$) monolayer. The monolayer is placed on a dual-resonance dielectric metasurface with a rectangular lattice designed to enhance both absorption and emission; resulting in an ultralow threshold operation (threshold <1 W/cm$^2$). We provide a thorough study of the laser performance at room temperature, paying special attention to directionality, output power, and spatial coherence. Notably, our lasers demonstrated a coherence length of over 30 $\mu$m, which is several times greater than what has been reported for 2D material lasers so far. Our realisation of a single-mode laser from a wafer-scale CVD-grown monolayer presents exciting opportunities for integration and the development of novel applications.

8.Additive GaN solid immersion lenses for enhanced photon extraction efficiency from diamond color centers

Authors:Xingrui Cheng, Nils Kolja Wessling, Saptarsi Ghosh, Andrew R. Kirkpatrick, Menno J. Kappers, Yashna N. D. Lekhai, Gavin W. Morley, Rachel A. Oliver, Jason M. Smith, Martin D. Dawson, Patrick S. Salter, Michael J. Strain

Abstract: Effective light extraction from optically active solid-state spin centres inside high-index semiconductor host crystals is an important factor in integrating these pseudo-atomic centres in wider quantum systems. Here we report increased fluorescent light collection efficiency from laser-written nitrogen vacancy centers (NV) in bulk diamond facilitated by micro-transfer printed GaN solid immersion lenses. Both laser-writing of NV centres and transfer printing of micro-lens structures are compatible with high spatial resolution, enabling deterministic fabrication routes towards future scalable systems development. The micro-lenses are integrated in a non-invasive manner, as they are added on top of the unstructured diamond surface and bond by Van-der-Waals forces. For emitters at 5 micrometer depth, we find approximately 2x improvement of fluorescent light collection using an air objective with a numerical aperture of NA = 0.95 in good agreement with simulations. Similarly, the solid immersion lenses strongly enhance light collection when using an objective with NA = 0.5, significantly improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the NV center emission while maintaining the NV's quantum properties after integration.

9.Droplet Interferometry: A Schlick Way to Consider Interfacial Energetics

Authors:Jean-Felix Milette, Aidan Karmali

Abstract: We verify the use of an evaporating sessile water droplet as a source of dynamic interference fringes in a Fizeau-like interferometer. Experimentally-obtained interference patterns are compared with those produced by a geometrical optics-based computational model to demonstrate the potential for classical optical theory to enhance the analysis of interfacial energetics. A detailed description of the process taken to optimize fringe visibility is presented, and a comparison is made between various droplet substrates. Silicon-based substrates appear to be superior than glass-based substrates in their ability to image a clear dynamic interference pattern.

10.Critical properties of the optical field localization in a three-dimensional percolating system: Theory and experiment

Authors:Gennadiy Burlak, A. Díaz-de-Anda, Boris A. Malomed, E. Martinez-Sánchez, G. Medina-Ángel, R. Morales-Nava, J. J. Martínez-Ocampo, M. E. de-Anda-Reyes, A. Romero-López

Abstract: We systematically study the optical field localization in an active three-dimensional (3D) disordered percolating system with light nanoemitters incorporated in percolating clusters. An essential feature of such a hybrid medium is that the clusters are combined into a fractal radiation pattern, in which light is simultaneously emitted and scattered by the disordered structures. Theoretical considerations, based on systematic 3D simulations, reveal nontrivial dynamics in the form of propagation of localized field bunches in the percolating material. We obtain the length of the field localization and dynamical properties of such states as functions of the occupation probability of the disordered clusters. A transition between the dynamical states and narrow point-like fields pinned to the emitters is found. The theoretical analysis of the fractal field properties is followed by an experimental study of the light generation by nanoemitters incorporated in the percolating clusters. The experimental results corroborate theoretical predictions.

11.Metallic nanoparticles-decorated NdxY1-xAl3(BO3)4 sub-micrometric particles to enhance anti-Stokes excitation performance

Authors:Eloísa G. Hilário, Tatiana Habib, Célio V. T. Maciel, Rodrigo F. da Silva, Daniel F. Luz, Gabriela S. Soares, Bruno Caillier, Carlos Jacinto, Lauro J. Q. Maia, José Maurício A. Caiut, André L. Moura

Abstract: In the anti-Stokes excitation of trivalent rare-earth ions (RE3+), the excitation photons energy is smaller than that of a given absorption transition, and the energy mismatch can be compensated by phonons annihilation from the host lattice. Since the phonon occupation number increases with temperature, heating the system generally increases the efficiency of anti-Stokes excitation. Here, we exploited the intrinsic heating associated with light-to-heat conversion in the interaction of excitation laser light with metallic nanoparticles (Ag or Au) on the surface of submicrometric particles of NdxY1.00-xAl3(BO3)4 (x = 0.10, 0.20, and 1.00) in order to enhance the efficiency of the anti-Stokes excitation at 1064 nm. Several upconversion emissions are observed from 600 nm to 880 nm, the most intense being at 750 nm due to the Nd3+ transition {4F7/2, 4S3/2} - 4I9/2. Giant enhancements are demonstrated, when compared to undecorated NdxY1.00-xAl3(BO3)4 particles. The present results can be expanded to other luminescent materials as well as excitation wavelengths.

1.Topological momentum gap in PT-symmetric photonic crystals

Authors:Ming-Wei Li, Jian-Wei Liu, Wen-Jie Chen, Jian-Wen Dong

Abstract: In a periodic system with parity-time (PT) symmetry, spontaneous breaking of PT symmetry occurs when non-Hermiticity exceeds a critical value, thereby dividing the Bloch bands into PT-exact phase and PT-broken phase in two momentum regimes.From another perspective, PT-broken momentum regime can be deemed as a momentum gap if we consider Bloch k as eigenvalue of the problem instead.The topological aspects of such a type of momentum gap (PT-broken regime) remain unexplored. Here, we study the topological properties of momentum bandgap in one-dimensional (1D) PT-symmetric photonic crystals (PCs).k*p analysis shows that reversing the system's non-Hermiticity would lead to a topological phase transition, which is manifested as a local geometric phase along the momentum band.As a consequence of such geometric phase, a temporal boundary state (TBS) exists in the middle of momentum gap. Its robustness against perturbations and disorders is numerically verified by temporal simulations.

2.Post-compression of multi-mJ picosecond pulses to few-cycles approaching the terawatt regime

Authors:Supriya Rajhans, Esmerando Escoto, Nikita Khodakovskiy, Praveen K. Velpula, Bonaventura Farace, Uwe Grosse-Wortmann, Rob J. Shalloo, Cord L. Arnold, Kristjan Põder, Jens Osterhoff, Wim P. Leemans, Ingmar Hartl, Christoph M. Heyl

Abstract: Advancing ultrafast high-repetition-rate lasers to shortest pulse durations comprising only a few optical cycles while pushing their energy into the multi-millijoule regime opens a route towards terawatt-class peak powers at unprecedented average power. We explore this route via efficient post-compression of high-energy 1.2 ps pulses from an Ytterbium InnoSlab laser to 9.6 fs duration using gas-filled multi-pass cells (MPCs) at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Employing dual-stage compression with a second MPC stage supporting a close-to-octave-spanning bandwidth enabled by dispersion-matched dielectric mirrors, a record compression factor of 125 is reached at 70% overall efficiency, delivering 6.7 mJ pulses with a peak power of about 0.3 TW. Moreover, we show that post-compression can improve the temporal contrast at picosecond delay by at least one order of magnitude. Our results demonstrate efficient conversion of multi-millijoule picosecond lasers to high-peak-power few-cycle sources, opening up new parameter regimes for laser plasma physics, high energy physics, biomedicine and attosecond science.

3.Sustainable Next-generation Color Converters of P. harmala Seed Extracts for Solid-State Lighting

Authors:Talha Erdem, Ali Orenc, Dilber Akcan, Fatih Duman, Zeliha Soran-Erdem

Abstract: Traditional solid-state lighting relies on color converters with a serious environmental footprint. As an alternative, natural materials such as plant extracts could be employed if their low quantum yield (QYs) in liquid and solid states were higher. With this motivation, here, we investigate the optical features of P. harmala extract in water, develop its efficient color-converting solids using a facile, sustainable, and low-cost method, and integrate it with a light-emitting diode. To obtain a high-efficiency solid host for the P. harmala-based fluorophores, we optically and structurally compared two crystalline and two cellulose-based platforms. Structural characterizations indicate that sucrose crystals, cellulose-based cotton, and paper platforms allow fluorophores to be distributed relatively homogenously as opposed to the KCl crystals. Optical characterizations reveal that the extracted solution and the extract-embedded paper possess QYs of 75.6% and 44.7%, respectively, whereas the QYs of the cotton, sucrose, and KCl crystals remain below 10%. Subsequently, as a proof-of-concept demonstration, we integrate the as-prepared efficient solid of P. harmala for the first time with a light-emitting diode (LED) chip to produce a color-converting LED. The resulting blue-emitting LED achieves a luminous efficiency of 21.9 lm/Welect with CIE color coordinates of (0.139,0.070). With these results, we bring plant-based fluorescent biomolecules to the stage of solid-state lighting. We believe that they hold great promise as next-generation, environmentally friendly organic color converters for lighting applications.

4.Broadband spintronic detection of the absolute field strength of terahertz electromagnetic pulses

Authors:A. L. Chekhov, Y. Behovits, U. Martens, B. R. Serrano, M. Wolf, T. S. Seifert, M. Muenzenberg, T. Kampfrath

Abstract: We demonstrate detection of broadband intense terahertz electromagnetic pulses by Zeeman-torque sampling (ZTS). Our approach is based on magneto-optic probing of the Zeeman torque the terahertz magnetic field exerts on the magnetization of a ferromagnet. Using an 8 nm thick iron film as sensor, we detect pulses from a silicon-based spintronic terahertz emitter with bandwidth 0.1-11 THz and peak field >0.1 MV/cm. Static calibration provides access to absolute transient THz field strengths. We show relevant added values of ZTS compared to electro-optic sampling (EOS): an absolute and echo-free transfer function with simple frequency dependence, linearity even at high terahertz field amplitudes, the straightforward calibration of EOS response functions and the modulation of the polarization-sensitive direction by an external AC magnetic field. Consequently, ZTS has interesting applications even beyond the accurate characterization of broadband high-field terahertz pulses for nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy.

5.Cryogenic optical packaging of nanophotonic devices with coupling loss < 1 dB

Authors:Beibei Zeng, Chawina De-Eknamkul, Daniel Assumpcao, Dylan Renaud, Zhuoxian Wang, Daniel Riedel, Jeonghoon Ha, Carsten Robens, David Levonian, Mikhail Lukin, Mihir Bhaskar, Denis Sukachev, Marko Loncar, Bart Machielse

Abstract: A permanently packaged interface between a tapered optical fiber and nanophotonic devices is reproducibly demonstrated with a record-low coupling loss < 1 dB at ~730 nm that remains stable from 300 K to 30 mK.

1.Detection of per- and polyfluoroalkyl water contaminants with multiplexed 4D microcavities sensor

Authors:Anton V. Saetchnikov, Elina A. Tcherniavskaia, Vladimir A. Saetchnikov, Andreas Ostendorf

Abstract: The per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) constitute a group of organofluorine chemicals treated as the emerging pollutants and currently are of particularly acute concern. These compounds have been employed intensively as surfactants over multiple decades and are already to be found in surface and ground waters at amounts sufficient to have an effect on the human health and ecosystems. Because of the carbon-fluorine bonds the PFAS have an extreme environmental persistence and their negative impact accumulates with further production and penetration into the environment. In Germany alone, more than thousands sites have been identified to be contaminated with PFAS and thus timely detection of PFAS residues is becoming a high-priority task. In this paper we report on the high performance optical detection method based on whispering gallery modes microcavities applied for the first time for detection of the PFAS contaminants in aqueous solutions. A self-sensing boosted 4D microcavity fabricated with two-photon polymerization is employed as an individual sensing unit. On example of the multiplexed imaging sensor with multiple hundreds of simultaneously interrogated microcavities we demonstrate the possibility to detect the PFAS chemicals representatives at the level of down to 1 ppb.

2.The nanoscale imaging of the bulk polycrystalline material with the effects of depth of field and field of view based on x-ray free electron laser

Authors:Chuan Wang College of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China, Yihan Liang National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, People' s Republic of China, Ronghao Hu College of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China, Kai He Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Guilong Gao Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Xin Yan Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Dong Yao Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Tao Wang Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Xiaoya Li National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, People' s Republic of China, Jinshou Tian Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Wenjun Zhu National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, People' s Republic of China, Meng Lv College of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, People' s Republic of China, .

Abstract: Microscale imaging of mesoscale bulk materials under dynamic compression is important for understanding their properties. In this work, we study the effects of the depth of field (DoF) and field of view (FoV) of the optical lens and extract the scattered light of the region to be imaged within the bulk polycrystalline material based on the objective Bragg coherent diffraction imaging. We describe how the DoF and FoV quantitatively limit the diffraction volume, where the DoF and FoV limit the scattering region parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the light source respectively. We demonstrate this scheme by simulating the separate imaging of a submicron-sized crack region within a few {\mu}m-sized Si bulk material, and obtain a high imaging quality. This scheme enables imaging of selected regions within bulk polycrystalline materials with the resolution up to the order of 10 nm.

3.Transverse spin-orbit interaction of light

Authors:Tong Fu, Jiaxin Lin, Yuhao Xu, Junji Jia, Yonglong Wang, Shunping Zhang, Hongxing Xu

Abstract: Light carries both longitudinal and transverse spin angular momentum. The spin can couple with its orbital counterpart via the Berry phase, known as the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of light. The SOI of light discovered previously belongs to the longitudinal one, which relies on the Berry phase in momentum space, such as the optical Magnus effect and the spin Hall effect. Here, we show that transverse SOI, relying on the Berry phase in real space, is inherent in the Helmholtz equation when transverse spinning light propagates in curved paths. The transverse SOI lifts the degeneracy of dispersion relations of light for opposite transverse spin states, analogous to the Dresselhaus effect. Transverse SOI is ubiquitous in nanophotonic systems where transverse spin and optical path bending are inevitable. It can also explain anomalous effects like the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polariton on curved paths and the energy level of whispering gallery modes. Our results reveal the analogies of spin photonics and spintronics and offer a new degree of freedom for integrated photonics, spin photonics, and astrophysics.

4.Ultra-low-loss optical interconnect enabled by topological unidirectional guided resonance

Authors:Haoran Wang, Yi Zuo, Xuefan Yin, Zihao Chen, Zixuan Zhang, Feifan Wang, Yuefeng Hu, Xiaoyu Zhang, Chao Peng

Abstract: Grating couplers that interconnect photonic chips to off-chip components are of essential importance for various optoelectronics applications. Despite numerous efforts in past decades, existing grating couplers still suffer from poor energy efficiency and thus hinder photonic integration toward a larger scale. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a method to achieve ultra-low-loss grating coupler by employing topological unidirectional guided resonances (UGRs). Leveraging the unidirectional emitting nature of UGRs, the useless downward radiation is greatly suppressed with no mirror placed on the bottom. By engineering the dispersion and apodizing the geometry of grating, we realize a grating coupler on 340 nm silicon-on-insulator platform with a record-low-loss of 0.34 dB and bandwidth exceeding 30 nm at the telecom wavelength of 1550 nm. We further show a pair of grating couplers works as optic via that interconnects two stacked photonic chips with a loss of only 0.94 dB. Our work sheds light on the feasibility of energy-efficient optical interconnect for silicon photonics, and paving the way to large-scale photonic integration for applications from optical communication to photonic computing.

5.Mid-infrared Kerr index evaluation via cross-phase modulation with a near-infrared probe beam

Authors:Dusan Lorenc, Zhanybek Alpichshev

Abstract: We propose a simple method to measure nonlinear Kerr refractive index in mid-infrared frequency range that avoids using sophisticated infrared detectors. Our approach is based on using a near-infrared probe beam which interacts with a mid-IR beam via wavelength-non-degenerate cross-phase modulation (XPM). By carefully measuring XPM-induced spectral modifications in the probe beam and comparing the experimental data with simulation results we extract the value for the non-degenerate Kerr index. Finally, in order to obtain the value of degenerate mid-IR Kerr index we use the well-established two-band formalism of Sheik-Bahae et al., which is shown to become particularly simple in the limit of low frequencies. The proposed technique is complementary to the conventional techniques such as z-scan and has the advantage of not requiring any mid-infrared detectors.

6.Grating design methodology for tailored free-space beam-forming

Authors:Gillenhaal J. Beck, Jonathan P. Home, Karan K. Mehta

Abstract: We present a design methodology for free-space beam-forming with general profiles from grating couplers which avoids the need for numerical optimization, motivated by applications in ion trap physics. We demonstrate its capabilities through a variety of gratings using different wavelengths and waveguide materials, designed for new ion traps with all optics fully integrated, including UV and visible wavelengths. We demonstrate designs for diffraction-limited focusing without restriction on waveguide taper geometry, emission angle, or focus height, as well as focused higher order Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian beams. Additional investigations examine the influence of grating length and taper angle on beam-forming, indicating the importance of focal shift in apertured beams. The design methodology presented allows for efficient design of beamforming gratings with the accuracy as well as the flexibility of beam profile and operating wavelength demanded by application in atomic systems.

1.Time Resolved Investigation of High Repetition Rate Gas Jet Target For High Harmonic Generation

Authors:Balázs Nagyillés, Zsolt Diveki, Arjun Nayak, Mathieu Dumergue, Balázs Major, Katalin Varjú, Subhendu Kahaly

Abstract: High repetition rate gas targets constitute an essential component in intense laser matter interaction studies. The technology becomes challenging as the repetition rate approaches kHz regime. In this regime, cantilever based gas valves are employed, which can open and close in tens of microseconds, resulting in a unique kind of gas characteristics in both spatial and temporal domain. Here we characterize piezo cantilever based kHz pulsed gas valves in the low density regime, where it provides sufficient peak gas density for High Harmonic Generation while releasing significantly less amount of gas reducing the vacuum load within the interaction chamber, suitable for high vacuum applications. In order to obtain reliable information of the gas density in the target jet space-time resolved characterization is performed. The gas jet system is validated by conducting interferometric gas density estimations and high harmonic generation measurements at the Extreme Light Infrastructure Attosecond Light Pulse Source (ELI ALPS) facility. Our results demonstrate that while employing such targets for optimal high harmonic generation, the high intensity interaction should be confined to a suitable time window, after the cantilever opening. The measured gas density evolution correlates well with the integrated high harmonic flux and state of the art 3D simulation results, establishing the importance of such metrology.

2.Liquid-Crystal-Based Controllable Attenuators Operating in the 1-4 Terahertz Band

Authors:Aniela Dunn School of Chemistry, The University of Leeds, UK, Zhaopeng Zhang School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Leeds, UK, Michael D. Horbury School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Leeds, UK, Eleanor V. Nuttall School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Leeds, UK, Yingjun Han School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Leeds, UK, Mohammed Salih School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Leeds, UK, Lianhe Li School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Leeds, UK, Abigail Bond School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Leeds, UK, Ehab Saleh School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Leeds, UK, Russell Harris School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Leeds, UK, Diego Pardo STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, UK, Brian N. Ellison STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, UK, Andrew D. Burnett School of Chemistry, The University of Leeds, UK, Helen F. Gleeson School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Leeds, UK, Alexander Valavanis School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Leeds, UK

Abstract: Liquid-crystal devices (LCDs) offer a potential route toward adaptive optical components for use in the < 2 THz band of the electromagnetic spectrum. We demonstrate LCDs using a commercially available material (E7), with unbiased birefringence values of 0.14-0.18 in the 0.3-4 THz band. We exploit the linear dichroism of the material to modulate the emission from a 3.4-THz quantum cascade laser by up to 40%, dependent upon both the liquid-crystal layer thickness and the bias voltage applied.

3.The Polychromatic T-matrix

Authors:Maxim Vavilin, Ivan Fernandez-Corbaton

Abstract: The T-matrix is a powerful tool that provides the complete description of the linear interaction between the electromagnetic field and a given object. In here, we generalize the usual monochromatic formalism to the case of polychromatic field-matter interaction. The group of transformations of special relativity provides the guidance for building the new formalism, which is inherently polychromatic. The polychromatic T-matrix affords the direct treatment of the interaction of electromagnetic pulses with objects, even when the objects move at constant relativistic speeds.

4.Visible and ultraviolet plasma lines of the He-Ne gas laser

Authors:B. D. E. McNiven, M. J. Clouter, G. Todd Andrews

Abstract: A study of Helium-Neon laser plasma lines was done using a double grating spectrometer and a He-Ne laser with an emission wavelength of 632.8 nm (15,802 cm$^{-1}$). The absolute wavenumber, measured to within $\sim0.1$ cm$^{-1}$, and wavelength of each plasma line are presented, along with intensity and shift relative to the main laser line. Several of the measured lines have not been reported in the literature and are observed at shifts between $0-1500$ cm$^{-1}$ from the laser line, a spectral region commonly probed by optical Raman scattering experiments. Accounting for the possibility of second-order diffraction permitted many previously unassigned lines to be attributed to known He or Ne electronic transitions with wavelengths in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

5.Metasurfaces for free-space coupling to multicore fibers

Authors:Jaewon Oh, Jun Yang, Louis Marra, Ahmed H. Dorrah, Alfonso Palmieri, Paulo Dainese, Federico Capasso

Abstract: Space-division multiplexing (SDM) with multicore fibers (MCFs) is envisioned to overcome the capacity crunch in optical fiber communications. Within these systems, the coupling optics that connect single-mode fibers (SMFs) to MCFs are key components in achieving high data transfer rates. Designing a compact and scalable coupler with low loss and crosstalk is a continuing challenge. Here, we introduce a metasurface-based free-space coupler that can be designed for any input array of SMFs to a MCF with arbitrary core layout. An inverse design technique - adjoint method - optimizes the metasurface phase profiles to maximize the overlap of the output fields to the MCF modes at each core position. As proof-of-concepts, we fabricated two types of 4-mode couplers for MCFs with linear and square core arrays. The measured insertion losses were as low as 1.2 dB and the worst-case crosstalk was less than -40.1 dB in the O-band (1260-1360 nm). Owing to its foundry-compatible fabrication, this coupler design could facilitate the widespread deployment of SDM based on MCFs.

1.Chaos with Gaussian invariant distribution by quantum-noise random phase feedback

Authors:Yanqiang Guo, Haifeng Li, Yingqi Wang, Xiangyu Meng, Tong Zhao, Xiaomin Guo

Abstract: We experimentally present a random phase feedback based on quantum noise to generate a chaotic laser with Gaussian invariant distribution. The quantum noise from vacuum fluctuations is acquired by balanced homodyne detection and injected into a phase modulator to form a random phase feedback. An optical switch using high-speed intensity modulator is employed to reset the chaotic states repeatedly and the time evolutions of intensity statistical distributions of the chaotic states stemming from the initial noise are measured. By the quantum-noise random phase feedback, the transient intensity distributions of the chaotic outputs are improved from asymmetric invariant distributions to Gaussian invariant distributions, and the Gaussian invariant distribution indicates a randomly perturbed dynamical transition from microscopic initial noise to macroscopic stochastic fluctuation. The effects of phase feedback bandwidth and modulation depth on the invariant distributions are investigated experimentally. The chaotic time-delay signature and mean permutation entropy are suppressed to 0.036 and enhanced to 0.999 using the random phase feedback, respectively. The high-quality chaotic laser with Gaussian invariant distribution can be a desired random source for ultrafast random number generation and secure communication.

2.Local laser heating effects in diamond probed by photoluminescence of SiV centers at low temperature

Authors:YuanFei Gao, JiaMin Lai, ZhenYao Li, PingHeng Tan, ChongXin Shan, Jun Zhang

Abstract: Diamond is generally considered to have high thermal conductivity, so little attention has been paid to the laser heating effects at low excitation power. However, defects during the growth process can result in a great degradation of thermal conductivity, especially at low temperatures. Here, we observed the dynamic redshift and broadening of zero phonon line (ZPL) of silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers in diamondin the experiment. Utilizing the intrinsic temperature response of the fine structure spectra of SiV as a probe, we confirmed that the laser heating effect appears and the temperature rising results from high defect concentration. By simulating the thermal diffusion process, we have estimated the thermal conductivity of around 1 W/(mK) at the local site, which is a two order magnitude lower than that of single-crystal diamond. Our results provide a feasible scheme for characterizing the laser heating effect of diamond at low temperatures.

3.Highly efficient on-chip erbium-ytterbium co-doped lithium niobate waveguide amplifiers

Authors:Yuqi Zhang, Qiang Luo, Dahuai Zheng, Shuolin Wang, Shiguo Liu, Hongde Liu, Fang Bo, Yongfa Kong, Jingjun Xu

Abstract: The ability to amplify optical signals is of paramount importance in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Recently, lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) has attracted increasing interests as an emerging PIC platform. However, the shortage of active devices on LNOI platform limits the development of optical amplification. Here, we firstly report an efficient waveguide amplifier based on erbium and ytterbium co-doped LNOI by using electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching process. We have demonstrated that the net internal gain in the communication band is 15.70 dB/cm under the pumping of 974 nm continuous laser. Benefiting from the efficient pumping facilitated by energy transfer between ytterbium and erbium ions, signal amplification can be achieved at a low pump power of 0.1 mW. It is currently the most efficient waveguide amplifier under unidirectional pumping reported on the LNOI platform, with an internal conversion efficiency of 10%. This work proposes a new and efficient active device for LNOI integrated optical systems, which may become an important fundamental component of future lithium niobate photonic integration platforms.

4.Injection-seeded high-power Yb:YAG thin-disk laser stabilized by the Pound-Drever-Hall method

Authors:Manuel Zeyen, Lukas Affolter, Marwan Abdou Ahmed, Thomas Graf, Oguzhan Kara, Klaus Kirch, Adrian Langenbach, Miroslaw Marszalek, François Nez, Ahmed Ouf, Randolf Pohl, Siddharth Rajamohanan, Pauline Yzombard, Aldo Antognini, Karsten Schuhmann

Abstract: We demonstrate an injection-seeded thin-disk Yb:YAG laser at 1030 nm, stabilized by the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method. We modified the PDH scheme to obtain an error signal free from Trojan locking points, which allowed robust re-locking of the laser and reliable long-term operation. The single-frequency pulses have 50 mJ energy (limited to avoid laser-induced damage) with a beam quality of $\text{M}^2$ < 1.1 and an adjustable length of 55-110 ns. Heterodyne measurements confirmed a spectral linewidth of 3.7 MHz. The short pulse build-up time (850 ns) makes this laser suitable for laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen, pursued by the CREMA collaboration.

5.Near-Unity Emitting, Widely Tailorable and Stable Exciton Concentrators Built from Doubly Gradient 2D Semiconductor Nanoplatelets

Authors:Xiao Liang, Emek G. Durmusoglu, Maria Lunina, Pedro Ludwig Hernandez-Martinez, Vytautas Valuckas, Fei Yan, Yulia Lekina, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Tingting Yin, Son Tung Ha, Ze Xiang Shen, Handong Sun, Arseniy Kuznetsov, Hilmi Volkan Demir

Abstract: The strength of electrostatic interactions (EI) between electrons and holes within semiconductor nanocrystals profoundly impact the performance of their optoelectronic systems, and different optoelectronic devices demand distinct EI strength of the active medium. However, achieving a broad range, fine-tuning of the EI strength for specific optoelectronic applications is a daunting challenge, especially in quasi 2-dimensional core-shell semiconductor nanoplatelets (NPLs), as the epitaxial growth of the inorganic shell along the direction of the thickness that solely contributes to the quantum confined effect significantly undermines the strength of the EI. Herein we propose and demonstrate a novel doubly-gradient (DG) core-shell architecture of semiconductor NPLs for on-demand tailoring of the EI strength by controlling the localized exciton concentration via in-plane architectural modulation, demonstrated by a wide tuning of radiative recombination rate and exciton binding energy. Moreover, these exciton-concentration-engineered DG NPLs also exhibit a near-unity quantum yield, remarkable thermal and photo stability, as well as considerably suppressed self-absorption. As proof-of-concept demonstrations, highly efficient color converters and high-performance light-emitting diodes (external quantum efficiency: 16.9%, maximum luminance: 43,000 cd/m2) have been achieved based on the DG NPLs. This work thus opens up new avenues for developing high-performance colloidal optoelectronic device applications.

6.A Silicon Nitride Microring Modulator for High-Performance Photonic Integrated Circuits

Authors:Venkata Sai Praneeth Karempudi, Ishan G Thakkar, Jeffrey Todd Hastings

Abstract: The use of the Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform has been prominent for realizing CMOS-compatible, high-performance photonic integrated circuits (PICs). But in recent years, the silicon-nitride-on-silicon-dioxide (SiN-on-SiO$_2$) platform has garnered increasing interest as an alternative, because of its several beneficial properties over the SOI platform, such as low optical losses, high thermo-optic stability, broader wavelength transparency range, and high tolerance to fabrication-process variations. However, SiN-on-SiO$_2$ based active devices, such as modulators, are scarce and lack in desired performance due to the absence of free-carrier-based activity in the SiN material and the complexity of integrating other active materials with SiN-on-SiO$_2$ platform. This shortcoming hinders the SiN-on-SiO$_2$ platform for realizing active PICs. To address this shortcoming, in this article, we demonstrate a SiN-on-SiO$_2$ microring resonator (MRR) based active modulator. Our designed MRR modulator employs an Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-SiO$_2$-ITO thin-film stack as the active upper cladding and leverages the free-carrier assisted, high-amplitude refractive index change in the ITO films to affect a large electro-refractive optical modulation in the device. Based on the electrostatic, transient, and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, conducted using photonics foundry-validated tools, we show that our modulator achieves 450 pm/V resonance modulation efficiency, $\sim$46.2 GHz 3-dB modulation bandwidth, 18 nm free-spectral range (FSR), 0.24 dB insertion loss, and 8.2 dB extinction ratio for optical on-off-keying (OOK) modulation at 30 Gb/s.

1.Redesigning spectroscopic sensors with programmable photonic circuits

Authors:Chunhui Yao, Kangning Xu, Wanlu Zhang, Minjia Chen, Qixiang Cheng, Richard Penty

Abstract: Optical spectroscopic sensors are a powerful tool to reveal light-matter interactions in many fields, such as physics, biology, chemistry, and astronomy. Miniaturizing the currently bulky spectrometers has become imperative for the wide range of applications that demand in situ or even in vitro characterization systems, a field that is growing rapidly. Benchtop spectrometers are capable of offering superior resolution and spectral range, but at the expense of requiring a large size. In this paper, we propose a novel method that redesigns spectroscopic sensors via the use of programmable photonic circuits. Drawing from compressive sensing theory, we start by investigating the most ideal sampling matrix for a reconstructive spectrometer and reveal that a sufficiently large number of sampling channels is a prerequisite for both fine resolution and low reconstruction error. This number is, however, still considerably smaller than that of the reconstructed spectral pixels, benefitting from the nature of reconstruction algorithms. We then show that the cascading of a few engineered MZI elements can be readily programmed to create an exponentially scalable number of such sampling spectral responses over an ultra-broad bandwidth, allowing for ultra-high resolution down to single-digit picometers without incurring additional hardware costs. Experimentally, we implement an on-chip spectrometer with a fully-programmable 6-stage cascaded MZI structure and demonstrate a < 10 pm resolution with a > 200 nm bandwidth using only 729 sampling channels. This achieves a bandwidth-to-resolution ratio of over 20,000, which is, to our best knowledge, about one order of magnitude greater than any reported miniaturized spectrometers to date. We further illustrate that by employing dispersion-engineered waveguide components, the device bandwidth can be extended to over 400 nm.

2.Optically addressable spin defects coupled to bound states in the continuum metasurfaces

Authors:Luca Sortino, Angus Gale, Lucca Kühner, Chi Li, Jonas Biechteler, Fedja J. Wendisch, Mehran Kianinia, Haoran Ren, Milos Toth, Stefan A. Maier, Igor Aharonovich, Andreas Tittl

Abstract: Van der Waals (vdW) materials, including hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), are layered crystalline solids with appealing properties for investigating light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. hBN has emerged as a versatile building block for nanophotonic structures, and the recent identification of native optically addressable spin defects has opened up exciting possibilities in quantum technologies. However, these defects exhibit relatively low quantum efficiencies and a broad emission spectrum, limiting potential applications. Optical metasurfaces present a novel approach to boost light emission efficiency, offering remarkable control over light-matter coupling at the sub-wavelength regime. Here, we propose and realise a monolithic scalable integration between intrinsic spin defects in hBN metasurfaces and high quality (Q) factor resonances leveraging quasi-bound states in the continuum (qBICs). Coupling between spin defect ensembles and qBIC resonances delivers a 25-fold increase in photoluminescence intensity, accompanied by spectral narrowing to below 4 nm linewidth facilitated by Q factors exceeding $10^2$. Our findings demonstrate a new class of spin based metasurfaces and pave the way towards vdW-based nanophotonic devices with enhanced efficiency and sensitivity for quantum applications in imaging, sensing, and light emission.

3.Mode mixing and losses in misaligned microcavities

Authors:William J. Hughes, Thomas H. Doherty, Jacob A. Blackmore, Peter Horak, Joseph F. Goodwin

Abstract: We present a study on the optical losses of Fabry-P\'erot cavities subject to realistic transverse mirror misalignment. We consider mirrors of the two most prevalent surface forms: idealised spherical depressions, and Gaussian profiles generated by laser ablation. We first describe the mode mixing phenomena seen in the spherical mirror case and compare to the frequently-used clipping model, observing close agreement in the predicted diffraction loss, but with the addition of protective mode mixing at transverse degeneracies. We then discuss the Gaussian mirror case, detailing how the varying surface curvature across the mirror leads to complex variations in round trip loss and mode profile. In light of the severe mode distortion and strongly elevated loss predicted for many cavity lengths and transverse alignments when using Gaussian mirrors, we suggest that the consequences of mirror surface profile are carefully considered when designing cavity experiments.

4.Depth-dependent resolution quantification in 3D fluorescence microscopy

Authors:Neil Wright, Christopher J. Rowlands

Abstract: A method is presented to quantify resolution as a function of depth in features of morphologically complex 3D samples. Applying the method to the brain of Drosophila, resolution is measured at increasing depth throughout the central brain region. The results quantify improvements in image quality when using two-photon microscopy compared to confocal. It is also demonstrated how resolution improvements through tuning a single parameter, laser power, can be measured objectively. Since the metric is interpretable as the average resolution within a feature, it is suitable for comparing results across optical systems, and can be used to inform the design of biological experiments requiring resolution of structures at a specific scale.

5.High-order spectral singularity

Authors:H. S. Xu, L. C. Xie, L. Jin

Abstract: Exceptional point and spectral singularity are two types of singularity that are unique to non-Hermitian systems. Here, we report the high-order spectral singularity as a high-order pole of the scattering matrix for a non-Hermitian scattering system, and the high-order spectral singularity is a unification of the exceptional point and spectral singularity. At the high-order spectral singularity, the scattering coefficients have high-order divergence and the scattering system stimulates high-order lasing. The wave emission intensity is polynomially enhanced, and the order of the growth in the polynomial intensity linearly scales with the order of the spectral singularity. Furthermore, the coherent input controls and alters the order of the spectral singularity. Our findings provide profound insights into the fundamentals and applications of high-order spectral singularities.

6.Efficient operator method for modelling mode mixing in misaligned optical cavities

Authors:William J. Hughes, Thomas H. Doherty, Jacob A. Blackmore, Peter Horak, Joseph F. Goodwin

Abstract: The transverse field structure and diffraction loss of the resonant modes of Fabry-P\'erot optical cavities are acutely sensitive to the alignment and shape of the mirror substrates. We develop extensions to the `mode mixing' method applicable to arbitrary mirror shapes, which both facilitate fast calculation of the modes of cavities with transversely misaligned mirrors and enable the determination and transformation of the geometric properties of these modes. We show how these methods extend previous capabilities by including the practically-motivated case of transverse mirror misalignment, unveiling rich and complex structure of the resonant modes.

7.Taxonomy of hybridly polarized Stokes vortex beams

Authors:Gauri Arora, Ankit Butola, Ruchi Rajput, Rohit Agarwal, Krishna Agarwal, Alexander Horsch, Dilip K Prasad, Paramasivam Senthilkumaran

Abstract: Structured beams carrying topological defects, namely phase and Stokes singularities, have gained extensive interest in numerous areas of optics. The non-separable spin and orbital angular momentum states of hybridly polarized Stokes singular beams provide additional freedom for manipulating optical fields. However, the characterization of hybridly polarized Stokes vortex beams remains challenging owing to the degeneracy associated with the complex polarization structures of these beams. In addition, experimental noise factors such as relative phase, amplitude, and polarization difference together with beam fluctuations add to the perplexity in the identification process. Here, we present a generalized diffraction-based Stokes polarimetry approach assisted with deep learning for efficient identification of Stokes singular beams. A total of 15 classes of beams are considered based on the type of Stokes singularity and their associated mode indices. The resultant total and polarization component intensities of Stokes singular beams after diffraction through a triangular aperture are exploited by the deep neural network to recognize these beams. Our approach presents a classification accuracy of 98.67% for 15 types of Stokes singular beams that comprise several degenerate cases. The present study illustrates the potential of diffraction of the Stokes singular beam with polarization transformation, modeling of experimental noise factors, and a deep learning framework for characterizing hybridly polarized beams

1.Toward integrated tantalum pentoxide optical parametric oscillators

Authors:Maximilian Timmerkamp, Niklas M. Lüpken, Shqiprim Adrian Abazi, Julian Rasmus Bankwitz, Carsten Schuck, Carsten Fallnich

Abstract: We present a hybrid waveguide-fiber optical parametric oscillator (OPO) exploiting degenerate four-wave mixing in tantalum pentoxide. The OPO, pumped with ultrashort pulses at 1.55 $\mu$m wavelength, generated tunable idler pulses with up to 4.1 pJ energy tunable between 1.63 $\mu$m and 1.68 $\mu$m center wavelength. An upper bound for the total tolerable cavity loss of 32 dB was found, rendering a chip-integrated OPO feasible as a compact and robust light source.

2.Achieving higher photoabsorption than group III-V semiconductors in silicon using photon-trapping surface structures

Authors:Wayesh Qarony, Ahmed S. Mayet, Ekaterina Ponizovskaya Devine, Soroush Ghandiparsi, Cesar Bartolo-Perez, Ahasan Ahamed, Amita Rawat, Hasina H. Mamtaz, Toshishige Yamada, Shih-Yuan Wang, M. Saif Islam

Abstract: The photosensitivity of silicon is inherently very low in the visible electromagnetic spectrum, and it drops rapidly beyond 800 nm in near-infrared wavelengths. Herein, we have experimentally demonstrated a technique utilizing photon-trapping surface structures to show a prodigious improvement of photoabsorption in one-micrometer-thin silicon, surpassing the inherent absorption efficiency of gallium arsenide for a broad spectrum. The photon-trapping structures allow the bending of normally incident light by almost ninety degrees to transform into laterally propagating modes along the silicon plane. Consequently, the propagation length of light increases, contributing to more than an order of magnitude improvement in absorption efficiency in photodetectors. This high absorption phenomenon is explained by FDTD analysis, where we show an enhanced photon density of states while substantially reducing the optical group velocity of light compared to silicon without photon-trapping structures, leading to significantly enhanced light-matter interactions. Our simulations also predict an enhanced absorption efficiency of photodetectors designed using 30 and 100-nanometer silicon thin films that are compatible with CMOS electronics. Despite a very thin absorption layer, such photon-trapping structures can enable high-efficiency and high-speed photodetectors needed in ultra-fast computer networks, data communication, and imaging systems with the potential to revolutionize on-chip logic and optoelectronic integration.

3.Topological structures of energy flow: Poynting vector skyrmions

Authors:Sicong Wang, Jialin Sun, Zecan Zheng, Zhikai Zhou, Hongkun Cao, Shichao Song, Zi-Lan Deng, Fei Qin, Yaoyu Cao, Xiangping Li

Abstract: Topological properties of energy flow of light are fundamentally interesting and have rich practical applications in optical manipulations. Here, skyrmion-like structures formed by Poynting vectors are unveiled in the focal region of a pair of counter-propagating cylindrical vector vortex beams in free space. A N\'eel-Bloch-N\'eel skyrmion type transformation of Poynting vectors is observed along the light propagating direction within a volume with subwavelength feature sizes. The corresponding skyrmion type can be determined by the phase singularities of the individual components of the coherently superposed electromagnetic field in the focal region. This work reveals a new family member of optical skyrmions and may introduce novel physical phenomena associated with light scattering and optical force.

4.Multiplication of the orbital angular momentum of phonon polaritons via sublinear dispersion

Authors:Andrea Mancini, Lin Nan, Rodrigo Berté, Emiliano Cortés, Haoran Ren, Stefan A. Maier

Abstract: Optical vortices (OVs) promise to greatly enhance optical information capacity via orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. The need for on-chip integration of OAM technologies has prompted research into subwavelength-confined polaritonic OVs. However, the topological order imprinted by the structure used for the transduction from free-space beams to surface polaritons is inherently fixed after fabrication. Here, we overcome this limitation via dispersion-driven topological charge multiplication. We switch the OV topological charge within a small $\sim 3 \%$ frequency range by leveraging the strong sublinear dispersion of low-loss surface phonon polaritons (SPhP) on silicon carbide membranes. Applying the Huygens principle we quantitatively evaluate the topological order of the experimental OVs detected by near-field imaging. We further explore the deuterogenic effect, which predicts the coexistence of multiple topological charges in higher-order polaritonic OVs. Our work demonstrates a viable method to manipulate the topological charge of polaritonic OVs, paving the way for the exploration of novel OAM-enabled light-matter interactions at mid-infrared frequencies.

5.Spatiotemporal control of nonlinear effects in multimode fibers for two-octave high-peak-power femtosecond tunable source

Authors:Tong Qiu, Honghao Cao, Kunzan Liu, Eva Lendaro, Fan Wang, Sixian You

Abstract: Effective control of nonlinear processes at high power levels in multimode fibers (MMFs) would unlock unprecedented possibilities for diverse applications including high-power fiber lasers, bioimaging, chemical sensing, and novel physics phenomena. Existing studies have focused on spatial control of nonlinear effects in graded-index MMFs, limiting their capabilities due to two major challenges: difficulty in control and limited broadband spectral brilliance. Here we present a new control approach that exploits the spatial and temporal degrees of control in step-index MMFs using a 3D-printed programmable fiber shaper. We have achieved broadband high-peak-power spanning 560--2200 nm, resulting from combined spectral energy reallocation (up to 166-fold) and temporal shortening (up to 4-fold) uniquely enabled by the fiber shaper. Our simple but effective fiber shaper costs 35 dollars, making it a potentially accessible tool for nonlinear and linear modulation of MMFs, with important implications in nonlinear optics, bioimaging, spectroscopy, optical computing, and material processing.

6.Mode-locked laser in nanophotonic lithium niobate

Authors:Qiushi Guo, Ryoto Sekine, James A. Williams, Benjamin K. Gutierrez, Robert M. Gray, Luis Ledezma, Luis Costa, Arkadev Roy, Selina Zhou, Mingchen Liu, Alireza Marandi

Abstract: Mode-locked lasers (MLLs) have enabled ultrafast sciences and technologies by generating ultrashort pulses with peak powers substantially exceeding their average powers. Recently, tremendous efforts have been focused on realizing integrated MLLs not only to address the challenges associated with their size and power demand, but also to enable transforming the ultrafast technologies into nanophotonic chips, and ultimately to unlock their potential for a plethora of applications. However, till now the prospect of integrated MLLs driving ultrafast nanophotonic circuits has remained elusive because of their typically low peak powers, lack of controllability, and challenges with integration with appropriate nanophotonic platforms. Here, we overcome these limitations by demonstrating an electrically-pumped actively MLL in nanophotonic lithium niobate based on its hybrid integration with a III-V semiconductor optical amplifier. Our MLL generates $\sim$4.8 ps optical pulses around 1065 nm at a repetition rate of $\sim$10 GHz, with pulse energy exceeding 2.6 pJ and a high peak power beyond 0.5 W. We show that both the repetition rate and the carrier-envelope-offset of the resulting frequency comb can be flexibly controlled in a wide range using the RF driving frequency and the pump current, paving the way for fully-stabilized on-chip frequency combs in nanophotonics. Our work marks an important step toward fully-integrated nonlinear and ultrafast photonic systems in nanophotonic lithium niobate.

7.Violation of the Babinet principle in checkerboard complementary structures made of perfect electric conductors

Authors:T. Dodge, M. Schiller, R. Yi, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa

Abstract: The celebrated 1830's-era Babinet principle of classical electromagnetic theory is expected to hold universally for sufficiently thin perfect electric conductors. We demonstrate theoretically and using various numerical simulations that this principle can be severely violated in a family of complementary structures obtained by scaling the familiar checkerboard pattern, when in-plane electromagnetic wave components develop geometric resonances (standing wave patterns) in the screen openings. These resonances can occur even if the perfect conductor is infinitely thin.

8.Resonant Anti-Reflection Metasurface for Infrared Transmission Optics

Authors:John Brewer, Sachin Kulkarni, Aaswath P. Raman

Abstract: A fundamental capability for any transmissive optical component is anti-reflection, yet this capability is challenging to achieve in a cost-efficient manner over longer infrared wavelengths. We demonstrate that Mie resonant nanophotonic structures enhance transmission in Silicon, allowing it to function as an effective optical material over long-wave infrared wavelengths. This approach enables a window optic with up to 40\% greater transmission than equal thickness unpatterned Si. Imaging comparisons with unpatterned silicon and off-the-shelf Germanium optics are shown, as well as basic broadband slant edge MTF measurements. Overall, we demonstrate how Mie-resonant structures can be used to improve optical transmission through window optics of arbitrary lithographically patternable optical media, and highlight their possible use in imaging applications.

1.Monolithic Integration of Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers and Frequency Combs with Passive Waveguides

Authors:Ruijun Wang, Philipp Täschler, Zhixin Wang, Emilio Gini, Mattias Beck, Jérôme Faist

Abstract: Mid-infrared semiconductor lasers in photonic integrated circuits are of considerable interest for a variety of industrial, environmental, and medical applications. However, photonic integration technologies in the mid-infrared lag far behind the near-infrared range. Here we present the monolithic integration of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with low-loss passive waveguides via butt-coupling. The passive waveguide losses are experimentally evaluated to be only 1.2 +- 0.3 dB/cm, with negligible butt-coupling losses. We demonstrate continuous-wave lasing at room temperature of these active-to-passive waveguide coupled devices. Moreover, we report a frequency comb operation paving the way toward on-chip, mid-infrared, dual-comb sensors.

2.Surface Saturation Current Densities of Perovskite Thin Films from Suns-Photoluminescence Quantum Yield Measurements

Authors:Robert Lee Chin, Arman Mahboubi Soufiani, Paul Fassl, Jianghui Zheng, Eunyoung Choi, Anita Ho-Baillie, Ulrich Paetzold, Thorsten Trupke, Ziv Hameiri

Abstract: We present a simple, yet powerful analysis of Suns-photoluminescence quantum yield measurements that can be used to determine the surface saturation current densities of thin film semiconductors. We apply the method to state-of-the-art polycrystalline perovskite thin films of varying absorber thickness. We show that the non-radiative bimolecular recombination in these samples originates from the surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate and quantify non-linear (bimolecular) surface recombination in perovskite thin films.

3.Experimental measurements of the transfer function of a nonlinear optical loop mirror

Authors:Alix Malfondet, Alexandre Parriaux, Patrice Tchofo-Dinda, Guy Millot

Abstract: Measurement of the average values of the input and output powers of a device can give insight into the transfer function (TF) of that device, but this approach usually hides the real impact of certain propagation phenomena. However, to the best of our knowledge, measurements of the TF of nonlinear optical loop mirrors have always been carried out using this approach [1-3], which may lead to underestimating the impact of dispersive and nonlinear effects. Here we present the experimental measurement of the TF of a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM), made from the experimental measurements of the input and output intensity profiles of the device, using a frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) technique [4-6]. Our approach clearly highlights the impact of dispersion effects and Kerr nonlinearity on the NOLM's TF.

4.Microdisk modulator-assisted optical nonlinear activation functions for photonic neural networks

Authors:Bin Wang, Weizhen Yu, Jinpeng Duan, Shuwen Yang, Zhenyu Zhao, Shuang Zheng, Weifeng Zhang

Abstract: On-chip implementation of optical nonlinear activation functions (NAFs) is essential for realizing large-scale photonic neural chips. To implement different neural processing and machine learning tasks with optimal performances, different NAFs are explored with the use of different devices. From the perspective of on-chip integration and reconfigurability of photonic neural network (PNN), it is highly preferred that a single compact device can fulfill multiple NAFs. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact high-speed microdisk modulator to realize multiple NAFs. The fabricated microdisk modulator has an add-drop configuration in which a lateral PN junction is incorporated for tuning. Based on high-speed nonlinear electrical-optical (E-O) effect, multiple NAFs are realized by electrically controlling free-carrier injection. Thanks to its strong optical confinement of the disk cavity, all-optical thermo-optic (TO) nonlinear effect can also be leveraged to realize other four different NAFs, which is difficult to be realized with the use of electrical-optical effect. With the use of the realized nonlinear activation function, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is studied to perform handwritten digit classification task, and an accuracy as large as 98% is demonstrated, which verifies the effectiveness of the use of the high-speed microdisk modulator to realize the NAFs. Thanks to its compact footprint and strong electrical-optical or all-optical effects, the microdisk modulator features multiple NAFs, which could serve as a flexible nonlinear unit for large-scale PNNs.

5.Gain assisted controllable fast light generation in cavity magnomechanics

Authors:Sanket Das, Subhadeep Chakraborty, Tarak N. Dey

Abstract: We study the controllable output field generation from a cavity magnomechanical resonator system that consists of two coupled microwave resonators. The first cavity interacts with a ferromagnetic yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere providing the magnon-photon coupling. Under passive cavities configuration, the system displays high absorption, prohibiting output transmission even though the dispersive response is anamolous. We replace the second passive cavity with an active one to overcome high absorption, producing an effective gain in the system. We show that the deformation of the YIG sphere retains the anomalous dispersion. Further, tuning the exchange interaction strength between the two resonators leads to the system's effective gain and dispersive response. As a result, the advancement associated with the amplification of the probe pulse can be controlled in the close vicinity of the magnomechanical resonance. Furthermore, we find the existence of an upper bound for the intensity amplification and the advancement of the probe pulse that comes from the stability condition. These findings may find potential applications for controlling light propagation in cavity magnomechanics.

6.Efficient and scalable scheme for overcoming the pulse energy bottleneck of single-cycle laser sources

Authors:Lu Xu, Eiji J. Takahashi

Abstract: We propose a novel scheme called advanced dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) that employs two kinds of nonlinear crystals (BiB$_3$O$_6$ and MgO-doped lithium niobate) to overcome the bottleneck of pulse energy scalability for single-cycle mid-infrared (MIR) laser pulses. In experiments, the advanced DC-OPA scheme achieved carrier-to-envelope phase-stable MIR laser pulses for a bandwidth of over one octave (1.4-3.1 $\mu$m) with an output pulse energy of 53 mJ. The pulse duration was compressed to 8.58 fs, which corresponds to 1.05 cycles with a central wavelength of 2.44 $\mu$m and peak power of 6 TW. To our knowledge, the obtained values for the pulse energy and peak power are the highest achieved for optical parametric amplification of single-cycle MIR laser pulses. Thanks to the energy scalability of the advanced DC-OPA scheme, it is potentially applicable to multi-TW sub-cycle laser pulses.

7.Loss-induced Floquet non-Hermitian skin effect

Authors:Yaohua Li, Cuicui Lu, Shuang Zhang, Yong-Chun Liu

Abstract: Non-Hermitian topological systems have attracted lots of interest due to their unique topological properties when the non-Hermitian skin effect (NHSE) appears. However, the experimental realization of NHSE conventionally requires non-reciprocal couplings, which are compatible with limited systems. Here we propose a mechanism of loss-induced Floquet NHSE, where the loss provides the basic source of non-Hermicity and the Floquet engineering brings about the Floquet-induced complex next-nearest-neighbor couplings. We also extend the generalized Brillouin zone theory to nonequilibrium systems to describe the Floquet NHSE. Furthermore, we show that this mechanism can realize the second-order NHSE when generalized to two-dimensional systems. Our proposal can be realized in photonic lattices with helical waveguides and other related systems, which opens the door for the study of topological phases in Floquet non-Hermitian systems.

8.High-quality amorphous Silicon Carbide for hybrid photonic integration at low temperature

Authors:Bruno Lopez-Rodriguez, Roald Van Der Kolk, Samarth Aggarwal, Naresh Sharma, Zizheng Li, Daniel Van Der Plaats, Thomas Scholte, Jin Chang, Silvania F. Pereira, Simon Groeblacher, Harish Bhaskaran, Iman Esmaeil Zadeh Zadeh

Abstract: Integrated photonic platforms have proliferated in recent years, each demonstrating its own unique strengths and shortcomings. However, given the processing incompatibilities of different platforms, a formidable challenge in the field of integrated photonics still remains for combining the strength of different optical materials in one hybrid integrated platform. Silicon carbide is a material of great interest because of its high refractive index, strong second and third-order non-linearities and broad transparecy window in the visible and near infrared. However, integrating SiC has been difficult, and current approaches rely on transfer bonding techniques, that are time consuming, expensive and lacking precision in layer thickness. Here, we demonstrate high index Amorphous Silicon Carbide (a-SiC) films deposited at 150$^{\circ}$C and verify the high performance of the platform by fabricating standard photonic waveguides and ring resonators. The intrinsic quality factors of single-mode ring resonators were in the range of $Q_{int} = (4.7-5.7)\times10^5$ corresponding to optical losses between 0.78-1.06 dB/cm. We then demonstrate the potential of this platform for future heterogeneous integration with ultralow loss thin SiN and LiNbO$_3$ platforms.

9.Integrated Photonic Encoder for Terapixel Image Processing

Authors:Xiao Wang, Brandon Redding, Nicholas Karl, Christopher Long, Zheyuan Zhu, Shuo Pang, David Brady, Raktim Sarma

Abstract: Modern lens designs are capable of resolving >10 gigapixels, while advances in camera frame-rate and hyperspectral imaging have made Terapixel/s data acquisition a real possibility. The main bottlenecks preventing such high data-rate systems are power consumption and data storage. In this work, we show that analog photonic encoders could address this challenge, enabling high-speed image compression using orders-of-magnitude lower power than digital electronics. Our approach relies on a silicon-photonics front-end to compress raw image data, foregoing energy-intensive image conditioning and reducing data storage requirements. The compression scheme uses a passive disordered photonic structure to perform kernel-type random projections of the raw image data with minimal power consumption and low latency. A back-end neural network can then reconstruct the original images with structural similarity exceeding 90%. This scheme has the potential to process Terapixel/s data streams using less than 100 fJ/pixel, providing a path to ultra-high-resolution data and image acquisition systems.

10.Dielectric breakdown and sub-wavelength patterning of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride using femtosecond pulses

Authors:Sabeeh Irfan Ahmad, Emmanuel Sarpong, Arpit Dave, Hsin-Yu Yao, Joel M. Solomon, Jing-Kai Jiang, Chih-Wei Luo, Wen-Hao Chang, Tsing-Hua Her

Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has emerged as a promising two-dimensional (2D) material for many applications in photonics. Although its linear and nonlinear optical properties have been extensively studied, its interaction with high-intensity laser pulses, which is important for high-harmonic generation, fabricating quantum emitters, and maskless patterning of hBN, has not been investigated. Here we report the first study of dielectric breakdown in hBN monolayers induced by single femtosecond laser pulses. We show that hBN has the highest breakdown threshold among all existing 2D materials. This enables us to observe clearly for the first time a linear dependence of breakdown threshold on the bandgap energy for 2D materials, demonstrating such a linear dependency is a universal scaling law independent of the dimensionality. We also observe counter-intuitively that hBN, which has a larger bandgap and mechanical strength than quartz, has a lower breakdown threshold. This implies carrier generation in hBN is much more efficient. Furthermore, we demonstrate the clean removal of hBN without damage to the surrounding hBN film or the substrate, indicating that hBN is optically very robust. The ablated features are shown to possess very small edge roughness, which is attributed to its ultrahigh fracture toughness. Finally, we demonstrate femtosecond laser patterning of hBN with sub-wavelength resolution, including an isolated stripe width of 200 nm. Our work advances the knowledge of light-hBN interaction in the strong field regime and firmly establishes femtosecond lasers as novel and promising tools for one-step deterministic patterning of hBN monolayers.

11.Helicity-dependent optical control of the magnetization state emerging from the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation

Authors:Benjamin Assouline, Amir Capua

Abstract: It is well known that the Gilbert relaxation time of a magnetic moment scales inversely with the magnitude of the externally applied field, H, and the Gilbert damping, {\alpha}. Therefore, in ultrashort optical pulses, where H can temporarily be extremely large, the Gilbert relaxation time can momentarily be extremely short, reaching even picosecond timescales. Here we show that for typical ultrashort pulses, the optical control of the magnetization emerges by merely considering the optical magnetic field in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. Surprisingly, when circularly polarized optical pulses are introduced to the LLG equation, an optically induced helicity-dependent torque results. We find that the strength of the interaction is determined by {\eta}={\alpha}{\gamma}H/f_opt, where f_opt and {\gamma} are the optical frequency and gyromagnetic ratio. Our results illustrate the generality of the LLG equation to the optical limit and the pivotal role of the Gilbert damping in the general interaction between optical magnetic fields and spins in solids.

1.Multi-mode lasing in supercell plasmonic nanoparticle arrays

Authors:Rebecca Heilmann, Kristian Arjas, Tommi K. Hakala, Päivi Törmä

Abstract: Multicolour light sources can be used in applications such as lighting and multiplexing signals. In photonic and plasmonic systems, one way to achieve multicolour light is via multi-mode lasing. To achieve this, plasmonic nanoparticle arrays are typically arranged in superlattices that lead to multiple dispersions of the single arrays coupled via the superlattice Bragg modes. Here, we show an alternative way to enable multi-mode lasing in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. We design a supercell in a square lattice by leaving part of the lattice sites empty. This results in multiple dispersive branches caused by the supercell period and hence creates additional band edges that can support lasing. We experimentally demonstrate multi-mode lasing in such a supercell array. Furthermore, we identify the lasing modes by calculating the dispersion by combining the structure factor of the array design with an empty lattice approximation. We conclude that the lasing modes are the 74th $\Gamma$- and 106th $X$-point of the supercell. By tuning the square lattice period with respect to the gain emission we can control the modes that lase. Finally, we show that the lasing modes exhibit a combination of transverse electric and transverse magnetic mode characteristics in polarization resolved measurements.

2.Topological nature of non-Hermitian degenerate bands in structural parameter space

Authors:Olivia Y. Long, Cheng Guo, Shanhui Fan

Abstract: In photonics, band degeneracies at high-symmetry points in wavevector space have been shown to exhibit rich physical phenomena. However, obtaining degenerate bands away from such points is highly nontrivial. In this work, we achieve complex band degeneracy in a photonic crystal structure over a region of momentum space. We show that this band degeneracy corresponds to polarization-independent transmission, which can be harnessed for nonlocal metasurface design. Moreover, we find that the band degeneracy manifests as a topological singularity in the structural parameter space of the system. Our work highlights the importance of topological concepts in the design of polarization-independent photonic structures.

3.Observation of Landau levels and topological edge states in photonic crystals through pseudomagnetic fields induced by synthetic strain

Authors:René Barczyk, L. Kuipers, Ewold Verhagen

Abstract: The control over light propagation and localization in photonic crystals offers wide applications from sensing and on-chip routing to lasing and quantum light-matter interfaces. While in electronic crystals magnetic fields can be used to induce a multitude of unique phenomena, the uncharged nature of photons necessitates alternative approaches to bring about similar control over photons at the nanoscale. Here, we experimentally realize pseudomagnetic fields in two-dimensional photonic crystals through engineered strain of the lattice. Analogous to strained graphene, this induces flat-band Landau levels at discrete energies. We study the spatial and spectral properties of these states in silicon photonic crystals at telecom wavelengths with far-field spectroscopy. Moreover, taking advantage of the photonic crystal's design freedom, we realize domains of opposite pseudomagnetic field and observe topological edge states at their interface. We reveal that the strain-induced states can achieve remarkably high quality factors despite being phase-matched to the radiation continuum. Together with the high density of states and high degeneracy associated with flat bands, this provides powerful prospects for enhancing light-matter interactions, and demonstrates a design principle to govern both on-chip and radiating light fields.

4.Synchronous micromechanically resonant programmable photonic circuits

Authors:Mark Dong, Julia M. Boyle, Kevin J. Palm, Matthew Zimmermann, Alex Witte, Andrew J. Leenheer, Daniel Dominguez, Gerald Gilbert, Matt Eichenfield, Dirk Englund

Abstract: Programmable photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are emerging as powerful tools for the precise manipulation of light, with applications in quantum information processing, optical range finding, and artificial intelligence. The leading architecture for programmable PICs is the mesh of Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) embedded with reconfigurable optical phase shifters. Low-power implementations of these PICs involve micromechanical structures driven capacitively or piezoelectrically but are limited in modulation bandwidth by mechanical resonances and high operating voltages. However, circuits designed to operate exclusively at these mechanical resonances would reduce the necessary driving voltage from resonantly enhanced modulation as well as maintaining high actuation speeds. Here we introduce a synchronous, micromechanically resonant design architecture for programmable PICs, which exploits micromechanical eigenmodes for modulation enhancement. This approach combines high-frequency mechanical resonances and optically broadband phase shifters to increase the modulation response on the order of the mechanical quality factor $Q_m$, thereby reducing the PIC's power consumption, voltage-loss product, and footprint. The architecture is useful for broadly applicable circuits such as optical phased arrays, $1$ x $N$, and $N$ x $N$ photonic switches. We report a proof-of-principle programmable 1 x 8 switch with piezoelectric phase shifters at specifically targeted mechanical eigenfrequencies, showing a full switching cycle of all eight channels spaced by approximately 11 ns and operating at >3x average modulation enhancement across all on-chip modulators. By further leveraging micromechanical devices with high $Q_m$, which can exceed 1 million, our design architecture should enable a new class of low-voltage and high-speed programmable PICs.

1.Direct determination of 2D Momentum Space from 2D Spatial Coherence of Light using a Modified Michelson Interferometer

Authors:S. V. U. Vedhanth, Shouvik Datta

Abstract: Momentum space distributions of photons coming out of any light emitting materials/devices provide critical information about its underlying physical origin. Conventional methods of determining such properties impose specific instrumentational difficulties for probing samples kept within a low temperature cryostat. There were past studies to measure one dimensional (1D) coherence function which could then be used for extracting momentum space information as well as reports of measurements of just two dimensional (2D) coherence function. However, all of those are associated with additional experimental complexities. So, here we propose a simpler, modified Michelson interferometer based optical setup kept at room temperature outside the cryostat to initially measure the 2D coherence function of emitted light, which can then be used to directly estimate the 2D in-plane momentum space distribution by calculating its fast Fourier transform. We will also discuss how this experimental method can overcome instrumentational difficulties encountered in past studies.

2.A Non-topological Extension of Bending-immune Valley Topological Edge States

Authors:Tianyuan Liu, Wei Yan, Min Qiu

Abstract: Breaking parity (P) symmetry in C6 symmetric crystals is a common routine to implement a valley-topological phase. At an interface between two crystals of opposite valley phases, the so-called valley topological edge states emerge, and they have been proven useful for wave transport with robustness against 120 degree bending and a certain level of disorder. However, whether these attractive transport features are bound with the valley topology or due to topological-irrelevant mechanisms remains unclear. In this letter, we discuss this question by examining transport properties of photonic edge states with varied degrees of the P-breaking that tune the valley topology, and reveal that the edge states preserve their transport robustness insensitive to the topology even when the P-symmetry is recovered. Instead, a unique modal character of the edge states--with localized momentum hotspots around high-symmetric K (K') points--is recognized to play the key role, which only concerns the existence of the valleys in the bulk band structures, and has no special requirement on the topology. The "non-topological" notion of valley edge states is introduced to conceptualize this modal character, leading to a coherent understanding of bending immunity in a range of edge modes implemented in C3 symmetric crystals--such as valley topological edge states, topological edge states of 2D Zak phase, topological-trivial edge states and so on--, and to new designs in general rhombic lattices--with exemplified bending angle as large as 150 degree.

3.Computational 3D topographic microscopy from terabytes of data per sample

Authors:Kevin C. Zhou, Mark Harfouche, Maxwell Zheng, Joakim Jönsson, Kyung Chul Lee, Ron Appel, Paul Reamey, Thomas Doman, Veton Saliu, Gregor Horstmeyer, Roarke Horstmeyer

Abstract: We present a large-scale computational 3D topographic microscope that enables 6-gigapixel profilometric 3D imaging at micron-scale resolution across $>$110 cm$^2$ areas over multi-millimeter axial ranges. Our computational microscope, termed STARCAM (Scanning Topographic All-in-focus Reconstruction with a Computational Array Microscope), features a parallelized, 54-camera architecture with 3-axis translation to capture, for each sample of interest, a multi-dimensional, 2.1-terabyte (TB) dataset, consisting of a total of 224,640 9.4-megapixel images. We developed a self-supervised neural network-based algorithm for 3D reconstruction and stitching that jointly estimates an all-in-focus photometric composite and 3D height map across the entire field of view, using multi-view stereo information and image sharpness as a focal metric. The memory-efficient, compressed differentiable representation offered by the neural network effectively enables joint participation of the entire multi-TB dataset during the reconstruction process. To demonstrate the broad utility of our new computational microscope, we applied STARCAM to a variety of decimeter-scale objects, with applications ranging from cultural heritage to industrial inspection.

4.Photonic Integrated Neuro-Synaptic Core for Convolutional Spiking Neural Network

Authors:Shuiying Xiang, Yuechun Shi, Yahui Zhang, Xingxing Guo, Ling Zheng, Yanan Han, Yuna Zhang, Ziwei Song, Dianzhuang Zheng, Tao Zhang, Hailing Wang, Xiaojun Zhu, Xiangfei Chen, Min Qiu, Yichen Shen, Wanhua Zheng, Yue Hao

Abstract: Neuromorphic photonic computing has emerged as a competitive computing paradigm to overcome the bottlenecks of the von-Neumann architecture. Linear weighting and nonlinear spiking activation are two fundamental functions of a photonic spiking neural network (PSNN). However, they are separately implemented with different photonic materials and devices, hindering the large-scale integration of PSNN. Here, we propose, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a photonic neuro-synaptic chip enabling the simultaneous implementation of linear weighting and nonlinear spiking activation based on a distributed feedback (DFB) laser with a saturable absorber (DFB-SA). A prototypical system is experimentally constructed to demonstrate the parallel weighted function and nonlinear spike activation. Furthermore, a four-channel DFB-SA array is fabricated for realizing matrix convolution of a spiking convolutional neural network, achieving a recognition accuracy of 87% for the MNIST dataset. The fabricated neuro-synaptic chip offers a fundamental building block to construct the large-scale integrated PSNN chip.

5.An Efficient Compact Blazed Grating Antenna for Optical Phased Arrays

Authors:Henna Farheen, Suraj Joshi, J. Christoph Scheytt, Viktor Myroshnychenko, Jens Förstner

Abstract: Phased arrays are vital in communication systems and have received significant interest in the field of optoelectronics and photonics, enabling a wide range of applications such as LiDAR, holography, wireless communication, etc. In this work, we present a blazed grating antenna that is optimized to have upward radiation efficiency as high as 80% with a compact footprint of 3.5 {\mu}m \times 2 {\mu}m at an operational wavelength of 1.55 {\mu}m. Our numerical investigations demonstrate that this antenna in a 64 \times 64 phased array configuration is capable of producing desired far-field radiation patterns. Additionally, our antenna possesses a low side lobe level of -9.7 dB and a negligible reflection efficiency of under 1%, making it an attractive candidate for integrated optical phased arrays.

6.All-Optical Ultrafast Valley Switching in Two-Dimensional Materials

Authors:Navdeep Rana, Gopal Dixit

Abstract: Electrons in two-dimensional materials possess an additional quantum attribute, the valley pseudospin, labelled as $\mathbf{K}$ and $\mathbf{K}^{\prime}$ -- analogous to the spin up and spin down. The majority of research to achieve valley-selective excitations in valleytronics depends on resonant circularly-polarised light with a given helicity. Not only acquiring valley-selective electron excitation but also switching the excitation from one valley to another is quintessential for bringing valleytronics-based technologies in reality. Present work introduces a coherent control protocol to initiate valley-selective excitation, de-excitation, and switch the excitation from one valley to another on the fly within tens of femtoseconds -- a timescale faster than any valley decoherence time. Our protocol is equally applicable to {\it both} gapped and gapless two-dimensional materials. Monolayer graphene and molybdenum disulfide are used to test the universality. Moreover, the protocol is robust as it is insensitive to significant parameters of the protocol, such as dephasing times, wavelengths, and time delays of the laser pulses. Present work goes beyond the existing paradigm of valleytronics, and opens a new realm of valley switch at PetaHertz rate.

7.Dark solitons in Fabry-Perot resonators with Kerr media and normal dispersion

Authors:Graeme Neil Campbell, Lewis Hill, Pascal Del'Haye, Gian-Luca Oppo

Abstract: Ranges of existence and stability of dark cavity-soliton stationary states in a Fabry-Perot resonator with a Kerr nonlinear medium and normal dispersion are determined. The Fabry-Perot configuration introduces nonlocal coupling that shifts the cavity detuning by the round trip average power of the intracavity field. When compared with ring resonators described by the Lugiato-Lefever equation, nonlocal coupling leads to strongly detuned dark cavity solitons that exist over a wide range of detunings. This shift is a consequence of the counterpropagation of intracavity fields inherent to Fabry-Perot resonators. At difference with ring resonators, the existence and stability of dark soliton solutions are dependent on the size and number of solitons in the cavity. We investigate the effect of nonlocal coupling of Fabry-Perot resonators on multiple dark solitons and demonstrate long range interactions and synchronization of temporal oscillations.

8.Circular dichroism induction in WS2 by a chiral plasmonic metasurface

Authors:Fernando Lorén, Cyriaque Genet, Luis Martín-Moreno

Abstract: We investigate the interaction between a monolayer of WS2 and a chiral plasmonic metasurface. WS2 possesses valley excitons that selectively couple with one-handed circularly polarised light. At the same time, the chiral plasmonic metasurface exhibits spin-momentum locking, leading to a robust polarisation response in the far field. Using a scattering formalism based on the coupled mode method, we analyse various optical properties of the WS2 monolayer. Specifically, we demonstrate the generation of circular dichroism in the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) by harnessing the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in the metasurface. Moreover, we observe the emergence of other guided modes, opening up exciting possibilities for further exploration in TMD-based devices.

1.New horizons in near-zero refractive index photonics and hyperbolic metamaterials

Authors:Michaël Lobet, Nathaniel Kinsey, Iñigo Liberal, Humeyra Caglayan, Paloma Arroyo-Huidobro, Emanuele Galiffi, Jorge Ricardo Mejía-Salazar, Giovanna Palermo, Zubin Jacob, Nicolò Maccaferri

Abstract: The engineering of the spatial and temporal properties of both the electric permittivity and the refractive index of materials is at the core of photonics. When vanishing to zero, those two variables provide new knobs to control light-matter interactions. This perspective aims at providing an overview of the state of the art and the challenges in emerging research areas where the use of near-zero refractive index and hyperbolic metamaterials is pivotal, in particular light and thermal emission, nonlinear optics, sensing applications and time-varying photonics.

2.600-GHz Fourier Imaging Based on Heterodyne Detection at the 2nd Sub-harmonic

Authors:Hui Yuan, Alvydas Lisauskas, Mark D. Thomson, Hartmut G. Roskos

Abstract: Fourier imaging is an indirect imaging method which records the diffraction pattern of the object scene coherently in the focal plane of the imaging system and reconstructs the image using computational resources. The spatial resolution, which can be reached, depends on one hand on the wavelength of the radiation, but also on the capability to measure - in the focal plane - Fourier components with high spatial wave-vectors. This leads to a conflicting situation at THz frequencies, because choosing a shorter wavelength for better resolution usually comes at the cost of less radiation power, concomitant with a loss of dynamic range, which limits the detection of higher Fourier components. Here, aiming at maintaining a high dynamic range and limiting the system costs, we adopt heterodyne detection at the 2nd sub-harmonic, working with continuous-wave (CW) radiation for object illumination at 600 GHz and local-oscillator (LO) radiation at 300 GHz. The detector is a single-pixel broad-band Si CMOS TeraFET equipped with substrate lenses on both the front- and backside for separate in-coupling of the waves. The entire scene is illuminated by the object wave, and the Fourier spectrum is recorded by raster scanning of the single detector unit through the focal plane. With only 56 uW of power of the 600-GHz radiation, a dynamic range of 60 dB is reached, sufficient to detect the entire accessible Fourier space spectrum in the test measurements. A lateral spatial resolution of better than 0.5 mm, at the diffraction limit, is reached.

3.Natural exceptional points in the excitation spectrum of a light-matter system

Authors:Andrzej Opala, Magdalena Furman, Mateusz Król, Rafał Mirek, Krzysztof Tyszka, Bartłomiej Seredyński, Wojciech Pacuski, Jacek Szczytko, Michał Matuszewski, Barbara Piętka

Abstract: We observe natural exceptional points in the excitation spectrum of an exciton-polariton system by optically tuning the light-matter interactions. The observed exceptional points do not require any spatial or polarization degrees of freedom and result solely from the transition from weak to strong light-matter coupling. We demonstrate that they do not coincide with the threshold for photon lasing, confirming previous theoretical predictions [Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 185301 (2019), Optica 7, 1015 (2020) ]. Using a technique where a strong coherent laser pump induces up-converted excitations, we encircle the exceptional point in the parameter space of coupling strength and particle momentum. Our method of local optical control of light-matter coupling paves the way to investigation of fundamental phenomena including dissipative phase transitions and non-Hermitian topological states.

4.Large Area Optical Frequency Detectors for Single-Shot Phase Readout

Authors:Felix Ritzkowsky, Matthew Yeung, Engjell Bebeti, Thomas Gebert, Toru Matsuyama, Matthias Budden, Roland Mainz, Huseyin Cankaya, Karl Berggren, Giulio Rossi, Phillip Keathley, Franz Kärtner

Abstract: Attosecond science has demonstrated that electrons can be controlled on the sub-cycle time scale of an optical wave, paving the way toward optical frequency electronics. Using controlled few-cycle optical waveforms, the study of sub-cycle electron emission has enabled the generation of attosecond ultraviolet pulses and the control of attosecond currents inside of solids. However, these experiments rely on high-energy laser systems not suitable for integration with microcircuits. To move towards integrated optical frequency electronics, a system suitable for integration into microcircuits capable of generating detectable signals with low pulse energies is needed. While current from plasmonic nanoantenna emitters can be driven at optical frequencies, low charge yields have been a significant limitation. In this work we demonstrate that large-scale electrically-connected plasmonic nanoantenna networks, when driven in concert, enable a much higher charge yield sufficient for shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase detection, which is a hallmark of the underlying sub-cycle processes. We use a tailored sub-2-cycle mid-infrared waveform of only tens of nanojoules of energy to drive in excess of 2000 carrier-envelope-phase-sensitive electrons from interconnected plasmonic nanoantenna arrays that we detect on a single-shot basis using conventional electronics. Our work shows that electronically integrated plasmonic nanoantennas are a viable approach to integrated optical frequency electronics. By engineering the nanoantennas to the particular use case, such as carrier-envelope phase detection, and optimizing the density and total amount, the output signals are fully controlled. This approach to optical frequency electronics will further enable many interesting applications, such as petahertz-bandwidth electric field sampling or the realization of logic gates operating at optical frequencies.

1.Photon centroids and their subluminal propagation

Authors:Konstantin Y. Bliokh

Abstract: We examine properties and propagation of the energy-density and photon-probability centroids of electromagnetic wavepackets in free space. In the second-order paraxial approximation, both of these centroids propagate with the same subluminal velocity because of the transverse confinement of the wavepacket and its diffraction. The tiny difference between the energy and probability centroid velocities appears only in the forth order. We consider three types of wavepackets: Gaussian, Bessel, and non-diffracting Bessel. In all these cases, the subluminal propagation is clearly visible in the intensity distributions and can be measured experimentally in both classical-light and single-photon regimes. For Gaussian wavepackets, the half-wavelength delay is accumulated after propagation over about 12 Rayleigh lengths.

2.Metallic and All-Dielectric Metasurfaces Sustaining Displacement-Mediated Bound States in the Continuum

Authors:Luca M. Berger, Martin Barkey, Stefan A. Maier, Andreas Tittl

Abstract: Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are localized electromagnetic modes within the continuous spectrum of radiating waves. Due to their infinite lifetimes without radiation losses, BICs are driving research directions in lasing, non-linear optical processes, and sensing. However, conventional methods for converting BICs into leaky resonances, or quasi-BICs, with high-quality factors typically rely on breaking the in-plane inversion symmetry of the metasurface and often result in resonances that are strongly dependent on the angle of the incident light, making them unsuitable for many practical applications. Here, we numerically analyze and experimentally demonstrate an emerging class of BIC-driven metasurfaces, where the coupling to the far field is controlled by the displacement of individual resonators. In particular, we investigate both all-dielectric and metallic as well as positive and inverse displacement-mediated metasurfaces sustaining angular-robust quasi-BICs in the mid-infrared spectral region. We explore their behavior with changes in the incidence angle of illumination and experimentally show their superior performance compared to two conventional alternatives: silicon-based tilted ellipses and cylindrical nanoholes in gold. We anticipate our findings to open exciting perspectives for bio-sensing, conformal optical devices, and photonic devices using focused light.

3.Demixing fluorescence time traces transmitted by multimode fibers

Authors:Caio Vaz Rimoli, Claudio Moretti, Fernando Soldevila, Enora Brémont, Cathie Ventalon, Sylvain Gigan

Abstract: Fiber photometry is a significantly less invasive method compared to other deep brain imaging microendoscopy approaches due to the use of thin multimode fibers (MMF diameter $<$ 500 $\mu$m). Nevertheless, the transmitted signals get scrambled upon propagation within the MMF, thus limiting the technique's potential in resolving temporal readouts with cellular resolution. Here, we demonstrate how to separate the time trace signals of several fluorescent sources probed by a thin ($\approx$ 200 $\mu$m) MMF with typical implantable length in a mouse brain. We disentangled several spatio-temporal fluorescence signals by using a general unconstrained non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm directly on the raw video data. Furthermore, we show that commercial and low-cost open-source miniscopes display enough sensitivity to image the same fluorescence patterns seen in our proof of principle experiment, suggesting that a whole new avenue for novel minimally invasive deep brain studies with multimode fibers in freely-behaving mice is possible.

4.Far infrared to terahertz widely tunable narrow linewidth light source via surface-emitting periodically poled thin film lithium niobate waveguides

Authors:Valerie Yoshioka, Jicheng Jin, Qiang Lin, Bo Zhen

Abstract: Generating widely tunable, continuous wave light at long wavelengths via difference frequency generation (DFG) remains challenging due to high absorption and dispersion. The relatively new platform of thin film lithium niobate enables high-confinement nonlinear waveguides, which could improve efficiency. We simulated DFG in thin film lithium niobate waveguides that are periodically poled for surface emission at 30 THz. Maximum efficiency for a 1 cm device is 9.16 $\times$ 10$^{-6}$ W$^{-1}$ assuming $d_{33}$ = 30 pm/V. The tuning range within 50$\%$ of efficiency at 30 THz is as wide as 25 THz, from 25 THz to 50 THz.

5.Brillouin Gain Microscopy

Authors:Roni Shaashoua, Lir Kasuker, Mor Kishner, Tal Levy, Barak Rotblat, Anat Ben-Zvi, Alberto Bilenca

Abstract: Optical imaging with mechanical contrast is critical for material and biological discovery since it allows contactless light-radiation force-excitation within the sample, as opposed to traditional mechanical imaging. Whilst optical microscopy based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) enables mechanical imaging of materials and living biological systems with high spectrospatial resolution, its temporal resolution remains limited. Here, we develop Brillouin gain microscopy (BGM) with a 200-fold higher temporal resolution by detecting the Brillouin gain at a mechanically contrasting frequency in the sample with high sensitivity. Using BGM, we demonstrate mechanical imaging of materials, living organisms and cells at high spectro-spatiotemporal resolution.

6.Enhancing biomechanical stimulated Brillouin scattering imaging with physics-driven model selection

Authors:Roni Shaashoua, Tal Levy, Barak Rotblat, Alberto Bilenca

Abstract: Brillouin microscopy is an emerging technique for all-optical biomechanical imaging without the need for physical contact with the sample or for an external mechanical stimulus. However, Brillouin microscopy often retrieves a single, averaged Brillouin frequency shift of all the materials in the sampling volume, introducing significant spectral artifacts in the Brillouin shift images produced. To enable the identification between single- and multi-peak Brillouin signatures in the sample voxels, we developed here a new physics-driven model selection framework based on information theory and an overfit Brillouin water peak threshold. The model selection framework was applied to Brillouin data of NIH/3T3 cells measured by stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy, facilitating the improved quantification of the Brillouin shift of different regions in the cells, and substantially minimizing spectral artifacts in their Brillouin shift images.

1.Integrated multi-operand optical neurons for scalable and hardware-efficient deep learning

Authors:Chenghao Feng, Jiaqi Gu, Hanqing Zhu, Rongxing Tang, Shupeng Ning, May Hlaing, Jason Midkiff, Sourabh Jain, David Z. Pan, Ray T. Chen

Abstract: The optical neural network (ONN) is a promising hardware platform for next-generation neuromorphic computing due to its high parallelism, low latency, and low energy consumption. However, previous integrated photonic tensor cores (PTCs) consume numerous single-operand optical modulators for signal and weight encoding, leading to large area costs and high propagation loss to implement large tensor operations. This work proposes a scalable and efficient optical dot-product engine based on customized multi-operand photonic devices, namely multi-operand optical neurons (MOON). We experimentally demonstrate the utility of a MOON using a multi-operand-Mach-Zehnder-interferometer (MOMZI) in image recognition tasks. Specifically, our MOMZI-based ONN achieves a measured accuracy of 85.89% in the street view house number (SVHN) recognition dataset with 4-bit voltage control precision. Furthermore, our performance analysis reveals that a 128x128 MOMZI-based PTCs outperform their counterparts based on single-operand MZIs by one to two order-of-magnitudes in propagation loss, optical delay, and total device footprint, with comparable matrix expressivity.

2.Tuneable optical gain and broadband lasing driven in electrospun polymer fibers by high dye concentration

Authors:Giovanni Morello Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica 'E. De Giorgi'-Universita' del Salento, Maria Moffa Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Martina Montinaro Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica 'E. De Giorgi'-Universita' del Salento, Annachiara Albanese Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR Dipartimento di Fisica-Universita' di Pisa, Karolis Kazlauskas Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnology-Vilnius University, Saulius Jursenas Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnology-Vilnius University, Ausra Tomkeviciene Department of Polymer Chemistry and Technology-Kaunas University of Technology, Juozas V. Grazulevicius Department of Polymer Chemistry and Technology-Kaunas University of Technology, Andrea Camposeo Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Dario Pisignano Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica 'E. De Giorgi'-Universita' del Salento Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR Dipartimento di Fisica-Universita' di Pisa

Abstract: The optical gain of blue light-emitting electrospun polystyrene fibers doped with a linear multi-fragment molecular dye based on the combination of fluorine-carbazole functional units is investigated, with the aim of correlating emission properties and the specific material architecture made of either aligned or disordered fibers. Enhanced performance is found in aligned fibers, whose gain spectrum can be finely tuned by varying the dye concentration. Instead, randomly oriented fibers show a manifold spectral line narrowing, resulting in sharp laser peaks superimposed on top of a broad emission band, ascribable to random lasing. In these systems, the increase of the dye content turns out to be effective for both decreasing the lasing threshold by about a factor 6 and for varying the laser emission wavelength. These results make these arrays and disordered architectures of fibers valuable active media for variable-gain, broadband lasing, which is remarkably important in optical sensing and tunable microlaser devices.

3.Multiplexed wavefront sensing with a thin diffuser

Authors:Tengfei Wu, Marc Guillon, Gilles Tessier, Pascal Berto

Abstract: In astronomy or biological imaging, refractive index inhomogeneities of e.g. atmosphere or tissues induce optical aberrations which degrade the desired information hidden behind the medium. A standard approach consists in measuring these aberrations with a wavefront sensor (e.g Shack-Hartmann) located in the pupil plane, and compensating them either digitally or by adaptive optics with a wavefront shaper. However, in its usual implementation this strategy can only extract aberrations within a single isoplanatic patch, i.e. a region where the aberrations remain correlated. This limitation severely reduces the effective field-of-view in which the correction can be performed. Here, we propose a new wavefront sensing method capable of measuring, in a single shot, various pupil aberrations corresponding to multiple isoplanatic patches. The method, based on a thin diffuser (i.e a random phase mask), exploits the dissimilarity between different speckle regions to multiplex several wavefronts incoming from various incidence angles. We present proof-of-concept experiments carried out in wide-field fluorescence microscopy. A digital deconvolution procedure in each isoplanatic patch yields accurate aberration correction within an extended field-of-view. This approach is of interest for adaptive optics applications as well as diffractive optical tomography.

4.Luminescence from oxygen vacancies in Lu$_{2}$SiO$_{5}$ crystal and ceramics at room temperature

Authors:M. V. Belov, S. A. Koutovoi, V. A. Kozlov, N. V. Pestovskii, S. Yu. Savinov, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, M. V. Zavertyaev

Abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) of Lu$_{2}$SiO$_{5}$ crystal and ceramics with a high concentration of oxygen vacancies (about ~0.5 at.%) is studied. Oxygen vacancies were created using two ways. The first method is a growth of crystal from the non-stoichiometric Lu$_{2}$Si$_{0.98}$O$_{4.96}$ melt and the second one is a doping of Lu$_{2}$SiO$_{5}$ matrix with divalent Ca$^{2+}$ ions at the concentration of 1 at.%. For the first time we observe a fairly bright room-temperature ultraviolet PL of both crystal grown from the Lu$_{2}$Si$_{0.98}$O$_{4.96}$ melt and Lu$_{2}$SiO$_{5}$ ceramics doped with Ca$^{2+}$ ions. A band at 290 nm in the PL spectrum of the crystal and a band at 283 nm in the PL spectrum of the calcium-doped ceramics are observed. The spectral and kinetic properties of these bands are close to each other. This fact indicates similar origins of these bands. The results of the work show that the studied ultraviolet luminescence is related to oxygen vacancies in lutetium oxyorthosilicate.

5.A versatile and narrow linewidth infra-red radiation source for ro-vibration state selected preparation of molecules in molecular beams

Authors:Avinash Kumar, Saurabh Kumar Singh, Pranav R. Shirhatti

Abstract: We describe the design and characterization of a versatile pulsed (5 ns, 10 Hz repetition rate) optical parametric oscillator and amplifier system capable of generating single longitudinal mode, narrow linewidth (0.01 $\rm{cm^{-1}}$) radiation in the wavelength range of 680 - 870 nm and 1380 - 4650 nm. Using a combination of power normalized photoacoustic signal and a wavemeter (based on a Fizeau interferometer), we are able to actively stabilize the output wavenumber to within 0.006 $\rm{cm^{-1}}$ (3$\sigma$) over a timescale of greater than 1500 seconds. We demonstrate an application of this system by performing ro-vibration state selected preparation of CO (v = 0 $\rightarrow 2$) and subsequent state selective detection in an internally cold molecular beam.

6.Axion Topology in Photonic Crystal Domain Walls

Authors:Chiara Devescovi, Antonio Morales-Pérez, Yoonseok Hwang, Mikel García-Díez, Iñigo Robredo, Juan Luis Mañes, Barry Bradlyn, Aitzol García-Etxarri, Maia G. Vergniory

Abstract: Axion insulators are 3D magnetic higher-order topological insulators protected by inversion-symmetry that exhibit hinge-localized chiral channels and induce quantized topological magnetoelectric effects. Recent research has suggested that axion insulators may be capable of detecting dark-matter axion-like particles by coupling to their axionic excitations. Beyond its fundamental theoretical interest, designing a photonic AXI offers the potential to enable the development of magnetically-tunable photonic switch devices through the manipulation of the axionic modes and their chiral propagation using external magnetic fields. Motivated by these facts, in this work, we propose a novel approach to induce axionic band topology in gyrotropic 3D Weyl photonic crystals gapped by supercell modulation. To quantize an axionic angle, we create domain-walls across inversion-symmetric photonic crystals, incorporating a phase-obstruction in the supercell modulation of their dielectric elements. This allows us to bind chiral channels on inversion-related hinges, ultimately leading to the realization of an axionic chiral channel of light. Moreover, by controlling the material gyrotropic response, we demonstrate a physically accessible way of manipulating the axionic modes through a small external magnetic bias, which provides an effective topological switch between different 1D chiral photonic fiber configurations. Remarkably, the unidirectional axionic hinge states supported by the photonic axion insulator are buried in a fully connected 3D dielectric structure, thereby being protected from radiation through the electromagnetic continuum. As a result, they are highly suitable for applications in guided-light communication, where the preservation and non-reciprocal propagation of photonic signals are of paramount importance.

7.Universal imprinting of chirality with chiral light by employing plasmonic metastructures

Authors:Oscar Avalos-Ovando, Veronica Bahamondes, Lucas V. Besteiro, Artur Movsesyan, Zhiming Wang, Gil Markovich, Alexander O. Govorov

Abstract: Chirality, either of light or matter, has proved to be very practical in biosensing and nanophotonics. However, the fundamental understanding of its temporal dynamics still needs to be discovered. A realistic setup for this are the so-called metastructures, since they are optically active and are built massively, hence rendering an immediate potential candidate. Here we propose and study the electromagnetic-optical mechanism leading to chiral optical imprinting on metastructures. Induced photothermal responses create anisotropic permittivity modulations, different for left or right circularly polarized light, leading to temporal-dependent chiral imprinting of hot-spots, namely imprinting of chirality. The above effect has not been observed yet, but it is within reach of modern experimental approaches. The proposed nonlinear chiroptical effect is general and should appear in any anisotropic material; however, we need to design a particular geometry for this effect to be strong. These new chiral time-dependent metastructures may lead to a plethora of applications.

8.Mixing Rule for Calculating the Effective Refractive Index Beyond the Limit of Small Particles

Authors:Dominic T. Meiers, Georg von Freymann

Abstract: Considering light transport in disordered media, the medium is often treated as an effective medium requiring accurate evaluation of an effective refractive index. Because of its simplicity, the Maxwell-Garnett (MG) mixing rule is widely used, although its restriction to particles much smaller than the wavelength is rarely satisfied. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, we show that the MG theory indeed fails for large particles. Systematic investigation of size effects reveals that the effective refractive index can be instead approximated by a quadratic polynomial whose coefficients are given by an empirical formula. Hence, a simple mixing rule is derived which clearly outperforms established mixing rules for composite media containing large particles, a common condition in natural disordered media.

1.Sum-frequency generation from etchless lithium niobate empowered by dual quasi-bound states in the continuum

Authors:Siqi Feng, Tingting Liu, Wenya Chen, Feng Wu, Shuyuan Xiao

Abstract: The miniaturization of nonlinear light sources is central to the integrated photonic platform, driving a quest for high-efficiency frequency generation and mixing at the nanoscale. In this quest, the high-quality ($Q$) resonant dielectric nanostructures hold great promise, as they enhance nonlinear effects through the resonantly local electromagnetic fields overlapping the chosen nonlinear materials. Here, we propose a method for the enhanced sum-frequency generation (SFG) from etcheless lithium niobate (LiNbO$_{3}$) by utilizing the dual quasi-bound states in the continuum (quasi-BICs) in a one-dimensional resonant grating waveguide structure. Two high-$Q$ guided mode resonances corresponding to the dual quasi-BICs are respectively excited by two near-infrared input beams, generating a strong visible SFG signal with a remarkably high conversion efficiency of $3.66\times10^{-2}$ (which is five orders of magnitude higher than that of LiNbO$_{3}$ films of the same thickness) and a small full-width at half-maximum less than 0.2 nm. The SFG efficiency can be tuned via adjusting the grating geometry parameter or choosing the input beam polarization combination. Furthermore, the generated SFG signal can be maintained at a fixed wavelength without the appreciable loss of efficiency by selectively exciting the angular-dependent quasi-BICs, even if the wavelengths of input beams are tuned within a broad spectral range. Our results provide a simple but robust paradigm of high-efficiency frequency conversion on an easy-fabricated platform, which may find applications in nonlinear light sources and quantum photonics.

2.Second harmonic generation in anisotropic stratified media: A generalization of the Berreman method and its application to photonic materials

Authors:J. Ortega, C. L. Folcia, J. Etxebarria

Abstract: We have developed a numerical method for calculating the second harmonic generation (SHG) generated by an anisotropic material whose optical properties present an arbitrary modulation in one dimension. The method is based on the Berreman 4x4 matrix formalism, which is generalized to include nonlinear optical phenomena. It can be used under oblique incidences of the input beam, and is valid even when the SHG frequency is close to photonic bands, where the usual slowly-varying-amplitude approximation breaks down. As an example of application, we have studied the SHG performance of ferroelectric and helielectric nematic liquid crystals. The latter present a helicoidal structure that can be distorted under electric field. In the different tests of the method we have analyzed the conditions for the most efficient SHG, and compared with previous results in the case there were any. The obtained results indicate that the present procedure may contribute to improve the structural design and enlarge the variety of nonlinear optical materials for their application in optical devices.

3.Highly Oriented PZT Platform for Polarization-Independent Photonic Integrated Circuit and Enhanced Efficiency Electro-Optic Modulation

Authors:Suraj, Shankar Kumar Selvaraja

Abstract: We demonstrate, for the first time, sputtered PZT as a platform for the development of Si-based photonic devices such as rings, MZI, and electro-optic modulators. We report the optimization of PZT on MgO(002) substrate to obtain highly oriented PZT film oriented towards the (100) plane with a surface roughness of 2 nm. Si gratings were simulated for TE and TM mode with an efficiency of -2.2 dB/coupler -3 dB/coupler respectively with a polarization insensitive efficiency of 50% for both TE and TM mode. Si grating with an efficiency of around -10 dB/coupler and a 6 dB bandwidth of 30 nm was fabricated. DC Electro-optic characterization for MZI yielded a spectrum shift of 71 pm/V at the c-band.

4.3-D poling and drive mechanism for high-speed PZT-on-SOI Electro-Optic modulator using remote Pt buffered growth

Authors:Suraj, Shankar Kumar Selvaraja

Abstract: In this work, we have demonstrated a novel method to increase the electro-optic interaction in an intensity modulator at the C-band by optimizing the growth methodology of PZT with the metal (Ti/Pt) as a base material and the PZT poling architecture. Here, we have used a patterned Pt layer for PZT deposition instead of a buffer layer. By optimizing the PZT growth process, we have been able to do poling of the fabricated PZT film in an arbitrary direction as well as have achieved an enhanced electro-optic interaction, leading to a DC spectrum shift of 304 pm/V and a V{\pi} L{\pi} value of 0.6 V-cm on a Si-based MZI. For an electro-optic modulator, we are reporting the best values of DC spectrum shift and V{\pi} L{\pi} using perovskite as an active material. The high-speed measurement has yielded a tool-limited bandwidth of > 12GHz. The extrapolated bandwidth calculated using the slope of the modulation depth is 45 GHz. We also show via simulation an optimized gap of 4.5 {\mu}m and a PZT thickness of 1 {\mu}m that gives us a less than 1 V-dB.

5.DFT analysis and demonstration of enhanced clamped Electro-Optic tensor by strain engineering in PZT

Authors:Suraj, Shankar Kumar Selvaraja

Abstract: We report $\approx$400\% enhancement in PZT Pockels coefficient on DFT simulation of lattice strain due to phonon mode softening.The simulation showed a relation between the rumpling and the Pockels coefficient divergence that happens at -8\% and 25\% strain developed in PZT film.The simulation was verified experimentally by RF sputter deposited PZT film on Pt/SiO$_2$/Si layer.The strain developed in PZT varied from -0.04\% for film annealed at 530\degree C to -0.21\% for 600\degree C annealing temperature.The strain was insensitive to RF power with a value of -0.13\% for power varying between 70-130 W. Pockels coefficient enhancement was experimentally confirmed by Si Mach Zehnder interferometer loaded with PZT and probed with the co-planar electrode.An enhancement of $\approx$300\% in Pockels coefficient was observed from 2-8 pm/V with strain increasing from -0.04\% to -0.21\%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time study and demonstration of strain engineering on Pockels coefficient of PZT using DFT simulation, film deposition, and photonic device fabrication.

1.Optimizing the growth conditions of Al mirrors for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

Authors:R. Flaschmann, C. Schmid, L. Zugliani, S. Strohauer, F. Wietschorke, S. Grotowski, B. Jonas, M. Müller, M. Althammer, R. Gross, J. J. Finley, K. Müller

Abstract: We investigate the growth conditions for thin (less than 200 nm) sputtered aluminum (Al) films. These coatings are needed for various applications, e.g. for advanced manufacturing processes in the aerospace industry or for nanostructures for quantum devices. Obtaining high-quality films, with low roughness, requires precise optimization of the deposition process. To this end, we tune various sputtering parameters such as the deposition rate, temperature, and power, which enables 50 nm thin films with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of less than 1 nm and high reflectivity. Finally, we confirm the high quality of the deposited films by realizing superconducting single-photon detectors integrated into multi-layer heterostructures consisting of an aluminum mirror and a silicon dioxide dielectric spacer. We achieve an improvement in detection efficiency at 780 nm from 40 % to 70 % by this integration approach.

2.On-chip arrayed waveguide grating fabricated on thin film lithium niobate

Authors:Zhe Wang, Zhiwei Fang, Zhaoxiang Liu, Youting Liang, Jian Liu, Jianping Yu, Ting Huang, Yuan Zhou, Haisu Zhang, Min Wang, Ya Cheng

Abstract: We design an on-chip 8-channel TFLN AWG and fabricate the device using photolithography assisted chemo-mechanical etching (PLACE) technique. We experimentally measure the transmission of the fabricated TFLN AWG near the central wavelength of 1550 nm. We obtain an on-chip loss as low as 3.32 dB, a single-channel bandwidth of 1.6 nm and a total-channel bandwidth of 12.8 nm. The crosstalk between adjacent channels was measured to be below -7.01 dB within the wavelength range from 1543 nm to 1558 nm, and the crosstalk between non-adjacent channels was below -15 dB.

3.Transversality-Enforced Tight-Binding Model for 3D Photonic Crystals aided by Topological Quantum Chemistry

Authors:Antonio Morales-Pérez, Chiara Devescovi, Yoonseok Hwang, Mikel García-Díez, Barry Bradlyn, Juan Luis Mañes, Maia G. Vergniory, Aitzol García-Etxarri

Abstract: Tight-binding models can accurately predict the band structure and topology of crystalline systems and they have been heavily used in solid-state physics due to their versatility and low computational cost. It is quite straightforward to build an accurate tight-binding model of any crystalline system using the maximally localized Wannier functions of the crystal as a basis. In 1D and 2D photonic crystals, it is possible to express the wave equation as two decoupled scalar eigenproblems where finding a basis of maximally localized Wannier functions is feasible using standard Wannierization methods. Unfortunately, in 3D photonic crystals, the vectorial nature of the electromagnetic solutions cannot be avoided. This precludes the construction of a basis of maximally localized Wannier functions via usual techniques. In this work, we show how to overcome this problem by using topological quantum chemistry which will allow us to express the band structure of the photonic crystal as a difference of elementary band representations. This can be achieved by the introduction of a set of auxiliary modes, as recently proposed by Solja\v{c}i\'c et. al., which regularize the $\Gamma$-point obstruction arising from transversality constraint of the Maxwell equations. The decomposition into elementary band representations allows us to isolate a set of pseudo-orbitals that permit us to construct an accurate transversality-enforced tight-binding model (TETB) that matches the dispersion, symmetry content, and topology of the 3D photonic crystal under study. Moreover, we show how to introduce the effects of a gyrotropic bias in the framework, modeled via non-minimal coupling to a static magnetic field. Our work provides the first systematic method to analytically model the photonic bands of the lowest transverse modes over the entire BZ via a TETB model.

4.Characterization and evasion of backscattered light in the squeezed-light enhanced gravitational wave interferometer GEO 600

Authors:Fabio Bergamin, James Lough, Emil Schreiber, Hartmut Grote, Moritz Mehmet, Henning Vahlbruch, Christoph Affeldt, Tomislav Andric, Aparna Bisht, Marc Bringmann, Volker Kringel, Harald Lück, Nikhil Mukund, Severin Nadji, Borja Sorazu, Kenneth Strain, Michael Weinert, Karsten Danzmann

Abstract: Squeezed light is injected into the dark port of gravitational wave interferometers, in order to reduce the quantum noise. A fraction of the interferometer output light can reach the OPO due to sub-optimal isolation of the squeezing injection path. This backscattered light interacts with squeezed light generation process, introducing additional measurement noise. We present a theoretical description of the noise coupling mechanism. We propose a control scheme to achieve a de-amplification of the backscattered light inside the OPO with a consequent reduction of the noise caused by it. The scheme was implemented at the GEO 600 detector and has proven to be crucial in maintaining a good level of quantum noise reduction of the interferometer for high parametric gain of the OPO. In particular, the mitigation of the backscattered light noise helped in reaching 6dB of quantum noise reduction [Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 041102 (2021)]. The impact of backscattered-light-induced noise on the squeezing performance is phenomenologically equivalent to increased phase noise of the squeezing angle control. The results discussed in this paper provide a way for a more accurate estimation of the residual phase noise of the squeezed light field.

5.Machine Learning for Mie-Tronics

Authors:Wenhao Li, Hooman Barati Sedeh, Willie J. Padilla, Simiao Ren, Jordan Malof, Natalia M. Litchinitser

Abstract: Electromagnetic multipole expansion theory underpins nanoscale light-matter interactions, particularly within subwavelength meta-atoms, paving the way for diverse and captivating optical phenomena. While conventionally brute force optimization methods, relying on the iterative exploration of various geometries and materials, are employed to obtain the desired multipolar moments, these approaches are computationally demanding and less effective for intricate designs. In this study, we unveil the potential of machine learning for designing dielectric meta-atoms with desired multipolar moments up to the octupole terms. Specifically, we develop forward prediction models to unravel the intricate relationship between the scattering response and the topological attributes of individual meta-atoms, and an inverse design model to reconstruct scatterers with the targeted multipolar moments. Utilizing a tandem network trained to tailor dielectric meta-atoms for generating intended multipolar moments across a broad spectral range, we further demonstrate the generation of uniquely shaped meta-atoms for exciting exclusive higher order magnetic response and establishing super-scattering regime of light-matter interaction. We also illustrate the accurate prediction of electric field distributions within the given scatterer. Our versatile methodology can be readily applied to existing datasets and seamlessly integrated with various network architectures and problem domains, making it a valuable tool for the design of different platforms at nanoscale.

6.Photonic Snake States in Two-Dimensional Frequency Combs

Authors:Salim B. Ivars, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Pedro Fernández de Córdoba, J. Alberto Conejero, Lluis Torner, Carles Milián

Abstract: Taming the instabilities inherent to many nonlinear optical phenomena is of paramount importance for modern photonics. In particular, the so-called snake instability is universally known to severely distort localized wave stripes, leading to the occurrence of transient, short-lived dynamical states that eventually decay. The phenomenon is ubiquitous in nonlinear science, from river meandering to superfluids, and to date it remains apparently uncontrollable. However, here we show that optical snake instabilities can be harnessed by a process that leads to the formation of stationary and robust two-dimensional zigzag states. We find that such new type of nonlinear waves exists in the hyperbolic regime of cylindrical micro-resonators and it naturally corresponds to two-dimensional frequency combs featuring spectral heterogeneity and intrinsic synchronization. We uncover the conditions of the existence of such spatiotemporal photonic snakes and confirm their remarkable robustness against perturbations. Our findings represent a new paradigm for frequency comb generation, thus opening the door to a whole range of applications in communications, metrology, and spectroscopy.

1.Large field-of-view and multi-color imaging with GaP quadratic metalenses

Authors:Anton V. Baranikov, Egor Khaidarov, Emmanuel Lassalle, Damien Eschimese, Joel Yeo, N. Duane Loh, Ramon Paniagua-Dominguez, Arseniy I. Kuznetsov

Abstract: Metalenses, in order to compete with conventional bulk optics in commercial imaging systems, often require large field of view (FOV) and broadband operation simultaneously. However, strong chromatic and coma aberrations present in common metalens designs have so far limited their widespread use. Stacking of metalenses as one of the possible solutions increases the overall complexity of the optical system and hinders the main benefit of reduced thickness and light weight. To tackle both issues, here we propose a single-layer imaging system utilizing a recently developed class of metalenses providing large field of view. Using it, we demonstrate full-color imaging with a FOV of 100 degrees. This approach, empowered by computational imaging techniques, produce high quality images, both in terms of color reproduction and sharpness. Suitable for real-time unpolarized light operation with the standard color filters present in prevalent camera systems, our results might enable a pathway for consumer electronics applications of this emerging technology.

2.Photon diffusion in space and time in a second-order nonlinear disordered medium

Authors:Rabisankar Samanta, Romain Pierrat, Rémi Carminati, Sushil Mujumdar

Abstract: We report experimental and theoretical investigations on photon diffusion in a second-order nonlinear disordered medium under conditions of strong nonlinearity. Experimentally, photons at the fundamental wavelength ($\lambda=1064$ nm) are launched into the structure in the form of a cylindrical pellet, and the second-harmonic ($\lambda=532$ nm) photons are temporally analyzed in transmission. For comparison, separate experiments are carried out with incident green light at $\lambda=532$ nm. We observe that the second harmonic light peaks earlier compared to the incident green photons. Next, the sideways spatial scattering of the fundamental as well as second-harmonic photons is recorded. The spatial diffusion profiles of second-harmonic photons are seen to peak deeper inside the medium in comparison to both the fundamental and incident green photons. In order to give more physical insights into the experimental results, a theoretical model is derived from first principles. It is based on the coupling of transport equations. Solved numerically using a Monte Carlo algorithm and experimentally estimated transport parameters at both wavelengths, it gives excellent quantitative agreement with the experiments for both fundamental and second-harmonic light.

3.Motion of charged particles in bright squeezed vacuum

Authors:Matan Even Tzur, Oren Cohen

Abstract: The motion of laser-driven electrons quivers with an average energy termed pondermotive energy. We explore electron dynamics driven by bright squeezed vacuum (BSV), finding that BSV induces width oscillations, akin to electron quivering in laser light, with an equivalent ponderomotive energy. In the case of bound electrons, width oscillations may lead to tunnel ionization with noisy sub-cycle structure. Our results are foundational for strong-field and free-electron quantum optics, as they shed light on tunnel ionization, high harmonic generation, and nonlinear Compton scattering in BSV.

4.Multi-wavelength Q-plate Arithmetic in an All-Liquid-Crystal Modular Setup

Authors:Jacek Piłka, Michał Kwaśny, Magdalena Czerniewicz, Mirosław Karpierz, Urszula Laudyn

Abstract: Vortex beams are a type of structured light characterized by phase rotation around the propagation axis, resulting in orbital angular momentum. Their properties make them useful in various applications such as high-resolution microscopy, optical tweezing, and telecommunications. This has led to a comprehensive development of methods for their generation, ranging from using single-purpose glass elements to utilizing computer-generated holograms using spatial light modulators. One of the most commonly used elements for vortex transformation is a vortex half-wave retarder called a q-plate, which can transform a Gaussian beam into a scalar vortex or vector beam depending on the input polarization. Although the commercially available ones are limited in the range of possible output topological charges, they can be stacked to perform arithmetic operations to expand them. However, changing the output or working wavelength requires rearranging the elements. We present an improvement to this method that solves these problems by introducing Q-modules, easy-to-fabricate, electrically tunable liquid crystal devices that combine the features of q-plates and half-wave plates and can be used as building blocks in modular assemblies. Electrical tuning makes it possible to change the working wavelength as well as the topological output charge or polarization order without the need to interact mechanically with the setup.

5.On-target delivery of intense ultrafast laser pulses through hollow-core anti-resonant fibers

Authors:Athanasios Lekosiotis, Federico Belli, Christian Brahms, Mohammed Sabbah, Hesham Sakr, Ian A. Davidson, Francesco Poletti, John C. Travers

Abstract: We report the flexible on-target delivery of 800 nm wavelength, 5 GW peak power, 40 fs duration laser pulses through an evacuated and tightly coiled 10 m long hollow-core nested anti-resonant fiber by positively chirping the input pulses to compensate for the anomalous dispersion of the fiber. High output pulse quality and a guided peak intensity of 3 PW/cm2 were achieved by suppressing plasma effects in the residual gas by pre-pumping the fiber after evacuation. This appears to cause a long-term removal of molecules from the fiber core. Identifying the fluence at the fiber core-wall interface as the damage origin, we scaled the coupled energy to 1.8 mJ using a short piece of larger-core fiber to obtain 20 GW at the fiber output. This scheme can pave the way towards the integration of anti-resonant fibers in mJ-level nonlinear optical experiments and laser-source development.

6.Multipolar Pseudochirality Induced Optical Torque

Authors:Karim Achouri, Mintae Chung, Andrei Kiselev, Olivier J. F. Martin

Abstract: It has been observed that achiral nano-particles, such as flat helices, may be subjected to an optical torque even when illuminated by normally incident linearly polarized light. However, the origin of this fascinating phenomenon has so far remained mostly unexplained. We therefore propose an exhaustive discussion that provides a clear and rigorous explanation for the existence of such a torque. Using multipolar theory, and taking into account nonlocal interactions, we find that this torque stems from multipolar pseudochiral responses that generate both spin and orbital angular momenta. We also show that the nature of these peculiar responses makes them particularly dependent on the asymmetry of the particles. By elucidating the origin of this type of torque, this work may prove instrumental for the design of high-performance nano-rotors.

7.Calibration method for complex permittivity measurements using s-SNOM combining multiple tapping harmonics

Authors:Dario Siebenkotten, Bernd Kaestner, Arne Hoehl, Shuhei Amakawa

Abstract: Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) enables sub-diffraction spectroscopy, featuring high sensitivity to small spatial permittivity variations of the sample surface. However, due to the near-field probe-sample interaction, the quantitative extraction of the complex permittivity leads to a computationally demanding inverse problem, requiring further approximation of the system to an invertible model. Black-box calibration methods, similar to those applied to microwave vector network analysers, allow the extraction of the permittivity without detailed electromagnetic modelling of the probe-sample interaction. These methods, however, are typically designed for stationary setups. In contrast, the distance between the sample and the probe tip of the s-SNOM is slowly modulated, which is required for the lock-in detection used to extract the near-field interaction buried in the far-field background. Here we propose an improved calibration method that explicitly takes probe tapping into account. We validate our method for an s-SNOM operating in a mid-infrared spectral range by applying it to measurements of silicon microstructures of different but well characterised doping.

8.Electrodynamics of an oscillating particle without cheating PART I : In vacuo. PART II : Near a dispersive bulk

Authors:Mauricio Garcia-Vergara, Guillaume Demésy, André Nicolet, Frédéric Zolla

Abstract: In this paper, the electromagnetic radiation from an oscillating particle placed in the vicinity of an object of size comparable to the wavelength is studied. Although this problem may seem academic at first sight, the details of the calculations are presented throughout without any detail left under the carpet. A polyharmonic decomposition of the radiation sources allows the diffraction problem to be fully characterised while satisfying energy conservation. Finally, the source expressions obtained are suitable for use in a numerical code. A 3D illustration using finite elements is provided.

9.Spectrally-encoded non-scanning imaging through a fiber

Authors:Ningzhi Xie, Quentin A. A. Tanguy, Johannes E. Fröch, Karl F. Böhringer, Arka Majumdar

Abstract: With the advent of neuroimaging and microsurgery, there is a rising need for capturing images through an optical fiber. We present an approach of imaging through a single fiber without mechanical scanning by implementing spatial-spectral encoding. The spectral encoding is achieved through a microfabricated spectral filter array, where light from different spatial pixels is coded with a highly orthogonal spectrum. The image is then computationally recovered via pseudo inverse of the encoding process. We demonstrate imaging of a $4 \times 4$ binary object at the proximity of the spectral filter array using $560-625nm$ wavelength band. The recovered image maintains an error rate of $<11\%$ when measured using a spectrometer with a spectral resolution of $1.5nm$. The image remains unchanged with fiber bending or moving. Thus our approach shows a more robust way to image through a single optical fiber, with potential applications in compact endoscopes and angioscopes.

10.Inspecting the use of SLMs for the control of photonic quantum states

Authors:Sebastián Bordakevich, Dudbil Pabón, Lorena Rebón, Silvia Ledesma

Abstract: Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used to coherently control quantum states of light. When carrying out these experiments, some assumptions are made. For instance, it is supposed that the position-momentum correlations between twin photon pairs are not affected by the use of a liquid crystal display (LCD) as a SLM. Furthermore, it is assumed that the characterization of such devices performed with an intense laser source, is still valid in the single photon regime. In this work, we show that such assumptions are acceptable, within the experimental uncertainties, for a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) display. This is especially important when considering the use of this kind of displays for the coherent control of quantum states based on twin photon sources.

11.Generation and control of non-local quantum equivalent extreme ultraviolet photons

Authors:Geoffrey R. Harrison, Tobias Saule, R. Esteban Goetz, George N. Gibson, Anh-Thu Le, Carlos A. Trallero-Herrero

Abstract: We present a high precision, self-referencing, common path XUV interferometer setup to produce pairs of spatially separated and independently controllable XUV pulses that are locked in phase and time. The spatial separation is created by introducing two equal but opposite wavefront tilts or using superpositions of orbital angular momentum. In our approach, we can independently control the relative phase/delay of the two optical beams with a resolution of 52 zs (zs = zeptoseconds). In order to explore the level of entanglement between the non-local photons, we compare three different beam modes: Bessel-like, and Gaussian with or without added orbital angular momentum. By reconstructing interference patterns one or two photons at a time we conclude that the beams are not entangled, yet each photon in the attosecond pulse train contains information about the entire spectrum. Our technique generates non-local, quantum equivalent XUV photons with a temporal jitter of 3 zs, just below the Compton unit of time of 8 zs. We argue that this new level of temporal precision will open the door for new dynamical QED tests. We also discuss the potential impact on other areas, such as imaging, measurements of non-locality, and molecular quantum tomography.

1.Ghost line waves

Authors:Massimo Moccia, Giuseppe Castaldi, Andrea Alù, Vincenzo Galdi

Abstract: Time-harmonic electromagnetic plane waves in anisotropic media can exhibit complex-valued wavevectors (with nonzero real and imaginary parts) even in the absence of material dissipation. These peculiar modes, usually referred to as "ghost waves," hybridize the typical traits of conventional propagating and evanescent waves, displaying both phase accumulation and purely reactive exponential decay away from the direction of power flow. Their existence has been predicted in several scenarios, and has been recently observed experimentally in the form of surface phonon polaritons with complex-valued out-of-plane wavevectors propagating at the interface between air and a natural uniaxial crystal with slanted optical axis. Here, we demonstrate that ghost waves can arise also in lower-dimensional flat-optics scenarios, which are becoming increasingly relevant in the context of metasurfaces and in the field of polaritonics. Specifically, we show that planar junctions between isotropic and anisotropic metasurfaces can support "ghost line waves" that propagate unattenuated along the line interface, exhibiting phase oscillations combined with evanescent decay both in the plane of the metasurface (away from the interface) and out-of-plane n the surrounding medium. Our theoretical results, validated by finite-element numerical simulations, demonstrate a novel form of polaritonic waves with highly confined features, which may provide new opportunities for the control of light at the nanoscale, and may find potential applications in a variety of scenarios, including integrated waveguides, nonlinear optics, optical sensing and sub-diffraction imaging.

2.Silicon Photonics -- Roadmapping the Next Generation

Authors:Sudip Shekhar, Wim Bogaerts, Lukas Chrostowski, John E. Bowers, Michael Hochberg, Richard Soref, Bhavin J. Shastri

Abstract: Silicon photonics has developed into a mainstream technology driven by advances in optical communications. The current generation has led to a proliferation of integrated photonic devices from thousands to millions - mainly in the form of communication transceivers for data centers. Products in many exciting applications, such as sensing and computing, are around the corner. What will it take to increase the proliferation of silicon photonics from millions to billions of units shipped? What will the next generation of silicon photonics look like? What are the common threads in the integration and fabrication bottlenecks that silicon photonic applications face, and which emerging technologies can solve them? This perspective article is an attempt to answer such questions. We chart the generational trends in silicon photonics technology, drawing parallels from the generational definitions of CMOS technology. We identify the crucial challenges that must be solved to make giant strides in CMOS-foundry-compatible devices, circuits, integration, and packaging. We identify challenges critical to the next generation of systems and applications - in communication, signal processing, and sensing. By identifying and summarizing such challenges and opportunities, we aim to stimulate further research on devices, circuits, and systems for the silicon photonics ecosystem.

3.The threshold of semiconductor nanolasers

Authors:Marco Saldutti, Yi Yu, Jesper Mørk

Abstract: Nanolasers based on emerging dielectric cavities with deep sub-wavelength confinement of light offer a large light-matter coupling rate and a near-unity spontaneous emission factor, $\beta$. These features call for reconsidering the standard approach to identifying the lasing threshold. Here, we suggest a new threshold definition, taking into account the recycling process of photons when $\beta$ is large. This threshold with photon recycling reduces to the classical balance between gain and loss in the limit of macroscopic lasers, but qualitative as well as quantitative differences emerge as $\beta$ approaches unity. We analyze the evolution of the photon statistics with increasing current by utilizing a standard Langevin approach and a more fundamental stochastic simulation scheme. We show that the threshold with photon recycling consistently marks the onset of the change in the second-order intensity correlation, $g^{(2)}(0)$, toward coherent laser light, irrespective of the laser size and down to the case of a single emitter. In contrast, other threshold definitions may well predict lasing in light-emitting diodes. These results address the fundamental question of the transition to lasing all the way from the macro- to the nanoscale and provide a unified overview of the long-lasting debate on the lasing threshold.

4.Polarization Independent Grating in GaN-on-Sapphire Photonic Integrated Circuit

Authors:Suraj, Shashwat Rathkanthiwar, Srinivasan Raghavan, Shankar Kumar Selvaraja

Abstract: In this work, we report the realization of a polarization-insensitive grating coupler, single-mode waveguide, and ring resonator in the GaN-on-Sapphire platform. We provide a detailed demonstration of the material characterization, device simulation, and experimental results. We achieve a grating coupler efficiency of -5.2 dB/coupler with a 1dB and 3dB bandwidth of 40 nm and 80 nm, respectively. We measure a single-mode waveguide loss of -6 dB/cm. The losses measured here are the lowest in a GaN-on-Sapphire photonic circuit. This demonstration provides opportunities for the development of on-chip linear and non-linear optical processes using the GaN-on-Sapphire platform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an integrated photonic device using a GaN HEMT stack with 2D electron gas.

5.Spectral Peak Recovery in Parametrically Amplified THz-Repetition-Rate Bursts

Authors:Vinzenz Stummer, Tobias Flöry, Matthias Schneller, Edgar Kaksis, Markus Zeiler, Audrius Pugžlys, Andrius Baltuška

Abstract: Multi-photon resonant spectroscopies require tunable narrowband excitation to deliver spectral selectivity and, simultaneously, high temporal intensity to drive a nonlinear-optical process. These contradictory requirements are achievable with bursts of ultrashort pulses, which provides both high intensity and tunable narrowband peaks in the frequency domain arising from spectral interference. However, femtosecond pulse bursts need special attention during their amplification [Optica 7, 1758 (2020)], which requires spectral peak suppression to increase the energy safely extractable from a chirped-pulse amplifier (CPA). Here, we present a method combining safe laser CPA, relying on spectral scrambling, with a parametric frequency converter that automatically restores the desired spectral peak structure and delivers narrow linewidths for bursts of ultrashort pulses at microjoule energies. The shown results pave the way to new high-energy ultrafast laser sources with controllable spectral selectivity.

6.Tracing attosecond electron emission from a nanometric metal tip

Authors:Philip Dienstbier, Lennart Seiffert, Timo Paschen, Andreas Liehl, Alfred Leitenstorfer, Thomas Fennel, Peter Hommelhoff

Abstract: Solids exposed to intense electric fields release electrons through tunnelling. This fundamental quantum process lies at the heart of various applications, ranging from high brightness electron sources in DC operation to petahertz vacuum electronics in laser-driven operation. In the latter process, the electron wavepacket undergoes semiclassical dynamics in the strong oscillating laser field, similar to strong-field and attosecond physics in the gas phase. There, the sub-cycle electron dynamics has been determined with a stunning precision of tens of attoseconds, but at solids the quantum dynamics including the emission time window has so far not been measured. Here we show that two-colour modulation spectroscopy of backscattering electrons uncovers the sub-optical-cycle strong-field emission dynamics from nanostructures, with attosecond precision. In our experiment, photoelectron spectra of electrons emitted from a sharp metallic tip are measured as function of the relative phase between the two colours. Projecting the solution of the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation onto classical trajectories relates phase-dependent signatures in the spectra to the emission dynamics and yield an emission duration of $710\pm30$ attoseconds by matching the quantum model to the experiment. Our results open the door to the quantitative timing and precise active control of strong-field photoemission in solid state and other systems and have direct ramifications for diverse fields such as ultrafast electron sources, quantum degeneracy studies and sub-Poissonian electron beams, nanoplasmonics and petahertz electronics.

7.Hyper Spectral Resolution Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy with Amplified fs Pulse Bursts

Authors:Hongtao Hu, Tobias Flöry, Vinzenz Stummer, Audrius Pugzlys, Markus Kitzler-Zeiler, Xinhua Xie, Alexei Zheltikov, Andrius Baltuška

Abstract: We present a novel approach to achieve hyper spectral resolution, high sensitive detection, and high speed data acquisition Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy by employing amplified offset-phase controlled fs-pulse bursts. In this approach, the Raman-shift spectrum is obtained through the direct mapping between the bursts offset phase and the Raman-shift frequency, which requires neither wavelength-detuning as in the long-pulse method nor precise dispersion management and delay scanning with movable parts as in the spectral focusing technique. This method is demonstrated numerically by solving the coupled non-linear Schroedinger equations and the properties of this approach are systematically investigated. The product of the spectral resolution and the pixel dwell time in this work is below 2 microsiemens/centimeter, which is at least an order of magnitude lower than previous methods. This previously untouched area will greatly expand the applications of SRS and holds the potential for discovering new science.

8.Threshold and laser-conversion in nanostructured-resonator parametric oscillators

Authors:Haixin Liu, Grant M. Brodnik, Jizhao Zang, David R. Carlson, Jennifer A. Black, Scott B. Papp

Abstract: We explore optical parametric oscillation (OPO) in nanophotonic resonators, enabling arbitrary, nonlinear phase-matching and nearly lossless control of energy conversion. Such pristine OPO laser converters are determined by nonlinear light-matter interactions, making them both technologically flexible and broadly reconfigurable. We utilize a nanostructured inner-wall modulation in the resonator to achieve universal phase-matching for OPO-laser conversion, but coherent backscattering also induces a counterpropagating pump laser. This depletes the intra-resonator optical power in either direction, increasing the OPO threshold power and limiting laser-conversion efficiency, the ratio of optical power in target signal and idler frequencies to the pump. We develop an analytical model of this system that emphasizes an understanding of optimal laser conversion and threshold behaviors, and we use the model to guide experiments with nanostructured-resonator OPO laser-conversion circuits, fully integrated on chip and unlimited by group-velocity dispersion. Our work demonstrates the fundamental connection between OPO laser-conversion efficiency and the resonator coupling rate, subject to the relative phase and power of counterpropagating pump fields. We achieve $(40\pm4)$ mW of on-chip power, corresponding to $(41\pm4)$% conversion efficiency, and discover a path toward near-unity OPO laser conversion efficiency.

9.Nano-patterned back-reflector with engineered near-field/far-field light scattering for enhanced light trapping in silicon-based multi-junction solar cells

Authors:Andrea Cordaro, Ralph Müller, Stefan Tabernig, Nico Tucher, Patrick Schygulla, Oliver Höhn, Benedikt Bläsi, Albert Polman

Abstract: Multi-junction solar cells provide a path to overcome the efficiency limits of standard silicon solar cells by harvesting more efficiently a broader range of the solar spectrum. However, Si-based multi-junction architectures are hindered by incomplete harvesting in the near-infrared (near-IR) spectral range, as Si sub-cells have weak absorption close to the band gap. Here, we introduce an integrated near-field/far-field light trapping scheme to enhance the efficiency of silicon-based multi-junction solar cells in the near-IR range. To achieve this, we design a nanopatterned diffractive silver back-reflector featuring a scattering matrix that optimizes trapping of multiply-scattered light into a range of diffraction angles. We minimize reflection to the 0th-order and parasitic plasmonic absorption in the silver by engineering destructive interference in the patterned back contact. Numerical and experimental assessment of the optimal design on the performance of single-junction Si TOPCon solar cells highlights an improved external quantum efficiency (EQE) over a planar back-reflector (+1.52 mA/cm2). Nanopatterned metagrating back-reflectors are fabricated on GaInP/GaInAsP//Si two-terminal triple-junction solar cells via Substrate Conformal Imprint Lithography (SCIL) and characterized optically and electronically, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency improvement of +0.9%abs over the planar reference. Overall, our work demonstrates the potential of nanophotonic light trapping for enhancing the efficiency of silicon-based multi-junction solar cells, paving the way for more efficient and sustainable solar energy technologies.

10.Area theorem in a ring laser cavity

Authors:Anton Pakhomov, Mikhail Arkhipov, Nikolay Rosanov, Rostislav Arkhipov

Abstract: The generalization of the area theorem is derived for the case of a pulse circulating inside a ring laser cavity. In contrast to the standard area theorem, which is valid for a single pass of a traveling pulse through a resonant medium, the obtained generalized area theorem takes into account the medium-assisted nonlinear self-action effects through the medium excitation left by the pulse at the previous round-trip in the cavity. The generalized area theorem was then applied to the theoretical description of the dynamics of a single-section ring-cavity laser and the steady solutions for the pulse area and for the medium parameters were found both in the limit of a lumped model and for a spatially-extended system. The derived area theorem can be used for the convenient analytical description of different coherent photonic devices, like coherently mode-locked lasers or pulse compressors, as well as for the analysis of the photon echo formation in cavity-based setups.

11.Surface Protection and Activation of Mid-IR Plasmonic Waveguides for Spectroscopy of Liquids

Authors:Mauro David, Ismael C. Doganlar, Daniele Nazzari, Elena Arigliani, Dominik Wacht, Masiar Sistani, Hermann Detz, Georg Ramer, Bernhard Lendl, Walter M. Weber, Gottfried Strasser, Borislav Hinkov

Abstract: Liquid spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectral range is a very powerful, yet premature technique for selective and sensitive molecule detection. Due to the lack of suitable concepts and materials for versatile miniaturized sensors, it is often still limited to bulky systems and offline analytics. Mid-infrared plasmonics is a promising field of current research for such compact and surface-sensitive structures, enabling new pathways for much-needed photonic integrated sensors. In this work, we focus on extending the concept of Ge/Au-based mid-infrared plasmonic waveguides to enable broadband liquid detection. Through the implementation of high-quality dielectric passivation layers deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), we cover the weak and water-soluble Ge native oxide. We show that approximately 10 nm of e.g. Al2O3 or ZrO2 can already protect the plasmonic waveguides for up to 90 min of direct water exposure. This unlocks integrated sensing schemes for broadband molecule detection based on mid-infrared plasmonics. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we further demonstrate that the ZrO2 coated waveguides can be activated by surface functionalization, allowing the selective measurement of diethyl ether at a wavelength of 9.38 {\mu}m.

12.Topological photonics: fundamental concepts, recent developments, and future directions

Authors:Mahmoud Jalali Mehrabad, Sunil Mittal, Mohammad Hafezi

Abstract: Topological photonics is emerging as a new paradigm for the development of both classical and quantum photonic architectures. What makes topological photonics remarkably intriguing is the built-in protection as well as intrinsic unidirectionality of light propagation, which originates from the robustness of global topological invariants. In this Perspective, we present an intuitive and concise pedagogical overview of fundamental concepts in topological photonics. Then, we review the recent developments of the main activity areas of this field, categorized into linear, nonlinear, and quantum regimes. For each section, we discuss both current and potential future directions, as well as remaining challenges and elusive questions regarding the implementation of topological ideas in photonics systems.

1.Versatile Femtosecond Laser Synchronization for Multiple-Timescale Transient IR Spectroscopy

Authors:Jan Helbing, Peter Hamm

Abstract: Several ways to electronically synchronize different types of amplified femtosecond laser systems are presented, based on a single freely programmable electronics hardware: Arbitrary-detuning asynchronous optical sampling, as well as actively locking two femtosecond laser oscillators, albeit not necessarily to the same round-trip frequency. They allow us to rapidly probe a very wide range of timescales, from picoseconds to potentially seconds, in a single transient absorption experiment without the need to move any delay stage. Experiments become possible that address a largely unexplored aspect of many photochemical reactions, in particular in the context of photo-catalysis as well as photoactive proteins, where an initial femtosecond trigger very often initiates a long-lasting cascade of follow-up processes. The approach is very versatile, and allows us to synchronize very different lasers, such as a Ti:Sa amplifier and a 100~kHz Yb-laser system. The jitter of the synchronisation, and therewith the time-resolution in the transient experiment, lies in the range from 1~ps to 3~ps, depending on the method. For illustration, transient IR measurements of the excited state solvation and decay of a metal carbonyl complex as well as the full reaction cycle of bacteriorhodopsin are shown. The pros and cons of the various methods are discussed, with regard to the scientific question one might want to address, and also with regard to the laser systems that might be already existent in a laser lab.

2.Image scanning lensless fiber-bundle endomicroscopy

Authors:Gil Weinberg, Uri Weiss, Ori Katz

Abstract: Fiber-based confocal endomicroscopy has shown great promise for minimally-invasive deep-tissue imaging. Despite its advantages, confocal fiber-bundle endoscopy inherently suffers from undersampling due to the spacing between fiber cores, and low collection efficiency when the target is not in proximity to the distal fiber facet. Here, we demonstrate an adaptation of image-scanning microscopy (ISM) to lensless fiber bundle endoscopy, doubling the spatial sampling frequency and significantly improving collection efficiency. Our approach only requires replacing the confocal detector with a camera. It improves the spatial resolution for targets placed at a distance from the fiber tip, and addresses the fundamental challenge of aliasing/pixelization artifacts.

3.Scalable wavelength-multiplexing photonic reservoir computing

Authors:Rui-Qian Li, Yi-Wei Shen, Bao-De Lin, Jingyi Yu, Xuming He, Cheng Wang

Abstract: Photonic reservoir computing (PRC) is a special hardware recurrent neural network, which is featured with fast training speed and low training cost. This work shows a wavelength-multiplexing PRC architecture, taking advantage of the numerous longitudinal modes in a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser. These modes construct connected physical neurons in parallel, while an optical feedback loop provides interactive virtual neurons in series. We experimentally demonstrate a four-channel wavelength-multiplexing PRC, which runs four times faster than the single-channel case. It is proved that the multiplexing PRC exhibits superior performance on the task of signal equalization in an optical fiber communication link. Particularly, this scheme is highly scalable owing to the rich mode resources in Fabry-Perot lasers.

4.Photonic Time Crystals and Parametric Amplification: similarity and distinction

Authors:Jacob B Khurgin

Abstract: Photonic Time crystals (PTC) arise in time-modulated media when the frequency of modulation of permittivity is on the order of twice the frequency of light and are manifested by the generation and amplification of so-called time reversed waves propagating in the direction opposite to the incoming light. Superficially, the observed phenomenon bears resemblance to the widely known phenomena of optical parametric generation (OPG) and amplification (OPA) using second or third order optical nonlinearities. I show that while indeed the same physical mechanism underpins both PTC and OPA , the difference arises from the boundary conditions. Thus , while dispersion for both PTC and OPA exhibit the same bandgap in momentum space, only in the case of PTC can one have propagation in that bandgap with exponential amplification. I also show that PTC can be engineered with both second and third order nonlinearities, and that rather unexpectedly, modulating permittivity on the ultrafast (few fs) rate is not a necessity, and that one can emulate all the PTC features using materials with a few picoseconds response time commensurate with the propagation time through the medium.

5.Plasmonic-Photonic Hybrid Nanodevice

Authors:Taiping Zhang

Abstract: In this thesis, we propose to tackle this important issue by designing and realizing a novel nano-optical device based on the use of a photonic crystal (PC) structure to generate an efficient coupling between the external source and a NA. In this dissertation, the content is arranged into three charpters. Chapter 1 introduces the theoritical background of this research including surface plasmon and photonic crystal concepts. This chapter also shows the design of the hybrid devices and demonstrates the numerical simulation of their optical properties. Chapter 2 mainly describes the process and the fabricated samples. The nanodevices are fabricated on an InP membrane substrate. The critical technology for the fabrication is complex electron beam lithography. With this technology the alignment of the positions of PC structure and NA is well controlled. Chapter 3 demonstrates the optical characterizations of the hybrid nanodevices including far-field characterizations and near-field characterizations. The far-field measurement is performed by micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. The results show that for the defect PC cavities, the presence of the NA influences the optical properties of the laser, such as lasing threshold and laser wavelength. The near-field measurement is performed by near-field scanning microscopy, at room temperature also. The investigation shows that the NA modifies the optical field distribution of the laser mode. The modification depends on the position and direction of the NA and it is sensitive to the polarization of the optical field.

6.Robust Optical Data Encryption by Projection-Photoaligned Polymer-Stabilized-Liquid-Crystals

Authors:Siying Liu, Saleh Alfarhan, Wenbo Wang, Shuai Feng, Yuxiang Zhu, Luyang Liu, Kenan Song, Sui Yang, Kailong Jin, Xiangfan Chen

Abstract: The emerging Internet of Things (IoTs) invokes increasing security demands that require robust encryption or anti-counterfeiting technologies. Albeit being acknowledged as efficacious solutions in processing elaborate graphical information via multiple degrees of freedom, optical data encryption and anti-counterfeiting techniques are typically inept in delivering satisfactory performance without compromising the desired ease-of-processibility or compatibility, thus leading to the exploration of novel materials and devices that are competent. Here, a robust optical data encryption technique is demonstrated utilizing polymer-stabilized-liquid-crystals (PSLCs) combined with projection photoalignment and photopatterning methods. The PSLCs possess implicit optical patterns encoded via photoalignment, as well as explicit geometries produced via photopatterning. Furthermore, the PSLCs demonstrate improved robustness against harsh chemical environments and thermal stability, and can be directly deployed onto various rigid and flexible substrates. Based on this, it is demonstrated that single PSLC is apt to carry intricate information, or serve as exclusive watermark with both implicit features and explicit geometries. Moreover, a novel, generalized design strategy is developed, for the first time, to encode intricate and exclusive information with enhanced security by spatially programming the photoalignment patterns of a pair of cascade PSLCs, which further illustrates the promising capabilies of PSLCs in optical data encryption and anti-counterfeiting.

1.An optical analogue for a rotating binary Bose-Einstein condensate

Authors:Victor P. Ruban

Abstract: The coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations for paraxial optics with two circular light polarizations, in a defocusing Kerr medium with anomalous dispersion, coincide in form with the Gross-Pitaevskii equations for a binary Bose-Einstein condensate of cold atoms in the phase separation regime. A helical symmetry of optical waveguide corresponds to rotation of transverse potential confining the condensate. The ``centrifugal force'' makes essential effect on propagation of light wave in such system. Numerical simulations for a waveguide of elliptical cross-section revealed previously unknown in optics, specific structures consisting of quantized vortices and domain walls between two polarizations.

2.Retrieving optical parameters of emerging van der Waals flakes

Authors:Mitradeep Sarkar, Michael T. Enders, Mehrdad Shokooh-Saremi, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Hanan Herzig Sheinfux, Frank H. L. Koppens, Georgia Theano Papadakis

Abstract: High-quality low-dimensional layered and van der Waals materials are typically exfoliated, with sample cross sectional areas on the order of tens to hundreds of microns. The small size of flakes makes the experimental characterization of their dielectric properties unsuitable with conventional spectroscopic ellipsometry, due to beam-sample size mismatch and non-uniformities of the crystal axes. Previously, the experimental measurement of the dielectrirc permittivity of such microcrystals was carried out with near-field tip-based scanning probes. These measurements are sensitive to external conditions like vibrations and temperature, and require non-deterministic numerical fitting to some a priori known model. We present an alternative method to extract the in-plane dielectric permittivity of van der Waals microcrystals, based on identifying reflectance minima in spectroscopic measurements. Our method does not require complex fitting algorithms nor near field tip-based measurements and accommodates for small-area samples. We demonstrate the robustness of our method using hexagonal boron nitride and {\alpha}-MoO3, and recover their dielectric permittivities that are close to literature values.

3.Toward accurate thermal modeling of phase change material based photonic devices

Authors:Kiumars Aryana, Hyun Jung Kim, Cosmin-Constantin Popescu, Steven Vitale, Hyung Bin Bae, Taewoo Lee, Tian Gu, Juejun Hu

Abstract: Reconfigurable or programmable photonic devices are rapidly growing and have become an integral part of many optical systems. The ability to selectively modulate electromagnetic waves through electrical stimuli is crucial in the advancement of a variety of applications from data communication and computing devices to environmental science and space explorations. Chalcogenide-based phase change materials (PCMs) are one of the most promising material candidates for reconfigurable photonics due to their large optical contrast between their different solid-state structural phases. Although significant efforts have been devoted to accurate simulation of PCM-based devices, in this paper, we highlight three important aspects which have often evaded prior models yet having significant impacts on the thermal and phase transition behavior of these devices: the enthalpy of fusion, the heat capacity change upon glass transition, as well as the thermal conductivity of liquid-phase PCMs. We further investigated the important topic of switching energy scaling in PCM devices, which also helps explain why the three above-mentioned effects have long been overlooked in electronic PCM memories but only become important in photonics. Our findings offer insight to facilitate accurate modeling of PCM-based photonic devices and can inform the development of more efficient reconfigurable optics.

4.Refraction laws for two-dimensional plasmons

Authors:Dmitry Svintsov, Georgy Alymov

Abstract: Despite numerous applications of two-dimensional plasmons for electromagnetic energy manipulation at the nanoscale, their quantitative refraction and reflection laws (analogs of Fresnel formulas in optics) have not yet been established. This fact can be traced down to the strong non-locality of equations governing the 2d plasmon propagation. Here, we tackle this difficulty by direct solution of plasmon scattering problem with Wiener-Hopf technique. We obtain the reflection and transmission coefficients for 2d plasmons at the discontinuity of 2d conductivity at arbitrary incidence angle, for both gated and non-gated 2d systems. At a certain incidence angle, the absolute reflectivity has a pronounced dip reaching zero for gated plasmons. The dip is associated with wave passage causing no dynamic charge accumulation at the boundary. For all incidence angles, the reflection has a non-trivial phase different from zero and $\pi$.

5.Fast and energy-efficient non-volatile III-V-on-silicon photonic phase shifter based on memristors

Authors:Zhuoran Fang, Bassem Tossoun, Antoine Descos, Di Liang, Xue Huang, Geza Kurczveil, Arka Majumdar, Raymond G. Beausoleil

Abstract: Silicon photonics has evolved from lab research to commercial products in the past decade as it plays an increasingly crucial role in data communication for next-generation data centers and high performance computing1. Recently, programmable silicon photonics has also found new applications in quantum2 and classical 3 information processing. A key component of programmable silicon photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is the phase shifter, traditionally realized via the thermo-optic or plasma dispersion effect which are weak, volatile, and power hungry. A non-volatile phase shifter can circumvent these limitations by requiring zero power to maintain the switched phases. Previously non-volatile phase modulation was achieved via phase-change4 or ferroelectric materials5, but the switching energy remains high (pico to nano joules) and the speed is slow (micro to milli seconds). Here, we report a non-volatile III-V-on-silicon photonic phase shifter based on HfO2 memristor with sub-pJ switching energy (~400fJ), representing over an order of magnitude improvement in energy efficiency compared to the state of the art. The non-volatile phase shifter can be switched reversibly using a single 100ns pulse and exhibits an excellent endurance over 800 cycles. This technology can enable future energy-efficient programmable PICs for data centers, optical neural networks, and quantum information processing.

1.Probing and control of guided exciton-polaritons in a 2D semiconductor-integrated slab waveguide

Authors:Valeriy I. Kondratyev, Dmitry V. Permyakov, Tatyana V. Ivanova, Ivan V. Iorsh, Dmitry N. Krizhanovskii, Maurice S. Skolnick, Vasily Kravtsov, Anton K. Samusev

Abstract: Guided 2D exciton-polaritons, resulting from the strong coupling of excitons in semiconductors with non-radiating waveguide modes, provide an attractive approach towards developing novel on-chip optical devices. These quasiparticles are characterized by long propagation distances and efficient nonlinear interaction. However, as guided exciton-polaritons are uncoupled from the free space, it is challenging to investigate them using conventional far-field spectroscopy techniques. Here we demonstrate a powerful approach for probing and manipulating guided polaritons in a Ta$_2$O$_5$ slab integrated with a WS$_2$ monolayer using evanescent coupling through a high-index solid immersion lens. Tuning the nanoscale gap between the lens and the sample, we demonstrate in-situ control over radiative losses and Rabi splitting of guided polaritons at ambient conditions. This extra degree of freedom allows for extracting all the intrinsic parameters of the strongly coupled system under study. Our results enable the future development of integrated optics employing room-temperature exciton-polaritons in 2D semiconductor-based structures.

2.Polariton lasing in Mie-resonant perovskite nanocavity

Authors:M. A. Masharin, D. Khmelevskaia, V. I. Kondratiev, D. I. Markina, A. D. Utyushev, D. M. Dolgintsev, A. D. Dmitriev, V. A. Shahnazaryan, A. P. Pushkarev, F. Isik, I. V. Iorsh, I. A. Shelykh, H. V. Demir, A. K. Samusev, S. V. Makarov

Abstract: Deeply subwavelength lasers (or nanolasers) are highly demanded for compact on-chip bioimaging and sensing at the nanoscale. One of the main obstacles for the development of single-particle nanolasers with all three dimensions shorter than the emitting wavelength in the visible range is the high lasing thresholds and the resulting overheating. Here we exploit exciton-polariton condensation and mirror-image Mie modes in a cuboid CsPbBr$_3$ nanoparticle to achieve coherent emission at the visible wavelength of around 0.53~$\mu $m from its ultra-small ($\approx$0.007$\mu$m$^3$ or $\approx\lambda^3$/20) semiconductor nanocavity. The polaritonic nature of the emission from the nanocavity localized in all three dimensions is proven by direct comparison with corresponding one-dimensional and two-dimensional waveguiding systems with similar material parameters. Such a deeply subwavelength nanolaser is enabled not only by the high values for exciton binding energy ($\approx$35 meV), refractive index ($>$2.5 at low temperature), and luminescence quantum yield of CsPbBr$_3$, but also by the optimization of polaritons condensation on the Mie resonances. Moreover, the key parameters for optimal lasing conditions are intermode free spectral range and phonons spectrum in CsPbBr$_3$, which govern polaritons condensation path. Such chemically synthesized colloidal CsPbBr$_3$ nanolasers can be easily deposited on arbitrary surfaces, which makes them a versatile tool for integration with various on-chip systems.

3.Linear Optical Random Projections Without Holography

Authors:Ruben Ohana, Daniel Hesslow, Daniel Brunner, Sylvain Gigan, Kilian Müller

Abstract: We introduce a novel method to perform linear optical random projections without the need for holography. Our method consists of a computationally trivial combination of multiple intensity measurements to mitigate the information loss usually associated with the absolute-square non-linearity imposed by optical intensity measurements. Both experimental and numerical findings demonstrate that the resulting matrix consists of real-valued, independent, and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian random entries. Our optical setup is simple and robust, as it does not require interference between two beams. We demonstrate the practical applicability of our method by performing dimensionality reduction on high-dimensional data, a common task in randomized numerical linear algebra with relevant applications in machine learning.

4.Single-shot spatial coherence of a plasma based soft X-ray laser

Authors:Martin Albrecht, Ondřej Hort, Michaela Kozlová, Miroslav Krůs, Jaroslav Nejdl

Abstract: Many applications of short-wavelength radiation impose strong requirements on the coherence properties of the source. However, the measurement of such properties poses a challenge, mainly due to the lack of high-quality optics and source fluctuations that often violate assumptions necessary for multi-shot or cumulative techniques. In this article, we present a new method of single-shot spatial coherence measurement adapted to the soft X-ray spectral range. Our method is based on a far-field diffraction pattern from a binary transmission mask consisting of a non-redundant array of simple apertures. Unlike all currently available methods, our technique allows measuring radiation field with an arbitrary spatial coherence function without any prior assumption on intensity distribution or the model of the degree of spatial coherence. We experimentally verified the technique by retrieving the spatial coherence functions of individual shots of laser-driven Zn plasma soft X-ray laser with one- and two-dimensional masks. The experimental results revealed nontrivial illumination pattern and strong asymmetry of the spatial coherence function, which clearly calls for abandoning the often used models that assume rotational invariance of the coherence function, such as the popular Gaussian-Schell beam model.

5.Observation of Quantum metric and non-Hermitian Berry curvature in a plasmonic lattice

Authors:Javier Cuerda, Jani M. Taskinen, Nicki Källman, Leo Grabitz, Päivi Törmä

Abstract: We experimentally observe the quantum geometric tensor, namely the quantum metric and the Berry curvature, for a square lattice of radiatively coupled plasmonic nanoparticles. We observe a non-zero Berry curvature and show that it arises solely from non-Hermitian effects. The quantum metric is found to originate from a pseudospin-orbit coupling. The long-range nature of the radiative interaction renders the behavior distinct from tight-binding systems: Berry curvature and quantum metric are centered around high-symmetry lines of the Brillouin zone instead of high-symmetry points. Our results inspire new pathways in the design of topological systems by tailoring losses or gain.

6.Pseudospin-orbit coupling and non-Hermitian effects in the Quantum Geometric Tensor of a plasmonic lattice

Authors:Javier Cuerda, Jani M. Taskinen, Nicki Källman, Leo Grabitz, Päivi Törmä

Abstract: We theoretically predict the full quantum geometric tensor, comprising the quantum metric and the Berry curvature, for a square lattice of plasmonic nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles act as dipole or multipole antenna radiatively coupled over long distances. The photonic-plasmonic eigenfunctions and energies of the system depend on momentum and polarization (pseudospin), and their topological properties are encoded in the quantum geometric tensor. By T-matrix numerical simulations, we identify a TE-TM band splitting at the diagonals of the first Brillouin zone, that is not predicted by the empty lattice band structure nor by the highly symmetric nature of the system. Further, we find quantum metric around these regions of the reciprocal space, and even a non-zero Berry curvature despite the trivial lattice geometry and absence of magnetic field. We show that this non-zero Berry curvature arises exclusively from non-Hermitian effects which break the time-reversal symmetry. The quantum metric, in contrast, originates from a pseudospin-orbit coupling given by the polarization and directional dependence of the radiation.

7.Effective Electromagnetic Wave Properties of Disordered Stealthy Hyperuniform Layered Media Beyond the Quasistatic Regime

Authors:Jaeuk Kim, Salvatore Torquato

Abstract: Disordered stealthy hyperuniform dielectric composites exhibit novel electromagnetic wave transport properties in two and three dimensions. Here, we carry out the first study of the electromagnetic properties of one-dimensional (1D) disordered stealthy hyperuniform layered media. From an exact nonlocal theory, we derive an approximation formula for the effective dynamic dielectric constant tensor ${\boldsymbol \varepsilon}_e({\bf k}_q,\omega)$ of general 1D media that is valid well beyond the quasistatic regime and apply it to 1D stealthy hyperuniform systems. We consider incident waves of transverse polarization, frequency $\omega$, and wavenumber $k_q$. Our formula for ${\boldsymbol \varepsilon}_e({k}_q,\omega)$, which is given in terms of the spectral density, leads to a closed-form relation for the transmittance $T$. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Stealthy hyperuniform layered media have perfect transparency intervals up to a finite wavenumber, implying no Anderson localization, but non-stealthy hyperuniform media are not perfectly transparent. Our predictive theory provides a new path for the inverse design of the wave characteristics of disordered layered media, which are readily fabricated, by engineering their spectral densities.

1.Silicon-lattice-matched boron-doped gallium phosphide: A scalable acousto-optic platform

Authors:Nicholas S. Yama, I-Tung Chen, Srivatsa Chakravarthi, Bingzhao Li, Christian Pederson, Bethany E. Matthews, Steven R. Spurgeon, Daniel E. Perea, Mark G. Wirth, Peter V. Sushko, Mo Li, Kai-Mei C. Fu

Abstract: The compact size, scalability, and strongly confined fields in integrated photonic devices enable new functionalities in photonic networking and information processing, both classical and quantum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) is a promising material for active integrated photonics due to its high refractive index, wide band gap, strong nonlinear properties, and large acousto-optic figure of merit. In this work we demonstrate that silicon-lattice-matched boron-doped GaP (BGaP), grown at the 12-inch wafer scale, provides similar functionalities as GaP. BGaP optical resonators exhibit intrinsic quality factors exceeding 25,000 and 200,000 at visible and telecom wavelengths respectively. We further demonstrate the electromechanical generation of low-loss acoustic waves and an integrated acousto-optic (AO) modulator. High-resolution spatial and compositional mapping, combined with ab initio calculations indicate two candidates for the excess optical loss in the visible band: the silicon-GaP interface and boron dimers. These results demonstrate the promise of the BGaP material platform for the development of scalable AO technologies at telecom and provide potential pathways toward higher performance at shorter wavelengths.

2.Observation of Brillouin scattering in a high-index doped silica chip waveguide

Authors:M. Zerbib, V. T. Hoang, J. C. Beugnot, K. P. Huy, B. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre

Abstract: We report the observation of Brillouin backscattering in a 50-cm long spiral high-index doped silica chip waveguide and measured a Brillouin frequency shift of 16 GHz which is in very good agreement with theoretical predictions and numerical simulations based on the elastodynamics equation.

3.Twist-phase-matching in two-dimensional materials

Authors:Hao Hong, Chen Huang, Chenjun Ma, Jiajie Qi, Can Liu, Shiwei Wu, Zhipei Sun, Enge Wang, Kaihui Liu

Abstract: Optical phase-matching involves establishing a proper phase relationship between the fundamental and generated waves to enable efficient optical parametric processes. It is typically achieved through either birefringence or periodically assigned polarization. Here, we report that twist angle in two-dimensional (2D) materials can generate a nonlinear Berry optical phase to compensate the phase mismatch in the process of nonlinear optical frequency conversion, and the vertical assembly of 2D layers with a proper twist sequence will generate a nontrivial "twist-phase-matching" (twist-PM) regime. The twist-PM model offers superior flexibility in the design of optical crystals, which works for twisted layers with either periodic or random thickness distribution. The designed crystals from twisted rhombohedra boron nitride films give rise to a second-harmonic generation conversion efficiency of ~8% within a thickness of only 3.2 um, and a facile polarization controllability that is absent in conventional crystals (from linear to left-/right-handed circular/elliptical polarizations). Our methodology establishes a platform for the rational designing and atomic manufacturing of nonlinear optical crystals based on abundant 2D materials for various functionalities.

4.Optothermal needle-free injection of vaterite nanocapsules

Authors:Denis Kislov, Daniel Ofer, Andrey Machnev, Hani Barhom, Vjaceslavs Bobrovs, Alexander Shalin, Pavel Ginzburg

Abstract: The propulsion and acceleration of nanoparticles with light have both fundamental and applied significance across many disciplines. Needle-free injection of biomedical nano cargoes into living tissues is among the examples. Here we explore a new physical mechanism of laser-induced particle acceleration, based on abnormal optothermal expansion of mesoporous vaterite cargoes. Vaterite nanoparticles, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, were placed on a substrate, underneath a target phantom, and accelerated towards it with the aid of a short femtosecond laser pulse. Light absorption followed by picosecond-scale thermal expansion was shown to elevate the particles center of mass thus causing acceleration. It was shown that a 2um size vaterite particle, being illuminated with 0.5 W average power 100 fsec IR laser, is capable to overcome van der Waals attraction and acquire 15m/sec velocity. The demonstrated optothermal laser-driven needle-free injection into a phantom layer promotes the further development of light-responsive nanocapsules, which can be equipped with additional optical and biomedical functions for delivery, monitoring, and controllable biomedical dosage to name a few.

5.Orientation distributions of vacuum-deposited organic emitters revealed by single-molecule microscopy

Authors:Francisco Tenopala-Carmona, Dirk Hertel, Sabina Hillebrandt, Andreas Mischok, Arko Graf, Klaus Meerholz, Malte C. Gather

Abstract: The orientation of luminescent molecules in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) strongly influences device performance. However, our understanding of the factors controlling emitter orientation is limited as current measurements only provide ensemble-averaged orientation values. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to measure the transition dipole orientation of individual molecules in a state-of-the-art thermally evaporated host and thereby obtain complete orientation distributions of the hyperfluorescence-terminal emitter C545T. We achieve this by realizing ultra-low doping concentrations (10-6 wt%) of C545T and minimising background levels to reliably measure the photoluminescence of the emitter. This approach yields the orientation distributions of >1000 individual emitter molecules in a system relevant to vacuum-processed OLEDs. Analysis of solution- and vacuum-processed systems reveals that the orientation distributions strongly depend on the nanoscale environment of the emitter. This work opens the door to attaining unprecedented information on the factors that determine emitter orientation in current and future material systems for OLEDs.

6.Laser cooling of traveling wave phonons in an optical fiber

Authors:Joel N. Johnson, Danielle R. Haverkamp, Yi-Hsin Ou, Khanh Kieu, Nils T. Otterstrom, Peter T. Rakich, Ryan O. Behunin

Abstract: In recent years, optical control of mechanical oscillators has emerged as a critical tool for everything from information processing to laser cooling. While traditional forms of optomechanical cooling utilize systems comprised of discrete optical and mechanical modes, it has recently been shown that cooling can be achieved in a chip-based system that possesses a continuum of modes. Through Brillouin-mediated phonon-photon interactions, cooling of a band of traveling acoustic waves can occur when anti-Stokes scattered photons exit the system more rapidly than the relaxation rate of the mechanical waves -- to a degree determined by the acousto-optic coupling. Here, we demonstrate that a continuum of traveling wave phonons can be cooled within an optical fiber, extending this physics to macroscopic length scales. Leveraging the large acousto-optic coupling permitted within a liquid-core optical fiber, heterodyne spectroscopy reveals power-dependent changes in spontaneous Brillouin scattering spectra that indicate a reduction of the thermal phonon population by 21K using 120 mW of injected laser power.

7.Cold damping of levitated optically coupled nanoparticles

Authors:Vojtech Liska, Tereza Zemankova, Vojtech Svak, Petr Jakl, Jan Jezek, Martin Branecky, Stephen H. Simpson, Pavel Zemanek, Oto Brzobohaty

Abstract: Methods for controlling the motion of single particles, optically levitated in vacuum, have developed rapidly in recent years. The technique of cold damping makes use of feedback-controlled, electrostatic forces to increase dissipation without introducing additional thermal fluctuations. This process has been instrumental in the ground-state cooling of individual electrically charged nanoparticles. Here we show that the same method can be applied to a pair of nanoparticles, coupled by optical binding forces. These optical binding forces are about three orders of magnitude stronger than typical Coulombic inter-particle force and result in a coupled motion of both nanoparticles characterized by a pair of normal modes. We demonstrate cold damping of these normal modes, either independently or simultaneously, to sub-Kelvin temperatures at pressures of 5x10^{-3} mbar. Experimental observations are captured by a theoretical model which we use to survey the parameter space more widely and to quantify the limits imposed by measurement noise and time delays. Our work paves the way for the study of quantum interactions between meso-scale particles and the exploration of multiparticle entanglement in levitated optomechanical systems.

8.Artificial gauge fields in the t-z mapping for optical pulses: spatio-temporal wavepacket control and quantum Hall physics

Authors:Christopher Oliver, Sebabrata Mukherjee, Mikael C. Rechtsman, Iacopo Carusotto, Hannah M. Price

Abstract: We extend the $t-z$ mapping formalism of time-dependent paraxial optics by identifying configurations displaying a synthetic magnetic vector potential, leading to a non-trivial band topology in propagating geometries. We consider an inhomogeneous 1D array of coupled optical waveguides beyond the standard monochromatic approximation, and show that the wave equation describing paraxial propagation of optical pulses can be recast in the form of a Schr\"{o}dinger equation, including a synthetic magnetic field whose strength can be controlled via the transverse spatial gradient of the waveguide properties across the array. We use an experimentally-motivated model of a laser-written waveguide array to demonstrate that this synthetic magnetic field can be engineered in realistic setups and can produce interesting observable effects such as cyclotron motion, a controllable Hall drift of the wavepacket displacement in space or time, and unidirectional propagation in chiral edge states. These results significantly extend the variety of physics that can be explored within propagating geometries and pave the way for exploiting this platform for higher-dimensional topological physics and strongly correlated fluids of light.

1.Proposal of a free-space-to-chip pipeline for transporting single atoms

Authors:Aiping Liu, Jiawei Liu, Zhanfei Kang, Guang-Jie Chen, Xin-Biao Xu, Xifeng Ren, Guang-Can Guo, Qin Wang, Chang-Ling Zou

Abstract: A free-space-to-chip pipeline is proposed to efficiently transport single atoms from a magneto-optical trap to an on-chip evanescent field trap. Due to the reflection of the dipole laser on the chip surface, the conventional conveyor belt approach can only transport atoms close to the chip surface but with a distance of about one wavelength, which prevents efficient interaction between the atom and the on-chip waveguide devices. Here, based on a two-layer photonic chip architecture, a diffraction beam of the integrated grating with an incident angle of the Brewster angle is utilized to realize free-space-to-chip atom pipeline. Numerical simulation verified that the reflection of the dipole laser is suppressed and that the atoms can be brought to the chip surface with a distance of only 100nm. Therefore, the pipeline allows a smooth transport of atoms from free space to the evanescent field trap of waveguides and promises a reliable atom source for a hybrid photonic-atom chip.

2.Momentum-space Scattering Extremizations

Authors:Chunchao Wen, Jianfa Zhang, Shiqiao Qin, Zhihong Zhu, Wei Liu

Abstract: Studies into scatterings of photonic structures have been so far overwhelmingly focused on their dependencies on the spatial and spectral morphologies of the incident waves. In contrast, the evolution of scattering properties through another parameter space of incident directions (momentum space) has attracted comparably little attention, though of profound importance for various scattering-related applications. Here we investigate, from the perspective of quasi-normal modes (QNMs), the momentum-space scattering extremizations with respect to varying incident directions of plane waves. It is revealed that for effective single-QNM excitations, scatterings are maximized exactly along those directions where the QNM radiation reaches its maximum, with matched incident and radiation polarizations. For an arbitrary direction, when the incident polarization is tuned to be orthogonal to that of the mode radiation, the QNM cannot be excited and thus the scatterer becomes invisible with null scatterings. The principles we have revealed are protected by fundamental laws of reciprocity and energy conservation (optical theorem), which can be further expanded and applied for other branches of wave physics.

3.Dissipative light bullets in a doped and weakly nonlocal optical fiber

Authors:Ghislaine Flore Kabadiang Ngon, Conrad Bertrand Tabi, Timoléon Crépin Kofané

Abstract: The letter introduces an extended (3+1)-dimensional [(3+1)D] nonlocal cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation describing the dynamics of dissipative light bullets in optical fiber amplifiers under the interplay between dopants and a spatially nonlocal nonlinear response. The model equation includes the effects of fiber dispersion, linear gain, nonlinear loss, fiber nonlinearity, atomic detuning, linear and nonlinear diffractive transverse effects, and nonlocal nonlinear response. A system of coupled ordinary differential equations for the amplitude, temporal, and spatial pulse widths and position of the pulse maximum, unequal wavefront curvatures, chirp parameters, and phase shift is derived using the variational technique. A stability criterion is established, where a domain of dissipative parameters for stable steady-state solutions is found. Direct integration of the proposed nonlocal evolution equation is performed, which allows us to investigate the evolution of the Gaussian beam along a doped nonlocal optical fiber, showing stable self-organized dissipative spatiotemporal light bullets.

4.Effect of weak nonlocal nonlinearity on generalized sixth-order dispersion modulational instability in optical media

Authors:Conrad B. Tabi, Camus G. Latchio Tiofack, Hippolyte Tagwo, Timoléon C. Kofané

Abstract: This paper analyzes the behaviors of solitons in even higher-order dispersive media and explores the modulational instability phenomenon in optical media. The analysis considers quadratic, quartic, and sextic dispersions with weakly nonlocal Kerr nonlinearity. The results show that nonlocality enhances the MI gain and leads to rogue waves in response to different combinations of even dispersions and nonlocal nonlinearity. The study suggests that Kerr nonlocality can enhance the excitation of extreme events in even higher-order dispersive nonlinear media with potential applications in optical fibers and fiber lasers.

5.Topological and conventional nano-photonic waveguides for chiral integrated quantum optics

Authors:N. J Martin, M. Jalali Mehrabad, X. Chen, R. Dost, E. Nussbaum, D. Hallett, L. Hallacy, E. Clarke, P. K. Patil, S. Hughes, A. M Fox, M. S. Skolnick, L. R. Wilson

Abstract: Chirality in integrated quantum photonics has emerged as a promising route towards achieving scalable quantum technologies with quantum nonlinearity effects. Topological photonic waveguides, which utilize helical optical modes, have been proposed as a novel approach to harnessing chiral light-matter interactions on-chip. However, uncertainties remain regarding the nature and strength of the chiral coupling to embedded quantum emitters, hindering the scalability of these systems. In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of chiral coupling in topological photonic waveguides using a combination of experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses. We quantitatively characterize the position-dependence nature of the light-matter coupling on several topological photonic waveguides and benchmark their chiral coupling performance against conventional line defect waveguides for chiral quantum optical applications. Our results provide crucial insights into the degree and characteristics of chiral light-matter interactions in topological photonic quantum circuits and pave the way towards the implementation of quantitatively-predicted quantum nonlinear effects on-chip.

6.Observation of rotation-induced light localization in waveguide arrays

Authors:Chunyan Li, Antonina A. Arkhipova, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Sergey A. Zhuravitskii, Nikolay N. Skryabin, Ivan V. Dyakonov, Alexander A. Kalinkin, Sergey P. Kulik, Victor O. Kompanets, Sergey V. Chekalin, Victor N. Zadkov

Abstract: We study both, experimentally and theoretically, propagation of light in the fs-laser written rotating square waveguide arrays and present the first experimental evidence of light localization induced by the rotation of periodic structure in the direction of light propagation. Such linear light localization occurs either in the corners of truncated square array, where it results from the interplay between the centrifugal effect and total internal reflection at the borders of truncated array, or in the center of array, where rotation creates effective attractive optical potential. The degree of localization of linear bulk and corner modes emerging due to the rotation increases with the increase of rotation frequency. Consequently, corner and bulk solitons in rotating wave-guide arrays become thresholdless for sufficiently large rotation frequencies, in contrast to solitons in non-rotating arrays that exist only above power threshold. Focusing nonlinearity enhances localization degree of corner modes, but surprising initially it leads to broadening of bulk nonlinear states, followed by their re-localization at high input powers. Our results open new prospects for control of evolution of nonlinear multidimensional excitations by dynamically varying potentials.

1.Harnessing Short-Range Surface Plasmons in Planar Silver Films via Disorder-Engineered Metasurfaces

Authors:Maximilian Buchmüller, Ivan Shutsko, Sven Oliver Schumacher, Patrick Görrn

Abstract: Short-range surface plasmon polaritons (SR-SPPs) can arise due to the hybridization of surface plasmon polaritons propagating along the two interfaces of a thin metal slab. In optics, they have gained particular interest for imaging and sensing applications, because of their short wavelengths at optical frequencies along with strong field enhancement. However, mediating the interaction of SR-SPPs with photons in planar films is difficult because of the large momentum mismatch. For efficient coupling, nanostructuring such thin films (~20nm thickness), or placing metallic nanostructures in close proximity to the planar film is technologically challenging and can strongly influence the SR-SPP properties. In this paper, harnessing SR-SPPs in planar silver films is demonstrated using disorder-engineered metasurfaces. The disorder-engineering is realized by the light-controlled growth of silver nanoparticles. The dispersion of the hybrid modes with the silver thickness is measured and compared with simulations. We anticipate these results to introduce a novel and facile method for harnessing SR-SPPs in planar optical systems and make use of their promising properties for imaging, sensing and nonlinear optics.

2.Super-Resolution Imaging via Angular Magnification

Authors:Yi Zhou, Dingpeng Liao, Kun Zhang, Zijie Ma, Shikai Wu, Jun Ma, Xuemei Dai, Zhengguo Shang, Zhongquan Wen, Gang Chen

Abstract: The far-field resolution of optical imaging systems is restricted by the Abbe diffraction limit, a direct result of the wave nature of light. One successful technological approach to circumventing this limit is to reduce the effective size of a point-spread-function. In the past decades, great endeavors have been made to engineer an effective point-spread-function by exploiting different mechanisms, including optical nonlinearities and structured light illumination. However, these methods are hard to be applied to objects in a far distance. Here, we propose a new way to achieve super-resolution in a far field by utilizing angular magnification. We present the first proof-of-concept demonstration of such an idea and demonstrate a new class of lenses with angular magnification for far-field