arXiv daily: Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics

arXiv daily: Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics (cond-mat.mes-hall)

1.Optical pumping of electronic quantum Hall states with vortex light

Authors:Deric Session, Mahmoud Jalali Mehrabad, Nikil Paithanker, Tobias Grass, Christian Eckhardt, Bin Cao, Daniel Gustavo Suárez Forero, Kevin Li, Mohammad S. Alam, Glenn S. Solomon, Nathan Schine, Jay Sau, Roman Sordan, Mohammad Hafezi

Abstract: A fundamental requirement for quantum technologies is the ability to coherently control the interaction between electrons and photons. However, in many scenarios involving the interaction between light and matter, the exchange of linear or angular momentum between electrons and photons is not feasible, a condition known as the dipole-approximation limit. An example of a case beyond this limit that has remained experimentally elusive is when the interplay between chiral electrons and vortex light is considered, where the orbital angular momentum of light can be transferred to electrons. Here, we present a novel mechanism for such an orbital angular momentum transfer from optical vortex beams to electronic quantum Hall states. Specifically, we identify a robust contribution to the radial photocurrent, in an annular graphene sample within the quantum Hall regime, that depends on the vorticity of light. This phenomenon can be interpreted as an optical pumping scheme, where the angular momentum of photons is transferred to electrons, generating a radial current, and the current's direction is determined by the light's vorticity. Our findings offer fundamental insights into the optical probing and manipulation of quantum coherence, with wide-ranging implications for advancing quantum coherent optoelectronics.

2.Hybrid Schroedinger-Ginzburg-Landau (Sch-GL) approach in study of superconducting integrated structures

Authors:Bartosz Stojewski, Krzysztof Pomorski

Abstract: Various superconducting lattices were simulated and can be treated as lattices of superconducting atoms with preimposed symmetry in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions. Hybrid Schroedinger-Ginzburg-Landau approach is based on the fact of the mathematical similarity of Ginzburg-Landau (GL) and Schroedinger formalisms. Starting from Schroedinger approach by change of term V(x)-E with term $\alpha(x)+\beta(x)|\psi(x)|^2$ we arrived at the Ginzburg-Landau equation. In the presented relaxation algorithm we use one and two dimensional ground energy solutions of Schroedinger equation and placed them as starting trial solution for GL relaxation method. In consecutive steps we increase the nonlinear term in the GL equation which results in achieving a stable approach of solution of GL equation. The obtained numerical results and used methodology form simulation platform bases for study of superconducting integrated structures that can model various superconducting devices. In general, one can model time-dependent geometry of superconducting structures.

3.Theory of the Simultaneous Transient Dispersive Readout of Multiple Spin Qubits

Authors:Florian Ginzel, Guido Burkard

Abstract: We propose a paradigm of multiplexed dispersive qubit measurement performed while the qubits dephase. A Laplace transformation of the time-dependent cavity response allows to separate contributions from multiple qubits coupled to the same resonator mode, thus allowing for simultaneous single-shot read out. With realistic parameters for silicon spin qubits we find a competitive readout fidelity, while the measurement time compares favourably to conventional dispersive readout. We extend the multiplexed readout method to quantum non-demolition measurements using auxiliary qubits.

4.Ultrafast Hidden Spin Polarization Dynamics of Bright and Dark Excitons in 2H-WSe$_2$

Authors:Mauro Fanciulli, David Bresteau, Jérome Gaudin, Shuo Dong, Romain Géneaux, Thierry Ruchon, Olivier Tcherbakoff, Ján Minár, Olivier Heckmann, Maria Christine Richter, Karol Hricovini, Samuel Beaulieu

Abstract: We performed spin-, time- and angle-resolved extreme ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (STARPES) of excitons prepared by photoexcitation of inversion-symmetric 2H-WSe$_2$ with circularly polarized light. The very short probing depth of XUV photoemission permits selective measurement of photoelectrons originating from the top-most WSe$_2$ layer, allowing for direct measurement of hidden spin polarization of bright and momentum-forbidden dark excitons. Our results reveal efficient chiroptical control of bright excitons' hidden spin polarization. Following optical photoexcitation, intervalley scattering between nonequivalent K-K' valleys leads to a decay of bright excitons' hidden spin polarization. Conversely, the ultrafast formation of momentum-forbidden dark excitons acts as a local spin polarization reservoir, which could be used for spin injection in van der Waals heterostructures involving multilayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

5.Rigorous analysis of the topologically protected edge states in the quantum spin Hall phase of the armchair ribbon geometry

Authors:Mozhgan Sadeghizadeh, Morteza Soltani, Mohsen Amini

Abstract: Studying the edge states of a topological system and extracting their topological properties is of great importance in understanding and characterizing these systems. In this paper, we present a novel analytical approach for obtaining explicit expressions for the edge states in the Kane-Mele model within a ribbon geometry featuring armchair boundaries. Our approach involves a mapping procedure that transforms the system into an extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, specifically a two-leg ladder, in momentum space. Through rigorous derivation, we determine various analytical properties of the edge states, including their wave functions and energy dispersion. Additionally, we investigate the condition for topological transition by solely analyzing the edge states, and we elucidate the underlying reasons for the violation of the bulk-edge correspondence in relatively narrow ribbons. Our findings shed light on the unique characteristics of the edge states in the quantum spin Hall phase of the Kane-Mele model and provide valuable insights into the topological properties of such systems.

6.Delocalization and Universality of the Fractional Quantum Hall Plateau-to-Plateau Transitions

Authors:P. T. Madathil, K. A. Villegas Rosales, C. T. Tai, Y. J. Chung, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, K. W. Baldwin, M. Shayegan

Abstract: Disorder and electron-electron interaction play essential roles in the physics of electron systems in condensed matter. In two-dimensional, quantum Hall systems, extensive studies of disorder-induced localization have led to the emergence of a scaling picture with a single extended state, characterized by a power-law divergence of the localization length in the zero-temperature limit. Experimentally, scaling has been investigated via measuring the temperature dependence of plateau-to-plateau transitions between the integer quantum Hall states (IQHSs), yielding a critical exponent $\kappa\simeq 0.42$. Here we report scaling measurements in the fractional quantum Hall state (FQHS) regime where interaction plays a dominant role. Our study is partly motivated by recent calculations, based on the composite fermion theory, that suggest identical critical exponents in both IQHS and FQHS cases to the extent that the interaction between composite fermions is negligible. The samples used in our experiments are two-dimensional electron systems confined to GaAs quantum wells of exceptionally high quality. We find that $\kappa$ varies for transitions between different FQHSs observed on the flanks of Landau level filling factor $\nu=1/2$, and has a value close to that reported for the IQHS transitions only for a limited number of transitions between high-order FQHSs with intermediate strength. We discuss possible origins of the non-universal $\kappa$ observed in our experiments.

7.Photonic Floquet skin-topological effect

Authors:Yeyang Sun, Xiangrui Hou, Tuo Wan, Fangyu Wang, Shiyao Zhu, Zhichao Ruan, Zhaoju Yang

Abstract: Non-Hermitian skin effect and photonic topological edge states are of great interest in non-Hermitian physics and optics. However, the interplay between them is largly unexplored. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally the non-Hermitian skin effect that constructed from the nonreciprocal flow of Floquet topological edge states, which can be dubbed 'Floquet skin-topological effect'. We first show the non-Hermitian skin effect can be induced by pure loss when the one-dimensional (1D) system is periodically driven. Next, based on a two-dimensional (2D) Floquet topological photonic lattice with structured loss, we investigate the interaction between the non-Hermiticity and the topological edge states. We observe that all the one-way edge states are imposed onto specific corners, featuring both the non-Hermitian skin effect and topological edge states. Furthermore, a topological switch for the skin-topological effect is presented by utilizing the gap-closing mechanism. Our experiment paves the way of realizing non-Hermitian topological effects in nonlinear and quantum regimes.

8.Microscopic Theory of the Magnetic Susceptibility of Insulators

Authors:Alistair H. Duff, Aidan Lau, J. E. Sipe

Abstract: We present a general theory of the magnetic susceptibility of insulators that can be extended to treat spatially varying and finite frequency fields. While there are existing results in the literature for the zero frequency response that appear to be in disagreement with each other, we show that the apparent differences between them vanish with the use of various sum rules, and that our result is in agreement with them. Although our strategy is based on the use of Wannier functions, we show that our result can be written in a ``gauge invariant" form involving Bloch functions. We can write it as the sum of terms that involve the diagonal elements of the Berry connection, and this decomposition is particularly useful in considering the limit of isolated molecules. But these contributions can be repackaged to give a form independent of those diagonal elements, which is thus generally more suitable for numerical computation. We consider an h-BN model to demonstrate the practical considerations in building a model and making calculations within this formalism.

1.Local heating variations and transient effects in the coupling of thermal radiation and non-Fourier heat transport

Authors:D. Becerril, A. Camacho de la Rosa, R. Esquivel-Sirvent

Abstract: In this work, we study the thermalization between two bodies separated by a vacuum gap by coupling the non-Fourier behavior of the materials with the radiative heat transfer in the near-field. Unlike the diffusion-type temperature profile, in non-Fourier materials, the temperature behaves as a wave, changing the thermalization process. Due to the temperature profile induced by the coupling with conduction, we show that the radiative heat flux exchanged between the two bodies differs from the Fourier case, and exhibits transient temperature effects at the onset of the thermalization process. These results have important implications in nanoscale thermal management, near-field solid-state cooling, and nanoscale energy conversion.

2.Quantum Valley and Sub-valley Hall Effect in the Large Angle Twisted Bilayer Graphene

Authors:Chiranjit Mondal, Rasoul Ghadimi, Bohm-Jung Yang

Abstract: We study the quantum valley Hall effect and related domain wall modes in twisted bilayer graphene at a large commensurate angle. Due to the quantum valley and sub-valley Hall effect, a small deviation from the commensurate angle generates two-dimensional conducting network patterns composed of one-dimensional domain wall conducting channels, which can induce non-Fermi liquid transport behavior within an accessible temperature range. The domain wall modes can be manipulated by using the layer shifting and external electric fields which, in turn, leads to the sub-valley Haldane and Semenoff masses on the domain wall modes. The large-angle twisted bilayer graphene and related materials can be a new setup to harness the quantum valley and sub-valley Hall effect with enhanced tunability.

3.Observation of anisotropic magneto-inductance effect

Authors:Yuto Shoka, Genki Okano, Hiroyuki Suto, Satoshi Sumi, Hiroyuki Awano, Kenji Tanabe

Abstract: We have discovered a new phenomenon that inductance oscillates as a function of the angle between an in-plane magnetic field and an electric current direction in permalloy films, which we have named "the anisotropic magneto-inductance (AML) effect". We have investigated the dependences of the AML effect on the size and voltage. The length, frequency, and amplitude dependences suggest that the AML effect should be evaluated in terms of "inductivity". Inductors based on this AML effect have the potential to be variable, on-chip, and one billion times smaller than the small commercial inductor.

4.Stochastic p-Bits Based on Spin-Orbit Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

Authors:X. H. Li, M. K. Zhao, R. Zhang, C. H. Wan, Y. Z. Wang, X. M. Luo, S. Q. Liu, J. H. Xia, G. Q. Yu, X. F. Han

Abstract: Stochastic p-Bit devices play a pivotal role in solving NP-hard problems, neural network computing, and hardware accelerators for algorithms such as the simulated annealing. In this work, we focus on Stochastic p-Bits based on high-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (HB-MTJs) with identical stack structure and cell geometry, but employing different spin-orbit torque (SOT) switching schemes. We conducted a comparative study of their switching probability as a function of pulse amplitude and width of the applied voltage. Through experimental and theoretical investigations, we have observed that the Y-type SOT-MTJs exhibit the gentlest dependence of the switching probability on the external voltage. This characteristic indicates superior tunability in randomness and enhanced robustness against external disturbances when Y-type SOT-MTJs are employed as stochastic p-Bits. Furthermore, the random numbers generated by these Y-type SOT-MTJs, following XOR pretreatment, have successfully passed the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SP800-22 test. This comprehensive study demonstrates the high performance and immense potential of Y-type SOT-MTJs for the implementation of stochastic p-Bits.

5.Uncertainty Relations in Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes on a Mesoscopic Scale

Authors:Giorgio Sonnino

Abstract: Studies of mesoscopic structures have now become a leading and rapidly evolving research field ranging from physics, chemistry, and mineralogy to life sciences. The increasing miniaturization of devices with length scales of a few nanometers is leading to radical changes not only in the realization of new materials but also in shedding light on our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature that govern the dynamics of systems at the mesoscopic scale. On the basis of recent experimental results and previous theoretical research, we investigate thermodynamic processes in small systems in Onsager's region. We show that fundamental quantities such as the total entropy production, the thermodynamic variables conjugate to the thermodynamic fluxes, and the Glansdorff-Prigogine's dissipative variable may be quantized at the mesoscopic scale. We establish the canonical commutation rules (ccr) valid at the mesoscopic scale. The numerical value of the quantization constant is estimated experimentally.

6.Anomalous Aharonov-Bohm Interference in the Presence of Edge Reconstruction

Authors:Sourav Biswas, Hemanta Kumar Kundu, Rajarshi Bhattacharyya, Vladimir Umansky, Moty Heiblum

Abstract: Interferometry is a vital tool for studying fundamental features in the quantum Hall effect (QHE). For instance, Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interference in a quantum Hall interferometer can probe the wave-particle duality of electrons and quasiparticles. Here, we report an unusual AB interference in a quantum Hall Fabry-P\'erot interferometer (FPI), whose Coulomb interactions were suppressed with a grounded drain in the interior bulk of the FPI. In a descending filling factor from $\nu =3$ to $\nu\approx5/3$, the magnetic field periodicity, which corresponded to a single 'flux quantum,' agreed accurately with the enclosed area of the FPI. However, in the filling range, $\nu\approx5/3$ to ${\nu}=1$, the field periodicity increased markedly, apriori suggesting a drastic shrinkage of the AB area. Moreover, the modulation gate voltage periodicity decreased abruptly at this range. We attribute these unexpected observations to a ubiquitous edge reconstruction, leading to dynamical area changing with the field and a modified modulation gate-edge capacitance. These results are reproducible and support future interference experiments with a QHE-FPI.

7.Berry-Curvature Engineering for Nonreciprocal Directional Dichroism in Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnets

Authors:Wenhao Liang, Junjie Zeng, Zhenhua Qiao, Yang Gao, Qian Niu

Abstract: In two-dimensional antiferromagnets, we identify the mixed Berry curvature as the geometrical origin of the nonreciprocal directional dichroism (NDD), which refers to the difference in light absorption with the propagation direction flipped. Such a Berry curvature is strongly tied to the uniaxial strain in accordance with the symmetry constraint, leading to a highly tunable NDD, whose sign and magnitude can be manipulated via the strain direction. As a concrete example, we demonstrate such a phenomenon in a lattice model of MnBi2Te4. The coupling between the mixed Berry curvature and strain also suggests the magnetic quadrupole of the Bloch wave packet as the macroscopic order parameter probed by the NDD in two dimensions, distinct from the multiferroic order P times M or the spin toroidal and quadrupole order within a unit cell in previous studies. Our work paves the way of the Berry-curvature engineering for optical nonreciprocity in two-dimensional antiferromagnets.

1.Ultrafast single-pulse all-optical switching in synthetic ferrimagnetic Tb/Co/Gd multilayers

Authors:Julian Hintermayr, Pingzhi Li, Roy Rosenkamp, Youri L. W. van Hees, Junta Igarashi, Stéphane Mangin, Reinoud Lavrijsen, Grégory Malinowski, Bert Koopmans

Abstract: In this work, we investigate single-shot all-optical switching (AOS) in Tb/Co/Gd/Co/Tb multilayers in an attempt to establish AOS in synthetic ferrimagnets with high magnetic anisotropy. In particular, we study the effect of varying Tb thicknesses to disentangle the role of the two rare earth elements. Even though the role of magnetic compensation has been considered to be crucial, we find that the threshold fluence for switching is largely independent of the Tb content. Moreover, we identify the timescale for the magnetization to cross zero to be within the first ps after laser excitation using time-resolved MOKE. We conclude that the switching is governed mostly by interactions between Co and Gd.

2.Straintronics using the monolayer-Xene platform -- a comparative study

Authors:Swastik Sahoo, Namitha Anna Koshi, Seung-Cheol Lee, Satadeep Bhattacharjee, Bhaskaran Muralidharan

Abstract: Monolayer silicene is a front runner in the 2D-Xene family, which also comprises germanene, stanene, and phosphorene, to name a few, due to its compatibility with current silicon fabrication technology. Here, we investigate the utility of 2D-Xenes for straintronics using the ab-initio density functional theory coupled with quantum transport based on the Landauer formalism. With a rigorous band structure analysis, we show the effect of strain on the K-point, and calculate the directional piezoresistances for the buckled Xenes as per their critical strain limit. Further, we compare the relevant gauge factors, and their sinusoidal dependences on the transport angle akin to silicene and graphene. The strain-insensitive transport angles corresponding to the zero gauge factors are 81 degree and 34 degree for armchair and zigzag strains, respectively, for silicene and germanene. For stanene as the strain limit is extended to 10% and notable changes in the fundamental parameters, the critical angle for stanene along armchair and zigzag directions are 69 degree and 34 degree respectively. The small values of gauge factors are attributed to their stable Dirac cones and strain-independent valley degeneracies. We also explore conductance modulation, which is quantized in nature and exhibits a similar pattern with other transport parameters against a change in strain. Based on the obtained results, we propose the buckled Xenes as an interconnect in flexible electronics and are promising candidates for various applications in straintronics.

3.Chiral Anomaly Beyond Fermionic Paradigm

Authors:Tianyu Liu, Zheng Shi, Hai-Zhou Lu, X. C. Xie

Abstract: Two-dimensional magnets have manifested themselves as promising candidates for quantum devices. We here report that the edge and strain effects during the device fabrication with two-dimensional honeycomb ferromagnets such as CrX$_3$ (X=Cl, I, Br) and CrXTe$_3$ (X=Si, Ge) can be characterized by a (1+1)-dimensional magnon chiral anomaly beyond the fermionic paradigm. In the presence of zigzag edges, a pair of chiral bulk-edge magnon bands appear and cause an imbalance of left- and right-chirality magnons when subjected to nonuniform temperature or magnetic fields. In the presence of a uniaxial strain, the bulk Dirac magnons are broken into chiral magnon pseudo-Landau levels, resulting in a magnon chiral anomaly observable through a negative strain-resistivity of the magnetic dipole and heat. Our work demonstrates a chiral anomaly with (quasi)particles obeying non-fermionic statistics and will be instructive in understanding anomalous magnon transport.

4.Melting of electronic and excitonic crystals in 2D semiconductor moiré patterns: a perspective from the Lindemann criterion

Authors:Jiyong Zhou, Jianju Tang, Hongyi Yu

Abstract: Using the Lindemann criterion, we analyzed the quantum and thermal melting of electronic and excitonic crystals recently discovered in 2D semiconductor moir\'e patterns. We show that the finite 2D screening of the atomically thin material can suppress (enhance) the inter-site Coulomb (dipolar) interaction strength, thus inhibits (facilitates) the formation of the electronic (excitonic) crystal. Meanwhile, a strong enough moir\'e confinement is found to be essential for realizing the crystal phase with a lattice constant near 10 nm or shorter. From the calculated Lindemann ratio which quantifies the fluctuation of the site displacement, we estimate that the crystal will melt into a liquid above a temperature in the order of several tens Kelvin.

5.Emergent Trion-Phonon Coupling in Atomically-Reconstructed MoSe$_2$-WSe$_2$ Heterobilayers

Authors:Sebastian Meier, Yaroslav Zhumagulov, Matthias Dietl, Philipp Parzefall, Michael Kempf, Johannes Holler, Philipp Nagler, Paulo E. Faria Junior, Jaroslav Fabian, Tobias Korn, Christian Schüller

Abstract: In low-temperature resonant Raman experiments on MoSe$_2$-WSe$_2$ heterobilayers, we identify a hybrid interlayer shear mode (HSM) with an energy, close to the interlayer shear mode (SM) of the heterobilayers, but with a much broader, asymmetric lineshape. The HSM shows a pronounced resonance with the intralayer hybrid trions (HX$^-$) of the MoSe$_2$ and WSe$_2$ layers, only. No resonance with the neutral intralayer excitons is found. First-principles calculations reveal a strong coupling of Q-valley states, which are delocalized over both layers and participate in the HX$^-$, with the SM. This emerging trion-phonon coupling may be relevant for experiments on gate-controlled heterobilayers.

6.Thermoelectric properties of a double quantum dot out of equilibrium in Kondo and intermediate valence regimes

Authors:Diego Pérez Daroca, Pablo Roura-Bas, Armando A. Aligia

Abstract: We study a system composed of two quantum dots connected in series between two leads at different temperatures, in the limit of large intratomic repulsion. Using the non-crossing approximation, we calculate the spectral densities at both dots $\rho_i(\omega)$, the thermal and thermoelectric responses, thermopower and figure of merit in different regimes. The interatomic repulsionleads to finite heat transport even if the hopping between the dots $t=0$. The thermopower can be very large compared to single-dot systems in several regimes. The changes in sign of the thermoelectric current can be understood from the position and magnitude of the Kondo and charge-transfer peaks in $\rho_i(\omega)$. The figure of merit can reach values near 0.7. The violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law is much more significant than in previously studied nanoscopic systems. An analysis of the widths of $\rho_i(\omega)$ indicates that the dots are at effective temperatures $T_i$ intermediate between those of the two leads, which tend to be the same for large $T$.

7.Continuous-variable quantum optics and resource theory for ultrafast semiconductor spectroscopy

Authors:Carolin Lüders, Franziska Barkhausen, Matthias Pukrop, Elena Rozas, Jan Sperling, Stefan Schumacher, Marc Aßmann

Abstract: In this review, we discuss the use of continuous variable spectroscopy techniques for investigating quantum coherence and light-matter interactions in semiconductor systems with ultrafast dynamics. We focus on multichannel homodyne detection as a powerful tool to measure the quantum coherence and the full density matrix of a polariton system. By monitoring the temporal decay of quantum coherence in the polariton condensate, we observe coherence times exceeding the nanosecond scale. Our findings, supported by proof-of-concept experiments and numerical simulations, demonstrate the enhanced resourcefulness of the produced system states for modern quantum protocols. The combination of tailored resource quantifiers and ultrafast spectroscopy techniques presented here paves the way for future applications of quantum information technologies.

8.Detection and modeling of hole capture by single point defects under variable electric fields

Authors:Artur Lozovoi, YunHeng Chen, Gyorgy Vizkelethy, Edward Bielejec, Johannes Flick, Marcus W. Doherty, Carlos A. Meriles

Abstract: Understanding carrier trapping in solids has proven key to semiconductor technologies but observations thus far have relied on ensembles of point defects, where the impact of neighboring traps or carrier screening is often important. Here, we investigate the capture of photo-generated holes by an individual negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond at room temperature. Using an externally gated potential to minimize space-charge effects, we find the capture probability under electric fields of variable sign and amplitude shows an asymmetric-bell-shaped response with maximum at zero voltage. To interpret these observations, we run semi-classical Monte Carlo simulations modeling carrier trapping through a cascade process of phonon emission, and obtain electric-field-dependent capture probabilities in good agreement with experiment. Since the mechanisms at play are insensitive to the trap characteristics, the capture cross sections we observe - largely exceeding those derived from ensemble measurements - should also be present in materials platforms other than diamond.

9.Bloch point nanospheres for the design of magnetic traps

Authors:F. Tejo, C. Zambrano-Rabanal, V. Carvalho-Santos, N. Vidal-Silva

Abstract: Through micromagnetic simulations, this work analyzes the stability of Bloch points in magnetic nanospheres and the possibility of using an array of such particles to compose a system with the features of a magnetic trap. We show that a BP can be nucleated as a metastable configuration in a relatively wide range of the nanosphere radius compared to a quasi-uniform and vortex state. We also show that the stabilized Bloch point generates a quadrupolar magnetic field outside it, from which we analyze the field profile of different arrays of these nanospheres to show that the obtained magnetic field shares the features of magnetic traps. Some of the highlights of the proposed magnetic traps rely on the magnetic field gradients achieved, which are orders of magnitude higher than standard magnetic traps, and allow three-dimensional trapping. Our results could be useful in trapping particles through the intrinsic magnetization of ferromagnetic nanoparticles while avoiding the commonly used mechanisms associated with Joule heating.

10.Network plasticity: reduced-order modeling of deformation-driven microstructure evolution

Authors:Daniel Bugas, Brandon Runnels

Abstract: Microstructural evolution in structural materials is known to occur in response to mechanical loading and can often accommodate substantial plastic deformation through the coupled motion of grain boundaries (GBs). This can produce desirable behavior, such as increased ductility, or undesirable behavior such as mechanically-induced coarsening. In this work a novel, multiscale model is developed for capturing the combined effect of plasticity mediated by multiple GBs simultaneously. This model is referred to as "network plasticity" (NP). The mathematical framework of graph theory is used to describe the microstructure connectedness, and the evolution of microstructure is represented as volume flow along the graph. By using the principle of minimum dissipation potential, which has previously been applied to grain boundary migration, a set of evolution equations are developed that transfer volume and eigendeformation along the graph edges in a physically consistent way. It is shown that higher-order geometric effects, such as the pinning effect of triple points, may be accounted for through the incorporation of a geometric hardening that causes geometry-induced GB stagnation. The result is a computationally efficient reduced order model that can be used to simulate the initial motion of grain boundaries in a polycrystal with parameters informed by atomistic simulations. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated through comparison to multiple bicrystal atomistic simulations, as well as a select number of GB engineered and non-GB engineered data obtained from the literature. The network plastic effect is demonstrated through mechanical response tests and by examining the yield surfaces, and the transition from NP to other, simpler plasticity models is explored.

1.Generalized Quantum Geometric Tensor in a Non-Hermitian Exciton-Polariton System

Authors:Y. -M. Robin Hu, Elena A. Ostrovskaya, Eliezer Estrecho

Abstract: In this work, we review two different generalizations of a quantum geometric tensor (QGT) in two-band non-Hermitian systems and apply the formalism to the system of microcavity exciton polaritons. In particular, we extend the existing method of measuring the QGT that uses the pseudospins in photonic and polaritonic systems. We find that both forms of the generalized QGT can be expressed in terms of the exciton-polariton pseudospin components, which can be experimentally measured. We then present the generalized QGT components, i.e. the quantum metric and Berry curvature, for an exemplar non-Hermitian exciton-polariton system. Our simulations of the wave packet dynamics in this exciton-polariton system show that the right-right Berry curvature gives a more accurate description of the anomalous Hall drift.

2.Impact of magnetic anisotropy on the magnon Hanle effect in $α$-Fe$_2$O$_3$

Authors:Monika Scheufele, Janine Gückelhorn, Matthias Opel, Akashdeep Kamra, Hans Huebl, Rudolf Gross, Stephan Geprägs, Matthias Althammer

Abstract: In easy-plane antiferromagnets, the nature of the elementary excitations of the spin system is captured by the precession of the magnon pseudospin around its equilibrium pseudofield, manifesting itself in the magnon Hanle effect. Here, we investigate the impact of growth-induced changes in the magnetic anisotropy on this effect in the antiferromagnetic insulator $\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$ (hematite). To this end, we compare the structural, magnetic, and magnon-based spin transport properties of $\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$ films with different thicknesses grown by pulsed laser deposition in molecular and atomic oxygen atmospheres. While in films grown with molecular oxygen a spin-reorientation transition (Morin transition) is absent down to $10\,$K, we observe a Morin transition for those grown by atomic-oxygen-assisted deposition, indicating a change in magnetic anisotropy. Interestingly, even for a $19\,$nm thin $\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$ film grown with atomic oxygen we still detect a Morin transition at $125\,$K. We characterize the magnon Hanle effect in these $\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$ films via all-electrical magnon transport measurements. The films grown with atomic oxygen show a markedly different magnon spin signal from those grown in molecular oxygen atmospheres. Most importantly, the maximum magnon Hanle signal is significantly enhanced and the Hanle peak is shifted to lower magnetic field values for films grown with atomic oxygen. These observations suggest a change of magnetic anisotropy for $\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$ films fabricated by atomic-oxygen-assisted deposition resulting in an increased oxygen content in these films. Our findings provide new insights into the possibility to fine-tune the magnetic anisotropy in $\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$ and thereby to engineer the magnon Hanle effect.

3.Bosonic Delocalization of Dipolar Moiré Excitons

Authors:Samuel Brem, Ermin Malic

Abstract: In superlattices of twisted semiconductor monolayers, tunable moir\'e potentials emerge, trapping excitons into periodic arrays. In particular, spatially separated interlayer excitons are subject to a deep potential landscape and they exhibit a permanent dipole providing a unique opportunity to study interacting bosonic lattices. Recent experiments have demonstrated density-dependent transport properties of moir\'e excitons, which could play a key role for technological applications. However, the intriguing interplay between exciton-exciton interactions and moir\'e trapping has not been well understood yet. In this work, we develop a microscopic theory of interacting excitons in external potentials allowing us to tackle this highly challenging problem. We find that interactions between moir\'e excitons lead to a delocalization at intermediate densities and we show how this transition can be tuned via twist angle and temperature. The delocalization is accompanied by a modification of optical moir\'e resonances, which gradually merge into a single free exciton peak. The predicted density-tunability of the supercell hopping can be utilized to control the energy transport in moir\'e materials.

4.Information Trapping by Topologically Protected Edge States: Scrambling and the Butterfly Velocity

Authors:Martyna Sedlmayr, Hadi Cheraghi, Nicholas Sedlmayr

Abstract: Topological insulators and superconductors have attracted considerable attention, and many different theoretical tools have been used to gain insight into their properties. Here we investigate how perturbations can spread through exemplary one-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors using out-of-time ordered correlators. Out-of-time ordered correlators are often used to consider how information becomes scrambled during quantum dynamics. The wavefront of the out-of-time ordered correlator can be ballistic regardless of the underlying system dynamics, and here we confirm that for topological free fermion systems the wavefront spreads linearly at a characteristic butterfly velocity. We pay special attention to the topologically protected edge states, finding that "information" can become trapped in the edge states and essentially decoupled from the bulk, surviving for relatively long times. We consider different models with multiple possible edge states coexisting on a single edge.

5.Heat-transfer fingerprint of Josephson breathers

Authors:Duilio De Santis, Bernardo Spagnolo, Angelo Carollo, Davide Valenti, Claudio Guarcello

Abstract: A sine-Gordon breather enhances the heat transfer in a thermally biased long Josephson junction. This solitonic channel allows for the tailoring of the local temperature throughout the system. Furthermore, the phenomenon implies a clear thermal fingerprint for the breather, and thus a 'non-destructive' breather detection strategy is proposed here. Distinct breathing frequencies result in morphologically different local temperature peaks, which can be identified in an experiment.

6.Electronic structure of few-layer black phosphorus from $μ$-ARPES

Authors:Florian Margot, Simone Lisi, Irène Cucchi, Edoardo Cappelli, Andrew Hunter, Ignacio Gutiérrez-Lezama, KeYuan Ma, Fabian von Rohr, Christophe Berthod, Francesco Petocchi, Samuel Poncé, Nicola Marzari, Marco Gibertini, Anna Tamai, Alberto F. Morpurgo, Felix Baumberger

Abstract: Black phosphorus (BP) stands out among two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors because of its high mobility and thickness dependent direct band gap. However, the quasiparticle band structure of ultrathin BP has remained inaccessible to experiment thus far. Here we use a recently developed laser-based micro-focus angle resolved photoemission ($\mu$-ARPES) system to establish the electronic structure of 2-9 layer BP from experiment. Our measurements unveil ladders of anisotropic, quantized subbands at energies that deviate from the scaling observed in conventional semiconductor quantum wells. We quantify the anisotropy of the effective masses and determine universal tight-binding parameters which provide an accurate description of the electronic structure for all thicknesses.

7.Collective modes and quantum effects in two-dimensional nanofluidic channels

Authors:Baptiste Coquinot, Maximilian Becker, Roland R. Netz, Lydéric Bocquet, Nikita Kavokine

Abstract: Nanoscale fluid transport is typically pictured in terms of atomic-scale dynamics, as is natural in the real-space framework of molecular simulations. An alternative Fourier-space picture, that involves the collective charge fluctuation modes of both the liquid and the confining wall, has recently been successful at predicting new nanofluidic phenomena such as quantum friction and near-field heat transfer, that rely on the coupling of those fluctuations. Here, we study the charge fluctuation modes of a two-dimensional (planar) nanofluidic channel. Introducing confined response functions that generalize the notion of surface response function, we show that the channel walls exhibit coupled plasmon modes as soon as the confinement is comparable to the plasmon wavelength. Conversely, the water fluctuations remain remarkably bulk-like, with significant confinement effects arising only when the wall spacing is reduced to 7 A. We apply the confined response formalism to predict the dependence of the solid-water quantum friction and thermal boundary conductance on channel width for model channel wall materials. Our results provide a general framework for Coulomb interactions of fluctuating matter in nanoscale confinement.

8.Imaging Moiré Excited States with Photocurrent Tunneling Microscopy

Authors:Hongyuan Li, Ziyu Xiang, Mit H. Naik, Woochang Kim, Zhenglu Li, Renee Sailus, Rounak Banerjee, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Sefaattin Tongay, Alex Zettl, Felipe H. da Jornada, Steven G. Louie1, Michael F. Crommie, Feng Wang

Abstract: Moir\'e superlattices provide a highly tunable and versatile platform to explore novel quantum phases and exotic excited states ranging from correlated insulators1-17 to moir\'e excitons7-10,18. Scanning tunneling microscopy has played a key role in probing microscopic behaviors of the moir\'e correlated ground states at the atomic scale1,11-15,19. Atomic-resolution imaging of quantum excited state in moir\'e heterostructures, however, has been an outstanding experimental challenge. Here we develop a novel photocurrent tunneling microscopy by combining laser excitation and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (laser-STM) to directly visualize the electron and hole distribution within the photoexcited moir\'e exciton in a twisted bilayer WS2 (t-WS2). We observe that the tunneling photocurrent alternates between positive and negative polarities at different locations within a single moir\'e unit cell. This alternating photocurrent originates from the exotic in-plane charge-transfer (ICT) moir\'e exciton in the t-WS2 that emerges from the competition between the electron-hole Coulomb interaction and the moir\'e potential landscape. Our photocurrent maps are in excellent agreement with our GW-BSE calculations for excitonic states in t-WS2. The photocurrent tunneling microscopy creates new opportunities for exploring photoexcited non-equilibrium moir\'e phenomena at the atomic scale.

9.AC response of Chklovskii-Halperin quantum Hall step-up transformer

Authors:Sampurna Karmakar, Amulya Ratnakar, Sourin Das

Abstract: Chklovskii and Halperin theoretically predicted that a QPC between filling fractions $\nu=1$ and $1/3$ could act as a DC step-up transformer with an amplification factor of 3/2 which was observed recently in experiments. We revisit this problem in the context of AC transport in a bilayer quantum Hall (QH) setting. We show that the AC amplification is bounded by the DC limit of 3/2 in the presence of intra-layer electron-electron interactions alone, however, the possibility of having interlayer interactions open up a new avenue for amplification beyond the DC limit. This amplification can be understood in terms of displacement current due to the presence of ambient gate electrodes. We further show that AC conductance depicts resonances and anti-resonances resulting purely from interlayer interactions at certain magic frequencies.

10.Topological enhancement of exciton-polariton coherence with non-Hermitian morphing

Authors:Ruiqi Bao, Huawen Xu, Wouter Verstraelen, Timothy C. H. Liew

Abstract: The non-Hermitian skin effect (NHSE) has been intensely investigated over the past few years and has unveiled new topological phases, which have no counterparts in Hermitian systems. Here we consider the hybridization between the NHSE in an exciton-polariton waveguide and a localized defect mode. By tuning the non-Hermiticity, we find that the resulting ground-state of the system is both spatially extended and energetically separated from other modes in the system. When polariton lasing occurs in the system, we find an enhanced spatial coherence compared to regular waveguides, which is robust in the presence of disorder.

1.A 2D Quantum Dot Array in Planar Si/SiGe

Authors:Florian K. Unseld, Marcel Meyer, Mateusz T. Mądzik, Francesco Borsoi, Sander L. de Snoo, Sergey V. Amitonov, Amir Sammak, Giordano Scappucci, Menno Veldhorst, Lieven M. K. Vandersypen

Abstract: Semiconductor spin qubits have gained increasing attention as a possible platform to host a fault-tolerant quantum computer. First demonstrations of spin qubit arrays have been shown in a wide variety of semiconductor materials. The highest performance for spin qubit logic has been realized in silicon, but scaling silicon quantum dot arrays in two dimensions has proven to be challenging. By taking advantage of high-quality heterostructures and carefully designed gate patterns, we are able to form a tunnel coupled 2 $\times$ 2 quantum dot array in a Si/SiGe heterostructure. We are able to load a single electron in all four quantum dots, thus reaching the (1,1,1,1) charge state. Furthermore we characterise and control the tunnel coupling between all pairs of dots by measuring polarisation lines over a wide range of barrier gate voltages. Tunnel couplings can be tuned from about $30~\rm \mu eV$ up to approximately $400~\rm \mu eV$. These experiments provide a first step toward the operation of spin qubits in Si/SiGe quantum dots in two dimensions.

2.Reservoir microlensing in polariton condensates

Authors:Denis Aristov, Stepan Baryshev, Julian D. Töpfer, Helgi Sigurðsson, Pavlos G. Lagoudakis

Abstract: We report on the realization of all-optical planar microlensing for exciton-polariton condensates in semiconductor microcavities. We utilize spatial light modulators to structure a nonresonant pumping beam into a planoconcave lens-shape focused onto the microcavity plane. When pumped above condensation threshold, the system effectively becomes a directional polariton antenna, generating an intense focused beam of coherent polaritons away from the pump region. The effects of pump intensity, which regulates the interplay between gain and blueshift of polaritons, as well as the geometry of lens-shaped pump are studied and a strategy to optimize the focusing of the condensate is proposed. Our work underpins the feasibility to guide nonlinear light in microcavities using nonresonant excitation schemes, offering perspectives on optically reprogrammable on-chip polariton circuitry.

3.Hybrid higher-order skin-topological effect in hyperbolic lattices

Authors:Junsong Sun, Chang-An Li, Shiping Feng, Huaiming Guo

Abstract: We investigate the non-Hermitian Haldane model on hyperbolic $\{8, 3\}$ and $\{12, 3\}$ lattices, and showcase its intriguing topological properties in the simultaneous presence of non-Hermitian effect and hyperbolic geometry. From bulk descriptions of the system, we calculate the real space non-Hermitian Chern numbers by generalizing the method from its Hermitian counterpart and present corresponding phase diagram of the model. For boundaries, we find that skin-topological modes appear in the range of the bulk energy gap under certain boundary conditions, which can be explained by an effective one-dimensional zigzag chain model mapped from hyperbolic lattice boundary. Remarkably, these skin-topological modes are localized at specific corners of the boundary, constituting a hybrid higher-order skin-topological effect on hyperbolic lattices.

4.Twistronics of Kekulé Graphene: Honeycomb and Kagome Flat Bands

Authors:Michael G. Scheer, Biao Lian

Abstract: Kekul\'e-O order in graphene, which has recently been realized experimentally, induces Dirac electron masses on the order of $m \sim 100\text{meV}$. We show that twisted bilayer graphene in which one or both layers have Kekul\'e-O order exhibits nontrivial flat electronic bands on honeycomb and kagome lattices. When only one layer has Kekul\'e-O order, there is a parameter regime for which the lowest four bands at charge neutrality form an isolated two-orbital honeycomb lattice model with two flat bands. The bandwidths are minimal at a magic twist angle $\theta \approx 0.7^\circ$ and Dirac mass $m \approx 100\text{meV}$. When both layers have Kekul\'e-O order, there is a large parameter regime around $\theta\approx 1^\circ$ and $m\gtrsim 100\text{meV}$ in which the lowest three valence and conduction bands at charge neutrality each realize isolated kagome lattice models with one flat band, while the next three valence and conduction bands are flat bands on triangular lattices. These flat band systems may provide a new platform for strongly correlated phases of matter.

5.Zero-bias conductance peaks at zero applied magnetic field due to stray fields from integrated micromagnets in hybrid nanowire quantum dots

Authors:Y. Jiang, M. Gupta, C. Riggert, M. Pendharkar, C. Dempsey, J. S. Lee, S. D. Harrington, C. J. Palmstrøm, V. S. Pribiag, S. M. Frolov

Abstract: Many recipes for realizing topological superconductivity rely on broken time-reversal symmetry, which is often attained by applying a substantial external magnetic field. Alternatively, using magnetic materials can offer advantages through low-field operation and design flexibility on the nanoscale. Mechanisms for lifting spin degeneracy include exchange coupling, spin-dependent scattering, spin injection-all requiring direct contact between the bulk or induced superconductor and a magnetic material. Here, we implement locally broken time-reversal symmetry through dipolar coupling from nearby micromagnets to superconductor-semiconductor hybrid nanowire devices. Josephson supercurrent is hysteretic due to micromangets switching. At or around zero external magnetic field, we observe an extended presence of Andreev bound states near zero voltage bias. We also show a zero-bias peak plateau of a non-quantized value. Our findings largely reproduce earlier results where similar effects were presented in the context of topological superconductivity in a homogeneous wire, and attributed to more exotic time-reversal breaking mechanisms [1]. In contrast, our stray field profiles are not designed to create Majorana modes, and our data are compatible with a straightforward interpretation in terms of trivial states in quantum dots. At the same time, the use of micromagnets in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices shows promise for future experiments on topological superconductivity.

6.Thickness Insensitive Nanocavities for 2D Heterostructures using Photonic Molecules

Authors:Peirui Ji, Chenjiang Qian, Jonathan J. Finley, Shuming Yang

Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures integrated into nanophotonic cavities have emerged as a promising approach towards novel photonic and opto-electronic devices. However, the thickness of the 2D heterostructure has a strong influence on the resonance frequency of the hybrid cavity. For a single cavity, the resonance frequency shifts approximately linearly with the thickness. Here, we propose to use the inherent non-linearity of the mode coupling to render the cavity mode insensitive to the thickness of the 2D heterostructure. Based on the couple mode theory, we reveal that this goal can be achieved using either a homoatomic molecule with a filtered coupling or heteroatomic molecules. We perform numerical simulations to further demonstrate the robustness of the eigenfrequency in the proposed photonic molecules. Our results render nanophotonic structures insensitive to the thickness of 2D materials, thus owing appealing potential in energy- or detuning-sensitive applications such as cavity quantum electrodynamics.

1.Observation of non-Hermitian topology in a multi-terminal quantum Hall device

Authors:Kyrylo Ochkan, Raghav Chaturvedi, Viktor Könye, Louis Veyrat, Romain Giraud, Dominique Mailly, Antonella Cavanna, Ulf Gennser, Ewelina M. Hankiewicz, Bernd Büchner, Jeroen van den Brink, Joseph Dufouleur, Ion Cosma Fulga

Abstract: Quantum devices characterized by non-Hermitian topology are predicted to show highly robust and potentially useful properties, but realizing them has remained a daunting experimental task. This is because non-Hermiticity is often associated with gain and loss, which would require precise tailoring to produce the signatures of nontrivial topology. Here, instead of gain/loss, we use the nonreciprocity of the quantum Hall edge states to directly observe non-Hermitian topology in a multi-terminal quantum Hall ring. Our transport measurements evidence a robust, non-Hermitian skin effect: currents and voltages show an exponential profile, which persists also across Hall plateau transitions away from the regime of maximum non-reciprocity. Our observation of non-Hermitian topology in a quantum device introduces a scalable experimental approach to construct and investigate generic non-Hermitian systems.

2.Quantum spin fluctuations and the stability of atomically-sized Bloch points

Authors:Alonso Tapia, Carlos Saji, Alejandro Roldan, Alvaro S. Nunez

Abstract: We reveal the role of the spin variables' zero-point fluctuations (ZPFs) on the stability of Bloch point (BP) singularities. As topological solitons, BPs are important in topological transitions in nanomagnets. BPs present a singularity at their core, where the long-length-scale approximation fails. We found that ZPFs bloom nearby this core, reducing the effective magnetic moment and increasing the BP's stability. As suggested by classical models, the magnonic eigenmodes found by our methods fit with the bound state of an electron surrounding a dyon, with a magnetic and an electric charge.

3.How Thermal Effect Regulates Cyclic Voltammetry of Supercapacitors

Authors:Teng Zhao, Shuangliang Zhao, Shenggao Zhou, Zhenli Xu

Abstract: Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a powerful technique for characterizing electrochemical properties of electrochemical devices. During charging-discharging cycles, thermal effect has profound impact on its performance, but existing theoretical models cannot clarify such intrinsic mechanism and often give poor prediction. Herein, we propose an interfacial model for the electro-thermal coupling, based on fundamentals in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. By incorporating molecular interactions, our model shows a quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. The integral capacitance shows a first enhanced then decayed trend against the applied heat bath temperature. Such a relation is attributed to the competition between electrical attraction and Born repulsion via dielectric inhomogeneity, which is rarely understood in previous models. In addition, as evidenced in recent experimental CV tests, our model predicts the non-monotonic dependence of the capacitance on the bulk electrolyte density, further demonstrating its high accuracy. This work demonstrates a potential pathway towards next-generation thermal regulation of electrochemical devices.

4.Electronic State at Edges of Finite $p$-orbital Helical Atomic Chain

Authors:Takemitsu Kato, Yasuhiro Utsumi, Ora Entin-Wohlman, Amnon Aharony

Abstract: In connection to the chirality induced spin-selectivity (CISS) effect, we theoretically analyze the electron state of edges of a finite $p$-orbital helical atomic chain with the intra-atomic spin orbit interaction (SOI). This model can host the spin-filtering state in which two up spins propagate in one direction and two down spins propagate in the opposite direction without breaking the time-reversal symmetry. We found that this model can exhibit the enhancement of charge density concentrated at the edges due to the evanescent states induced by the spin and orbital flip by the SOI. Although the spin density is absent because of the time reversal symmetry of the SOI, the charge concentration at the edges may play a role in the enantioselective adsorption of CISS molecules on the ferromagnetic surface.

5.Ultrafast nano-imaging of dark excitons

Authors:David Schmitt I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Jan Philipp Bange I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Wiebke Bennecke I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Giuseppe Meneghini Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität, 35032 Marburg, Germany, AbdulAziz AlMutairi Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA, U.K, Marco Merboldt I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Jonas Pöhls I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Kenji Watanabe Research Center for Electronic and Optical Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan, Takashi Taniguchi Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan, Sabine Steil I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Daniel Steil I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, R. Thomas Weitz I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany International Center for Advanced Studies of Energy Conversion, Stephan Hofmann Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA, U.K, Samuel Brem Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität, 35032 Marburg, Germany, G. S. Matthijs Jansen I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Ermin Malic I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Stefan Mathias I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany International Center for Advanced Studies of Energy Conversion, Marcel Reutzel I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany

Abstract: The role and impact of spatial heterogeneity in two-dimensional quantum materials represents one of the major research quests regarding the future application of these materials in optoelectronics and quantum information science. In the case of transition-metal dichalcogenide heterostructures, in particular, direct access to heterogeneities in the dark-exciton landscape with nanometer spatial and ultrafast time resolution is highly desired, but remains largely elusive. Here, we introduce ultrafast dark field momentum microscopy to spatio-temporally resolve dark exciton formation dynamics in a twisted WSe$_2$/MoS$_2$ heterostructure with 55 femtosecond time- and 500~nm spatial resolution. This allows us to directly map spatial heterogeneity in the electronic and excitonic structure, and to correlate these with the dark exciton formation and relaxation dynamics. The benefits of simultaneous ultrafast nanoscale dark-field momentum microscopy and spectroscopy is groundbreaking for the present study, and opens the door to new types of experiments with unprecedented spectroscopic and spatiotemporal capabilities.

6.Topological Nanophononic Interface States Using High-Order Bandgaps in the One-Dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Model

Authors:Anne Rodriguez, Konstantinos Papatryfonos, Edson Rafael Cardozo de Oliveira, Norberto Daniel Lanzillotti-Kimura

Abstract: Topological interface states in periodic lattices have emerged as valuable assets in the fields of electronics, photonics, and phononics, owing to their inherent robustness against disorder. Unlike electronics and photonics, the linear dispersion relation of hypersound offers an ideal framework for investigating higher-order bandgaps. In this work, we propose a design strategy for the generation and manipulation of topological nanophononic interface states within high-order bandgaps of GaAs/AlAs multilayered structures. These states arise from the band inversion of two concatenated superlattices that exhibit inverted spatial mode symmetries around the bandgap. By adjusting the thickness ratio of the unit cells in these superlattices, we are able to engineer interface states in different bandgaps, enabling the development of versatile topological devices spanning a wide frequency range. Moreover, we demonstrate that such interface states can also be generated in hybrid structures that combine two superlattices with bandgaps of different orders centered around the same frequency. These structures open up new avenues for exploring topological confinement in high-order bandgaps, providing a unique platform for unveiling and better understanding complex topological systems.

7.Casimir-Lifshitz force between graphene-based structures out of thermal equilibrium

Authors:Youssef Jeyar, Kevin Austry, Minggang Luo, Brahim Guizal, H. B. Chan, Mauro Antezza

Abstract: We study the non equilibrium Casimir-Lifshitz force between graphene-based parallel structures held at different temperatures and in presence of an external thermal bath at a third temperature. The graphene conductivity, which is itself a function of temperature, as well as of chemical potential, allows us to tune in situ the Casimir-Lifshitz force. We explore different non equilibrium configurations while considering different values of the graphene chemical potential. Particularly interesting cases are investigated, where the force can change sign going from attractive to repulsive or where the force becomes non monotonic with respect to chemical potential variations, contrary to the behaviour under thermal equilibrium.

8.Perpendicular in-plane negative magnetoresistance in ZrTe5

Authors:Ning Ma, Xiao-Bin Qiang, Zhijian Xie, Yu Zhang, Shili Yan, Shimin Cao, Peipei Wang, Liyuan Zhang, G. D. Gu, Qiang Li, X. C. Xie, Hai-Zhou Lu, Xinjian Wei, Jian-Hao Chen

Abstract: The unique band structure in topological materials frequently results in unusual magneto-transport phenomena, one of which is in-plane longitudinal negative magnetoresistance (NMR) with the magnetic field aligned parallel to the electrical current direction. This NMR is widely considered as a hallmark of chiral anomaly in topological materials. Here we report the observation of in-plane NMR in the topological material ZrTe5 when the in-plane magnetic field is both parallel and perpendicular to the current direction, revealing an unusual case of quantum transport beyond the chiral anomaly. We find that a general theoretical model, which considers the combined effect of Berry curvature and orbital moment, can quantitatively explain this in-plane NMR. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of in-plane NMR in topological materials.

9.New bounds to TUR with broken time reversal symmetry: the case of superconducting hybrid systems

Authors:Fabio Taddei, Rosario Fazio

Abstract: We derive new bounds to the thermodynamic uncertainty relations (TURs) in the linear-response regime for steady-state transport in two-terminal systems when time reversal symmetry (TRS) is broken. We find that such bounds are different for charge and heat currents and depend on the details of the system, through the Onsager coefficients, and on the ratio between applied voltage and temperature difference. As a function of such a ratio, the bounds can take any positive values. The bounds are then calculated for a hybrid coherent superconducting system using the scattering approach, and the concrete case of an Andreev interferometer is explored. Interestingly, we find that the bound on the charge current is always smaller than 2 when the system operates as a heat engine, while the bound on the heat current is always larger than 2 when the system operates as a refrigerator.

10.Scanning Gate Microscopy response for local tip potentials beyond perturbation theory

Authors:Ousmane Ly

Abstract: We propose an analytical formulation for the Scanning Gate Microscopy (SGM) response to local tips with arbitrary strength in two dimensional nanostructures. The real space resolved conductance is expressed in terms of the unperturbed quantities underlying the scattering problem. Providing a non-dynamical approach for obtaining the SGM maps, the proposed expression enables for a significant reduction in the computational cost of SGM response calculations. This feature is particularly advantageous for deep learning-based approaches which have been recently proposed for accessing local properties and disorder landscapes from conductance measurements. This opens up new possibilities for the SGM technique and holds exciting prospects for quantum transport. Further, the formula's versatility extends beyond this specific application, offering a straightforward and computationally efficient method for obtaining the SGM response in a more general context.

1.Linearly dispersive bands at the onset of correlations in K$_x$C$_{60}$ films

Authors:Ping Ai, Luca Moreschini, Ryo Mori, Drew W. Latzke, Jonathan D. Denlinger, Alex Zettl, Claudia Ojeda-Aristizabal, Alessandra Lanzara

Abstract: Molecular crystals are a flexible platform to induce novel electronic phases. Due to the weak forces between molecules, intermolecular distances can be varied over relatively larger ranges than interatomic distances in atomic crystals. On the other hand, the hopping terms are generally small, which results in narrow bands, strong correlations and heavy electrons. Here, by growing K$_x$C$_{60}$ fullerides on hexagonal layered Bi$_2$Se$_3$, we show that upon doping the series undergoes a Mott transition from a molecular insulator to a correlated metal, and an in-gap state evolves into highly dispersive Dirac-like fermions at half filling, where superconductivity occurs. This picture challenges the commonly accepted description of the low energy quasiparticles as appearing from a gradual electron doping of the conduction states, and suggests an intriguing parallel with the more famous family of the cuprate superconductors. More in general, it indicates that molecular crystals offer a viable route to engineer electron-electron interactions.

2.Intrinsic nonlinear thermal Hall transport of magnons: A Quantum kinetic theory approach

Authors:Harsh Varshney, Rohit Mukherjee, Arijit Kundu, Amit Agarwal

Abstract: We present a systematic study of the nonlinear thermal Hall responses in bosonic systems using the quantum kinetic theory framework. We demonstrate the existence of an intrinsic nonlinear boson thermal current, arising from the quantum metric which is a wavefunction dependent band geometric quantity. In contrast to the nonlinear Drude and nonlinear anomalous Hall contributions, the intrinsic nonlinear thermal conductivity is independent of the scattering timescale. We demonstrate the dominance of this intrinsic thermal Hall response in topological magnons in a two-dimensional ferromagnetic honeycomb lattice without Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Our findings highlight the significance of band geometry induced nonlinear thermal transport and motivate experimental probe of the intrinsic nonlinear thermal Hall response with implications for quantum magnonics.

3.Planar phonon anisotropy, and a way to detect local equilibrium temperature in graphene

Authors:Marco Coco

Abstract: The effect of inclusion of the planar phonon anisotropy on thermo-electrical behavior of graphene is analyzed. Charge transport is simulated by means of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique coupled with numerical solution of the phonon Boltzmann equations based on deterministic methods. The definition of the crystal lattice local equilibrium temperature is investigated as well and the results furnish possible alternative approaches to identify it starting from measurements of electric current density, with relevant experimental advantages, which could help to overcome the present difficulties regarding thermal investigation of graphene. Positive implications are expected for many applications, as the field of electronic devices, which needs a coherent tool for simulation of charge and hot phonon transport; the correct definition of the local equilibrium temperature is in turn fundamental for the study, design and prototyping of cooling mechanisms for graphene-based devices.

4.Dynamics of an Exciton-phonon Triangle under Photoirradiation

Authors:Noriyuki Aoyagi, Hiroaki Matsueda, Kunio Ishida

Abstract: Herein, the dynamics of excitons coupled with optical phonons in a triangular system is numerically studied. By representing the excitons by quasi-spin states, the similarity between the chiral spin states and the exciton chiral states is discussed. In particular, the optical control of excitons is discussed, where photoirradiation causes the switching of the exciton states on the ultrafast time scale by Raman scattering. A phase diagram is obtained based on the ground-state properties of the system determined by the magnitudes of the exciton-phonon interactions and exciton transfer energy. By varying the frequency and/or intensity of light, a transition between exciton-phonon composite states is induced, which suggests the possibility of the coherent control of the chiral properties of excitonic systems via phonon excitation.

5.Deterministic topological quantum gates for Majorana qubits without ancillary modes

Authors:Su-Qi Zhang, Jian-Song Hong, Yuan Xue, Xun-Jiang Luo, Li-Wei Yu, Xiong-Jun Liu, Xin Liu

Abstract: The realization of quantum gates in topological quantum computation still confronts significant challenges in both fundamental and practical aspects. Here, we propose a deterministic and fully topologically protected measurement-based scheme to realize the issue of implementing Clifford quantum gates on the Majorana qubits. Our scheme is based on rigorous proof that the single-qubit gate can be performed by leveraging the neighboring Majorana qubit but not disturbing its carried quantum information, eliminating the need for ancillary Majorana zero modes (MZMs) in topological quantum computing. Benefiting from the ancilla-free construction, we show the minimum measurement sequences with four steps to achieve two-qubit Clifford gates by constructing their geometric visualization. To avoid the uncertainty of the measurement-only strategy, we propose manipulating the MZMs in their parameter space to correct the undesired measurement outcomes while maintaining complete topological protection, as demonstrated in a concrete Majorana platform. Our scheme identifies the minimal operations of measurement-based topological and deterministic Clifford gates and offers an ancilla-free design of topological quantum computation.

6.Inverse spin-Hall effect and spin-swapping in spin-split superconductors

Authors:Lina Johnsen Kamra, Jacob Linder

Abstract: When a spin-splitting field is introduced to a thin film superconductor, the spin currents polarized along the field couples to energy currents that can only decay via inelastic scattering. We study spin and energy injection into such a superconductor where spin-orbit impurity scattering yields inverse spin-Hall and spin-swapping currents. We show that the combined presence of a spin-splitting field, superconductivity, and inelastic scattering gives rise to a renormalization of the spin-Hall and spin-swap angles. In addition to an enhancement of the ordinary inverse spin-Hall effect, spin-splitting gives rise to unique inverse spin-Hall and spin-swapping signals five orders of magnitude stronger than the ordinary inverse spin-Hall signal. These can be completely controlled by the orientation of the spin-splitting field, resulting in a long-range charge and spin accumulations detectable much further from the injector than in the normal-state. Our results demonstrate that superconductors provide tunable inverse spin-Hall and spin-swapping signals with high detection sensitivity.

7.Distinct Floquet topological classifications from color-decorated frequency lattices with space-time symmetries

Authors:Ilyoun Na, Jack Kemp, Robert-Jan Slager, Yang Peng

Abstract: We consider nontrivial topological phases in Floquet systems using unitary loops and stroboscopic evolutions under a static Floquet Hamiltonian $H_F$ in the presence of dynamical space-time symmetries $G$. While the latter has been subject of out-of-equilibrium classifications that extend the ten-fold way and systems with additional crystalline symmetries to periodically driven systems, we explore the anomalous topological zero modes that arise in $H_F$ from the coexistence of a dynamical space-time symmetry $M$ and antisymmetry $A$ of $G$, and classify them using a frequency-domain formulation. Moreover, we provide an interpretation of the resulting Floquet topological phases using a frequency lattice with a decoration represented by color degrees of freedom on the lattice vertices. These colors correspond to the coefficient $N$ of the group extension $\tilde{G}$ of $G$ along the frequency lattice, given by $N=Z\rtimes H^1[A,M]$. The distinct topological classifications that arise at different energy gaps in its quasi-energy spectrum are described by the torsion product of the cohomology group $H^{2}[G,N]$ classifying the group extension.

8.Spin-Hall Current and Nonlocal Transport in Ferromagnet-Free Multi-band models for Sr Ti O_3-Based Nanodevices in the presence of impurities

Authors:Domenico Giuliano, Andrea Nava, Carmine Antonio Perroni, Manuel Bibes, Felix Trier, Marco Salluzzo

Abstract: We compute the spin-Hall conductance in a multiband model describing the two-dimensional electron gas formed at a LaAlO_3/SrTiO_3 interface in the presence of a finite concentration of impurities. Combining linear response theory with a systematic calculation of the impurity contributions to the self-energy, as well as to the vertex corrections of the relevant diagrams, we recover the full spin-Hall vs. sheet conductance dependence of LaAlO_3/SrTiO_3 as reported in [Nano Lett. 20, 395 (2020)], finding a very good agreement with the experimental data below and above the Lifshitz transition. In particular, we demonstrate that the multiband electronic structure leads to only a partial, instead of a complete, screening of the spin-Hall conductance, which decreases with increasing the carrier density. Our method can be generalized to other two-dimensional systems characterized by a broken inversion symmetry and multiband physics.

9.Higher-dimensional spin selectivity in chiral crystals

Authors:Yinong Zhou, Dmitri Leo M. Cordova, Griffin M. Milligan, Maxx Q. Arguilla, Ruqian Wu

Abstract: This study aims to investigate the interplay between chiral-induced spin-orbit coupling along the screw axis and antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC) in the normal plane within a chiral crystal, using both general model analysis and first-principles simulations of InSeI, a chiral van der Waals crystal. While chiral molecules of light atoms typically exhibit spin selectivity only along the screw axis, chiral crystals with heavier atoms can have strong ASOC effects that influence spin-momentum locking in all directions. The resulting phase diagram of spin texture shows the potential for controlling phase transition and flipping spin by reducing symmetry through surface cleavage, thickness reduction or strain. We also experimentally synthesized high-quality InSeI crystals of the thermodynamically stable achiral analogue which showed exposed (110) facets corresponding to single-handed helices to demonstrate the potential of material realization for higher-dimensional spin selectivity in the development of spintronic devices.

1.Lattice distortions, moiré phonons, and relaxed electronic band structures in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene

Authors:Bo Xie, Jianpeng Liu

Abstract: In this work, we present a theoretical research on the lattice relaxations, phonon properties, and relaxed electronic structures in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (TBG). We construct a continuum elastic model in order to study the lattice dynamics of magic-angle TBG, where both in-plane and out-of-plane lattice displacements are take into account. The fully relaxed lattice structure calculated using such a model is in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. Furthermore, we investigate the phonon properties in magic-angle TBG using the continuum elastic model, where both the in-plane and out-of-plane phonon modes are included and treated on equal footing. We identify different types of moir\'e phonons including in-plane sliding modes, soft out-of-plane flexural modes, as well as out-of-plane breathing modes. The latter two types of phonon modes exhibit interesting monopolar, dipolar, quadrupolar, and octupolar-type out-of-plane vibration patterns. Additionally, we explore the impact of the relaxed moir\'e superlattice structure on the electronic band structures of magic-angle TBG using an effective continuum model, which shows nearly exact agreement with those calculated using a microscopic atomistic tight-binding approach. Our work lays foundation for further studies on the electron-phonon coupling effects and their interplay with $e$-$e$ interactions in magic-angle TBG.

2.Strong magnetic proximity effect in Van der Waals heterostructures driven by direct hybridization

Authors:C. Cardoso, A. T. Costa, A. H. MacDonald, J. Fernández-Rossier

Abstract: We propose a new class of magnetic proximity effects based on the spin dependent hybridization between the electronic states at the Fermi energy in a non-magnetic conductor and the narrow spin split bands of a ferromagnetic insulator. Unlike conventional exchange proximity, we show this hybridization proximity effect has a very strong influence on the non-magnetic layer and can be further modulated by application of an electric field. We use DFT calculations to illustrate this effect in graphene placed next to a monolayer of CrI$_3$, a ferromagnetic insulator. We find strong hybridization of the graphene bands with the narrow conduction band of CrI$_3$ in one spin channel only. We show that our results are robust with respect to lattice mismatch and twist angle variations. Furthermore, we show that an out-of-plane electric field can be used to modulate the hybridization strength, paving the way for applications.

3.Room temperature quantum Hall effect in a gated ferroelectric-graphene heterostructure

Authors:Anubhab Dey, Nathan Cottam, Oleg Makarovskiy, Wenjing Yan, Vaidotas Mišeikis, Camilla Coletti, James Kerfoot, Vladimir Korolkov, Laurence Eaves, Jasper F. Linnartz, Arwin Kool, Steffen Wiedmann, Amalia Patanè

Abstract: The quantum Hall effect is widely used for the investigation of fundamental phenomena, ranging from topological phases to composite fermions. In particular, the discovery of a room temperature resistance quantum in graphene is significant for compact resistance standards that can operate above cryogenic temperatures. However, this requires large magnetic fields that are accessible only in a few high magnetic field facilities. Here, we report on the quantum Hall effect in graphene encapsulated by the ferroelectric insulator CuInP2S6. Electrostatic gating of the graphene channel enables the Fermi energy to be tuned so that electrons in the localized states of the insulator are in equilibrium with the current-carrying, delocalized states of graphene. Due to the presence of strongly bound states in this hybrid system, a quantum Hall plateau can be achieved at room temperature in relatively modest magnetic fields. This phenomenon offers the prospect for the controlled manipulation of the quantum Hall effect at room temperature.

4.Shift photoconductivity in the Haldane model

Authors:Javier Sivianes Centro de Física de Materiales, Julen Ibañez-Azpiroz Centro de Física de Materiales Ikerbasque Foundation, Bilbao, Spain

Abstract: The shift current is part of the second-order optical response of materials with a close connection to topology. Here we report a sign inversion in the band-edge shift photoconductivity of the Haldane model when the system undergoes a topological phase transition. This result is obtained following two complementary schemes. On one hand, we derive an analytical expression for the band-edge shift current in a two-band tight-binding model showing that the sign reversal is driven by the mass term. On the other hand, we perform a numerical evaluation on a continuum version of the Haldane model. This approach allows us to include off-diagonal matrix elements of the position operator, which are discarded in tight-binding models but can contribute significantly to the shift current. Explicit evaluation of the shift current shows that while the model predictions remain accurate in the deep tight-binding regime, significant deviations arise for shallow potential landscapes. Notably, the sign reversal across the topological phase transition is observed in all regimes, implying it is a robust effect that could be observable in a wide range of topological insulators such as $\text{BiTe}_{2}$ and $\text{CsPbI}_{3}$ reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 237402 (2016).

5.Boost driven transition in the superconductivity proximitized edge of a quantum spin Hall insulator

Authors:Suman Jyoti De, Udit Khanna, Sumathi Rao, Sourin Das

Abstract: We investigate the effects of introducing a boost (a Zeeman field parallel to the spin quantization axis) at the proximitized helical edge of a two-dimensional (2D) quantum spin Hall insulator. Our self-consistent analysis finds that a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) superconducting phase may emerge at the edge when the boost is larger than a critical value tied to the induced pairing gap. A non-trivial consequence of retaining the 2D bulk in the model is that this boundary FFLO state supports a finite magnetization as well as finite current (flowing along the edge). This has implications for a proper treatment of the ultra-violet cutoff in analyses employing the effective one-dimensional (1D) helical edge model. Our results may be contrasted with previous studies of such 1D models, which found that the FFLO phase either does not appear for any value of the boost (in non-self-consistent calculations), or that it self-consistently appears even for infinitesimal boost, but carries no current and magnetization.

1.Valley-dependent transport property of Stone--Wales and blister defects in graphene

Authors:Mitsuharu Uemoto, Masaki Nishiura, Tomoya Ono

Abstract: Valleytronics, which makes use of the two valleys in graphenes, attracts much attention and the valley filter is expected to be central component in valleytronics. We investigate valley-dependent transport properties of the Stone-Wales (SW) and blister defects of graphenes by density functional theory calculations. It is found that the intervalley transition is perfectly suppressed in some structures although the intravalley scattering occurs by the defect states of the SW or blister defects. Using the tight-binding model, the perfect suppression of the intervalley transition in the SW and blister defects is explained by the sublattice symmetry between the A and B sites of the bipartite honeycomb lattice. In addition, introducing the additional carbon atoms to graphenes to form blister defects, the defect states appear near the Fermi level and the energies where the resonant scattering occurs on the $\mathrm{K}$ and $\mathrm{K}^\prime$ channel electrons split. Making use of this splits, the valley-dependent transport property will be achieved by local application of a gate voltage.

2.Polarization response of spin-lasers under amplitude modulation

Authors:Gaofeng Xu, Krish Patel, Igor Zutic

Abstract: Lasers with injected spin-polarized carriers show an outstanding performance in both static and dynamic operation. In addition to the intensity response of conventional lasers, without spin-polarized carriers, both intensity and polarization of light can be exploited for optical communication in spin-lasers. However, the polarization dynamics of spin-lasers under amplitude modulation has been largely overlooked. Here we reveal, analytically and numerically, a nontrivial polarization response that accompanies the well-known intensity dynamics of a spin-laser under amplitude modulation. We evaluate the polarization and intensity response under the same amplitude modulation, and further assess the capability of such a polarization response in digital data transfer with eye diagram simulations. Our results provide a more complete understanding of the modulation response in spin-lasers and open up unexplored opportunities in optical communication and spintronics.

3.Dirac fermion spectrum of the fractional quantum Hall states

Authors:I. N. Karnaukhov

Abstract: Applying a unified approach, we study the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) and fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in the Hofstadter model with short range interactions between fermions. An effective field, that takes into account the interaction between fermions, is determined by both amplitude and phase. Its amplitude is proportional to the interaction strength, the phase corresponds to the minimum energy. In fact, the problem is reduced to the Harper equation with two different scales: the first is a magnetic scale with the cell size corresponding to a unit quantum magnetic flux, the second scale determines the inhomogeneity of the effective field, forms the steady fine structure of the Hofstadter spectrum and leads to the realization of fractional quantum Hall states. In a sample of finite size with open boundary conditions, the fine structure of the Hofstadter spectrum consists of the Dirac branches of the fermion excitations and includes the fine structure of the edge chiral modes. The Chern numbers of the topological Hofstadter bands are conserved during the formation of their fine structure. The edge modes are formed into the Hofstadter bands. They connect the nearest-neighbor subbands and determine the conductance for the fractional filling.

4.Electron energy spectrum of the spherical GaAs/Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As quantum dot with several impurities on the surface

Authors:R. Ya. Leshko, I. V. Bilynskyi, O. V. Leshko, V. B. Hols'kyi

Abstract: The model of a spherical quantum dot with several donor impurities on its surface is suggested. The electron energy spectra are studied as a function of the quantum dot radius and the number of impurities. Several cases of the location of impurities on the quantum dot surface are considered. The plane wave functions method has been applied to calculate the electron energy spectrum. The splitting of electron energy levels is analyzed in the cases of different number of impurities. It is shown that the electron energy splitting depends on both the number of impurities on the surface and on their location. The electron binding energy is defined too.

5.Spectral properties of a broadband far infrared photodetector with a new design of active region

Authors:M. V. Tkach, Ju. O. Seti, O. M. Voitsekhivska, V. V. Hutiv

Abstract: A quantum theory of spectral parameters and oscillator strengths of quantum transitions in an active region, which contains cascades of wide quantum wells with a complicated potential profile is developed. A new spatial design of the cascade is calculated and proposed with such an asymmetric arrangement of the wells and barriers, in which, without an applied electric bias, the magnitudes of oscillator strengths are considerable and one-way resonant-tunneling transport of electrons is observed. As a result, it becomes possible to ensure a successful functioning of the broadband photodetector in the far IR range.

6.Precise transport of skyrmions by surface acoustic waves

Authors:Jintao Shuai, Luis Lopez-Diaz, John E. Cunningham, Thomas A. Moore

Abstract: Magnetic skyrmions in thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are promising candidates for magnetic memory and logic devices, making the development of ways to transport skyrmions efficiently and precisely of significant interest. Here, we investigate the transport of skyrmions by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) via several modalities using micromagnetic simulations. We show skyrmion pinning sites created by standing SAWs at anti-nodes and skyrmion Hall-like motion without pinning driven by travelling SAWs. We also show how orthogonal SAWs formed by combining a longitudinal travelling SAW and a transverse standing SAW can be used for the precise 2D positioning of skyrmions. Our results also suggest SAWs offer a viable approach to the precise transport of multiple skyrmions along multichannel racetrack.

7.Nonlinear spin dynamics of ferromagnetic ring in the vortex state and its application for spin-transfer nano-oscillator

Authors:Vera Uzunova, Boris A. Ivanov

Abstract: We study a nonlinear spin dynamics of a ferromagnetic ring in a vortex state induced by the spin-polarized current. We also suggest to use the ferromagnetic ring as a free layer of a coreless vortex spin-transfer nano-oscillator. The calculated working frequency is about several GHz, that is much higher than the gyromode frequency of the disk-based vortex oscillator. The response of the vortex-state ring to the spin-polarized current has hysteretic behavior with the reasonable values of the thresholds current densities: ignition threshold is about $10^{8} \text{A}\text{cm}^{-2}$, and elimination current to maintain the oscillations has much lower values about $10^{6} \text{A} \text{cm}^{-2}$. The output signal can be extracted by the help of the inverse spin Hall effect or by the giant magnetoresistance. The output electromotive force averaged over all sample vanishes, and we suggest to use a ferromagnetic ring or disk in a vortex state as a GMR analyzer. For an inverse spin Hall analyser we advise to use two heavy metals with different signs of Spin-Hall angle. The ring-based STNO is supposed to increase the areas of practical application of the STNOs.

8.Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in strongly spin-orbit-coupled systems: General formula and application to topological and Rashba materials

Authors:Yuto Hayakawa, Yusuke Imai, Hiroshi Kohno

Abstract: We theoretically study the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) mediated by band electrons with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We first derive a general formula for the coefficient ${\bm D}_i$ of the DMI in free energy in terms of Green's functions, and examine its variations in relation to physical quantities. In general, the DMI coefficient can vary depending on physical quantities, i.e., whether one is looking at equilibrium spin structure (${\bm D}_i$) or spin-wave dispersion (${\bm D}_i^{(2)}$), and the obtained formula helps to elucidate their relations. By explicit evaluations for a magnetic topological insulator and a Rashba ferromagnet with perpendicular magnetization, we observe ${\bm D}_i^{(2)} \ne {\bm D}_i$ in general. In the latter model, or more generally, when the magnetization and the spin-orbit field are mutually orthogonal, ${\bm D}_i$ is exactly related to the equilibrium spin current for arbitrary strength of SOC, generalizing the similar relation for systems with weak SOC. Among various systems with strong SOC, magnetic Weyl semimetals are special in that ${\bm D}_i^{(2)} = {\bm D}_i$, and in fact, the DMI in this system arises as the chiral anomaly.

9.Euler--Chern Correspondence via Topological Superconductivity

Authors:Fan Yang, Xingyu Li, Chengshu Li

Abstract: The Fermi sea topology is characterized by the Euler characteristics $\chi_F$. In this Letter, we examine how $\chi_F$ of the metallic state is inhereted by the topological invariant of the superconducting state. We establish a correspondence between the Euler characteristic and the Chern number $C$ of $p$-wave topological superconductors without time-reversal symmetry in two dimensions. By rewriting the pairing potential $\Delta_{\bf k}=\Delta_1-i\Delta_2$ as a vector field ${\bf u}=(\Delta_1,\Delta_2)$, we found that $\chi_F=C$ when ${\bf u}$ and fermion velocity ${\bf v}$ can be smoothly deformed to be parallel or antiparallel on each Fermi surface. We also discuss a similar correspondence between Euler characteristic and 3D winding number of time-reversal-invariant $p$-wave topological superconductors in three dimensions.

10.Topological gap protocol based machine learning optimization of Majorana hybrid wires

Authors:Matthias Thamm, Bernd Rosenow

Abstract: Majorana zero modes in superconductor-nanowire hybrid structures are a promising candidate for topologically protected qubits with the potential to be used in scalable structures. Currently, disorder in such Majorana wires is a major challenge, as it can destroy the topological phase and thus reduce the yield in the fabrication of Majorana devices. We study machine learning optimization of a gate array in proximity to a grounded Majorana wire, which allows us to reliably compensate even strong disorder. We propose a metric for optimization that is inspired by the topological gap protocol, and which can be implemented based on measurements of the non-local conductance through the wire.

11.Excitonic phases in a spatially separated electron-hole ladder model

Authors:DinhDuy Vu, Sankar Das Sarma

Abstract: We obtain the numerical ground state of a one-dimensional ladder model with the upper and lower chains occupied by spatially-separated electrons and holes, respectively. Under charge neutrality, we find that the excitonic bound states are always formed, i.e., no finite regime of decoupled electron and hole plasma exists at zero temperature. The system either behaves like a bosonic liquid or a bosonic crystal depending on the inter-chain attractive and intra-chain repulsive interaction strengths. We also provide the detailed excitonic phase diagrams in the intra- and inter-chain interaction parameters, with and without disorder.

12.Hybrid symmetry class topological insulators

Authors:Sanjib Kumar Das, Bitan Roy

Abstract: Traditional topological materials belong to different Altland-Zirnbauer symmetry classes (AZSCs) depending on their non-spatial symmetries. Here we introduce the notion of hybrid symmetry class topological insulators (HSCTIs): A fusion of two different AZSC topological insulators (TIs) such that they occupy orthogonal Cartesian hyperplanes and their universal massive Dirac Hamiltonian mutually anticommute. The boundaries of HSCTIs can also harbor TIs, typically affiliated with an AZSC different from the parent ones. As such, a fusion between planar quantum spin Hall and vertical Su-Schrieffer-Heeger insulators gives birth to a three-dimensional HSCTI, accommodating quantum anomalous Hall insulators and quantized Hall conductivity on the top and bottom surfaces. We extend this construction to encompass crystalline HSCTI and topological superconductors, and beyond three dimensions. Possible (meta)material platforms to harness HSCTIs are discussed.

13.Type-II Dirac points and Dirac nodal loops on the magnons of square-hexagon-octagon lattice

Authors:Meng-Han Zhang, Dao-Xin Yao

Abstract: We study topological magnons on an anisotropic square-hexagon-octagon (SHO) lattice which has been found by a two-dimensional Biphenylene network (BPN). We propose the concepts of type-II Dirac magnonic states where new schemes to achieve topological magnons are unfolded without requiring the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interactions (DMIs). In the ferromagnetic states, the topological distinctions at the type-II Dirac points along with one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes are characterized by the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ invariant. We find pair annihilation of the Dirac magnons and use the Wilson loop method to depict the topological protection of the band-degeneracy. The Green's function approach is used to calculte chiral edge modes and magnon density of states (DOS). We introduce the DMIs to gap the type-II Dirac magnon points and demonstrate the Dirac nodal loops (DNLs) are robust against the DMIs within a certain parameter range. The topological phase diagram of magnon bands is given via calculating the Berry curvature and Chern number. We find that the anomalous thermal Hall conductivity gives connection to the magnon edge current. Furthermore, we derive the differential gyromagnetic ratio to exhibit the Einstein-de Haas effect (EdH) of magnons with topological features.

14.Optical and electronic properties of a two-dimensional quantum ring under rotating effects

Authors:Daniel F. Lima, Frankbelson dos S. Azevedo, Luís Fernando C. Pereira, Cleverson Filgueiras, Edilberto O. Silva

Abstract: This work presents a study on the nonrelativistic quantum motion of a charged particle in a rotating frame, considering the Aharonov-Bohm effect and a uniform magnetic field. We derive the equation of motion and the corresponding radial equation to describe the system. The Schr\"odinger equation with minimal coupling incorporates rotation effects by substituting the momentum operator with an effective four-potential. Additionally, a radial potential term, dependent on the average radius of the ring, is introduced. The analysis is restricted to motion in a two-dimensional plane, neglecting the degree of freedom in the $z$-direction. By solving the radial equation, we determine the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, allowing for an explicit expression of the energy. The probability distribution is analyzed for varying rotating parameter values, revealing a shift of the distribution as the rotation changes, resulting in a centrifugal effect and occupation of the ring's edges. Furthermore, numerical analysis demonstrates the significant rotational effects on energy levels and optical properties, including optical absorption and refractive coefficients.

15.Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Universality at the Edge of Laughlin States

Authors:Gustavo M. Monteiro, Dylan Reynolds, Paolo Glorioso, Sriram Ganeshan

Abstract: In this letter, we investigate the dissipative dynamics at the edge of Laughlin fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states starting from the hydrodynamic framework of the composite Boson theory recently developed in arXiv:2203.06516. Critical to this description is the choice of boundary conditions, which ultimately stems from the choice of hydrodynamic variables in terms of condensate degrees of freedom. Given the gapped nature of bulk, one would expect dissipation effects to play an important role only near the FQH edge. Thus, one envisions a scenario where the bulk hydro equations remain unmodified, while the dissipation effects are introduced at the edge via boundary conditions. We have recently shown that the anomaly requirements fix the boundary conditions of the FQH fluid to be no-penetration and no-stress boundary conditions. In this work, we introduce energy dissipation in the no-stress boundary condition leading to charge diffusion at the boundary. The resulting dissipative edge dynamics is quite rigid from a hydro perspective, as it has to preserve the edge charge continuity and the anomaly structure. We show that the diffusive edge dynamics with fluctuation-dissipation relations within a power counting scheme belong to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class.

16.Two-dimensional assembly of nanoparticles grafted with charged-end-group polymers

Authors:Hyeong Jin Kim, Binay P. Nayak, Honghu Zhang, Benjamin M. Ocko, Alex Travesset, David Vaknin, Surya K. Mallapragada, Wenjie Wang

Abstract: {\bf Hypothesis:} Introducing charged terminal groups to polymers that graft nanoparticles enables Coulombic control over their assembly by tuning pH and salinity of aqueous suspensions. {\bf Experiments:} Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) terminated with CH3 (charge neutral), COOH (negatively charged), or NH2 (positively charged) groups. The nanoparticles are characterized using dynamic light scattering, {\zeta}-potential, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Liquid surface X-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) techniques are employed to determine the density profile and in-plane structure of the AuNP assembly across and on the aqueous surface. {\bf Findings:} The assembly of PEG-AuNPs at the liquid/vapor interface can be tuned by adjusting pH or salinity, particularly for COOH terminals. However, the effect is less pronounced for NH2 terminals. These distinct assembly behaviors are attributed to the overall charge of PEG-AuNPs and the conformation of PEG. The COOH-PEG corona is the most compact, resulting in smaller superlattice constants. The net charge per particle depends not only on the PEG terminal groups but also on the cation sequestration of PEG and the intrinsic negative charge of the AuNP surface. NH2-PEG, due to its closeness to overall charge neutrality and the presence of hydrogen bonding, enables the assembly of NH2-PEG-AuNPs more readily.

1.Topological Phases in Magnonics: A Review

Authors:Fengjun Zhuo, Jian Kang, Aurélien Manchon, Zhenxiang Cheng

Abstract: Magnonics or magnon spintronics is an emerging field focusing on generating, detecting, and manipulating magnons. As charge-neutral quasi-particles, magnons are promising information carriers because of their low energy dissipation and long coherence length. In the past decade, topological phases in magnonics have attracted intensive attention due to their fundamental importance in condensed-matter physics and potential applications of spintronic devices. In this review, we mainly focus on recent progress in topological magnonics, such as the Hall effect of magnons, magnon Chern insulators, topological magnon semimetals, etc. In addition, the evidence supporting topological phases in magnonics and candidate materials are also discussed and summarized. The aim of this review is to provide readers with a comprehensive and systematic understanding of the recent developments in topological magnonics.

2.Faraday rotation and transmittance as markers of topological phase transitions in 2D materials

Authors:M. Calixto, A. Mayorgas, N. A. Cordero, E. Romera, O. Castaños

Abstract: We analyze the magneto-optical conductivity (and related magnitudes like transmittance and Faraday rotation of the irradiated polarized light) of some elemental two-dimensional Dirac materials of group IV (graphene analogues, buckled honeycomb lattices, like silicene, germanene, stannane, etc.), group V (phosphorene), and zincblende heterostructures (like HgTe/CdTe quantum wells) near the Dirac and gamma points, under out-of-plane magnetic and electric fields, to characterize topological-band insulator phase transitions and their critical points. We provide plots of the Faraday angle and transmittance as a function of the polarized light frequency, for different external electric and magnetic fields, chemical potential, HgTe layer thickness and temperature, to tune the material magneto-optical properties. We have shown that absortance/transmittance acquires extremal values at the critical point, where the Faraday angle changes sign, thus providing fine markers of the topological phase transition.

3.Enhancement of synthetic magnetic field induced nonreciprocity via bound states in continuum in dissipatively coupled systems

Authors:S. -A. Biehs, G. S. Agarwal

Abstract: The nonreciprocal propagation of light typically requires use of materials like ferrites or magneto-optical media with a strong magnetic bias or methods based on material nonlinearities which require use of strong electromagnetic fields. A simpler possibility to produce nonreciprocity is to use spatio-temporal modulations to produce magnetic fields in synthetic dimensions. In this paper we show that dissipatively coupled systems can lead to considerable enhancement of nonreciprocity in synthetic fields. The enhancement comes about from the existence of nearly nondecaying mode -bound state in continuum (BIC) in dissipatively coupled systems. The dissipative coupling occurs in a wide class of systems coupled via transmission lines, waveguides, or nano fibers. The systems could be optical resonators or microscopic qubits. Remarkably we find that for specific choice of the modulation amplitudes, the transmission say in forward direction is completely extinguished whereas in the backward direction it becomes maximum. The synthetic fields produce transmission resonances which show significant line narrowing which owe their origin to existence of BIC's in dissipative systems.

4.Manipulation of magnetic solitons under the influence of DMI gradients

Authors:Rayan Moukhader, Davi Rodrigues, Eleonora Raimondo, Vito Puliafito, Bruno Azzerboni, Mario Carpentieri, Abbass Hamadeh, Giovanni Finocchio, Riccardo Tomasello

Abstract: Magnetic solitons are promising for applications due to their intrinsic properties such as small size, topological stability, ultralow power manipulation and potentially ultrafast operations. To date, research has focused on the manipulation of skyrmions, domain walls, and vortices by applied currents. The discovery of new methods to control magnetic parameters, such as the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) by strain, geometry design, temperature gradients, and applied voltages promises new avenues for energetically efficient manipulation of magnetic structures. The latter has shown significant progress in 2d material-based technology. In this work, we present a comprehensive study using numerical and analytical methods of the stability and motion of different magnetic textures under the influence of DMI gradients. Our results show that under the influence of linear DMI gradients, N\'eel and Bloch-type skyrmions and radial vortex exhibit motion with finite skyrmion Hall angle, while the circular vortex undergoes expulsion dynamics. This work provides a deeper and crucial understanding of the stability and gradient-driven dynamics of magnetic solitons, and paves the way for the design of alternative low-power sources of magnetization manipulation in the emerging field of 2d materials.

5.Effective model analysis of intrinsic spin Hall effect with magnetism in stacked-kagome Weyl semimetal Co3Sn2S2

Authors:Akihiro Ozawa, Koji Kobayashi, Kentaro Nomura

Abstract: We theoretically study the spin Hall effect in a simple tight-binding model of stacked-kagome Weyl semimetal Co3Sn2S2 with ferromagnetic ordering. We focus on the two types of the spin Hall current: one flowing in the in-plane direction with respect to the kagome lattice (in-plane spin Hall current), and one flowing in the stacking direction (out-of-plane spin Hall current). We show the spin Hall conductivities for those spin currents drastically change depending on the direction of the magnetic moment. Especially, the out-of-plane spin Hall current may induce surface spin accumulation, which are useful for the perpendicular magnetization switching via spin-orbit torque.

6.Enhanced Interfacial Thermal Conductance between Charged Nanoparticle and Aqueous Electrolyte

Authors:Reza Rabani, Mohammad Hassan Saidi, Ali Rajabpour, Laurent Joly, Samy Merabia

Abstract: Heat transfer through the interface between a metallic nanoparticle and an electrolyte solution, has great importance in a number of applications, ranging from nanoparticle-based cancer treatments to nanofluids and solar energy conversion devices. However, the impact of surface charge and the dissolved ions on heat transfer has been scarcely explored so far. In this study, we compute the interface thermal conductance between hydrophilic and hydrophobic charged gold nanoparticles immersed in an electrolyte using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Compared with an uncharged nanoparticle, we report a threefold increase of the Kapitza conductance for a nanoparticle surface charge +2 e/nm2. This enhancement is shown to be approximately independent of surface wettability, charge spatial distribution, and salt concentration. This allows us to express the Kapitza conductance enhancement in terms of surface charge density on a master curve. Finally, we interpret the increase of the Kapitza conductance as a combined result of a shift in the water density distribution toward the charged nanoparticle and an accumulation of the counter-ions around the nanoparticle surface which increase the Coulombic interaction between the liquid and the charged nanoparticle.

1.Electromagnetic response of the surface states of a topological insulator nanowire embedded within a resonator

Authors:Shimon Arie Haver, Eran Ginossar, Sebastian E. de Graaf, Eytan Grosfeld

Abstract: Exploring the interplay between topological phases and photons opens new avenues for investigating novel quantum states. Here we show that superconducting resonators can serve as sensitive probes for properties of topological insulator nanowires (TINWs) embedded within them. By combining a static, controllable magnetic flux threading the TINW with an additional oscillating electromagnetic field applied perpendicularly, we show that orbital resonances can be generated and are reflected in periodic changes of the Q-factor of the resonator as a function of the flux. This response probes the confinement of the two-dimensional Dirac orbitals on the surface of the TINW, revealing their density of states and specific transition rules, as well as their dependence on the applied flux. Our approach represents a promising cross-disciplinary strategy for probing topological solid-state materials using state-of-the-art photonic cavities, which would avoid the need for attaching contacts, thereby enabling access to electronic properties closer to the pristine topological states.

2.Theory of inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect induced by spin pumping into a two-dimensional electron gas

Authors:M. Yama, M. Matsuo, T. Kato

Abstract: We theoretically consider the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect (IREE) induced by spin pumping from a ferromagnetic insulator (FI) into a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in which the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions coexist. We clarify that the magnetization and current in the 2DEG generated by the IREE depend on the resonant frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and azimuth angle of the spontaneous spin polarization of the FI. We further show that the magnetization and current increase substantially as the ratio of magnitudes of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions approaches unity.

3.Regimes of electronic transport in doped InAs nanowire

Authors:A A Zhukov, I E Batov

Abstract: We report on the low temperature measurements of the magnetotransport in Si-doped InAs quantum wire in the presence of a charged tip of an atomic force microscope serving as a mobile gate, i.e. scanning gate microscopy (SGM). By altering the carrier concentration with back gate voltage, we transfer the wire through several transport regimes: from residual Coulomb blockade to nonlinear resonance regime, followed by linear resonance regime and, finally, to almost homogeneous diffusion regime. We demonstrate direct relations between patterns measured with scanning gate microscopy and spectra of universal conductance fluctuations. A clear sign of fractal behavior of magnetoconductance dependence is observed for non-linear and linear resonance transport regimes.

4.Long-range correlation-induced effects at high-order harmonic generation on graphene quantum dots

Authors:H. K. Avetissian, A. G. Ghazaryan, Kh. V. Sedrakian, G. F. Mkrtchian

Abstract: This paper focuses on investigating high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in graphene quantum dots (GQDs) under intense near-infrared laser fields. To model the GQD and its interaction with the laser field, we utilize a mean-field approach. Our analysis of the HHG power spectrum reveals fine structures and a noticeable enhancement in cutoff harmonics due to the long-range correlations. We also demonstrate the essential role of Coulomb interaction in determining of harmonics intensities and cutoff position. Unlike atomic HHG, where the cutoff energy is proportional to the pump wave intensity, in GQDs the cutoff energy scales with the square root of the field strength amplitude. A detailed time-frequency analysis of the entire range of HHG spectrum is presented using a wavelet transform. The analysis reveals intricate details of the spectral and temporal fine structures of HHG, offering insights into the various HHG mechanisms in GQDs.

5.A vertical gate-defined double quantum dot in a strained germanium double quantum well

Authors:Hanifa Tidjani, Alberto Tosato, Alexander Ivlev, Corentin Déprez, Stefan Oosterhout, Lucas Stehouwer, Amir Sammak, Giordano Scappucci, Menno Veldhorst

Abstract: Gate-defined quantum dots in silicon-germanium heterostructures have become a compelling platform for quantum computation and simulation. Thus far, developments have been limited to quantum dots defined in a single plane. Here, we propose to advance beyond planar systems by exploiting heterostructures with multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate the operation of a gate-defined vertical double quantum dot in a strained germanium double quantum well. In quantum transport measurements we observe stability diagrams corresponding to a double quantum dot system. We analyze the capacitive coupling to the nearby gates and find two quantum dots accumulated under the central plunger gate. We extract the position and estimated size, from which we conclude that the double quantum dots are vertically stacked in the two quantum wells. We discuss challenges and opportunities and outline potential applications in quantum computing and quantum simulation.

6.Topological nature of the proper spin current and the spin-Hall torque

Authors:Hong Liu, James H. Cullen, Dimitrie Culcer

Abstract: Spin currents driven by spin-orbit coupling are key to spin torque devices, but determining the proper spin current is highly non-trivial. Here we derive a general quantum-mechanical formula for the intrinsic proper spin current showing that it is a topological quantity, and can be finite even in the gap. We determine the spin-Hall current due to the bulk states of topological insulators both deep in the bulk, where the system is unmagnetized, and near the interface, where a proximity-induced magnetization is present, as well as for low-dimensional spin-3/2 hole systems.

7.Transport properties of hybrid single-bilayer graphene interfaces in magnetic field

Authors:Nadia Benlakhouy, Ahmed Jellal, Michael Schreiber

Abstract: The electronic properties of a hybrid system made of single-bilayer graphene structures subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field are studied for the zigzag boundaries of the junction, zigzag-1 (ZZ1) and zigzag-2 (ZZ2). These later examples exhibit different behaviors that have been investigated using the continuum Dirac model. Our results reveal that the conductance depends on the width of bilayer graphene for ZZ1 and shows maxima for ZZ2 as a function of the magnetic field, in contrast to ZZ1. It is found that interfaces have significant impacts on the transmission probability, with the confinement of the ZZ1 boundary being more substantial than that of ZZ2

8.Majorana zero modes in gate-defined germanium hole nanowires

Authors:Katharina Laubscher, Jay D. Sau, Sankar Das Sarma

Abstract: We theoretically study gate-defined one-dimensional channels in planar Ge hole gases as a potential platform for non-Abelian Majorana zero modes. We model the valence band holes in the Ge channel by adding appropriate confinement potentials to the 3D Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian, additionally taking into account a magnetic field applied parallel to the channel, an out-of-plane electric field, as well as the effect of compressive strain in the parent quantum well. Assuming that the Ge channel is proximitized by an $s$-wave superconductor (such as, e.g., Al) we calculate the topological phase diagrams for different channel geometries, showing that sufficiently narrow Ge hole channels can indeed enter a topological superconducting phase with Majorana zero modes at the channel ends. We estimate the size of the topological gap and its dependence on various system parameters such as channel width, strain, and the applied out-of-plane electric field, allowing us to critically discuss under which conditions Ge hole channels may manifest Majorana zero modes. Since ultra-clean Ge quantum wells with hole mobilities exceeding one million and mean-free paths on the order of many microns already exist, gate-defined Ge hole channels may be able to overcome some of the problems caused by the presence of substantial disorder in more conventional Majorana platforms.

9.A generalized model of the noise spectrum of a two-level fluctuator in the presence of an electron subbath

Authors:Robert E. Throckmorton, S. Das Sarma

Abstract: The work of Ahn derives the noise power spectrum of a two-level fluctuator (TLF) in the case that it interacts only with a subregion of a full electron bath and thus is subject to a fluctuating temperature. However, Eq.~(1), which gives the variance of the subbath temperature in terms of the heat capacity, in that work carries the implicit assumption that the heat capacity of this subbath may be taken to be a constant, which is a good approximation at higher temperatures, but breaks down at lower temperatures. We thus extend this work to the case in which the fact that the electronic heat capacity of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) $C_V\propto T$, rather than constant in temperature, is fully taken into account. We show that, at low temperatures, the resulting power spectrum of the noise $S(\omega)\propto e^{-C/T^{3/8}}$, in contrast to $S(\omega)\propto e^{-C'/T^{1/3}}$ as found previously, where $C$ and $C'$ are constants. We also compare the numerical results that one would obtain from the two models and find that our results for $S(\omega)$ can differ from those of Ahn by several orders of magnitude at low temperatures.

1.Switching of magnon parametric oscillation by magnetic field direction

Authors:Sohei Horibe, Hiroki Shimizu, Koujiro Hoshi, Takahiko Makiuchi, Tomosato Hioki, Eiji Saitoh

Abstract: Parametric oscillation occurs when a parameter of an oscillator is periodically modulated. Owing to time-reversal symmetry breaking in magnets, nonreciprocal magnons can be parametrically excited when spatial-inversion symmetry breaking is provided. This means that magnons with opposite propagation directions have different amplitudes. Here we demonstrate switching on and off the magnon parametric oscillation by reversing the external field direction applied to a Y$_3$Fe$_5$O$_{12}$ micro-structured film. The result originates from the nonreciprocity of surface mode magnons, leading to field-direction dependence of the magnon accumulation under a nonuniform microwave pumping. Our numerical calculation well reproduces the experimental result.

2.Twirling and spontaneous symmetry breaking of domain wall networks in lattice-reconstructed heterostructures of 2D materials

Authors:M. A. Kaliteevsky, V. V. Enaldiev, V. I. Fal'ko

Abstract: Lattice relaxation in twistronic bilayers with close lattice parameters and almost perfect crystallographic alignment of the layers results in the transformation of moir\'e pattern into a sequence of preferential stacking domains and domain wall networks. Here, we show that reconstructed moir\'e superlattices of the perfectly aligned heterobilayers of same-chalcogen transition metal dichalcogenides have broken-symmetry structures featuring twisted nodes ('twirls') of domain wall networks. Analysing twist-angle-dependences of strain characteristics for the broken-symmetry structures we show that the formation of twirl reduces amount of hydrostatic strain around the nodes, potentially, reducing their infuence on the band edge energies of electrons and holes.

3.Skyrmions and antiskyrmions in monoaxial chiral magnets

Authors:Vladyslav M. Kuchkin, Nikolai S. Kiselev

Abstract: We show that competition between local interactions in monoaxial chiral magnets provides the stability of two-dimensional (2D) solitons with identical energies but opposite topological charges. These skyrmions and antiskyrmions represent metastable states in a wide range of parameters above the transition into the saturated ferromagnetic phase. The symmetry of the underlying micromagnetic functional gives rise to soliton zero modes allowing efficient control of their translational movement by the frequency of the circulating external magnetic field. We also discuss the role of demagnetizing fields in the energy balance between skyrmion and antiskyrmion and in their stability.

4.Polariton-dark exciton interactions in bistable semiconductor microcavities

Authors:Elena Rozas, Evgeny Sedov, Yannik Brune, Sven Höfling, Alexey Kavokin, Marc Aßmann

Abstract: We take advantage of the polariton bistability in semiconductor microcavities to estimate the interaction strength between lower exciton-polariton and dark exciton states. We combine the quasiresonant excitation of polaritons and the nominally forbidden two-photon excitation (TPE) of dark excitons in a GaAs microcavity. To this end, we use an ultranarrow linewidth cw laser for the TPE process that allows us to determine the energy of dark excitons with high spectral resolution. Our results evidence a sharp drop in the polariton transmission intensity and width of the hysteresis cycle when the TPE process is resonant with the dark exciton energy, highly compromising the bistability of the polariton condensate. This behavior demonstrates the existence of a small symmetry breaking such as that produced by an effective in-plane magnetic field, allowing us to directly excite the dark reservoir. We numerically reproduce the collapse of the hysteresis cycle with the increasing dark exciton population, treating the evolution of a polariton condensate in a one-mode approximation, coupled to the exciton reservoir via polariton-exciton scattering processes.

5.Neural-network-designed three-qubit gates robust against charge noise and crosstalk in silicon

Authors:David W. Kanaar, J. P. Kestner

Abstract: Spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots are a promising platform for quantum computing, however scaling to large systems is hampered by crosstalk and charge noise. Crosstalk here refers to the unwanted off-resonant rotation of idle qubits during the resonant rotation of the target qubit. For a three-qubit system with crosstalk and charge noise, it is difficult to analytically create gate protocols that produce three-qubit gates, such as the Toffoli gate, directly in a single shot instead of through the composition of two-qubit gates. Therefore, we numerically optimize a physics-informed neural network to produce theoretically robust shaped pulses that generate a Toffoli-equivalent gate. Additionally, robust $\frac{\pi}{2}$ $X$ and CZ gates are also presented in this work to create a universal set of gates robust against charge noise. The robust pulses maintain an infidelity of $10^{-3}$ for average quasistatic fluctuations in the voltage of up to a few mV instead of tenths of mV for non-robust pulses.

6.Localization of chiral edge states by the non-Hermitian skin effect

Authors:Gui-Geng Liu, Subhaskar Mandal, Peiheng Zhou, Xiang Xi, Rimi Banerjee, Yuan-Hang Hu, Minggui Wei, Maoren Wang, Qiang Wang, Zhen Gao, Hongsheng Chen, Yihao Yang, Yidong Chong, Baile Zhang

Abstract: Quantum Hall systems host chiral edge states extending along the one-dimensional boundary of any two-dimensional sample. In solid state materials, the edge states serve as perfectly robust transport channels that produce a quantised Hall conductance; due to their chirality, and the topological protection by the Chern number of the bulk bandstructure, they cannot be spatially localized by defects or disorder. Here, we show experimentally that the chiral edge states of a lossy quantum Hall system can be localized. In a gyromagnetic photonic crystal exhibiting the quantum Hall topological phase, an appropriately structured loss configuration imparts the edge states' complex energy spectrum with a feature known as point-gap winding. This intrinsically non-Hermitian topological invariant is distinct from the Chern number invariant of the bulk (which remains intact) and induces mode localization via the "non-Hermitian skin effect". The interplay of the two topological phenomena - the Chern number and point-gap winding - gives rise to a non-Hermitian generalisation of the paradigmatic Chern-type bulk-boundary correspondence principle. Compared to previous realisations of the non-Hermitian skin effect, the skin modes in this system have superior robustness against local defects and disorders.

7.Sweet-spot operation of a germanium hole spin qubit with highly anisotropic noise sensitivity

Authors:N. W. Hendrickx, L. Massai, M. Mergenthaler, F. Schupp, S. Paredes, S. W. Bedell, G. Salis, A. Fuhrer

Abstract: Spin qubits defined by valence band hole states comprise an attractive candidate for quantum information processing due to their inherent coupling to electric fields enabling fast and scalable qubit control. In particular, heavy holes in germanium have shown great promise, with recent demonstrations of fast and high-fidelity qubit operations. However, the mechanisms and anisotropies that underlie qubit driving and decoherence are still mostly unclear. Here, we report on the highly anisotropic heavy-hole $g$-tensor and its dependence on electric fields, allowing us to relate both qubit driving and decoherence to an electric modulation of the $g$-tensor. We also confirm the predicted Ising-type hyperfine interaction but show that qubit coherence is ultimately limited by $1/f$ charge noise. Finally, we operate the qubit at low magnetic field and measure a dephasing time of $T_2^*=9.2$ ${\mu}$s, while maintaining a single-qubit gate fidelity of 99.94 %, that remains well above 99 % at an operation temperature T>1 K. This understanding of qubit driving and decoherence mechanisms are key for the design and operation of scalable and highly coherent hole qubit arrays.

8.Multi-scale lattice relaxation in chiral twisted trilayer graphenes

Authors:Naoto Nakatsuji, Takuto Kawakami, Mikito Koshino

Abstract: We theoretically investigate the lattice relaxation and the electronic property in non-symemtric chiral TTGs by using an effective continuum model. The relaxed lattice structure forms a patchwork of moir\'e-of-moir\'e domains, where the moir\'e patterns given by layer 1 and 2, and layer 2 and 3 become locally commensurate with a specific relative alignment. The band calculation reveals a wide energy window (> 50 meV) with low density of states, featuring sparsely distributed highly one-dimensional electron bands. The wave function of these one-dimensional bands exhibits sharp localization at the boundaries between super-moir\'e domains. By calculating the Chern number of the local band structure within commensurate domains, the one-dimensional state is identified as a topological boundary state between distinct Chern insulators.

9.Submolecular-scale control of phototautomerization

Authors:Anna Rosławska, Katharina Kaiser, Michelangelo Romeo, Eloïse Devaux, Fabrice Scheurer, Stéphane Berciaud, Tomáš Neuman, Guillaume Schull

Abstract: Many natural and artificial reactions including photosynthesis or photopolymerization are initiated by stimulating organic molecules into an excited state, which enables new reaction paths. Controlling light-matter interaction can influence this key concept of photochemistry, however, it remained a challenge to apply this strategy to control photochemical reactions at the atomic scale. Here, we profit from the extreme confinement of the electromagnetic field at the apex of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip to drive and control the rate of a free-base phthalocyanine phototautomerization with submolecular precision. By tuning the laser excitation wavelength and choosing the STM tip position, we control the phototautomerization rate and the relative tautomer population. This sub-molecular optical control can be used to study any other photochemical processes.

10.Multi-plasmon effects and plasmon satellites in photoemission from nanostructures

Authors:P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Javier García de Abajo

Abstract: Plasmons can be excited during photoemission and produce spectral photoelectron features that yield information on the nanoscale optical response of the probed materials. However, these so-called plasmon satellites have so far been observed only for planar surfaces, while their potential for the characterization of nanostructures remains unexplored. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that core-level photoemission from nanostructures can display spectrally narrow plasmonic features, reaching relatively high probabilities similar to the direct peak. Using a nonperturbative quantum-mechanical framework, we find a dramatic effect of nanostructure morphology and dimensionality as well as a universal scaling law for the plasmon-satellite probabilities. In addition, we introduce a pump--probe scheme in which plasmons are optically excited prior to photoemission, leading to plasmon losses and gains in the photoemission spectra and granting us access into the ultrafast dynamics of the sampled nanostructure. These results emphasize the potential of plasmon satellites to explore multi-plasmon effects and ultrafast electron--plasmon dynamics in metal-based nanoparticles and two-dimensional nanoislands.

1.Controlling the excitation spectrum of a quantum dot array with a photon cavity

Authors:Vidar Gudmundsson, Vram Mughnetsyan, Nzar Rauf Abdullah, Chi-Shung Tang, Valeriu Moldoveanu, Andrei Manolescu

Abstract: We use a recently proposed quantum electrodynamical density functional theory (QEDFT) functional in a real-time excitation calculation for a two-dimensional electron gas in a square array of quantum dots in an external constant perpendicular magnetic field to model the influence of cavity photons on the excitation spectra of the system. The excitation is generated by a short elecrical pulse. The quantum dot array is defined in an AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure, which is in turn embedded in a parallel plate far-infrared photon-microcavity. The required exchange and correlation energy functionals describing the electron-electron and electron-photon interactions have therefore been adapted for a two-dimensional electron gas in a homogeneous external magnetic field. We predict that the energies of the excitation modes activated by the pulse are generally red-shifted to lower values in the presence of a cavity. The red-shift can be understood in terms of the polarization of the electron charge by the cavity photons and depends on the magnetic flux, the number of electrons in a unit cell of the lattice, and the electron-photon interaction strength. We find an interesting interplay of the exchange forces in a spin polarized two-dimensional electron gas and the square lattice structure leading to a small but clear blue-shift of the excitation mode spectra when one electron resides in each dot.

2.Phononic Switching of Magnetization by the Ultrafast Barnett Effect

Authors:C. S. Davies, F. G. N. Fennema, A. Tsukamoto, I. Razdolski, A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk

Abstract: The Barnett effect, discovered more than a century ago, describes how an inertial body with otherwise zero net magnetic moment acquires spontaneous magnetization when mechanically spinning. Breakthrough experiments have recently shown that an ultrashort laser pulse destroys the magnetization of an ordered ferromagnet within hundreds of femtoseconds, with the spins losing angular momentum to circularly-polarized optical phonons as part of the ultrafast Einstein-de Haas effect. However, the prospect of using such high-frequency vibrations of the lattice to reciprocally switch magnetization in a nearby magnetic medium has not yet been experimentally explored. Here we show that the spontaneous magnetization temporarily gained via the ultrafast Barnett effect, through the resonant excitation of circularly-polarized optical phonons in paramagnetic substrates, can be used to permanently reverse the magnetic state of the substrate-mounted heterostructure. With the handedness of the phonons steering the direction of magnetic switching, the ultrafast Barnett effect offers a selective and potentially universal method for exercising ultrafast non-local control over magnetic order.

3.Electrical conductivity and screening effect of spin-1 chiral fermions scattered by charged impurities

Authors:Risako Kikuchi, Ai Yamakage

Abstract: We theoretically study the quantum transport in a three-dimensional spin-1 chiral fermion system in the presence of coulomb impurities based on the self-consistent Born approximation. We find that the flat-band states anomalously enhance the screening effect, and the electrical conductivity is increased in the low-energy region. It is also found that reducing the screening length leads to an increase in the forward scattering contribution and, thus, an increase in the vertex correction in the high-energy region.

4.Topological Enhancement of Nonlinear Transports in Unconventional Point-Node Semimetals

Authors:Junyeong Ahn

Abstract: The topological singularity of the Bloch states close to the Fermi level significantly enhances nonlinear electric responses in topological semimetals. Here, we systematically characterize this enhancement for a large class of topological nodal-point fermions, including those with linear, linear-quadratic, and quadratic dispersions. Specifically, we determine the leading power-law dependence of the nonlinear response functions on the chemical potential $\mu$ defined relative to the nodal point. We identify two characteristics that qualitatively improve nonlinear transports compared to those of conventional Dirac and Weyl fermions. First, the type II (over-tilted) spectrum leads to the $\log\mu$ enhancement of nonlinear response functions having zero scaling dimension with respect to $\mu$, which is not seen in a type-I (moderately or not tilted) spectrum. Second, the anisotropic linear-quadratic dispersion increases the power of small-$\mu$ divergence for the nonlinear response tensors along the linearly dispersing direction. Our work reveals new experimental signatures of unconventional nodal points in topological semimetals as well as provides a guiding principle for giant nonlinear electric responses.

1.Giant optical orientation of exciton spins in lead halide perovskite crystals

Authors:Natalia E. Kopteva, Dmitri R. Yakovlev, Eyüp Yalcin, Ilya A. Akimov, Mikhail O. Nestoklon, Mikhail M. Glazov, Mladen Kotur, Dennis Kudlacik, Evgeny A. Zhukov, Erik Kirstein, Oleh Hordiichuk, Dmitry N. Dirin, Maksym V. Kovalenko, Manfred Bayer

Abstract: Optical orientation of carrier spins by circularly polarized light is the basis of spin physics in semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate strong optical orientation of 85\%, approaching the ultimate limit of unity, for excitons in FA$_{0.9}$Cs$_{0.1}$PbI$_{2.8}$Br$_{0.2}$ lead halide perovskite bulk crystals. Time-resolved photoluminescence allows us to distinguish excitons with 60~ps lifetime from electron-hole recombination in the spin dynamics detected via coherent spin quantum beats in magnetic field. We reveal electron-hole spin correlations through linear polarization beats after circularly polarized excitation. Detuning of the excitation energy from the exciton resonance up to 0.5~eV does not reduce the optical orientation, evidencing clean chiral selection rules in agreement with atomistic calculations, and suppressed spin relaxation of electrons and holes even with large kinetic energies.

2.Proximity spin-orbit coupling in an armchair carbon nanotube on monolayer bismuthene

Authors:Marcin Kurpas

Abstract: We study spin-orbit proximity effects in a hybrid heterostructure build of a one-dimensional (1D) armchair carbon nanotube and two-dimensional (2D) buckled monolayer bismuthene. We show, by performing first-principles calculations, that Dirac electrons in the nanotube exhibit large spin-orbit coupling due to a close vicinity of bismuthene. The calculated low-energy band structures of the proximized nanotube display a strong dependence on the position of the nanotube on the substrate, similar to twist-angle dependence found in 2D heterostructures. Based on the first-principles results, we formulate an effective low-energy Hamiltonian of the nanotube and identify key interactions governing the proximity spin-orbit coupling. The proximity-induced spin splitting of Dirac cone bands is in meV range, confirming an efficient transfer of spin-orbit coupling from bismuthene to the nanotube.

3.Acoustic Higher-Order Topological Insulators Protected by Multipole Chiral Numbers

Authors:Yuzeng Li, Qicheng Zhang, Chunyin Qiu

Abstract: Recently, the higher-order topological phases from the chiral AIII symmetry classes are characterized by a Z topological invariant known as the multipole chiral numbers, which indicate the number of degenerate zero-energy corner states at each corner. Here, we report the first experimental realization of higher-order topological insulators protected by multipole chiral numbers with using acoustic crystals. Our acoustic measurements demonstrate unambiguously the emergence of multiple corner states in the middle of the gap, as predicted by the quantized multipole chiral numbers. Our study may provoke new possibilities for controlling sound, such as acoustic sensing and energy trapping.

4.Terminal Velocity Motion Model Used to Analyze the Mutual Phase-locking of STNOs

Authors:Hao-Hsuan Chen, Ching-Ming Lee, Ching-Ray Chang

Abstract: Using Legendre transformation, a standard theoretical approach extensively used in classical mechanics as well as thermal dynamics, two-dimensional non-linear auto-oscillators including spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) can be equivalently expressed either in phase space or in configuration space where all of them can be modeled by terminal velocity motion (TVM) particles. The transformation completely preserves the dynamic information about the canonical momenta, leading to very precise analytical predictions about the phase-locking of a coupled pair of perpendicular to plane STNOs (PERP-STNOs) including dynamical phase diagrams, (un)phase-locked frequencies, phase-locked angles, and transient evolutions, which are all solved based on Newton mechanics. Notably, the TVM model successfully solves the difficulty of the generalized pendulum-like model [Chen \textit{et al}. \textbf{J. Appl. Phys. 130}, 043904 (2021)] failing to make precise predictions for the higher range of current in serial connection. Additionally, how to simply search for the critical currents for phase-locked (PL) and asynchronized (AS) states by numerically simulating the macrospin as well as TVM model, which gets inspired through analyzing the excitations of a forced pendulum, is also supplied here. Therefore, we believe that the TVM model can bring a more intuitive and precise way to explore all types of two-dimensional non-linear auto-oscillators.

5.Two Biexciton Types Coexisting in Coupled Quantum Dot Molecules

Authors:Nadav Frenkel, Einav Scharf, Gur Lubin, Adar Levi, Yossef E. Panfil, Yonatan Ossia, Josep Planelles, Juan I. Climente, Uri Banin, Dan Oron

Abstract: Coupled colloidal quantum dot molecules are an emerging class of nanomaterials, introducing new degrees of freedom for designing quantum dot-based technologies. The properties of multiply excited states in these materials are crucial to their performance as quantum light emitters but cannot be fully resolved by existing spectroscopic techniques. Here we study the characteristics of biexcitonic species, which represent a rich landscape of different configurations, such as segregated and localized biexciton states. To this end, we introduce an extension of Heralded Spectroscopy to resolve different biexciton species in the prototypical CdSe/CdS coupled quantum dot dimer system. We uncover the coexistence and interplay of two distinct biexciton species: A fast-decaying, strongly-interacting biexciton species, analogous to biexcitons in single quantum dots, and a long-lived, weakly-interacting species corresponding to two nearly-independent excitons separated to the two sides of the coupled quantum dot pair. The two biexciton types are consistent with numerical simulations, assigning the strongly-interacting species to two excitons localized at one side of the quantum dot molecule and the weakly-interacting species to excitons segregated to the two quantum dot molecule sides. This deeper understanding of multiply excited states in coupled quantum dot molecules can support the rational design of tunable single- or multiple-photon quantum emitters.

6.Spatial Exciton Localization at Interfaces of Metal Nanoparticles and Atomically Thin Semiconductors

Authors:Robert Salzwedel, Lara Greten, Stefan Schmidt, Stephen Hughes, Andreas Knorr, Malte Selig

Abstract: We present a self-consistent Maxwell-Bloch theory to analytically study the interaction between a nanostructure consisting of a metal nanoparticle and a monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenide. For the combined system, we identify an effective eigenvalue equation that governs the center-of-mass motion of the dressed excitons in a plasmon-induced potential. Examination of the dynamical equation of the exciton-plasmon hybrid reveals the existence of bound states with negative eigenenergies, which we interpret as excitons localized in the plasmon-induced potential. The appearance of these bound states in the potential indicates strong coupling between excitons and plasmons. We quantify this coupling regime by computing the scattered light in the near-field explicitly and identify signatures of strong exciton-plasmon coupling with an avoided crossing behavior and an effective Rabi splitting of tens of meV.

7.Are Symmetry Protected Topological Phases Immune to Dephasing?

Authors:Siddhant Midha, Koustav Jana, Bhaskaran Muralidharan

Abstract: Harnessing topological phases with their dissipationless edge-channels coupled with the effective engineering of quantum phase transitions is a spinal aspect of topological electronics. The accompanying symmetry protection leads to different kinds of topological edge-channels which include, for instance, the quantum spin Hall phase, and the spin quantum anomalous Hall phase. To model realistic devices, it is important to ratify the robustness of the dissipationless edge-channels, which should typically exhibit a perfect quantum of conductance, against various disorder and dephasing. This work is hence devoted to a computational exploration of topological robustness against various forms of dephasing. For this, we employ phenomenological dephasing models under the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function formalism using a model topological device setup on a 2D-Xene platform. Concurrently, we also explicitly add disorder via impurity potentials in the channel and averaging over hundreds of configurations. To describe the extent of robustness, we quantify the decay of the conductance quantum with increasing disorder under different conditions. Our analysis shows that these topological phases are robust to experimentally relevant regimes of momentum dephasing and random disorder potentials. We note that Rashba mixing worsens the performance of the QSH phase and point out a mechanism for the same. Further, we observe that the quantum spin Hall phase break downs due to spin dephasing, but the spin quantum anomalous Hall phase remains robust. The spin quantum anomalous Hall phase shows stark robustness under all the dephasing regimes, and shows promise for realistic device structures for topological electronics applications.

1.Skyrmion-mediated Nonvolatile Ternary Memory

Authors:Md Mahadi Rajib, Namita Bindal, Ravish Kumar Raj, Brajesh Kumar Kaushik, Jayasimha Atulasimha

Abstract: Multistate memory systems have the ability to store and process more data in the same physical space as binary memory systems, making them a potential alternative to existing binary memory systems. In the past, it has been demonstrated that voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) based writing is highly energy-efficient compared to other writing methods used in non-volatile nano-magnetic binary memory systems. In this study, we introduce a new, VCMA-based and skyrmion-mediated non-volatile ternary memory system using a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) in the presence of room temperature thermal perturbation. We have also shown that ternary states {-1, 0, +1} can be implemented with three magnetoresistance values obtained from a p-MTJ corresponding to ferromagnetic up, down, and skyrmion state, with 99% switching probability in the presence of room temperature thermal noise in an energy-efficient way, requiring ~3 fJ energy on an average for each switching operation. Additionally, we show that our proposed ternary memory demonstrates an improvement in area and energy by at least 2X and ~60X respectively, compared to state-of-the-art spin-transfer torque (STT)-based non-volatile magnetic multistate memories. Furthermore, these three states can be potentially utilized for energy-efficient, high-density in-memory quantized deep neural network implementation.

2.Mesoscopic fluctuations in entanglement dynamics

Authors:Lih-King Lim, Cunzhong Lou, Chushun Tian

Abstract: Understanding fluctuation phenomena plays a dominant role in the development of many-body physics. The time evolution of entanglement is essential to a broad range of subjects in many-body physics, ranging from exotic quantum matter to quantum thermalization. Stemming from various dynamical processes of information, fluctuations in entanglement evolution differ conceptually from out-of-equilibrium fluctuations of traditional physical quantities. Their studies remain elusive. Here we uncover an emergent random structure in the evolution of the wavefunction in a class of integrable models. It gives rise to out-of-equilibrium entanglement fluctuations which, strikingly, fall into the paradigm of mesoscopic fluctuations of wave interference origin. Specifically, the entanglement entropy variance obeys a universal scaling law, and the distribution displays a sub-Gaussian upper and a sub-Gamma lower tail. These statistics are independent of both the system's microscopic details and the choice of entanglement probes, and broaden the class of mesoscopic universalities. They have practical implications for controlling entanglement in mesoscopic devices.

3.Exploring room temperature spin transport under band gap opening in bilayer graphene

Authors:Christopher R. Anderson, Noel Natera-Cordero, Victor H. Guarochico-Moreira, Irina V. Grigorieva, Ivan J. Vera-Marun

Abstract: We study the room-temperature electrical control of charge and spin transport in high-quality bilayer graphene, fully encapsulated with hBN and contacted via 1D spin injectors. We show that spin transport in this device architecture is measurable at room temperature and its spin transport parameters can be modulated by opening of a band gap via a perpendicular displacement field. The modulation of the spin current is dominated by the control of the spin relaxation time with displacement field, demonstrating the basic operation of a spin-based field-effect transistor.

4.Piezostrain -- a local handle to control gyrotropic dynamics in magnetic vortices

Authors:Vadym Iurchuk, Serhii Sorokin, Jürgen Lindner, Jürgen Fassbender, Attila Kákay

Abstract: We present a study of the piezostrain-tunable gyrotropic dynamics in Co$_{40}$Fe$_{40}$B$_{20}$ vortex microstructures fabricated on a 0.7PMN-0.3PT single crystalline substrate. Using field-modulated spin rectification measurements, we demonstrate large frequency tunability (up to 45 %) in individual microdisks accessed locally with low surface voltages, and magnetoresistive readout. With increased voltage applied to the PMN-PT, we observe a gradual decrease of the vortex core gyrotropic frequency associated with the strain-induced magnetoelastic energy contribution. The frequency tunability strongly depends on the disk size, with increased frequency downshift for the disks with larger diameter. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that the observed size effects originate from the joint action of the strain-induced magnetoelastic and demagnetizing energies in large magnetic disks. These results enable a selective energy-efficient tuning of the vortex gyrotropic frequency in individual vortex-based oscillators with all-electrical operation.

5.Conduction-radiation coupling between two distant solids interacting in near-field regime

Authors:Marta Reina, Chams Gharib Ali Barura, Philippe Ben-Abdallah, Riccardo Messina

Abstract: In the classical approach to deal with near-field radiative heat exchanges between two closely spaced bodies no coupling between the different heat carriers inside the materials and thermal photons is usually considered. Here we make an overview of the current state of studies on this coupling between solids of different sizes by paying a specific attention to the impact of the conduction regime inside the solids on conduction-radiation coupling. We also describe how the shape of solids affects this coupling. We show that this coupling can be at the origin of a drastic change of temperature profiles inside each body and of heat flux exchanged between them. These results could have important implications in the fields of nanoscale thermal management, near-field solid-state cooling and nanoscale energy conversion.

6.Material Parameters for Faster Ballistic Switching of an In-plane Magnetized Nanomagnet

Authors:Toshiki Yamaji, Hiroshi Imamura

Abstract: High-speed magnetization switching of a nanomagnet is necessary for faster information processing. The ballistic switching by a pulsed magnetic filed is a promising candidate for the high-speed switching. It is known that the switching speed of the ballistic switching can be increased by increasing the magnitude of the pulsed magnetic field. However it is difficult to generate a strong and short magnetic field pulse in a small device. Here we explore another direction to achieve the high-speed ballistic switching by designing material parameters such as anisotropy constant, saturation magnetization, and the Gilbert damping constant. We perform the macrospin simulations for the ballistic switching of in-plane magnetized nano magnets with varying material parameters. The results are analyzed based on the switching dynamics on the energy density contour. We show that the pulse width required for the ballistic switching can be reduced by increasing the magnetic anisotropy constant or by decreasing the saturation magnetization. We also show that there exists an optimal value of the Gilbert damping constant that minimizes the pulse width required for the ballistic switching.

7.Non-Abelian inverse Anderson transitions

Authors:Weixuan Zhang, Haiteng Wang, Houjun Sun, Xiangdong Zhang

Abstract: Inverse Anderson transitions, where the flat-band localization is destroyed by disorder, have been wildly investigated in quantum and classical systems in the presence of Abelian gauge fields. Here, we report the first investigation on inverse Anderson transitions in the system with non-Abelian gauge fields. It is found that pseudospin-dependent localized and delocalized eigenstates coexist in the disordered non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm cage, making inverse Anderson transitions depend on the relative phase of two internal pseudospins. Such an exotic phenomenon induced by the interplay between non-Abelian gauge fields and disorder has no Abelian analogy. Furthermore, we theoretically design and experimentally fabricate nonAbelian Aharonov-Bohm topolectrical circuits to observe the non-Abelian inverse Anderson transition. Through the direct measurements of frequency-dependent impedance responses and voltage dynamics, the pseudospin-dependent non-Abelian inverse Anderson transitions are observed. Our results establish the connection between inverse Anderson transitions and non-Abelian gauge fields, and thus comprise a new insight on the fundamental aspects of localization in disordered non-Abelian flat-band systems.

8.Potential-tuned magnetic switches and half-metallicity transition in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

Authors:Wei-Jian Li, Shi-Chang Xiao, Da-Fei Sun, Chang-De Gong, Shun-Li Yu, Yuan Zhou

Abstract: Realizing controllable room-temperature ferromagnetism in carbon-based materials is one of recent prospects. The magnetism in graphene nanostructures reported previously is mostly formed near the vacancies, zigzag edges, or impurities by breaking the local sublattice imbalance, though a bulk chiral spin-density-wave ground state is also reported at van Hove filling due to its perfectly nested Fermi surface. Here, combining of the first-principles and tight-binding model simulations, we predict a robust ferromagnetic domain lies between the inter-chain carbon atoms inside the zigzag graphene nanoribbons by applying a potential drop. We show that the effective zigzag edges provide the strong correlation background through narrowing the band width, while the internal Van Hove filling provides the strong ferromagnetic background inherited from the bulk. The induced ferromagnetism exhibit interesting switching effect when the nominal Van Hove filling crosses the intra- and inter-chain region by tuning the potential drops. We further observe a robust half-metallicity transition from one spin channel to another within the same magnetic phase. These novel properties provide promising ways to manipulate the spin degree of freedom in graphene nanostructures.

1.Higher-order Klein bottle topological insulator in three-dimensional acoustic crystals

Authors:Yu-Liang Tao, Mou Yan, Mian Peng, Qiang Wei, Zhenxing Cui, Shengyuan A. Yang, Gang Chen, Yong Xu

Abstract: Topological phases of matter are classified based on symmetries, with nonsymmorphic symmetries like glide reflections and screw rotations being of particular importance in the classification. In contrast to extensively studied glide reflections in real space, introducing space-dependent gauge transformations can lead to momentum-space glide reflection symmetries, which may even change the fundamental domain for topological classifications, e.g., from a torus to a Klein bottle. Here we discover a new class of three-dimensional (3D) higher-order topological insulators, protected by a pair of momentum-space glide reflections. It supports gapless hinge modes, as dictated by Wannier Hamiltonians defined on a Klein bottle manifold, and we introduce two topological invariants to characterize this phase. Our predicted topological hinge modes are experimentally verified in a 3D-printed acoustic crystal, providing direct evidence for 3D higher-order Klein bottle topological insulators. Our results not only showcase the remarkable role of momentum-space glide reflections in topological classifications, but also pave the way for experimentally exploring physical effects arising from momentum-space nonsymmorphic symmetries.

2.Breakdown of helical edge state topologically protected conductance in time-reversal-breaking excitonic insulators

Authors:Yan-Qi Wang, Michał Papaj, Joel E. Moore

Abstract: Gapless helical edge modes are a hallmark of the quantum spin Hall effect. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, each edge contributes a quantized zero-temperature conductance quantum $G_0 \equiv e^2/h$. However, the experimentally observed conductance in WTe$_2$ decreases below $G_0$ per edge already at edge lengths around 100 nm, even in the absence of explicit time-reversal breaking due to an external field or magnetic impurities. In this work, we show how a time-reversal breaking excitonic condensate with a spin-spiral order that can form in WTe$_2$ leads to the breakdown of conductance quantization. We perform Hartree-Fock calculations to compare time-reversal breaking and preserving excitonic insulators. Using these mean-field models we demonstrate via quantum transport simulations that weak non-magnetic disorder reproduces the edge length scaling of resistance observed in the experiments. We complement this by analysis in the Luttinger liquid picture, shedding additional light on the mechanism behind the quantization breakdown.

3.Understanding the fourfold shell-filling sequence in bilayer graphene quantum dots

Authors:Samuel Möller, Luca Banszerus, Angelika Knothe, Lucca Valerius, Katrin Hecker, Eike Icking, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Christian Volk, Christoph Stampfer

Abstract: We report on a detailed investigation of the shell-filling sequence in electrostatically defined bilayer graphene quantum dots (QDs) in the regime of low charge carrier occupation, $N < 12$, by means of magnetotransport spectroscopy. Conductance resonances, so-called Coulomb peaks, appear in groups of four in gate space in good agreement with spin and valley degenerate orbital states in bilayer graphene. Interestingly, an additional bunching into pairs of two is superimposed onto the orbital fourfold degeneracy. We conclude that the additional splitting is caused by electron-electron interaction leading to a renormalization of the QD ground state at half filling of each orbital state. Furthermore, we also report in detail on the influences of the QD geometry on the energy scales of the electron-electron interaction and the impact of the magnetic field on the QD states mainly determined by the QD size-dependent valley $g$-factor.

4.Long-lived exciton coherence in mixed-halide perovskite crystals

Authors:Stefan Grisard, Artur V. Trifonov, Ivan A. Solovev, Dmitri R. Yakovlev, Oleh Hordiichuk, Maksym V. Kovalenko, Manfred Bayer, Ilya A. Akimov

Abstract: Compositional engineering of the optical properties of hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites is one of the cornerstones for the realization of efficient solar cells and tailored light-emitting devices. We study the effect of compositional disorder on coherent exciton dynamics in a mixed FA$_{0.9}$Cs$_{0.1}$PbI$_{2.8}$Br$_{0.2}$ perovskite crystal using photon echo spectroscopy. We reveal that the homogeneous linewidth of excitons can be as narrow as 16$\mu$eV at a temperature of 1.5K. The corresponding exciton coherence time of $T_2=83$ps is exceptionally long being attributed to the localization of excitons due to variation of composition at the scale of ten to hundreds of nanometers. From spectral and temperature dependences of the two- and three-pulse photon echo decay we conclude that for low-energy excitons, pure decoherence associated with elastic scattering on phonons is comparable with the exciton lifetime, while for excitons with higher energies, inelastic scattering to lower energy states via phonon emission dominates.

5.Highly sensitive photodetector based on two-dimensional ferroelectric semiconducting \{beta}-InSe/graphene heterostructure

Authors:Jialin Li, Yuzhong Chen, Yujie Li, Haiming Zhu, Linjun Li

Abstract: 2D ferroelectric \{beta}-InSe/graphene heterostructure was fabricated by mechanical exfoliation, and the carrier dynamics crossing the heterostructure interface has been systematically investigated by Raman, photoluminescence and transient absorption measurements. Due to the efficient interfacial photo excited electron transfer and photogating effect from trapped holes, the heterostructure devices demonstrate superior performance with maximum responsivity of 2.12*10e4 A/W, detectivity of 1.73*10e14 Jones and fast response time (241 us) under {\lambda} = 532 nm laser illumination. Furthermore, the photo responses influenced by ferroelectric polarization field are investigated. Our work confirms ferroelectric \{beta}-InSe/graphene heterostructure as an outstanding material platform for sensitive optoelectronic application.

6.Fluctuations of the energy density and intensity for arbitrary objects in an arbitrary environment

Authors:Florian Herz

Abstract: I apply the scattering approach within the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics to derive the variances and mean values of the energy density and intensity for a system of an arbitrary object in an arbitrary environment. To evaluate the temporal bunching character of the energy density and intensity, I determine the ratio of their variances with respect to their mean values. I explicitly evaluate these ratios for the cases of vacuum, a half-space in vacuum, and a sphere in vacuum. Eventually, I extend the applicability of this theory to the case of more than one arbitrary object, independent of the geometrical shapes and materials.

7.Plasmons in phosphorene nanoribbons

Authors:Line Jelver, Joel D. Cox

Abstract: Phosphorene has emerged as an atomically-thin platform for optoelectronics and nanophotonics due to its excellent nonlinear optical properties and the possibility of actively tuning light-matter interactions through electrical doping. While phosphorene is a two-dimensional semiconductor, plasmon resonances characterized by pronounced anisotropy and strong optical confinement are anticipated to emerge in highly-doped samples. Here we show that the localized plasmons supported by phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) exhibit high tunability in relation to both edge termination and doping charge polarity, and can trigger an intense nonlinear optical response at moderate doping levels. Our explorations are based on a second-principles theoretical framework, employing maximally localized Wannier functions constructed from ab-inito electronic structure calculations, which we introduce here to describe the linear and nonlinear optical response of PNRs on mesoscopic length scales. Atomistic simulations reveal the high tunability of plasmons in doped PNRs at near-infrared frequencies, which can facilitate synergy between electronic band structure and plasmonic field confinement in doped PNRs to drive efficient high-harmonic generation. Our findings establish phosphorene nanoribbons as a versatile atomically-thin material candidate for nonlinear plasmonics.

8.Plasmonic detection of the parity anomaly in a two-dimensional Chern insulator

Authors:M. N. Chen, Yu Zhou

Abstract: In this work, we present an analytical study on the surface plasmon polaritons in a two dimensional parity anomaly Chern insulator. The connections between the topology in the bulk implied by the BHZ model and the dispersion relations of the surface plasmons have been revealed. Anisotropy has been considered during the calculations of the dispersion relations which allows different permittivities perpendicular to the conductive plane. Two surface plasmon modes each contains two branches of dispersion relations have been found. The topologically non-trivial case gives quite different Hall conductivities compared with the trivial one, which leads to significant modifications of the dispersion curves or even the absence of particular branch of the surface plasmons. Our investigations pave a possible way for the detection of the parity anomaly in a two-dimensional Chern insulator via plasmonic responses.

9.Energy Barriers for Thermally Activated Magnetization Reversal in Perpendicularly Magnetized Nanodisks in a Transverse Field

Authors:Corrado Carlo Maria Capriata, Bengt Gunnar Malm, Andy D. Kent, Gabriel D. Chaves-O'Flynn

Abstract: Thermally-induced transitions between bistable magnetic states of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) are of interest for generating random bitstreams and for applications in stochastic computing. An applied field transverse to the easy axis of a perpendicularly magnetized MTJ (pMTJ) can lower the energy barrier ($E_b$) to these transitions leading to faster fluctuations. In this study, we present analytical and numerical calculations of $E_b$ considering both coherent (macrospin) reversal and non-uniform wall-mediated magnetization reversal for a selection of nanodisk diameters and applied fields. Non-uniform reversal processes dominate for larger diameters, and our numerical calculations of $E_b$ using the String method show that the transition state has a sigmoidal magnetization profile. The latter can be described with an analytical expression that depends on only one spatial dimension, parallel to the applied field, which is also the preferred direction of profile motion during reversal. Our results provide nanodisk energy barriers as a function of the transverse field, nanodisk diameter, and material characteristics, which are useful for designing stochastic bitstreams.

10.Towards tunable graphene phononic crystals

Authors:Yuefeng Yu, Jan N. Kirchhof, Aleksei Tsarapkin, Victor Deinhart, Oguzhan Yucel, Bianca Höfer, Katja Höflich, Kirill I. Bolotin

Abstract: Phononic crystals (PnCs) are artificially patterned media exhibiting bands of allowed and forbidden zones for phonons. Many emerging applications of PnCs from solid-state simulators to quantum memories could benefit from the on-demand tunability of the phononic band structure. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of suspended graphene PnCs in which the phononic band structure is controlled by mechanical tension applied electrostatically. We show signatures of a mechanically tunable phononic band gap. The experimental data supported by simulation suggest a phononic band gap at 28$-$33 MHz in equilibrium, which upshifts by 9 MHz under a mechanical tension of 3.1 Nm$^{-1}$. This is an essential step towards tunable phononics paving the way for more experiments on phononic systems based on 2D materials.

11.3D reconstruction of the magnetization vector via XMCD-PEEM

Authors:Miguel A. Cascales Sandoval, A. Hierro-Rodríguez, S. Ruiz-Gómez, L. Skoric, C. Donnelly, M. A. Niño, D. McGrouther, S. McVitie, S. Flewett, N. Jaouen, M. Foerster, A. Fernández-Pacheco

Abstract: In this work we present a detailed analysis on the performance of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photo-emission electron microscopy (XMCD-PEEM) as a tool for vector reconstruction of the magnetization. For this, we choose 360$^{\circ}$ domain wall ring structures which form in a synthetic antiferromagnet as our model to conduct the quantitative analysis. We assess how the quality of the results is affected depending on the number of projections that are involved in the reconstruction process, as well as their angular distribution. For this we develop a self-consistent error metric, which indicates that the main factor of improvement comes from selecting the projections evenly spread out in space, over having a larger number of these spanning a smaller angular range. This work thus poses XMCD-PEEM as a powerful tool for vector imaging of complex 3D magnetic structures.

12.Effects of the two-dimensional Coulomb interaction in both Fermi velocity and energy gap for Dirac-like electrons at finite temperature

Authors:Nilberto Bezerra, Van Sérgio Alves, Leandro O. Nascimento, Luis Fernandez

Abstract: We describe both the Fermi velocity and the mass renormalization due to the two-dimensional Coulomb interaction in the presence of a thermal bath. To achieve this, we consider an anisotropic version of pseudo quantum electrodynamics (PQED), within a perturbative approach in the fine-structure constant $\alpha$. Thereafter, we use the so-called imaginary-time formalism for including the thermal bath. In the limit $T\rightarrow 0$, we calculate the renormalized mass $m^R(p)$ and compare this result with the experimental findings for the energy band gap in monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, WSe$_2$ and MoS$_2$. In these materials, the quasi-particle excitations behave as a massive Dirac-like particles in the low-energy limit, hence, its mass is related to the energy band gap of the material. In the low-temperature limit $T\ll v_F p $, where $v_F p$ is taken as the Fermi energy, we show that $m^R(p)$ decreases linearly on the temperature, i.e, $m^R(p,T)-m^R(p,T\rightarrow 0)\approx -A_\alpha T +O(T^3)$, where $A_\alpha$ is a positive constant. On the other hand, for the renormalized Fermi velocity, we find that $v^R_F(p,T)-v^R_F(p,T\rightarrow 0)\approx -B_\alpha T^3 +O(T^5)$, where $B_\alpha$ is a positive constant. We also perform numerical tests which confirm our analytical results.

13.Non-trivial Flat Bands in Three Dimensions

Authors:Ivan Dutta, Kush Saha

Abstract: We report the presence of exactly and nearly flat bands with non-trivial topology in a three-dimensional lattice model. We first show that an approximate flat band with finite Chern number can be realized in a two-orbital square lattice by tuning the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor hopping between the two orbitals. With this, we construct a minimal three-dimensional flat band model without stacking the two-dimensional (2D) layers. Specifically, we demonstrate that a genuine three dimensional non-trivial insulating phase can be realized by allowing only nearest and next-nearest hopping among different orbitals in the third direction. We find both perfect and nearly perfect flat bands in all three planes at some special parameter values. While nearly flat bands carries a finite Chern number, the perfect flat band carries zero Chern number. Further, we show that such a three dimensional (3D) insulators with flat bands carry an additional three dimensional topological invariant, namely Hopf invariant. Finally, we show that a 3D construction of lattice model with Hopf invariant from a 2D Chern insulator is model specific and appearance of flat bands is not guaranteed in the Hopf-Chern system with only nearest and next-nearest hopping among distinct orbitals.

1.Wafer-scale graphene field-effect transistor biosensor arrays with monolithic CMOS readout

Authors:Miika Soikkeli, Anton Murros, Arto Rantala, Oihana Txoperena, Olli-Pekka Kilpi, Markku Kainlauri, Kuura Sovanto, Arantxa Maestre, Alba Centeno, Kari Tukkiniemi, David Gomes Martins, Amaia Zurutuza, Sanna Arpiainen, Mika Prunnila

Abstract: The reliability of analysis is becoming increasingly important as point-of-care diagnostics are transitioning from single analyte detection towards multiplexed multianalyte detection. Multianalyte detection benefits greatly from complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated sensing solutions, offering miniaturized multiplexed sensing arrays with integrated readout electronics and extremely large sensor counts. The development of CMOS back end of line integration compatible graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) based biosensing has been rapid during the last few years, both in terms of the fabrication scale-up and functionalization towards biorecognition from real sample matrices. The next steps in industrialization relate to improving reliability and require increased statistics. Regarding functionalization towards truly quantitative sensors and on-chip bioassays with improved statistics require sensor arrays with reduced variability in functionalization. Such multiplexed bioassays, whether based on graphene or on other sensitive nanomaterials, are among the most promising technologies for label-free electrical biosensing. As an important step towards that, we report wafer-scale fabrication of CMOS integrated GFET arrays with high yield and uniformity, designed especially for biosensing applications. We demonstrate the operation of the sensing platform array with 512 GFETs in simultaneous detection for sodium chloride concentration series. This platform offers a truly statistical approach on GFET based biosensing and further to quantitative and multi-analyte sensing. The reported techniques can also be applied to other fields relying on functionalized GFETs, such as gas or chemical sensing or infrared imaging.

2.Magnetic field stabilized Wigner crystal states in a graphene moiré superlattice

Authors:Guorui Chen, Ya-Hui Zhang, Aaron Sharpe, Zuocheng Zhang, Shaoxin Wang, Lili Jiang, Bosai Lyu, Hongyuan Li, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Zhiwen Shi, David Goldhaber-Gordon, Yuanbo Zhang, Feng Wang

Abstract: Wigner crystals are predicted as the crystallization of the dilute electron gas moving in a uniform background when the electron-electron Coulomb energy dominates the kinetic energy. The Wigner crystal has previously been observed in the ultraclean two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) present on the surface of liquid helium and in semiconductor quantum wells at high magnetic field. More recently, Wigner crystals have also been reported in WS2/WSe2 moir\'e heterostructures. ABC-stacked trilayer graphene on boron nitride (ABC-TLG/hBN) moir\'e superlattices provide a unique tunable platform to explore Wigner crystal states where the electron correlation can be controlled by electric and magnetic field. Here we report the observation of magnetic field stabilized Wigner crystal states in a ABC-TLG/hBN moir\'e superlattice. We show that correlated insulating states emerge at multiple fractional and integer fillings corresponding to v = 1/3, 2/3, 1, 4/3, 5/3 and 2 electrons per moir\'e lattice site under a magnetic field. These correlated insulating states can be attributed to generalized Mott states for the integer fillings (v = 1, 2) and generalized Wigner crystal states for the fractional fillings (v = 1/3, 2/3, 4/3, 5/3). The generalized Wigner crystal states are stabilized by a vertical magnetic field, and they are strongest at one magnetic flux quantum per three moir\'e superlattices. The correlated insulating states at v = 2 persists up to 30 Tesla, which can be described by a Mott-Hofstadter transition at high magnetic field. The tunable Mott and Wigner crystal states in the ABC-TLG/hBN highlight the opportunities to discover new correlated quantum phases due to the interplay between the magnetic field and moir\'e flatbands.

3.Braiding-based quantum control of a Majorana qubit built from quantum dots

Authors:Péter Boross, András Pályi

Abstract: Topology-related ideas might lead to noise-resilient quantum computing. For example, it is expected that the slow spatial exchange (`braiding') of Majorana zero modes in superconductors yields quantum gates that are robust against disorder. Here, we report our numerical experiments, which describe the dynamics of a Majorana qubit built from quantum dots controlled by time-dependent gate voltages. Our protocol incorporates non-protected control, braiding-based protected control, and readout, of the Majorana qubit. We use the Kitaev chain model for the simulations, and focus on the case when the main source of errors is quasistatic charge noise affecting the hybridization energy splitting of the Majorana modes. We provide quantitative guidelines to suppress both diabatic errors and disorder-induced qubit dephasing, such that a fidelity plateau is observed as the hallmark of the topological quantum gate. Our simulations predict realistic features that are expected to be seen in future braiding experiments with Majorana zero modes and other topological qubit architectures.

4.Bulk-Edge Correspondence for Point-Gap Topological Phases in Junction Systems

Authors:Geonhwi Hwang, Hideaki Obuse

Abstract: The bulk-edge correspondence is one of the most important ingredients in the theory of topological phase of matter. While the bulk-edge correspondence is applicable for Hermitian junction systems where two subsystems with independent topological invariants are connected to each other, it has not been discussed for junction systems with non-Hermitian point-gap topological phases. In this Letter, based on analytical results obtained by the extension of non-Bloch band theory to junction systems, we establish the bulk-edge correspondence for point-gap topological phases in junction systems. Considering the eigenstates, further, we find that the non-Hermitian junction systems exhibit unique proximity effects.

5.Magnetoresistive RAM with n-doped AlGaAs/GaAs writing/reading channels

Authors:Sushmita Saha, Deepak Sain, Alestin Mawrie

Abstract: We show that the tunable gate voltage in n-doped AlGaAs/GaAs QW (quantum well) is a key in designing an efficient and ultrafast MRAM (magnetoresistive random access memory). The Rashba spin-orbit coupling in such QWs can be tuned appropriately by the gate voltage to create an intense spin-Hall field which in turns interacts with the ferromagnetic layer of the MRAM through the mechanism of spin orbit torque. The strong spin-Hall field leads to an infinitesimally small switching time of the MRAM. Our proposed MRAM is thus a better alternative to the conventional ferromagnetic/spin-Hall effect bi-layers MRAM for the reason that the switching time can be varied with ease, which is unfeasible in the later. Concisely, not only that this work signals a possibility to design an ultra-fast MRAM, but it also suggests a model to fabricate a tunable switching time MRAM.

6.Topological Phase Transitions of Generalized Brillouin Zone

Authors:Sonu Verma, Moon Jip Park

Abstract: It has been known that the bulk-boundary correspondence (BBC) of the non-Hermitian skin effect is characterized by the topology of the complex eigenvalue spectra, while the topology of the wave function gives rise to Hermitian BBC with conventional boundary modes. In this work, we go beyond the known description of the non-Hermitian topological phase by discovering a new type of BBC that appears in generalized boundary conditions. The generalized Brillouin zone (GBZ) possesses non-trivial topological structures in the intermediate boundary condition between open and periodic boundary conditions. Unlike the conventional BBC, the topological phase transition is characterized by the generalized momentum touching of GBZ, which manifests as exceptional points. As a realization of our proposal, we suggest the non-reciprocal Kuramoto oscillator lattice, where the phase slips accompany the exceptional points as a signature of such topological phase transition. Our work establishes an understanding of non-Hermitian topological matter by complementing the non-Hermitian BBC as a general foundation of the non-Hermitian topological systems.

7.Aging effects in critical behavior of Heisenberg anisotropic ultrathin films

Authors:Marina M. Boldyreva, Pavel V. Prudnikov, Vladimir V. Prudnikov, Marina V. Mamonova, Vadim O. Borzilov, Natalia I. Piskunova

Abstract: The nonequilibrium behavior of Co/Cu/Co and Pt/Co/Cu/Co/Pt multilayer structures was studied by the Monte Carlo method for various types of magnetic anisotropy. An analysis of the results of calculations of the two-time autocorrelation function was carried out, and the evolution of structures from various initial states was considered. An analysis of the results shows aging with a slowdown in the correlation characteristics with an increase in the waiting time. The dependence of the aging characteristics of the studied structures on the film thickness is considered. There is a difference in behavior from bulk systems, aging in multilayer structures occurs in a wide temperature range at $T \leq T_c$ and not only at the ordering temperature $T_c$. Investigation of transport properties makes it possible to reveal nontrivial aging in the two-time dependence of magnetoresistance, as well as the influence of anisotropy and initial states on its values.

8.Scattering of magnetostatic surface modes of ferromagnetic films by geometric defects

Authors:R. E. Arias

Abstract: Magnonics, an emerging field of Magnetism, studies spin waves (SWs) in nano-structures, with an aim towards possible applications. As information may be eventually transmitted with efficiency stored in the phase and amplitude of spin waves, a topic of interest within Magnonics is the propagation of SW modes. Thus, understanding mechanisms that may influence SW propagation is of interest. Here the effect of localized surface geometric defects on magnetostatic surface modes propagation is studied in ferromagnetic films and semi-infinite media. Theoretical results are developed that allow to calculate the scattering of these surface or Damon-Eshbach (DE) modes. A Green-Extinction theorem is used to determine the scattering of incident surface modes, through the determination of phase shifts of associated modes that are symmetric and anti-symmetric under inversion in the same geometry with geometric defects. Choosing localized symmetric depressions as geometric defects, scattering transmission coefficients are determined that show perfect transmission at specific frequencies or wave-lengths, that we associate with resonances in the system. Interestingly the system shows the appearance of localized modes in the depression regions, with associated discrete frequencies immersed in the continuum spectrum of these surface DE modes. These localized modes have a short wave-length content, and appear similarly in semi-infinite surfaces with depressions. The latter indicates that these types of scattering effects should appear in all surfaces with roughness or more pronounced geometric defects.

9.Dielectric electron-hole liquid in monolayer heterostructures based on transition metal dichalcogenides

Authors:P. V. Ratnikov

Abstract: The possibility of the appearance of a dielectric electron-hole liquid (EHL) in monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides and heterostructures based on them is considered. It is shown that the coherent pairing of electrons and holes in them leads to the formation of a dielectric EHL when the degree of circular polarization of the exciting light exceeds a certain threshold value. Below this value, a metallic EHL is realized. Some possible physical manifestations of the transition between these two types of EHL are noted.

1.Atypical sliding and Moire ferroelectricity in pure multilayer graphene

Authors:Liu Yang, Shiping Ding, Jinhua Gao, Menghao Wu

Abstract: Most non-ferroelectric two-dimensional materials can be endowed with so-called sliding ferroelectricity via non-equivalent homo-bilayer stacking, which is not applicable to mono-element systems like pure graphene bilayer with inversion symmetry at any sliding vector. Herein we show first-principles evidence that multilayer graphene with N>3 can all be ferroelectric, where the polarizations of polar states stem from the symmetry breaking in stacking configurations of across-layer instead of adjacent-layer, which are electrically switchable via interlayer sliding. The non-polar states can also be electrically driven to polar states via sliding, all nearly degenerate in energy, and more diverse states with distinct polarizations will emerge in more layers. In contrast to the ferroelectric Moire domains with opposite polarization directions in twisted bilayers reported previously, the Moire pattern in some multilayer graphene systems (e.g., twisted monolayer-trilayer graphene) possess nonzero net polarizations with domains of the same direction separated by non-polar regions, which can be electrically reversed upon interlayer sliding. The distinct Moire bands of two polar states should facilitate electrical detection of such sliding Moire ferroelectricity during switching.

2.Observation and formation mechanism of 360° domain wall rings in Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnets with interlayer chiral interactions

Authors:Miguel A. Cascales Sandoval, A Hierro-Rodríguez, S. Ruiz-Gómez, L. Skoric, C. Donnelly, M. A. Niño, Elena Y. Vedmedenko, D. McGrouther, S. McVitie, S. Flewett, N. Jaouen, M. Foerster, A. Fernández-Pacheco

Abstract: The Interlayer Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IL-DMI) chirally couples spins in different ferromagnetic layers of multilayer heterostructures. So far, samples with IL-DMI have been investigated utilizing magnetometry and magnetotransport techniques, where the interaction manifests as a tunable chiral exchange bias field. Here, we investigate the nanoscale configuration of the magnetization vector in a synthetic anti-ferromagnet (SAF) with IL-DMI, after applying demagnetizing field sequences. We add different global magnetic field offsets to the demagnetizing sequence in order to investigate the states that form when the IL-DMI exchange bias field is fully or partially compensated. For magnetic imaging and vector reconstruction of the remanent magnetic states we utilize X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy, evidencing the formation of 360$^{\circ}$ domain wall rings of typically 0.5-3.0 $\mu m$ in diameter. These spin textures are only observed when the exchange bias field due to the IL-DMI is not perfectly compensated by the magnetic field offset. From a combination of micromagnetic simulations, magnetic charge distribution and topology arguments, we conclude that a non-zero remanent effective field with components both parallel and perpendicular to the anisotropy axis of the SAF is necessary to observe the rings. This work shows how the exchange bias field due to IL-DMI can lead to complex metastable spin states during reversal, important for the development of novel spintronic devices.

3.Real-time GW-Ehrenfest-Fan-Migdal method for nonequilibrium 2D materials

Authors:Enrico Perfetto, Gianluca Stefanucci

Abstract: Quantum simulations of photoexcited low-dimensional systems are pivotal for understanding how to functionalize and integrate novel two-dimensional (2D) materials in next-generation optoelectronic devices. First principles predictions are extremely challenging due to the simultaneous interplay of light-matter, electron-electron and electron-nuclear interactions. We here present an advanced ab initio many-body method which accounts for quantum coherence and non-Markovian effects while treating electrons and nuclei on equal footing, thereby preserving fundamental conservation laws like the total energy. The impact of this advancement is demonstrated through real-time simulations of the complex multivalley dynamics in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS$_{2}$) monolayer pumped above gap. Within a single framework we provide a parameter-free description of the coherent-to-incoherent crossover, elucidating the role of microscopic and collective excitations in the dephasing and thermalization processes.

4.Disclosing Early Excited State Relaxation Events in Prototypical Linear Carbon Chains

Authors:Piotr Kabaciński, Pietro Marabotti, Patrick Serafini, Daniele Fazzi, Giulio Cerullo, Carlo S. Casari, Margherita Zavelani-Rossi

Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) linear nanostructures comprising sp-hybridized carbon atoms, as derivatives of the prototypical allotrope known as carbyne, are predicted to possess outstanding mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. Despite recent advances in the synthesis, their chemical and physical properties are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the photophysics of a prototypical polyyne (i.e., 1D chain with alternating single and triple carbon bonds), as the simplest model of finite carbon wire and as a prototype of sp-carbon based chains. We perform transient absorption experiments with high temporal resolution (<30 fs) on monodispersed hydrogen-capped hexayne H$-$(C$\equiv$C)$_6-$H synthesized by laser ablation in liquid. With the support of detailed computational studies based on ground state density functional theory (DFT) and excited state time-dependent (TD)-DFT calculations, we provide a comprehensive description of the excited state relaxation processes at early times following photoexcitation. We show that the internal conversion from a bright high-energy singlet excited state to a low-lying singlet dark state is ultrafast and takes place with a 200-fs time constant, followed by thermalization on the picosecond timescale. We also show that the timescale of these processes does not depend on the end-groups capping the sp-carbon chain. The understanding of the primary photo-induced events in polyynes is of key importance both for fundamental knowledge and for potential opto-electronic and light-harvesting applications of nanostructured carbon-based materials.

5.Bending Stiffness Collapse, Buckling, Topological Bands of Freestanding Twisted Bilayer Graphene

Authors:Jin Wang, Ali Khosravi, Andrea Silva, Michele Fabrizio, Andrea Vanossi, Erio Tosatti

Abstract: The freestanding twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) is unstable, below a critical twist angle {\theta}_c~3.7 degrees, against a moire (2 \times 1) buckling distortion at T=0. Realistic simulations reveal the concurrent unexpected collapse of the bending rigidity, an unrelated macroscopic mechanical parameter. An analytical model connects bending and buckling anomalies at T=0, but as temperature rises the former fades, while buckling persists further. The (2 \times 1) electronic properties are also surprising. The magic twist angle narrow bands, now eight in number, fail to show zone boundary splittings despite the new periodicity. Symmetry shows how this is dictated by an effective single valley physics. These structural, critical, and electronic predictions promise to make the freestanding state of TBG especially interesting.

6.Spacetime magnetic hopfions: from internal excitations and braiding of skyrmions

Authors:R. Knapman, T. Tausendpfund, S. A. Díaz, K. Everschor-Sitte

Abstract: Spatial topology endows topological solitons, such as skyrmions and hopfions, with fascinating dynamics. However, the temporal dimension has so far provided a passive stage on which topological solitons evolve. Here we construct spacetime magnetic hopfions: magnetic textures in two spatial dimensions that when excited by a time-periodic drive develop spacetime topology. We uncover two complementary construction routes using skyrmions by braiding their center of mass position and by controlling their internal low-energy excitations. Spacetime magnetic hopfions can be realized in nanopatterned grids to braid skyrmions and in frustrated magnets under an applied AC electric field. Their topological invariant, the spacetime Hopf index, can be tuned by the applied electric field as demonstrated by our collective coordinate modeling and micromagnetic simulations. The principles we have introduced to actively control spacetime topology are not limited to magnetic solitons, opening avenues to explore spacetime topology of general order parameters and fields.

7.Second spectrum of charge carrier density fluctuations in graphene due to trapping/detrapping processes

Authors:Francesco M. D. Pellegrino, Giuseppe Falci, Elisabetta Paladino

Abstract: We investigate the second spectrum of charge carrier density fluctuations in graphene within the McWorther model, where noise is induced by electron traps in the substrate. Within this simple picture, we obtain a closed-form expression including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian fluctuations. We show that a very extended distribution of switching rates of the electron traps in the substrate leads to a carrier density power spectrum with a non-trivial structure on the scale of the measurement bandwidth. This explains the appearance of a $1/f$ component in the Gaussian part of the second spectrum, which adds up to the expected frequency-independent term. Finally, we find that the non-Gaussian part of the second spectrum can become quantitatively relevant by approaching extremely low temperatures.

8.Quantized longitudinal conductance and edge states in an open geometry 2-dimensional Chern insulator

Authors:Junaid Majeed Bhat, R. Shankar, Abhishek Dhar

Abstract: Insulators with non-trivial topology support mid-gap modes localized at the boundaries of the sample. We consider the spinless Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang (SBHZ) model, one of the simplest models of a Chern insulator, in contact with external reservoirs (metallic leads) at its opposite ends. We study scattering states formed by these edge modes using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. These special states give rise to perfect transmission from one lead to another, leading to quantized two-terminal conductance. We look at the charge and current density profiles, associated to these modes, in the insulator as well as in the leads. As expected, we find that the current inside the insulator is localized along the edges of the sample. Surprisingly, we find that even in the leads, the current density is localized and shows an interesting zigzag pattern. We also look at finite-size effects on the quantized two-terminal conductance and its dependence on system-reservoir coupling.

1.Engineering of anomalous Josephson effect in coherently coupled Josephson junctions

Authors:Sadashige Matsuo, Takaya Imoto, Tomohiro Yokoyama, Yosuke Sato, Tyler Lindemann, Sergei Gronin, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Seigo Tarucha

Abstract: A Josephson junction (JJ) is a key device in the development of superconducting circuits, wherein a supercurrent in the JJ is controlled by the phase difference between the two superconducting electrodes. Recently, it has been shown that the JJ current is nonlocally controlled by the phase difference of another nearby JJ via coherent coupling. Here, we use the nonlocal control to engineer the anomalous Josephson effect. We observe that a supercurrent is produced by the nonlocal phase control even without any local phase difference, using a quantum interference device. The nonlocal phase control simultaneously generates an offset of a local phase difference giving the JJ ground state. These results provide novel concepts for engineering superconducting devices such as phase batteries and dissipationless rectifiers.

2.Highly tunable lateral homojunction formed in 2D layered CuInP2S6 via in-plane ionic migration

Authors:Huanfeng Zhu, Jialin Li, Qiang Chen, Wei Tang, Xinyi Fan, Fan Li, Linjun Li

Abstract: As basic building blocks for next-generation information technologies devices, high-quality p-n junctions based on van der Waals (vdW) materials have attracted widespread interest.Compared to traditional two dimensional (2D) heterojunction diodes, the emerging homojunctions are more attractive owing to their intrinsic advantages, such as continuous band alignments and smaller carrier trapping. Here, utilizing the long-range migration of Cu + ions under in-plane electric field, a novel lateral p-n homojunction was constructed in the 2D layered copper indium thiophosphate (CIPS). The symmetric Au/CIPS/Au devices demonstrate an electric-field-driven resistance switching (RS) accompanying by a rectification behavior without any gate control. Moreover, such rectification behavior can be continuously modulated by poling voltage. We deduce that the reversable rectifying RS behavior is governed by the effective lateral build-in potential and the change of the interfacial barrier during the poling process. Furthermore, the CIPS p-n homojuction is evidenced by the photovoltaic effect, with the spectral response extending up to visible region due to the better photogenerated carrier separation efficiency. Our study provides a facile route to fabricate homojuctions through electric-field-driven ionic migration and paves the way towards the use of this method in other vdW materials.

3.Transport across junctions of altermagnets with normal metals and ferromagnets

Authors:Sachchidanand Das, Dhavala Suri, Abhiram Soori

Abstract: Altermagnet (AM) is a novel time reversal symmetry broken magnetic phase with $d$-wave order. We discuss theoretical models of altermagnet based systems on lattice and in continuum that are amenable to experimental measurements and show equivalence between the two models. We study (i) altermagnet-normal metal (NM) and (ii) altermagnet-ferromagnet (FM) junctions, with the aim to quantify transport properties such as conductivity and magnetoresistance. We find that a spin current accompanies charge current when a bias is applied. The magnetoresistance of the AM-FM junction switches sign when AM is rotated by $90^{\circ}$, -a feature unique to the altermagnetic phase.

4.Nonmonotonic buildup of spin-singlet correlations in a double quantum dot

Authors:Kacper Wrześniewski, Tomasz Ślusarski, Ireneusz Weymann

Abstract: Dynamical buildup of spin-singlet correlations between the two quantum dots is investigated by means of the time-dependent numerical renormalization group method. By calculating the timeevolution of the spin-spin expectation value upon a quench in the hopping between the quantum dots, we examine the time scales associated with the development of an entangled spin-singlet state in the system. Interestingly, we find that in short time scales the effective exchange interaction between the quantum dots is of ferromagnetic type, favoring spin-triplet correlations, as opposite to the long time limit, when strong antiferromagnetic correlations develop and eventually an entangled spin-singlet state is formed between the dots. We also numerically determine the relevant time scales and show that the physics is generally governed by the interplay between the Kondo correlations on each dot and exchange interaction between the spins of both quantum dots.

5.Ultra-low current 10 nm spin Hall nano-oscillators

Authors:Nilamani Behera, Avinash Kumar Chaurasiya, Victor H. González, Artem Litvinenko, Lakhan Bainsla, Akash Kumar, Ahmad A. Awad, Himanshu Fulara, Johan Åkerman

Abstract: Nano-constriction based spin Hall nano-oscillators (SHNOs) are at the forefront of spintronics research for emerging technological applications such as oscillator-based neuromorphic computing and Ising Machines. However, their miniaturization to the sub-50 nm width regime results in poor scaling of the threshold current. Here, we show that current shunting through the Si substrate is the origin of this problem and study how different seed layers can mitigate it. We find that an ultra-thin Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ seed layer and SiN (200 nm) coated p-Si substrates provide the best improvement, enabling us to scale down the SHNO width to a truly nanoscopic dimension of 10 nm, operating at threshold currents below 30 $\mu$A. In addition, the combination of electrical insulation and high thermal conductivity of the Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ seed will offer the best conditions for large SHNO arrays, avoiding any significant temperature gradients within the array. Our state-of-the-art ultra-low operational current SHNOs hence pave an energy-efficient route to scale oscillator-based computing to large dynamical neural networks of linear chains or two-dimensional arrays.

6.Density of states, transport, and topology in disordered Majorana nanowires

Authors:Sankar Das Sarma, Haining Pan

Abstract: Motivated by a recent breakthrough transport experiment (arXiv:2207.02472) in Majorana nanowires, we study theoretically local and nonlocal transport in Majorana nanowires in various disorder regimes, correlating the transport properties with the corresponding local and total density of states as well as various topological diagnostics. We find three distinct disorder regimes, with weak (strong) disorder regimes manifesting (not manifesting) topological superconductivity with clear end Majorana zero modes for longer (but not necessarily for shorter) wires. The intermediate disorder regime is both interesting and challenging because the topology depends on many details in addition to the strength of disorder, such as the precise disorder configuration and the wire length. The intermediate disorder regime often manifests multiple effective transitions between topological and nontopological phases as a function of system parameters (e.g., the Zeeman field), and is consistent with the recent Microsoft experiment reflecting small topological gaps and narrow topological regimes in the parameter space.

7.Photo-induced Non-collinear Interlayer RKKY Coupling in Bulk Rashba Semiconductors

Authors:Mahmoud M. Asmar, Wang-Kong Tse

Abstract: The interplay between light-matter, spin-orbit, and magnetic interactions allows the investigation of light-induced magnetic phenomena that is otherwise absent without irradiation. We present our analysis of light-driving effects on the interlayer exchange coupling mediated by a bulk Rashba semiconductor in a magnetic multilayer. The collinear magnetic exchange coupling mediated by the photon-dressed spin-orbit coupled electrons of BiTeI develops light-induced oscillation periods and displays new decay powers laws, both of which are enhanced with an increasing light-matter coupling. For magnetic layers with non-collinear magnetization, we find a non-collinear magnetic exchange coupling uniquely generated by light-driving of the multilayer. As the non-collinear magnetic exchange coupling mediated by the electrons of BiTeI is unique to the irradiated system and it is enhanced with increasing light-matter coupling, this effect offers a promising platform of investigation of light-driving effects on magnetic phenomena in spin-orbit coupled systems.

8.Multiple polaritonic edge states in a Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chain strongly coupled to a multimode cavity

Authors:Thomas F. Allard, Guillaume Weick

Abstract: A dimerized chain of dipolar emitters strongly coupled to a multimode optical cavity is studied. By integrating out the photonic degrees of freedom of the cavity, the system is recast in a two-band model with an effective long-range coupling, so that it mimicks a variation of the paradigmatic Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, which features a nontrivial topological phase and hosts topological edge states. In the strong-coupling regime, the cavity photons hybridize the bright dipolar bulk band into a polaritonic one, renormalizing the eigenspectrum and strongly breaking chiral symmetry. This leads to a formal loss of the in-gap edge states present in the topological phase while they merge into the polaritonic bulk band. Interestingly, however, we find that bulk polaritons entering in resonance with the edge states inherit part of their localization properties, so that multiple polaritonic edge states are observed. Although these states are not fully localized on the edges, they present unusual properties. In particular, due to their delocalized bulk part, owing from their polaritonic nature, such edge states exhibit efficient transport characteristics. Instead of being degenerate, they occupy a large portion of the spectrum, allowing one to probe them in a wide driving frequency range. Moreover, being reminiscent of symmetry-protected topological edge states, they feature a strong tolerance to off-diagonal disorder.

9.Spectral properties, topological patches, and effective phase diagrams of finite disordered Majorana nanowires

Authors:Sankar Das Sarma, Jay D. Sau, Tudor D. Stanescu

Abstract: We consider theoretically the physics of bulk topological superconductivity accompanied by boundary non-Abelian Majorana zero modes in semiconductor-superconductor (SM-SC) hybrid systems consisting of finite wires in the presence of correlated disorder arising from random charged impurities. We find the system to manifest a highly complex behavior due to the subtle interplay between finite wire length and finite disorder, leading to copious low-energy in-gap states throughout the wire and considerably complicating the interpretation of tunneling spectroscopic transport measurements used extensively to search for Majorana modes. The presence of disorder-induced low-energy states may lead to the non-existence of end Majorana zero modes even when tunneling spectroscopy manifests zero bias conductance peaks in local tunneling and signatures of bulk gap closing/reopening in the nonlocal transport. In short wires within the intermediate disorder regime, apparent topology may manifest in small ranges ("patches") of parameter values, which may or may not survive the long wire limit depending on various details. Because of the dominance of disorder-induced in-gap states, the system may even occasionally have an appropriate topological invariant without manifesting isolated end Majorana zero modes. We discuss our findings in the context of a recent breakthrough experiment from Microsoft reporting the simultaneous observations of zero bias conductance peaks in local tunneling and gap opening in nonlocal transport within small patches of parameter space. Based on our analysis, we believe that the disorder strength to SC gap ratio must decrease further for the definitive realization of non-Abelian Majorana zero modes in SM-SC devices.

1.Correlations of spin splitting and orbital fluctuations due to 1/f charge noise in the Si/SiGe Quantum Dot

Authors:Marcin Kępa, Łukasz Cywiński, Jan A. Krzywda

Abstract: Fluctuations of electric fields can change the position of a gate-defined quantum dot in a semiconductor heterostructure. In the presence of magnetic field gradient, these stochastic shifts of electron's wavefunction lead to fluctuations of electron's spin splitting. The resulting spin dephasing due to charge noise limits the coherence times of spin qubits in isotopically purified Si/SiGe quantum dots. We investigate the spin splitting noise caused by such process caused by microscopic motion of charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface. We compare effects of isotropic and planar displacement of the charges, and estimate their densities and typical displacement magnitudes that can reproduce experimentally observed spin splitting noise spectra. We predict that for defect density of $10^{10}$ cm$^{-2}$, visible correlations between noises in spin splitting and in energy of electron's ground state in the quantum dot, are expected.

2.Giant spin Nernst effect in a two-dimensional antiferromagnet due to magnetoelastic coupling-induced gaps and interband transitions between magnon-like bands

Authors:D. -Q. To, C. Y. Ameyaw, A. Suresh, S. Bhatt, M. J. H. Ku, M. B. Jungfleisch, J. Q. Xiao, J. M. O. Zide, B. K. Nikolic, M. F. Doty

Abstract: We analyze theoretically the origin of the spin Nernst and thermal Hall effects in FePS3 as a realization of two-dimensional antiferromagnet (2D AFM). We find that a strong magnetoelastic coupling, hybridizing magnetic excitation (magnon) and elastic excitation (phonon), combined with time-reversal-symmetry-breaking, results in a Berry curvature hotspots in the region of anticrossing between the two distinct hybridized bands. Furthermore, large spin Berry curvature emerges due to interband transitions between two magnon-like bands, where a small energy gap is induced by magnetoelastic coupling between such bands that are energetically distant from anticrossing of hybridized bands. These nonzero Berry curvatures generate topological transverse transport (i.e., the thermal Hall effect) of hybrid excitations, dubbed magnon-polaron, as well as of spin (i.e., the spin Nernst effect) carried by them, in response to applied longitudinal temperature gradient. We investigate the dependence of the spin Nernst and thermal Hall conductivities on the applied magnetic field and temperature, unveiling very large spin Nernst conductivity even at zero magnetic field. Our results suggest FePS3 AFM, which is already available in 2D form experimentally, as a promising platform to explore the topological transport of the magnon-polaron quasiparticles at THz frequencies.

3.Dissipation and diffusion in one-dimensional solids

Authors:Harshitra Mahalingam, Ben Andrew Olsen, Aleksandr Rodin

Abstract: Using a nonperturbative classical model for ionic motion through one-dimensional (1D) solids, we explore how thermal lattice vibrations affect ionic transport properties. Based on analytic and numerical calculations, we find that the mean dissipation experienced by the mobile ion is similar to that of the non-thermal case, with thermal motion only contributing stochastic noise. A nonmonotonic dependence of drag on speed, predicted in earlier work, persists in the presence of thermal motion. The inverse relation between drag and speed at high speeds results in non-Fickian diffusion dominated by L\'{e}vy flights. This suppression of drag at high speeds, combined with enhanced activation frequency, improves the particle mobility at high temperatures, where typical particles move faster.

4.Dark axisymmetric plasma modes in partially gated two-dimensional electron gas disk

Authors:M. V. Cheremisin

Abstract: The transition from ungated to completely gated disk-shaped two-dimensional gas is studied under extension of the central gate spot. We investigate axisymmetric plasmon excitations spectra which show interchange between neighboring modes caused by abrupt change of carriers screening at the gate boarder. This behavior is totally unexpected within simple scenario of sub-gate gap varying [A.L.Fetter, Phys.Rev.B 33, 5221 (1986)]. Our results provide the accurate identification of axisymmetric plasmon modes recently observed in experiment.

5.Voltage-tunable giant nonvolatile multiple-state resistance in interlayer-sliding ferroelectric h-BN engineered van der Waals multiferroic tunnel junction

Authors:Xinlong Dong, Xuemin Shen, Xiaowen Sun, Yuhao Bai, Zhi Yan, Xiaohong Xu

Abstract: Multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJs) based on two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures with sharp and clean interfaces at the atomic scale are crucial for applications in nanoscale multi-resistive logic memory devices. The recently discovered sliding ferroelectricity in 2D van der Waals materials has opened new avenues for ferroelectric-based devices. Here, we theoretically investigate the spin-dependent electronic transport properties of Fe$_3$GeTe$_2$/graphene/bilayer-$h$-BN/graphene/CrI$_3$ (FGT/Gr-BBN-Gr/CrI) all-vdW MFTJs by employing the nonequilibrium Green's function combined with density functional theory. We demonstrate that such FGT/Gr-BBN-Gr/CrI MFTJs exhibit four non-volatile resistance states associated with different staking orders of sliding ferroelectric BBN and magnetization alignment of ferromagnetic free layer CrI$_3$, with a maximum tunnel magnetoresistance (electroresistance) ratio, i.e., TMR (TER) up to $\sim$$3.36\times10^{4}$\% ($\sim$$6.68\times10^{3}$\%) at a specific bias voltage. Furthermore, the perfect spin filtering and remarkable negative differential resistance effects are evident in our MFTJs. We further discover that the TMR, TER, and spin polarization ratio under an equilibrium state can be enhanced by the application of in-plane biaxial strain. This work shows that the giant tunneling resistance ratio, multiple resistance states, and excellent spin-polarized transport properties of sliding ferroelectric BBN-based MFTJs indicate its significant potential in nonvolatile memories.

6.Dynamical bulk boundary correspondence and dynamical quantum phase transitions in higher order topological insulators

Authors:T. Masłowski, N. Sedlmayr

Abstract: Dynamical quantum phase transitions occur in dynamically evolving quantum systems when non-analyticities occur at critical times in the return rate, a dynamical analogue of the free energy. This extension of the concept of phase transitions can be brought into contact with another, namely that of topological phase transitions in which the phase transition is marked by a change in a topological invariant. Following a quantum quench dynamical quantum phase transitions can happen in topological matter, a fact which has already been explored in one dimensional topological insulators and in two dimensional Chern insulators. Additionally in one dimensional systems a dynamical bulk boundary correspondence has been seen, related to the periodic appearance of zero modes of the Loschmidt echo itself. Here we extend both of these concepts to two dimensional higher order topological matter, in which the topologically protected boundary modes are corner modes. We consider a minimal model which encompasses all possible forms of higher order topology in two dimensional topological band structures. We find that DQPTs can still occur, and can occur for quenches which cross both bulk and boundary gap closings. Furthermore a dynamical bulk boundary correspondence is also found, which takes a different form to that in one dimension.

7.Eigenmodes of magnetic skyrmion lattices

Authors:Louise Desplat, Bertrand Dupé

Abstract: We explore the interplay between topology and eigenmodes by changing the stabilizing mechanism of skyrmion lattices (skX). We focus on two prototypical ultrathin films hosting an hexagonal (Pd/Fe/Ir(111)) and a square (Fe/Ir(111)) skyrmion lattice, which can both be described by an extended Heisenberg Hamiltonian. We first examine whether the Dzyaloshinkskii-Moriya, or the exchange interaction as the leading energy term affects the modes of the hexagonal skX of Pd/Fe/Ir(111). In all cases, we find that the lowest frequency modes correspond to internal degrees of freedom of individual skyrmions, and suggest a classification based on azimuthal and radial numbers $(l,p)$, with up to $l=6$, and $p=2$. We also show that the gyration behavior induced by an in-plane field corresponds to the excitation of $l=1$ deformation modes with varying radial numbers. Second, we examine the square lattice of skyrmions of Fe/Ir(111). Its stabilization mechanism is dominated by the 4-spin interaction. After relaxation, the unit cell does not carry a topological charge, and the eigenmodes do not correspond to internal skyrmion deformations. By reducing the 4-spin interaction, the integer topological charge is recovered, but the charge carriers do not possess internal degrees of freedom, nor are they separated by energy barriers. We conclude that a 4-spin dominated Hamiltonian does not yield skyrmion lattice solutions, and that therefore, a nontrivial topology does not imply the existence of skyrmions.

8.Investigation of Spin-Wave Dynamics in Gyroid Nanostructures

Authors:Mateusz Gołębiewski, Riccardo Hertel, Vitaliy Vasyuchka, Mathias Weiler, Philipp Pirro, Maciej Krawczyk, Shunsuke Fukami, Hideo Ohno, Justin Llandro

Abstract: A new concept in magnonics studies the dynamics of spin waves (SWs) in three-dimensional nanosystems. It is a natural evolution from conventionally used planar systems to explore magnetization configurations and dynamics in 3D nanostructures with lengths near intrinsic magnetic scales. In this work, we perform broadband ferromagnetic resonance (BBFMR) measurements and micromagnetic simulations of nanoscale magnetic gyroids - a periodic chiral structure consisting entirely of chiral triple junctions. Our results show unique properties of the network, such as the localization of the SW modes, evoking their topological properties, and the substantial sensitivity to the direction of the static magnetic field. The presented results open a wide range of applications in the emerging field of 3D magnonic crystals and spintronics.

1.Microscopic Theory of Nonlinear Hall Effect Induced by Electric Field and Temperature Gradient

Authors:Terufumi Yamaguchi, Kazuki Nakazawa, Ai Yamakage

Abstract: Electric current flows parallel to the outer product of an applied electric field and temperature gradient, a phenomenon we call the nonlinear chiral thermo-electric (NCTE) Hall effect. We present a general microscopic formulation of this effect and demonstrate its existence in a chiral crystal. We show that the contribution of the orbital magnetic moment, which has been previously overlooked, is just as significant as the conventional Berry curvature dipole term. Furthermore, we demonstrate a substantial NCTE Hall effect in a chiral Weyl semimetal. These findings offer new insights into nonlinear transport phenomena and have significant implications for the field of condensed matter physics.

2.Dispersive readout of a silicon quantum device using an atomic force microscope-based rf gate sensor

Authors:Artem O. Denisov, Gordian Fuchs, Seong W. Oh, Jason R. Petta

Abstract: We demonstrate dispersive charge sensing of Si/SiGe single and double quantum dots (DQD) by coupling sub-micron floating gates to a radio frequency reflectometry (rf-reflectometry) circuit using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Charge stability diagrams are obtained in the phase response of the reflected rf signal. We demonstrate single-electron dot-to-lead and dot-to-dot charge transitions with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 2 and integration time of $\tau~=~2.7~\mathrm{ms}$ and $\tau~=~6.4~\mathrm{ms}$, respectively. The charge sensing SNR compares favorably with results obtained on conventional devices. Moreover, the small size of the floating gates largely eliminates the coupling to parasitic charge traps that can complicate the interpretation of the dispersive charge sensing data.

3.Thermoelectric phenomena in an antiferromagnetic helix: Role of electric field

Authors:Kallol Mondal, Sudin Ganguly, Santanu K. Maiti

Abstract: The charge and spin-dependent thermoelectric responses are investigated on a single-helical molecule possessing a collinear antiferromagnetic spin arrangement with zero net magnetization in the presence of a transverse electric field. Both the short and long-range hopping scenarios are considered, which mimic biological systems like single-stranded DNA and $\alpha$-protein molecules. A non-equilibrium Green's function formalism is employed following the Landauer-Buttiker prescription to study the thermoelectric phenomena. The detailed dependence of the basic thermoelectric quantities on helicity, electric field, temperature etc., are elaborated on, and the underlying physics is explained accordingly. The charge and spin \textit{figure of merits} are computed and compared critically. For a more accurate estimation, the phononic contribution towards thermal conductance is also included. The present proposition shows a favorable spin-dependent thermoelectric response compared to the charge counterpart.

4.Direct Measurement of A Spatially Varying Thermal Bath Using Brownian Motion

Authors:Ravid Shaniv, Chris Reetz, Cindy A. Regal

Abstract: Micro-mechanical resonator performance is fundamentally limited by the coupling to a thermal environment. The magnitude of this thermodynamical effect is typically considered in accordance with a physical temperature, assumed to be uniform across the resonator's physical span. However, in some circumstances, e.g. quantum optomechanics or interferometric gravitational wave detection, the temperature of the resonator may not be uniform, resulting in the resonator being thermally linked to a spatially varying thermal bath. In this case, the link of a mode of interest to its thermal environment is less straightforward to understand. Here, we engineer a distributed bath on a germane optomechanical platform -- a phononic crystal -- and utilize both highly localized and extended resonator modes to probe the spatially varying bath in entirely different bath regimes. As a result, we observe striking differences in the modes' Brownian motion magnitude. From these measurements we are able to reconstruct the local temperature map across our resonator and measure nanoscale effects on thermal conductivity and radiative cooling. Our work explains some thermal phenomena encountered in optomechanical experiments, e.g. mode-dependent heating due to light absorption. Moreover, our work generalizes the typical figure of merit quantifying the coupling of a resonator mode to its thermal environment from the mechanical dissipation to the overlap between the local dissipation and the local temperature throughout the resonator. This added understanding identifies design principles that can be applied to performance of micro-mechanical resonators.

1.Gate-modulated reflectance spectroscopy for detecting excitonic species in two-dimensional semiconductors

Authors:Mengsong Xue, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Ryo Kitaura

Abstract: We have developed a microspectroscopy technique for measuring gate-modulated reflectance to probe excitonic states in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Successfully observing excited states of excitons from cryogenic to room temperature showed that this method is more sensitive to excitonic signals than traditional reflectance spectroscopy. Our results demonstrated the potential of this reflectance spectroscopy method in studying exciton physics in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides and their heterostructures.

2.Superconductivity in hyperdoped Ge by molecular beam epitaxy

Authors:Patrick J. Strohbeen, Aurelia M. Brook, Wendy L. Sarney, Javad Shabani

Abstract: Superconducting germanium films are an intriguing material for possible applications in fields such as cryogenic electronics and quantum bits. Recently, there has been great deal of progress in hyperdoping of Ga doped Ge using ion implantation. The thin film growths would be advantageous allowing homoepitaxy of doped and undoped Ge films opening possibilities for vertical Josephson junctions. Here, we present our studies on the growth of one layer of hyperdoped superconducting germanium thin film via molecular beam epitaxy. We observe a fragile superconducting phase which is extremely sensitive to processing conditions and can easily phase-segregate, forming a percolated network of pure gallium metal. By suppressing phase segregation through temperature control we find a superconducting phase that is unique and appears coherent to the underlying Ge substrate.

3.Gravitational anomaly in antiferromagnetic topological Weyl semimetal NdAlSi

Authors:Pardeep Kumar Tanwar, Mujeeb Ahmad, Md Shahin Alam, Xiaohan Yao, Fazel Tafti, Marcin Matusiak

Abstract: Quantum anomalies are the breakdowns of classical conservation laws that occur in quantum-field theory description of a physical system. They appear in relativistic field theories of chiral fermions and are expected to lead to anomalous transport properties in Weyl semimetals. This includes a chiral anomaly, which is a violation of the chiral current conservation that takes place when a Weyl semimetal is subjected to parallel electric and magnetic fields. A charge pumping between Weyl points of opposite chirality causes the chiral magnetic effect that has been extensively studied with electrical transport. On the other hand, if the thermal gradient, instead of the electrical field, is applied along the magnetic field, then as a consequence of the gravitational (also called the thermal chiral) anomaly an energy pumping occurs within a pair of Weyl cones. As a result, this is expected to generate anomalous heat current contributing to the thermal conductivity. We report an increase of both the magneto-electric and magneto-thermal conductivities in quasi-classical regime of the magnetic Weyl semimetal NdAlSi. Our work also shows that the anomalous electric and heat currents, which occur due to the chiral magnetic effect and gravitational anomalies respectively, are still linked by a 170 years old relation called the Wiedemann-Franz law.

4.Proton transport through nanoscale corrugations in two-dimensional crystals

Authors:O. J. Wahab, E. Daviddi, B. Xin, P. Z. Sun, E. Griffin, A. W. Colburn, D. Barry, M. Yagmurcukardes, F. M. Peeters, A. K. Geim, M. Lozada-Hidalgo, P. R. Unwin

Abstract: Defect-free graphene is impermeable to all atoms and ions at ambient conditions. Experiments that can resolve gas flows of a few atoms per hour through micrometre-sized membranes found that monocrystalline graphene is completely impermeable to helium, the smallest of atoms. Such membranes were also shown to be impermeable to all ions, including the smallest one, lithium. On the other hand, graphene was reported to be highly permeable to protons, nuclei of hydrogen atoms. There is no consensus, however, either on the mechanism behind the unexpectedly high proton permeability or even on whether it requires defects in graphene's crystal lattice. Here using high resolution scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), we show that, although proton permeation through mechanically-exfoliated monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride cannot be attributed to any structural defects, nanoscale non-flatness of 2D membranes greatly facilitates proton transport. The spatial distribution of proton currents visualized by SECCM reveals marked inhomogeneities that are strongly correlated with nanoscale wrinkles and other features where strain is accumulated. Our results highlight nanoscale morphology as an important parameter enabling proton transport through 2D crystals, mostly considered and modelled as flat, and suggest that strain and curvature can be used as additional degrees of freedom to control the proton permeability of 2D materials.

5.Ultralow power and shifting-discretized magnetic racetrack memory device driven by chirality switching and spin current

Authors:Shen Li, Xiaoyang Lin, Pingzhi Li, Suteng Zhao, Zhizhong Si, Guodong Wei, Bert Koopmans, Reinoud Lavrijsen, Weisheng Zhao

Abstract: Magnetic racetrack memory has significantly evolved and developed since its first experimental verification and is considered as one of the most promising candidates for future high-density on-chip solid state memory. However, the lack of a fast and precise magnetic domain wall (DW) shifting mechanism and the required extremely high DW motion (DWM) driving current both make the racetrack difficult to commercialize. Here, we propose a method for coherent DWM that is free from above issues, which is driven by chirality switching (CS) and an ultralow spin-orbit-torque (SOT) current. The CS, as the driving force of DWM, is achieved by the sign change of DM interaction which is further induced by a ferroelectric switching voltage. The SOT is used to break the symmetry when the magnetic moment is rotated to the Bloch direction. We numerically investigate the underlying principle and the effect of key parameters on the DWM through micromagnetic simulations. Under the CS mechanism, a fast (102 m/s), ultralow energy (5 attojoule), and precisely discretized DWM can be achieved. Considering that skyrmions with topological protection and smaller size are also promising for future racetrack, we similarly evaluate the feasibility of applying such a CS mechanism to a skyrmion. However, we find that the CS only causes it to "breathe" instead of moving. Our results demonstrate that the CS strategy is suitable for future DW racetrack memory with ultralow power consumption and discretized DWM.

6.Full Counting Statistics of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov Bound States

Authors:David Christian Ohnmacht, Wolfgang Belzig, Juan Carlos Cuevas

Abstract: With the help of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) it has become possible to address single magnetic impurities on superconducting surfaces and to investigate the peculiar properties of the in-gap states known as Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states. However, until very recently YSR states were only investigated with conventional tunneling spectroscopy, missing the crucial information contained in other transport properties such as shot noise. Here, we adapt the concept of full counting statistics (FCS) to provide a very deep insight into the spin-dependent transport in these hybrid systems. We illustrate the power of FCS by analyzing different situations in which YSR states show up including single-impurity junctions, as well as double-impurity systems where one can probe the tunneling between individual YSR states. The FCS concept allows us to unambiguously identify every tunneling process that plays a role in these situations. Moreover, FCS provides all the relevant transport properties, including current, shot noise and all the cumulants of the current distribution. Our approach can reproduce the experimental results recently reported on the shot noise of a single-impurity junction with a normal STM tip. We also predict the signatures of resonant (and non-resonant) multiple Andreev reflections in the shot noise of single-impurity junctions with two superconducting electrodes. In the case of double-impurity junctions we show that the direct tunneling between YSR states is characterized by a strong reduction of the Fano factor that reaches a minimum value of 7/32, a new fundamental result in quantum transport. The FCS approach presented here can be naturally extended to investigate the spin-dependent superconducting transport in a variety of situations, and it is also suitable to analyze multi-terminal superconducting junctions, irradiated contacts, and many other basic situations.

1.Nonlinear terahertz Néel spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnetic Mn$_2$Au

Authors:Yannic Behovits, Alexander L. Chekhov, Stanislav Yu. Bodnar, Oliver Gueckstock, Sonka Reimers, Tom S. Seifert, Martin Wolf, Olena Gomonay, Mathias Kläui, Martin Jourdan, Tobias Kampfrath

Abstract: Antiferromagnets have large potential for ultrafast coherent switching of magnetic order with minimum heat dissipation. In novel materials such as Mn$_2$Au and CuMnAs, electric rather than magnetic fields may control antiferromagnetic order by N\'eel spin-orbit torques (NSOTs), which have, however, not been observed on ultrafast time scales yet. Here, we excite Mn$_2$Au thin films with phase-locked single-cycle terahertz electromagnetic pulses and monitor the spin response with femtosecond magneto-optic probes. We observe signals whose symmetry, dynamics, terahertz-field scaling and dependence on sample structure are fully consistent with a uniform in-plane antiferromagnetic magnon driven by field-like terahertz NSOTs with a torkance of (150$\pm$50) cm$^2$/A s. At incident terahertz electric fields above 500 kV/cm, we find pronounced nonlinear dynamics with massive N\'eel-vector deflections by as much as 30{\deg}. Our data are in excellent agreement with a micromagnetic model which indicates that fully coherent N\'eel-vector switching by 90{\deg} within 1 ps is within close reach.

2.Electrically programmable magnetic coupling in an Ising network exploiting solid-state ionic gating

Authors:Chao Yun, Zhongyu Liang, Aleš Hrabec, Zhentao Liu, Mantao Huang, Leran Wang, Yifei Xiao, Yikun Fang, Wei Li, Wenyun Yang, Yanglong Hou, Jinbo Yang, Laura J. Heyderman, Pietro Gambardella, Zhaochu Luo

Abstract: Two-dimensional arrays of magnetically coupled nanomagnets provide a mesoscopic platform for exploring collective phenomena as well as realizing a broad range of spintronic devices. In particular, the magnetic coupling plays a critical role in determining the nature of the cooperative behaviour and providing new functionalities in nanomagnet-based devices. Here, we create coupled Ising-like nanomagnets in which the coupling between adjacent nanomagnetic regions can be reversibly converted between parallel and antiparallel through solid-state ionic gating. This is achieved with the voltage-control of magnetic anisotropies in a nanosized region where the symmetric exchange interaction favours parallel alignment and the antisymmetric exchange interaction, namely the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, favours antiparallel alignment. Applying this concept to a two-dimensional lattice, we demonstrate a voltage-controlled phase transition in artificial spin ices. Furthermore, we achieve an addressable control of the individual couplings and realize an electrically programmable Ising network, which opens up new avenues to design nanomagnet-based logic devices and neuromorphic computers

3.Direct visualization of hybrid excitons in van der Waals heterostructures

Authors:Giuseppe Meneghini, Marcel Reutzel, Stefan Mathias, Samuel Brem, Ermin Malic

Abstract: Van der Waals heterostructures show fascinating physics including trapped moire exciton states, anomalous moire exciton transport, generalized Wigner crystals, etc. Bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are characterized by long-lived spatially separated interlayer excitons. Provided a strong interlayer tunneling, hybrid exciton states consisting of interlayer and intralayer excitons can be formed. Here, electrons and/or holes are in a superposition of both layers. Although crucial for optics, dynamics, and transport, hybrid excitons are usually optically inactive and have therefore not been directly observed yet. Based on a microscopic and material-specific theory, we show that time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) is the ideal technique to directly visualize these hybrid excitons. Concretely, we predict a characteristic double-peak ARPES signal arising from the hybridized hole in the MoS$_2$ homobilayer. The relative intensity is proportional to the quantum mixture of the two hybrid valence bands at the $\Gamma$ point. Due to the strong hybridization, the peak separation of more than 0.5 eV can be resolved in ARPES experiments. Our study provides a concrete recipe of how to directly visualize hybrid excitons and how to distinguish them from the usually observed regular excitonic signatures.

4.Theory of all-coupling angulon for molecules rotating in many-body environment

Authors:Yi-Yan Liu, Yu Cui, Xiao-Zhe Zhang, Ran-Bo Yang, Zhi-Qing Li, Zi-Wu Wang

Abstract: The formation of angulon, stemming from the rotor (molecule or impurity) rotating in the quantum many-body field, adds a new member in the quasiparticle's family and has aroused intensively interests in multiple research fields. However, the analysis of the coupling strength between the rotor and its hosting environment remains a challenging task both in theory and experiment. Here, we develop the all-coupling theory of the angulon by introducing an unitary transformation, where the renormalization of the rotational constants for different molecules in the helium nanodroplets are reproduced, getting excellent agreement with the collected experimental data during the past decades. Moreover, the strength of molecule-helium coupling and the effective radius of the solvation shell corotating along with the molecular rotor could be estimated qualitatively. This model not only provides the significant enlightenment for analyzing the rotational spectroscopy of molecules in the phononic environment, but also provides a new method to study the transfer of the phonon angular momentum in angulon frame.

5.Pauli blockade catalogue in bilayer graphene double quantum dots

Authors:Chuyao Tong, Annika Kurzmann, Rebekka Garreis, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Thomas Ihn, Klaus Ensslin

Abstract: Pauli blockade is a fundamental quantum phenomenon that also serves as a powerful tool for qubit manipulation and read-out. While most systems exhibit a simple even-odd pattern of double-dot Pauli spin blockade due to the preferred singlet pairing of spins, the additional valley degree of freedom offered by bilayer graphene greatly alters this pattern. Inspecting bias-triangle measurements at double-dot charge degeneracies with up to four electrons in each dot reveals a much richer double-dot Pauli blockade catalogue with both spin and/or valley blockade. In addition, we use single-dot Kondo effect measurements to substantiate our understanding of the three- and four-particle state spectra by analyzing their magnetic field dependence. With high controllability and reported long valley- and spin-relaxation times, bilayer graphene is a rising platform for hosting semiconductor quantum dot qubits. A thorough understanding of state spectra is crucial for qubit design and manipulation, and the rich Pauli blockade catalogue provides an abundance of novel qubit operational possibilities and opportunities to explore intriguing spin and valley physics.

6.Type-I to type-II band alignment switching for (In,Ga)(As,Sb)/GaAs/GaP quantum dots overgrown by a thin GaSb capping layer

Authors:Elisa Maddalena Sala, Petr Klenovský

Abstract: We study the optical and theoretical properties of (In,Ga)(As,Sb)/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a GaP (100) matrix, which are overgrown by a thin GaSb capping layer with variable thickness. QD samples are studied by temperature-dependent photoluminescence, and the results analyzed with the help of theoretical simulations by eight-band~\textbf{k$\cdot$p}, with multiparticle corrections using the configuration interaction. We reveal a type-I to type-II band alignment switching when QDs are overgrown by a GaSb layer with a thickness larger than one monolayer. Moreover, we observe a temperature driven blueshift of the quantum dot luminescence, which is explained by decomposing the spectra into sum of Gaussians. Our analysis reveals that the GaSb overlayer causes switching of the intensity between $\Gamma$- and L-transitions, making the ${\bf k}$-indirect electron-hole transition in type-II regime to be optically more radiant than the $\Gamma$-direct one. Finally, we provide theoretical expectations for the storage time for (In,Ga)(As,Sb)/GaAs/GaP QDs overgrown by the GaSb layer with an AlP barrier underneath, to be embedded in a nanomemory device. We find that by increasing the thickness of the GaSb layer from 0 to 1.5~monolayers (MLs) leads to an increase in the storage time of four orders of magnitude, from 1 hour to up almost a year, rendering such QDs very promising candidates as storage units for nanomemory devices.

7.Tunable properties of excitons in double monolayer semiconductor heterostructures

Authors:Luiz G. M. Tenório, Teldo A. S. Pereira, K. Mohseni, T. Frederico, M. R. Hadizadeh, Diego R. da Costa, André J. Chaves

Abstract: We studied the exciton properties in double layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with a dielectric spacer between the layers. We developed a method based on an expansion of Chebyshev polynomials to solve the Wannier equation for the exciton. Corrections to the quasiparticle bandgap due to the dielectric environment were also included via the exchange self-energy calculated within a continuum model. We systematically investigated hetero double-layer systems for TMDs with chemical compounds MX2, showing the dependence of the inter- and intralayer excitons binding energies as a function of the spacer width and the dielectric constant. Moreover, we discussed how the exciton energy and its wave function, which includes the effects of the changing bandgap, depend on the geometric system setup.

8.Suppressed Polaronic Conductivity induced Sensor Response Enhancement in Mo doped V2O5 Nanowires

Authors:Anakha Anson, Dipanjana Mondal, Varsha Biswas, Kusuma Urs MB, Vinayak Kamble

Abstract: In this paper, we show the direct correlation between suppression of polaronic oxygen vacancy defect (Vo) density and gas sensor response of 1 at% Mo doped $V_2O_5$ (MVONW) nanowires. Doping 1 at% $Mo^{5+}$ leads to substitution at the $V^{5+}$ site in $V_2O_5$ nanowires (VONW) and thereby reduction in Vo defects. This in turn affects the charge carrier hopping sites and subsequently enhances the sensor response at lower temperatures ($<320^oC$). The $Mo^{5+}$ dopants lead to the lowering of Fermi energy (EF) towards valence band maxima due to reduced $V_o$ donor density. The polaron suppression is confirmed with activation energy of polaron hopping, increasing from 195 meV to 385 meV in VONW and MVONW respectively. As a result, the response to ethanol gas enhanced as the depletion width is widened for the given cross-section of the nanowires. This may lead to large depletion controlled cross-sectional area and thereby better sensitivity. At about $350^oC$ VONW show change in slope of resistance vs temperature (MIT) which is not observed in case of MVONW. This is attributed to presence of enhanced non-stoichiometry of V ion resulting in metallic behaviour and accompanied with sudden rise in sensor response at this temperature. Moreover, the absence of MIT may be attributed to lack of such sudden rise in response in MVONW.

9.Chern mosaic and ideal flat bands in equal-twist trilayer graphene

Authors:Daniele Guerci, Yuncheng Mao, Christophe Mora

Abstract: We study trilayer graphene arranged in a staircase stacking configuration with equal consecutive twist angle. On top of the moir\'e cristalline pattern, a supermoir\'e long-wavelength modulation emerges that we treat adiabatically. For each valley, we find that the two central bands are topological with Chern numbers $C=\pm 1$ forming a Chern mosaic at the supermoir\'e scale. The Chern domains are centered around the high-symmetry stacking points ABA or BAB and they are separated by gapless lines connecting the AAA points, where the spectrum is fully connected. In the chiral limit and at a magic angle of $\theta \sim 1.69^\circ$, we prove that the central bands are exactly flat with ideal quantum curvature at ABA and BAB. Furthermore, we decompose them analytically as a superposition of an intrinsic color-entangled state with $\pm 2$ and a Landau level state with Chern number $\mp 1$. To connect with experimental configurations, we also explore the non-chiral limit with finite corrugation and find that the topological Chern mosaic pattern is indeed robust and the central bands are still well separated from remote bands.

1.Particle-continuum-medium duality of skyrmions

Authors:X. R. Wang, X. C. Hu

Abstract: Topological solitons are crucial to many branches of physics, such as models of fundamental particles in quantum field theory, information carriers in nonlinear optics, and elementary entities in quantum and classical computations. Chiral magnetic materials are a fertile ground for studying solitons. In the past a few years, a huge number of all kinds of topologically protected localized magnetic solitons have been found. The number is so large, and a proper organization and classification is necessary for their future developments. Here we show that many topological magnetic solitons can be understood from the duality of particle and elastic continuum-medium nature of skyrmions. In contrast to the common belief that a skyrmion is an elementary particle that is indivisible, skyrmions behave like both particle and continuum media that can be tore apart to bury other objects, reminiscing particle-wave duality in quantum mechanics. Skyrmions, like indivisible particles, can be building blocks for cascade skyrmion bags and target skyrmions. They can also act as bags and glues to hold one or more skyrmions together. The principles and rules for stable composite skyrmions are explained and presented, revealing their rich and interesting physics.

2.Transport Properties of a Quantum Dot Restudied by Algebraic Equation of Motion

Authors:Jiangqi Mao, Houmin Du, Yuliang Liu

Abstract: Based on the algebraic equation of motion (AEOM) method, we investigate the transport properties of a quantum dot. We obtain an analytical expression for the dot electron single-particle Green's function, and based on this expression, we plot the dot electron density of states under different biases. We find that the Kondo resonance splits and is suppressed as the bias is increased. In addition, we calculate the differential conductance of the dot and obtain the zero-bias Kondo resonance at different temperatures, which is found to be suppressed as the temperature is increased.

3.Optical Signatures of Förster-induced energy transfer in organic/TMD heterostructures

Authors:Joshua J. P. Thompson, Marina Gerhard, Gregor Witte, Ermin Malic

Abstract: Hybrid van der Waals heterostructures of organic semiconductors and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising candidates for various optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells and biosensors. Energy-transfer processes in these materials are crucial for the efficiency of such devices, yet they are poorly understood. In this work, we develop a fully microscopic theory describing the effect of the F\"{o}rster interaction on exciton dynamics and optics in a WSe$_2$/tetracene heterostack. We demonstrate that the differential absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence can be used to track the real-time evolution of excitons. We predict a strongly unidirectional energy transfer from the organic to the TMD layer. Furthermore, we explore the role temperature has in activating the F\"{o}rster transfer and find a good agreement to previous experiments. Our results provide a blueprint to tune the light-harvesting efficiency through temperature, molecular orientation and interlayer separation in TMD/organic heterostructures.

4.Exciton Diffusion in a Quantum Dot Ensemble

Authors:Karol Kawa, Paweł Machnikowski

Abstract: We theoretically investigate the F\"orster transfer of an exciton in an ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots randomly distributed on a circular mesa. We use the stochastic simulation method to solve the equation of~motion for the density matrix with a given decay rate. We express the diffusion in terms of the mean square displacement from the initially excited quantum dot. The mean square displacement follows three time stages: ballistic, normal diffusion, and saturation. In addition, the exciton exhibits power-law localization. Using an approximate analytical approach, we provide the formulas that follow the results of numerical studies.

5.Mechanism of laser induced self-organized void array formation in Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

Authors:N. Naseri, A. Alshehri, L. Ramunno, R. Bhardwaj

Abstract: This study investigated the formation of multi-voids in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a multi-pulse irradiation method and explored the impact of laser energy, number of pulses per micron (writing speed), and laser spot size (NA) on the process. The experimental results revealed that multi-void formation occurred due to multi-pulse irradiation in the bulk of PDMS. Additionally, increasing laser energy led to an increase in the number of voids, while the number of voids did not change with an increase in the number of pulses per micron for a fixed laser parameter. However, the size of the voids increased with the number of pulses per micron, and tighter focusing conditions (higher NA) resulted in smaller voids with a shorter distance between them. Furthermore, Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) simulations reproduced the generation of void arrays in PDMS using a similar multi-laser pulse approach. By modeling the voids as concentric spheres with densified shells and simulating the laser interaction with the voids, we showed that void array generation in PDMS is a linear mechanism. This study provides valuable insight into the mechanism behind the formation of void arrays in PDMS. The simulation results agrees well with the experimental results to further validate the model and gain a better understanding of the physical processes involved in the generation of void arrays in PDMS.

6.Rose Patterns in the Nonperturbative Current Response of Two-Dimensional Superlattices

Authors:Christophe De Beule, Vo Tien Phong, E. J. Mele

Abstract: In two-dimensional superlattice materials, the nonlinear current response to a large applied electric field can feature a strong angular dependence. This nonperturbative regime encodes information about the band dispersion and Berry curvature of isolated electronic Bloch minibands. Within the relaxation-time approximation, we obtain analytic expressions for the current in a band-projected theory with time-reversal and trigonal symmetry, up to infinite order in the driving field. For a fixed field strength, the dependence of the current on the direction of the applied field is given by rose curves whose petal structure is symmetry constrained and is obtained from an expansion in real-space translation vectors. We illustrate our theory with calculations on periodically-buckled graphene and twisted double bilayer graphene, wherein the discussed physics can be accessed at experimentally-relevant field strengths.

1.Photon emission statistics of a driven microwave cavity

Authors:Pedro Portugal, Fredrik Brange, Kalle S. U. Kansanen, Peter Samuelsson, Christian Flindt

Abstract: Recent experimental advances have made it possible to detect individual quantum jumps in open quantum systems, such as the tunneling of single electrons in nanoscale conductors or the emission of photons from non-classical light sources. Here, we investigate theoretically the statistics of photons emitted from a microwave cavity that is driven resonantly by an external field. We focus on the differences between a parametric and a coherent drive, which either squeezes or displaces the cavity field. We employ a Lindblad master equation dressed with counting fields to obtain the generating function of the photon emission statistics using a theoretical framework based on Gaussian states. We then compare the distribution of photon waiting times for the two drives as well as the $g^{(2)}$-functions of the outgoing light, and we identify important differences between these observables. In the long-time limit, we analyze the factorial cumulants of the photon emission statistics and the large-deviation statistics of the emission currents, which are markedly different for the two drives. Our theoretical framework can readily be extended to more complicated systems, for instance, with several coupled microwave cavities, and our predictions may be tested in future experiments.

2.Topological phase detection through high-harmonic spectroscopy in extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chains

Authors:Mohit Lal Bera, Jessica O. de Almeida, Marlena Dziurawiec, Marcin Płodzień, Maciej M. Maśka, Maciej Lewenstein, Tobias Grass, Utso Bhattacharya

Abstract: Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) chains are paradigmatic examples of 1D topological insulators hosting zero-energy edge modes when the bulk of the system has a non-zero topological winding invariant. Recently, high-harmonic spectroscopy has been suggested as a tool for detecting the topological phase. Specifically, it has been shown that when the SSH chain is coupled to an external laser field of a frequency much smaller than the band gap, the emitted light at harmonic frequencies strongly differs between the trivial and the topological phase. However, it remains unclear whether various non-trivial topological phases -- differing in the number of edge states -- can also be distinguished by the high harmonic generation (HHG). In this paper, we investigate this problem by studying an extended version of the SSH chain with extended-range hoppings, resulting in a topological model with different topological phases. We explicitly show that HHG spectra are a sensitive and suitable tool for distinguishing topological phases when there is more than one topological phase. We also propose a quantitative scheme based on tuning the filling of the system to precisely locate the number of edge modes in each topological phase of this chain.

3.Ultrafast dynamics of bright and dark excitons in monolayer WSe$_2$ and heterobilayer WSe$_2$/MoS$_2$

Authors:Jan Philipp Bange I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Paul Werner I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, David Schmitt I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Wiebke Bennecke I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Giuseppe Meneghini Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität, 35032 Marburg, Germany, AbdulAziz AlMutairi Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA, U.K, Marco Merboldt I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Kenji Watanabe Research Center for Electronic and Optical Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan, Takashi Taniguchi Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan, Sabine Steil I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Daniel Steil I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, R. Thomas Weitz I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany International Center for Advanced Studies of Energy Conversion, Stephan Hofmann Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA, U.K, G. S. Matthijs Jansen I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Samuel Brem Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität, 35032 Marburg, Germany, Ermin Malic Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität, 35032 Marburg, Germany, Marcel Reutzel I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Stefan Mathias I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany International Center for Advanced Studies of Energy Conversion

Abstract: The energy landscape of optical excitations in mono- and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is dominated by optically bright and dark excitons. These excitons can be fully localized within a single TMD layer, or the electron- and the hole-component of the exciton can be charge-separated over multiple TMD layers. Such intra- or interlayer excitons have been characterized in detail using all-optical spectroscopies, and, more recently, photoemission spectroscopy. In addition, there are so-called hybrid excitons whose electron- and/or hole-component are delocalized over two or more TMD layers, and therefore provide a promising pathway to mediate charge-transfer processes across the TMD interface. Hence, an in-situ characterization of their energy landscape and dynamics is of vital interest. In this work, using femtosecond momentum microscopy combined with many-particle modeling, we quantitatively compare the dynamics of momentum-indirect intralayer excitons in monolayer WSe$_2$ with the dynamics of momentum-indirect hybrid excitons in heterobilayer WSe$_2$/MoS$_2$, and draw three key conclusions: First, we find that the energy of hybrid excitons is reduced when compared to excitons with pure intralayer character. Second, we show that the momentum-indirect intralayer and hybrid excitons are formed via exciton-phonon scattering from optically excited bright excitons. And third, we demonstrate that the efficiency for phonon absorption and emission processes in the mono- and the heterobilayer is strongly dependent on the energy alignment of the intralayer and hybrid excitons with respect to the optically excited bright exciton. Overall, our work provides microscopic insights into exciton dynamics in TMD mono- and bilayers.

4.Impacts of the half-skyrmion spin topology, spin-orbit torque, and dynamic symmetry breaking on the growth of magnetic stripe domains

Authors:Jeffrey A. Brock, Daan Swinkels, Bert Koopmans, Eric E. Fullerton

Abstract: We have performed an experimental and modeling-based study of the spin-orbit torque-induced growth of magnetic stripe domains in heavy metal/ferromagnet thin-film heterostructures that possess chiral N\'eel-type domain walls due to an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. In agreement with previous reports, the stripe domains stabilized in these systems exhibit a significant transverse growth velocity relative to the applied current axis. This behavior has previously been attributed to the Magnus force-like skyrmion Hall effect of the stripe domain spin topology, which is analogous to that of a half-skyrmion. However, through analytic modeling of the in-plane torques generated by spin-orbit torque, we find that a dynamical reconfiguration of the domain wall magnetization profile is expected to occur - promoting motion with similar directionality and symmetry as the skyrmion Hall effect. These results further highlight the sensitivity of spin-orbit torque to the local orientation of the domain wall magnetization profile and its contribution to domain growth directionality.

5.Thermally-driven Multilevel Non-volatile Memory with Monolayer MoS2 for Neuro-inspired Artificial Learning

Authors:Sameer Kumar Mallik, Roshan Padhan, Mousam Charan Sahu, Suman Roy, Gopal K Pradhan, Prasana Kumar Sahoo, Saroj Prasad Dash, Satyaprakash Sahoo

Abstract: The demands of modern electronic components require advanced computing platforms for efficient information processing to realize in-memory operations with a high density of data storage capabilities towards developing alternatives to von Neumann architectures. Herein, we demonstrate the multifunctionality of monolayer MoS2 mem-transistors which can be used as a high-geared intrinsic transistor at room temperature; however, at a high temperature (>350 K), they exhibit synaptic multi-level memory operations. The temperature-dependent memory mechanism is governed by interfacial physics, which solely depends on the gate field modulated ion dynamics and charge transfer at the MoS2/dielectric interface. We have proposed a non-volatile memory application using a single FET device where thermal energy can be ventured to aid the memory functions with multi-level (3-bit) storage capabilities. Furthermore, our devices exhibit linear and symmetry in conductance weight updates when subjected to electrical potentiation and depression. This feature has enabled us to attain a high classification accuracy while training and testing the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology datasets through artificial neural network simulation. This work paves the way for new avenues in 2D semiconductors toward reliable data processing and storage with high-packing density arrays for brain-inspired artificial learning.

6.Antiferromagnetic Bloch line driven by spin current as room-temperature analog of a fluxon in a long Josephson junction

Authors:R. V. Ovcharov, B. A. Ivanov, J. Åkerman, R. S. Khymyn

Abstract: Antiferromagnets (AFMs) are promising materials for future high-frequency field-free spintronic applications. Self-localized spin structures can enhance their capabilities and introduce new functionalities to AFM-based devices. Here we consider a domain wall (DW), a topological soliton that bridges a connection between two ground states, similar to a Josephson junction (JJ) link between two superconductors. We demonstrate the similarities between DWs in bi-axial AFM with easy-axis primary anisotropy, driven by a spin current, and long Josephson junctions (LJJs). We found that the Bloch line (BL) in DWs resembles the fluxon state of JJs, creating a close analogy between the two systems. We propose a scheme that allows us to create, move, read, and delete such BLs. This transmission line operates at room temperature and can be dynamically reconfigured in contrast to superconductors. Results of a developed model were confirmed by micromagnetic simulations for Cr$_2$O$_3$ and DyFeO$_3$, i.e., correspondingly with weak and strong in-plane anisotropy. Overall, the proposed scheme has significant potential for use in magnetic memory and logic devices.

1.Curvature-enhanced localised emission from dark states in wrinkled monolayer WSe2 at room temperature

Authors:Sebastian Wood, Filipe Richheimer, Tom Vincent, Vivian Tong, Alessandro Catanzaro, Yameng Cao, Olga Kazakova, Fernando A. Castro

Abstract: Localised emission from defect states in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides is of great interest for optoelectronic and quantum device applications. Recent progress towards high temperature localised emission relies on the application of strain to induce highly confined excitonic states. Here we propose an alternative paradigm based on curvature, rather than in-plane stretching, achieved through free-standing wrinkles of monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). We probe these nanostructures using tip-enhanced optical spectroscopy to reveal the spatial localisation of out-of-plane polarised emission from the WSe2 wrinkles. Based on the photoluminescence and Raman scattering signatures resolved with nanoscale spatial resolution, we propose the existence of a manifold of spin-forbidden excitonic states that are activated by the local curvature of the WSe2. We are able to access these dark states through the out-of-plane polarised surface plasmon polariton resulting in enhanced strongly localised emission at room temperature, which is of potential interest for quantum technologies and photonic devices.

2.Distinct quasiparticle interference patterns for surface impurity scattering on various Weyl semimetals

Authors:Feng Xiong, Chaocheng He, Yong Liu, Annica M. Black-Schaffer, Tanay Nag

Abstract: We examine the response of the Fermi arc in the context of quasi-particle interference (QPI) with regard to a localized surface impurity on various three-dimensional Weyl semimetals (WSMs). Our study also reveals the variation of the local density of states (LDOS), obtained by Fourier transforming the QPI profile, on the two-dimensional surface. We use the $T$-matrix formalism to numerically (analytically and numerically) capture the details of the momentum space scattering in QPI (real space decay in LDOS), considering relevant tight-binding lattice and/or low-energy continuum models modeling a range of different WSMs. In particular, we consider multi-WSM (mWSM), hosting multiple Fermi arcs between two opposite chirality Weyl nodes (WNs), where we find a universal $1/r$-decay ($r$ measuring the radial distance from the impurity core) of the impurity-induced LDOS, irrespective of the topological charge. Interestingly, the inter-Fermi arc scattering is only present for triple WSMs, where we find an additional $1/r^3$-decay as compared to double and single WSMs. The untilted single (double) [triple] WSM shows a straight-line (leaf-like) [oval-shaped] QPI profile. The above QPI profiles are canted for hybrid WSMs where type-I and type-II Weyl nodes coexist, however, hybrid single WSM demonstrates strong non-uniformity, unlike the hybrid double and triple WSMs. We also show that the chirality and the positions of the Weyl nodes imprint marked signatures in the QPI profile. This allows us to distinguish between different WSMs, including the time-reversal-broken WSMs from the time-reversal-invariant WSM, even though both of the WSMs can host two pairs of Weyl nodes. Our study can thus shed light on experimentally obtainable complex QPI profiles and help differentiate different WSMs and their surface band structures.

3.Enhancement of electron magnetic susceptibility due to many-body interactions in monolayer MoSe$_2$

Authors:K. Oreszczuk, A. Rodek, M. Goryca, T. Kazimierczuk, M. Raczynski, J. Howarth, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Potemski, P. Kossacki

Abstract: Employing the original, all-optical method, we quantify the magnetic susceptibility of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined in the MoSe$_2$ monolayer in the range of low and moderate carrier densities. The impact of electron-electron interactions on the 2DEG magnetic susceptibility is found to be particularly strong in the limit of, studied in detail, low carrier densities. Following the existing models, we derive $g_0 = 2.5 \pm 0.4$ for the bare (single particle) g-factor of the ground state electronic band in the MoSe$_2$ monolayer. The derived value of this parameter is discussed in the context of estimations from other experimental approaches. Surprisingly, the conclusions drawn differ from theoretical ab-initio studies.

4.Orbital Hall effect in mesoscopic devices

Authors:Diego B. Fonseca, Lucas L. A. Pereira, Anderson L. R. Barbosa

Abstract: We investigate the orbital Hall effect through a disordered mesoscopic device with momentum-space orbital texture that is connected to four semi-infinite terminals embedded in the Landauer-B\"uttiker configuration for quantum transport. We present clear analytical and numerical evidence that the orbital Hall current fluctuations are universals (as with spin Hall current fluctuations). The universal orbital Hall current fluctuations (UOCF) exhibit two universal numbers of 0.36 and 0.18 for weak and strong spin-orbit coupling, respectively. The universal numbers are obtained by analytical calculation via random matrix theory and are supported by numerical calculations based on the tight-binding model. Furthermore, the UOCF lead to two universal relationships between the orbital Hall angle and conductivity. Finally, we confront the two universal relations with experimental data of the orbital Hall angle, which shows good concordance between theory and experiment.

1.Enhanced photothermal response near the buckling bifurcation in 2D nanomechanical resonators

Authors:Hanqing Liu, Gabriele Baglioni, Carla B. Constant, Herre S. J. van der Zant, Peter G. Steeneken, Gerard J. Verbiest

Abstract: The dynamics of ultrathin membranes made of two-dimensional (2D) materials is highly susceptible to stress. Although the dynamics of such membranes under tensile stress has been thoroughly studied, their motion under compressive stress, particular in the buckled state has received less attention. Here, we study the dynamics of 2D nanomechanical resonators made of FePS$_3$, 2H-TaS$_2$ and WSe$_2$ membranes near the buckling bifurcation. Using an optomechanical method, we measure their resonant frequency and thermal transport while varying in-plane stress via membrane temperature and thermal expansion. The observed temperature dependence of the resonance frequency is well capture by a mechanical model, which allows us to extract the pre-strain, central deflection and boundary compressive stress of the membrane. Near the buckling bifurcation, we observe a remarkable enhancement of up to 7$\times$ the thermal signal in the fabricated devices, demonstrating the extremely high force sensitivity of the membranes near this point. The presented results provide insights into the effects of buckling on the dynamics of free-standing 2D materials and thereby open up opportunities for the realization of 2D resonant nanomechanical sensors with buckling-enhanced sensitivity.

2.Hydrogenic Spin-Valley states of the Bromine donor in 2H-MoTe$_2$

Authors:Valeria Sheina, Guillaume Lang, Vasily Stolyarov, Vyacheslav Marchenkov, Sergey Naumov, Alexandra Perevalova, Jean-Christophe Girard, Guillemin Rodary, Christophe David, Leonnel Romuald Sop, Debora Pierucci, Abdelkarim Ouerghi, Jean-Louis Cantin, Brigitte Leridon, Mahdi Ghorbani-Asl, Arkady V. Krasheninnikov, Hervé Aubin

Abstract: In semiconductors, the identification of doping atomic elements allowing to encode a qubit within spin states is of intense interest for quantum technologies. In transition metal dichalcogenides semiconductors, the strong spin-orbit coupling produces locked spin-valley states with expected long coherence time. Here we study the substitutional Bromine Br\textsubscript{Te} dopant in 2H-MoTe$_2$. Electron spin resonance measurements show that this dopant carries a spin with long-lived nanoseconds coherence time. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we find that the hydrogenic wavefunctions associated with the dopant levels have characteristics spatial modulations that result from their hybridization to the \textbf{Q}-valleys of the conduction band. From a Fourier analysis of the conductance maps, we find that the amplitude and phase of the Fourier components change with energy according to the different irreducible representations of the impurity-site point-group symmetry. These results demonstrate that a dopant can inherit the locked spin-valley properties of the semiconductor and so exhibit long spin-coherence time.

3.Ultrafast electron-phonon scattering in antiferromagnetic Dirac-semimetals

Authors:Marius Weber, Kai Leckron, Libor Šmejkal, Jairo sinova, Baerbel Rethfeld, Hans Christian Schneider

Abstract: Recent novel topological antiferromagnetic systems have shown a strong magnetoresistance effects driven by Dirac fermion characteristics whose topology can be dynamically controlled by the N\'eel vector orientation. These new antiferromagnets are characterized by anisotropic band structures combined with complex relativistic spin structures in momentum space. While these systems have been studied in transport experiments, very little is known about their spin-dependent electronic dynamics on ultrafast timescales and far-from-equilibrium behavior. This paper investigates spin-dependent electronic dynamics due to electron-phonon scattering in a model electronic band structure that corresponds to a Dirac semimetal antiferromagnet. Following a spin-independent instantaneous excitation, we obtain a change of the antiferromagnetic spin polarization due to the scattering dynamics for the site-resolved spin expectation values. This allows us to identify fingerprints of the anisotropic band structure in the carrier dynamics on ultrashort timescales which should be observable in present experimental set-ups.

4.Coherent and incoherent magnons induced by strong ultrafast demagnetization in thin permalloy films

Authors:Anulekha De, Akira Lentfert, Laura Scheuer, Benjamin Stadtmüller, Georg von Freymann, Martin Aeschlimann, Philipp Pirro

Abstract: Understanding spin dynamics on femto- and picosecond timescales offers new opportunities for faster and more efficient devices. Here, we experimentally investigate coherent spin dynamics following ultrafast all-optical excited demagnetization measured by time- resolved magneto optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) in ultrathin Ni80Fe20 films. On nanosecond time scales, we provide a detailed investigation of the magnetic field and pump fluence dependence of the GHz frequency precessional dynamics. We discuss how the unusual dependence of the lifetime of the coherent precession can be related to the dephasing due to nonlinear magnon interactions and the incoherent magnon background.

5.Atomically-precise engineering of spin-orbit polarons in a kagome magnetic Weyl semimetal

Authors:Hui Chen, Yuqing Xing, Hengxin Tan, Li Huang, Qi Zheng, Zihao Huang, Xianghe Han, Bin Hu, Yuhan Ye, Yan Li, Yao Xiao, Hechang Lei, Xianggang Qiu, Enke Liu, Haitao Yang, Ziqiang Wang, Binghai Yan, Hong-Jun Gao

Abstract: Atomically-precise engineering of defects in topological quantum materials, which is essential for constructing new artificial quantum materials with exotic properties and appealing for practical quantum applications, remains challenging due to the hindrances in modifying complex lattice with atomic precision. Here, we report the atomically-precise engineering of the vacancy-localized spin-orbital polarons (SOP) in a kagome magnetic Weyl semimetal Co3Sn2S2, using scanning tunneling microscope. We achieve the repairing of the selected single vacancy and create atomically-precise sulfur quantum antidots with elaborate geometry through vacancy-by-vacancy repairing. We find that that the bound states of SOP experience a symmetry-dependent energy shift towards Fermi level with increasing vacancy size driven by the anti-bond interactions. Strikingly, as vacancy size increases, the localized magnetic moments of SOPs are tunable and ultimately extended to the negative magnetic moments resulting from spin-orbit coupling in the kagome flat band. These findings establish a new platform for engineering atomic quantum states in topological quantum materials, offering potential for kagome-lattice-based spintronics and quantum technologies.

6.Microscopic superexchange model for moiré bilayer in chromium trihalides

Authors:Kok Wee Song

Abstract: We construct a microscopic model based on superexchange theory for a moir\'e bilayer in chromium trihalides (Cr$X_3$, $X=$Br, I). In particular, we derive analytically the interlayer Heisenberg exchange and the interlayer Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with arbitrary distances ($\mathbf{x}$) between spins. Importantly, our model takes into account sliding and twisting geometries in the interlayer $X$-$X$ hopping processes. Unlike previous works, the $\mathbf{x}$-dependent interlayer exchange is deduced by various sliding bilayers where the geometry due to the rotation between $X$-planes is omitted. We argue that excluding twisting may lead to an incomplete interlayer exchange for a moir\'e bilayer. Using the \textit{ab initio} tight-binding Hamiltonian, we numerically evaluate the exchange interactions in CrI$_3$. We find that our analytical model agrees with the previous comprehensive density functional theory studies. Furthermore, our findings reveal the important role of the correlation effects in the $X$'s $p$ orbitals, which gives rise to a rich interlayer magnetic interaction with remarkable tunability.

7.Integer and fractional Chern insulators in twisted bilayer MoTe2

Authors:Yihang Zeng, Zhengchao Xia, Kaifei Kang, Jiacheng Zhu, Patrick Knüppel, Chirag Vaswani, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Kin Fai Mak, Jie Shan

Abstract: Chern insulators, which are the lattice analogs of the quantum Hall states, can potentially manifest high-temperature topological orders at zero magnetic field to enable next-generation topological quantum devices. To date, integer Chern insulators have been experimentally demonstrated in several systems at zero magnetic field, but fractional Chern insulators have been reported only in graphene-based systems under a finite magnetic field. The emergence of semiconductor moir\'e materials, which support tunable topological flat bands, opens a new opportunity to realize fractional Chern insulators. Here, we report the observation of both integer and fractional Chern insulators at zero magnetic field in small-angle twisted bilayer MoTe2 by combining the local electronic compressibility and magneto-optical measurements. At hole filling factor {\nu}=1 and 2/3, the system is incompressible and spontaneously breaks time reversal symmetry. We determine the Chern number to be 1 and 2/3 for the {\nu}=1 and {\nu}=2/3 gaps, respectively, from their dispersion in filling factor with applied magnetic field using the Streda formula. We further demonstrate electric-field-tuned topological phase transitions involving the Chern insulators. Our findings pave the way for demonstration of quantized fractional Hall conductance and anyonic excitation and braiding in semiconductor moir\'e materials.

1.Extracting unconventional spin texture in two dimensional topological crystalline insulators via tuning bulk-edge interactions

Authors:Yuefeng Yin, Chutian Wang, Michael S. Fuhrer, Nikhil V. Medhekar

Abstract: Tuning the interaction between the bulk and edge states of topological materials is a powerful tool for manipulating edge transport behavior, opening up exciting opportunities for novel electronic and spintronic applications. This approach is particularly suited to topological crystalline insulators (TCI), a class of topologically nontrivial compounds that are endowed with multiple degrees of topological protection. In this study, we investigate how bulk-edge interactions can influence the edge transport in planar bismuthene, a TCI with metallic edge states protected by in-plane mirror symmetry, using first principles calculations and symmetrized Wannier tight-binding models. By exploring the impact of various perturbation effects, such as device size, substrate potentials, and applied transverse electric field, we examine the evolution of the electronic structure and edge transport in planar bismuthene. Our findings demonstrate that the TCI states of planar bismuthene can be engineered to exhibit either a gapped or conducting unconventional helical spin texture via a combination of substrate and electric field effects. Furthermore, under strong electric fields, the edge states can be stabilized through a delicate control of the bulk-edge interactions. These results open up new directions for discovering novel spin transport patterns in topological materials and provide critical insights for the fabrication of topological spintronic devices.

2.Tuning multiple Landau Quantization in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide with Strain

Authors:Zihao Huang, Guoyu Xian, Xiangbo Xiao, Xianghe Han, Guojian Qian, Chengmin Shen, Haitao Yang, Hui Chen, Banggui Liu, Ziqiang Wang, Hong-Jun Gao

Abstract: Landau quantization associated with the quantized cyclotron motion of electrons under magnetic field provides the effective way to investigate topologically protected quantum states with entangled degrees of freedom and multiple quantum numbers. Here we report the cascade of Landau quantization in a strained type-II Dirac semimetal NiTe2 with spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. The uniform-height surfaces exhibit single-sequence Landau levels (LLs) at a magnetic field originating from the quantization of topological surface state (TSS) across the Fermi level. Strikingly, we reveal the multiple sequence of LLs in the strained surface regions where the rotation symmetry is broken. Firstprinciples calculations demonstrate that the multiple LLs attest to the remarkable lifting of the valley degeneracy of TSS by the in-plane uniaxial or shear strains. Our findings pave a pathway to tune multiple degrees of freedom and quantum numbers of TMDs via strain engineering for practical applications such as high-frequency rectifiers, Josephson diode and valleytronics.

3.Proving weak electronic interaction between molecules and substrate: a study of pentacene monolayer on graphite

Authors:Yuri Hasegawa, Takuma Yamaguchi, Matthias Meissner, Takahiro Ueba, Fabio Bossolotti, Shin-ichiro Ideta, Kiyohisa Tanaka, Susumu Yanagisawa, Satoshi Kera

Abstract: The impact of van der Waals interaction on the electronic structure between a pentacene monolayer and a graphite surface was investigated. Upon cooling the monolayer, newly formed dispersive bands, showing the constant final state nature overlapping with the non-dispersive, discrete molecular orbital state, is observed by low-energy angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The dispersive band consists of positive and negative intensities depending on the final state energy, indicating Fano resonance involving a discrete molecular state that couples a continuum state upon photoionization. A wave-function overlap is demonstrated according to their larger spread in unoccupied states even at the weakly bounded interface by Fano spectral analysis.

4.Ultrafast and Electrically Tunable Rabi Frequency in a Germanium Hut Wire Hole Spin Qubit

Authors:He Liu, Ke Wang, Fei Gao, Jin Leng, Yang Liu, Yu-Chen Zhou, Gang Cao, Ting Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Peihao Huang, Hai-Ou Li, Guo-Ping Guo

Abstract: Hole spin qubits based on germanium (Ge) have strong tunable spin orbit interaction (SOI) and ultrafast qubit operation speed. Here we report that the Rabi frequency (f_Rabi) of a hole spin qubit in a Ge hut wire (HW) double quantum dot (DQD) is electrically tuned through the detuning energy and middle gate voltage (V_M). f_Rabi gradually decreases with increasing detuning energy; on the contrary, f_Rabi is positively correlated with V_M. We attribute our results to the change of electric field on SOI and the contribution of the excited state in quantum dots to f_Rabi. We further demonstrate an ultrafast f_Rabi exceeding 1.2 GHz, which evidences the strong SOI in our device. The discovery of an ultrafast and electrically tunable f_Rabi in a hole spin qubit has potential applications in semiconductor quantum computing.

5.Transient transport spectroscopy of an interacting quantum dot proximized by a superconductor: Charge- and heat-currents after a switch

Authors:Lara C. Ortmanns, Janine Splettstoesser, Maarten R. Wegewijs

Abstract: We analyze the time-evolution of a quantum dot which is proximized by a large-gap superconductor and weakly probed using the charge and heat currents into a wide-band metal electrode. We map out the full time dependence of these currents after initializing the system by a switch. We find that due to the proximity effect there are two simple yet distinct switching procedures which initialize a non-stationary mixture of the gate-voltage dependent eigenstates of the proximized quantum dot. We find in particular that the ensuing time-dependent heat current is a sensitive two-particle probe of the interplay of strong Coulomb interaction and induced superconducting pairing. The pairing can lead to a suppression of charge and heat current decay which we analyze in detail. The analysis of the results makes crucial use of analytic formulas obtained using fermionic duality, a ``dissipative symmetry'' of the master equation describing this class of open systems.

6.Computational study of III-V direct-gap semiconductors for thermoradiative cell applications

Authors:Muhammad Y. Hanna, Muhammad Aziz Majidi, Ahmad R. T. Nugraha

Abstract: We investigate the performance of thermoradiative (TR) cells using the III-V group of semiconductors, which include GaAs, GaSb, InAs, and InP, with the aim of determining their efficiency and finding the best TR cell materials among the III-V group. The TR cells generate electricity from thermal radiation, and their efficiency is influenced by several factors such as the bandgap, temperature difference, and absorption spectrum. To create a realistic model, we incorporate sub-bandgap and heat losses in our calculations and utilize density-functional theory to determine the energy gap and optical properties of each material. Our findings suggest that the effect of absorptivity on the material, especially when the sub-bandgap and heat losses are considered, can decrease the efficiency of TR cells. However, careful treatment of the absorptivity indicates that not all materials have the same trend of decrease in the TR cell efficiency when taking the loss mechanisms into account. We observe that GaSb exhibits the highest power density, while InP demonstrates the lowest one. Moreover, GaAs and InP exhibit relatively high efficiency without the sub-bandgap and heat losses, whereas InAs display lower efficiency without considering the losses, yet exhibit higher resistance to sub-bandgap and heat losses compared to the other materials, thus effectively becoming the best TR cell material in the III-V group of semiconductors.

7.Polariton vortex Chern insulator

Authors:Stella L. Harrison, Anton Nalitov, Pavlos G. Lagoudakis, Helgi Sigurðsson

Abstract: We propose a vortex Chern insulator, motivated by recent experimental demonstrations on programmable arrangements of cavity polariton vortices by [Alyatkin et al., ArXiv:2207.01850 (2022)] and [Wang et al., National Sci. Rev. 10, Nwac096 (2022)]. In the absence of any external fields, time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously by through polariton condensation into structured arrangements of localized co-rotating vortices. We characterize the response of the rotating condensate lattice by calculating the spectrum of Bogoliubov elementary excitations and observe the crossing of edge-states, of opposite vorticity, connecting bands with opposite Chern numbers. The emergent topologically nontrivial energy gap stems from inherent vortex anisotropic polariton-polariton interactions and does not require any spin-orbit coupling, external magnetic fields, or elliptically polarized pump fields.

8.Emergent metallicity at the grain boundaries of higher-order topological insulators

Authors:Daniel J. Salib, Vladimir Juričić, Bitan Roy

Abstract: Topological lattice defects, such as dislocations and grain boundaries (GBs), are ubiquitously present in the bulk of quantum materials and externally tunable in metamaterials. In terms of robust modes, localized near the defect cores, they are instrumental in identifying topological crystals, featuring the hallmark band inversion at a finite momentum (translationally active type). Here we show that GB superlattices in both two- and three-dimensional translationally active higher-order topological insulators harbor a myriad of dispersive modes that are typically placed at finite energies, but always well-separated from the bulk states. However, when the Burgers vector of the constituting edge dislocations points toward the gapless corners or hinges, both second- and third-order topological insulators accommodate self-organized emergent topological metals in the GB mini Brillouin zone. We discuss possible material platforms where our proposed scenarios can be realized through band-structure and defect engineering.

1.Why magnetic monopole becomes dyon in topological insulators

Authors:Shoto Aoki, Hidenori Fukaya, Naoto Kan, Mikito Koshino, Yoshiyuki Matsuki

Abstract: The Witten effect predicts that a magnetic monopole gains a fractional electric charge inside topological insulators. In this work, we give a microscopic description for this phenomenon, as well as an analogous two-dimensional system with a vortex. %solving a ``negatively" massive Dirac equation. We solve a regularized Dirac equation both analytically in continuum and numerically on a lattice, adding the Wilson term to make the sign of the fermion mass well-defined and smearing the singular gauge field in a finite range of radius $r_1$ to make the analysis UV finite. We find that the Wilson term locally gives a positive mass shift with a size of $1/r_1$, which dynamically creates a finite-sized domain-wall around the monopole/vortex. We can identify the chiral edge-localized zero modes sitting on the created domain-wall as the origin of the electric charge. The fact that the charge origin is not a point-like singularity but a small codimension-one domain-wall makes the topological meaning of the zero modes clearer: they are protected by the Atiyah-Singer index theorem on the wall, which is essential to show that only a half of the wave function is captured by the monopole/vortex.

2.$\mathcal{PT}$-activated non-Hermitian skin modes

Authors:Zhoutao Lei, Ching Hua Lee, Linhu Li

Abstract: Parity-time ($\mathcal{PT}$) symmetry is a cornerstone of non-Hermitian physics as it ensures real energies for stable experimental realization of non-Hermitian phenomena. In this work, we propose $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry as a paradigm for designing new families of higher-dimensional non-Hermitian states with unique bulk, surface, hinge or corner dynamics. Through systematically breaking or restoring $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry in different sectors of a system, we can selectively ``activate'' or manipulate the non-Hermitian skin effect (NHSE) in both the bulk and topological boundary states. Some fascinating new phenomena include the directional toggling of the NHSE, an intrinsic hybrid skin-topological effect and the flow of boundary states without chiral or dynamical pumping. Our results extend richly into 3D or higher, with more sophisticated interplay with hybrid skin-topological localizations and $\mathcal{CP}$ symmetry. Based on non-interacting lattices, $\mathcal{PT}$-activated NHSE phenomena can be observed in various optical, photonic, electric and quantum platforms that admit gain/loss and non-reciprocity.

3.Conversion of phonon angular momentum into magnons in ferromagnets

Authors:Dapeng Yao, Shuichi Murakami

Abstract: Chiral phonons have an angular momentum which represents the microscopic local rotation of atoms in crystals. In this theoretical investigation, we establish a spin-wave model in a ferromagnet with exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions on a two-dimensional kagome lattice. We then introduce chiral phonons, which modulate spin-spin interactions. In the valley-phonon modes with angular momenta, the microscopic rotational motion of atoms around their equilibrium positions are treated as an adiabatic process and it can dynamically affect the spin configuration of electrons. By means of the adiabatic modulation for the spin-wave model, the number of the magnon excitations due to chiral phonons can be calculated. As a result, the change of the number of magnons induced by chiral phonons is caused by geometrical effects. The chiral phonons with clockwise and counterclockwise modes induce a change of the number of magnons with opposite signs.

4.Effective Tight-Binding Model of Compensated Ferrimagnetic Weyl Semimetal with Spontaneous Orbital Magnetization

Authors:Tomonari Meguro, Akihiro Ozawa, Koji Kobayashi, Kentaro Nomura

Abstract: The effective tight-binding model with compensated ferrimagnetic inverse-Heusler lattice Ti$_{2}$MnAl, candidate material of magnetic Weyl semimetal, is proposed. The energy spectrum near the Fermi level, the configurations of the Weyl points, and the anomalous Hall conductivity are calculated. We found that the orbital magnetization is finite, while the total spin magnetization vanishes, at the energy of the Weyl points. The magnetic moments at each site are correlated with the orbital magnetization, and can be controlled by the external magnetic field.

5.Field-induced hybridization of moiré excitons in MoSe$_2$/WS$_2$ heterobilayers

Authors:Borislav Polovnikov, Johannes Scherzer, Subhradeep Misra, Xin Huang, Christian Mohl, Zhijie Li, Jonas Göser, Jonathan Förste, Ismail Bilgin, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Alexander Högele, Anvar S. Baimuratov

Abstract: We study experimentally and theoretically the hybridization among intralayer and interlayer moir\'e excitons in a MoSe$_2$/WS$_2$ heterostructure with antiparallel alignment. Using a dual-gate device and cryogenic white light reflectance and narrow-band laser modulation spectroscopy, we subject the moir\'e excitons in the MoSe$_2$/WS$_2$ heterostack to a perpendicular electric field, monitor the field-induced dispersion and hybridization of intralayer and interlayer moir\'e exciton states, and induce a cross-over from type I to type II band alignment. Moreover, we employ perpendicular magnetic fields to map out the dependence of the corresponding exciton Land\'e $g$-factors on the electric field. Finally, we develop an effective theoretical model combining resonant and non-resonant contributions to moir\'e potentials to explain the observed phenomenology, and highlight the relevance of interlayer coupling for structures with close energetic band alignment as in MoSe$_2$/WS$_2$.

6.Probing the graphene/substrate interaction by electron tunneling decay

Authors:Virginia Carnevali, Alessandro Sala, Pietro Biasin, Mirco Panighel, Giovanni Comelli, Maria Peressi, Cristina Africh

Abstract: The electronic properties of graphene can be modified by the local interaction with a selected metal substrate. To probe this effect, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy is widely employed, particularly by means of local measurement via lock-in amplifier of the differential conductance and of the field emission resonance. In this article we propose an alternative, reliable method of probing the graphene/substrate interaction that is readily available to any STM apparatus. By testing the tunneling current as function of the tip/sample distance on nanostructured graphene on Ni(100), we demonstrate that I(z) spectroscopy can be quantitatively compared with Density Functional Theory calculations and can be used to assess the nature of the interaction between graphene and substrate. This method can expand the capabilities of standard STM systems to study graphene/substrate complexes, complementing standard topographic probing with spectroscopic information.

7.Bond polarizability as a probe of local crystal fields in hybrid lead-halide perovskites

Authors:Yujing Wei, Dusan Lorenc, Osman M. Bakr, Artem G. Volosniev, Mikhail Lemeshko, Ayan A. Zhumekenov, Zhanybek Alpichshev

Abstract: A rotating organic cation and a dynamically disordered soft inorganic cage are the hallmark features of hybrid organic-inorganic lead-halide perovskites. Understanding the interplay between these two subsystems is a challenging problem but it is this coupling that is widely conjectured to be responsible for the unique behaviour of photo-carriers in these materials. In this work, we use the fact that the polarizability of the organic cation strongly depends on the ambient electrostatic environment to put the molecule forward as a sensitive probe of local crystal fields inside the lattice cell. We measure the average polarizability of the C/N--H bond stretching mode by means of infrared spectroscopy, which allows us to deduce the character of the motion of the cation molecule, find the magnitude of the local crystal field and place an estimate on the strength of the hydrogen bond between the hydrogen and halide atoms. Our results pave the way for understanding electric fields in lead-halide perovskites using infrared bond spectroscopy.

8.Meron configurations in easy-plane chiral magnets

Authors:David Bachmann, Michail Lianeris, Stavros Komineas

Abstract: We demonstrate the existence and study in detail the features of chiral bimerons which are static solutions in an easy-plane magnet with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. These are skyrmionic textures with an integer topological charge and they present essential analogies to the meron configurations introduced in the context of quark confinement in the O(3) nonlinear sigma-model. We employ a Moebius transformation to show that, for weak chirality, bimeron configurations approach Belavin-Polyakov (BP) solutions characterized by tightly bound vortex and antivortex parts of the same size. Stronger chirality induces different vortex and antivortex sizes and also a detachment of merons, suggesting the possibility for a topological phase transition. Exploiting the fact that bimerons of opposite topological charges may exist in the same material, we demonstrate numerically a mechanism to generate meron pairs.

9.Quantum oscillations in 2D electron gases with spin-orbit and Zeeman interactions

Authors:Denis R. Candido, Sigurdur I. Erlingsson, Hamed Gramizadeh, João Vitor I. Costa, Pirmin J. Weigele, Dominik M. Zumbühl, J. Carlos Egues

Abstract: Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations have served as a paradigmatic experimental probe and tool for extracting key semiconductor parameters such as carrier density, effective mass, Zeeman splitting with g-factor $g^*$, quantum scattering times and spin-orbit (SO) coupling parameters. Here, we derive for the first time an analytical formulation for the SdH oscillations in 2D electron gases (2DEGs) with simultaneous Rashba, Dresselhaus, and Zeeman interactions. Our analytical and numerical calculations allow us to extract both Rashba and Dresselhaus SO coupling parameters, carrier density, quantum lifetimes, and also to understand the role of higher harmonics in the SdH oscillations. More importantly, we derive a simple condition for the vanishing of SO induced SdH beatings for all harmonics in 2DEGs: $\alpha/\beta= [(1-\tilde \Delta)/(1+\tilde \Delta)]^{1/2}$, where $\tilde \Delta$ is a material parameter given by the ratio of the Zeeman and Landau level splitting. We also predict beatings in the higher harmonics of the SdH oscillations and elucidate the inequivalence of the SdH response of Rashba-dominated ($\alpha>\beta$) vs Dresselhaus-dominated ($\alpha<\beta$) 2DEGs in semiconductors with substantial $g^*$. We find excellent agreement with recent available experimental data of Dettwiler ${\it et\thinspace al.}$ Phys. Rev. X $\textbf{7}$, 031010 (2017), and Beukman ${\it et\thinspace al.}$, Phys. Rev. B $\textbf{96}$, 241401 (2017).

1.Spin-dependent Destructive Quantum Interference Associated with Chirality-induced Spin Selectivity in Circular Single Helix Molecules

Authors:Song Chen, Hua-Hua Fu

Abstract: Theoretical studies on spin-dependent transport through helical molecules with straight spiral geometry have received intense research interest in the past decade, however, the physics in circular helical molecules has still less been explored. In this work, we theoretically construct a circular single helix (CSH) possessing the chirality-induced spin-orbit coupling and contacting with two non-magnetic electrodes. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the spin-related transport in CSH exhibits the so-called chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect and more importantly, the CISS-reduced spin-dependent destructive quantum interference (DQI) also occurs in the CSH, without any external magnetic field or magnetic electrodes. Moreover, the changing of CSH length or the electrode positions exhibits specific patterns in the spin-polarized conductance. Particularly, the dephasing magnitude can adjust effectively these two spin-dependent effects to realize their coexistence. Additionally, the phase transition between the CISS-dependent constructive quantum interference (CQI) and DQI is also observed in the CSH. Our theoretical work puts forwards a new material plateau to explore the CISS and to exhibit the novel CISS-dependent CQI effect.

2.Continuum model study of optical absorption by hybridized moiré excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers

Authors:Yao-Wen Chang

Abstract: We propose a continuum model for the theoretical study of hybridized moir\'e excitons in transition metal dichalcogenides heterobilayers, and we use a variational method to solve the exciton wavefunction and calculate the optical absorption spectrum. The exciton continuum model is built by the charge continuum model for electrons and holes in moir\'e superlattices, thereby preserving the moir\'e periodicity and lattice symmetry from the charge continuum model. The momentum-space shift of interlayer electron-hole distribution is included, and thus the indirect nature of interlayer excitons is described. Spin and valley degrees of freedom and related interactions are omitted in this model, except for the spin-orbit energy splitting of A and B excitons. In long moir\'e-wavelength and zero charge-transfer-coupling limits, the exciton model and the optical absorption formula can be reduced to the counterparts of an isolated exciton. This continuum model is applied to the simulation of optical absorption by hybridized moir\'e excitons in $\text{WSe}_2$/$\text{WS}_2$ and $\text{MoSe}_2$/$\text{WS}_2$ heterobilayers. Twist-angle and electric-field dependences of absorption spectra are studied. Calculated spectra are compared with experimental observations in the literature, and correspondences of signatures are found. The deficiency and the potential of the present model are discussed.

3.Observation of Fluctuation Spin Hall Effect in Antiferromagnet

Authors:Chi Fang, Caihua Wan, Xiaoyue Zhang, Satoshi Okamoto, Tianyi Ma, Jianying Qin, Xiao Wang, Chenyang Guo, Jing Dong, Guoqiang Yu, Zhenchao Wen, Ning Tang, Stuart S. P. Parkin, Naoto Nagaosa, Yuan Lu, Xiufeng Han

Abstract: The spin Hall effect (SHE) can generate a pure spin current by an electric current, which is promisingly used to electrically control magnetization. To reduce power consumption of this control, a giant spin Hall angle (SHA) in the SHE is desired in low-resistivity systems for practical applications. Here, critical spin fluctuation near the antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase-transition is proved as an effective mechanism to create an additional part of SHE, named as fluctuation spin Hall effect (FSHE). This FSHE enhances the SHA due to the AFM spin fluctuation between conduction electrons and local spins. We detect the FSHE with the inverse and direct spin Hall effect (ISHE and DSHE) set-up and their temperature (T) dependences in the Cr/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The SHA is significantly enhanced when temperature is approached to the N\'eel temperature (T_N) and has a peak value of -0.34 at 200 K near T_N. This value is higher than the room-temperature value by 240% and comparable to that of heavy metals Ta and W. Furthermore, the spin Hall resistivity of Cr well fits the modeled T-dependence when T approaches T_N from low temperatures, implying the AFM spin fluctuation nature of strong SHA enhancement. Thus, this study demonstrates the critical spin fluctuation as a prospective way of increasing SHA and enriches the AFM material candidates for spin-orbitronic devices.

4.Valley-contrasting interband transitions and excitons in symmetrically biased dice model

Authors:Lei Hao

Abstract: We study the exciton states in the symmetrically biased dice model, the electronic structures of which have an isolated flat band between two dispersive bands. At 1/3 or 2/3 filling, the model describes a two-dimensional semiconductor with the band edge at two degenerate valleys. Because of qualitative changes in the eigenvectors resulting from the bias term, the interband transition between the flat band and a dispersive band is valley contrasting under circularly polarized light. In terms of an effective-mass model and a realistic electron-hole interaction, we numerically calculate the spectrum and wave functions of the intravalley excitons, which are treated as Wannier-Mott excitons. We also discuss the fine structures of the exciton spectrum induced by the intravalley and intervalley exchange interactions. The symmetrically biased dice model thereby proves to be a new platform for valley-contrasting optoelectronics.

5.Plasma echoes in graphene

Authors:Marinko Jablan

Abstract: Plasma echo is a dramatic manifestation of plasma damping process reversibility. In this paper we calculate temporal and spatial plasma echoes in graphene in the acoustic plasmon regime when echoes dominate over plasmon emission. We show an extremely strong spatial echo response and discuss how electron collisions reduce the echo. We also discuss differences between various electron dispersions, and differences between semiclassical and quantum model of echoes.

6.Multi-module microwave assembly for fast read-out and charge noise characterization of silicon quantum dots

Authors:Felix-Ekkehard von Horstig, David J. Ibberson, Giovanni A. Oakes, Laurence Cochrane, Nadia Stelmashenko, Sylvain Barraud, Jason A. W. Robinson, Frederico Martins, M. Fernando Gonzalez-Zalba

Abstract: Fast measurements of quantum devices is important in areas such as quantum sensing, quantum computing and nanodevice quality analysis. Here, we develop a superconductor-semiconductor multi-module microwave assembly to demonstrate charge state readout at the state-of-the-art. The assembly consist of a superconducting readout resonator interfaced to a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chiplet containing quantum dots (QDs) in a high-$\kappa$ nanowire transistor. The superconducting chiplet contains resonant and coupling elements as well as $LC$ filters that, when interfaced with the silicon chip, result in a resonant frequency $f=2.12$~GHz, a loaded quality factor $Q=680$, and a resonator impedance $Z=470$~$\Omega$. Combined with the large gate lever arms of SOI technology, we achieve a minimum integration time for single and double QD transitions of 2.77~ns and 13.5~ns, respectively. We utilize the assembly to measure charge noise over 9 decades of frequency up to 500~kHz and find a 1/$f$ dependence across the whole frequency spectrum as well as a charge noise level of 4~$\mu$eV/$\sqrt{\text{Hz}}$ at 1~Hz. The modular microwave circuitry presented here can be directly utilized in conjunction with other quantum device to improve the readout performance as well as enable large bandwidth noise spectroscopy, all without the complexity of superconductor-semiconductor monolithic fabrication.

7.The Quantum Measurement Spintronic Engine: Using Entanglement to Harvest Vacuum Fluctuations

Authors:Mathieu Lamblin, Martin Bowen

Abstract: Several experimental reports have described electrical power output by electronic devices that channel spin-polarized currents across paramagnetic centers. Phononic radiation have been proposed as the source of the engine's energy, though other hypotheses, such as quantum vacuum fluctuations, should also be examined. This paper is the first of a series which will address these hypotheses. Herein, we investigate the more basic hypothesis that quantum vacuum fluctuations power a quantum engine that converts entanglement energy into useful electrical work. The system under review is composed of two atom-level quantum dots that are tunnel-coupled and exhibit a magnetic exchange interaction. This working substance is connected in series with two ferromagnetic electrodes. The engine cycle comprises two strokes. The thermalizing stroke puts the system into equilibrium with the electrode baths, leading to a release of electrical energy into the leads and to an increase in the system entropy due to entanglement. Then the measurement stroke breaks the entanglement between the two quantum dots, thereby reducing its entropy while energizing it on average. Using a perturbative master equation approach, we analytically demonstrate the efficiency of the engine, and we study the cycle numerically to gain insight into the relevant parameters to maximize power. Although the possibility of harvesting energy from the quantum vacuum fluctuations and the interactions with the baths is proven on paper and confirmed by numerical experiments, the efficiency remains low and is unstable. Our results indicate that quantum vacuum fluctuations alone are unlikely to be the energy source in the the quantum spintronic engine experiments that have been reported thus far.

8.Zigzag dice lattice ribbons: Distinct edge morphologies and structure-spectrum correspondences

Authors:Lei Hao

Abstract: Ribbons of two-dimensional lattices have properties depending sensitively on the morphology of the two edges. For regular ribbons with two parallel straight edges, the atomic chains terminating the two edges may have more than one choices for a general edge orientation. We enumerate the possible choices for zigzag dice lattice ribbons, which are regular ribbons of the dice lattice with edges parallel to a zigzag direction, and explore the relation between the edge morphologies and their electronic spectra. A formula is introduced to count the number of distinct edge termination morphologies for the regular ribbons, which gives 18 distinct edge termination morphologies for the zigzag dice lattice ribbons. For the pure dice model, because the equivalence of the two rim sublattices, the numerical spectra of the zigzag ribbons show qualitative degeneracies among the different edge termination morphologies. For the symmetrically biased dice model, we see a one-to-one correspondence between the 18 edge termination morphologies and their electronic spectra, when both the zero-energy flat bands and the dispersive or nonzero-energy in-gap states are considered. We analytically study several interesting features in the electronic spectra, including the number and wave functions of the zero-energy flat bands, and the analytical spectrum of novel in-gap states. The in-gap states of the zigzag dice lattice ribbons both exhibit interesting similarities and show salient differences when compared to the spectra of the zigzag ribbons of the honeycomb lattice.

9.One-dimensional flat bands and Dirac cones in narrow zigzag dice lattice ribbons

Authors:Lei Hao

Abstract: We show that four narrow zigzag dice lattice ribbons, which have the minimal widths among their separate categories, constitute a unique collection of systems to study physics related to one-dimensional Dirac cones and flat bands. In zero magnetic field, all three combinations, including only Dirac cones, only flat bands, coexisting Dirac cones and flat bands, are realized in the low-energy band structures of one or two of the four ribbons. In particular, we identify flat bands and Dirac cones corresponding to the edge states of wide ribbons. In a perpendicular magnetic field that gives half a flux quantum per elementary rhombus, two of the four minimal ribbons have fully pinched spectrum, and dynamical evolutions from initially localized wave packets always lead to compact Aharonov-Bohm (AB) cages. The experimental realizations of these narrow zigzag dice lattice ribbons, and the opportunities of exploring novel single-body and many-body physics therein are discussed.

10.Exceptional points treatment of cavity spectroscopies

Authors:Shaul Mukamel, Anqi Li, Michael Galperin

Abstract: The infrared response of a system of two vibrational modes in a cavity is calculated by an effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian derived by employing the nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Degeneracies of the Hamiltonian (exceptional points, EP) widely employed in theoretical analysis of optical cavity spectroscopies are used in an approximate treatment and compared with the full NEGF. Qualitative limitations of the EP treatment are explained by examining the approximations employed in the calculation.

11.Locality of topological dynamics in Chern insulators

Authors:A. A. Markov, D. B. Golovanova, A. R. Yavorsky, A. N. Rubtsov

Abstract: A system having macroscopic patches in different topological phases have no well-defined global topological invariant. To treat such a case, the quantities labeling different areas of the sample according to their topological state are used, dubbed local topological markers. Here we study their dynamics. We concentrate on two quantities, namely local Chern marker and on-site charge induced by an applied magnetic field. We demonstrate that the time-dependent local Chern marker is much more non-local object than equilibrium one. Surprisingly, in large samples driven out of equilibrium, it leads to a simple description of the local Chern marker's dynamics by a local continuity equation. Also, we argue that the connection between the local Chern marker and magnetic-field induced charge known in static holds out of equilibrium in some experimentally relevant systems as well. This gives a clear physical description of the marker's evolution and provides a simple recipe for experimental estimation of the topological marker's value.

1.Observation of Multiple Topological Corner States in Thermal Diffusion

Authors:Minghong Qi, Yanxiang Wang, Pei-Chao Cao, Xue-Feng Zhu, Fei Gao, Hongsheng Chen, Ying Li

Abstract: Higher-dimensional topological meta-materials have more flexible than one-dimensional topological materials, which are more convenient to apply and solve practical problems. However, in diffusion systems, higher-dimensional topological states have not been well studied. In this work, we experimentally realized the 2D topological structure based on a kagome lattice of thermal metamaterial. Due to the anti-Hermitian properties of the diffusion Hamiltonian, it has purely imaginary eigenvalues corresponding to the decay rate. By theoretical analysis and directly observing the decay rate of temperature through experiments, we present the various corner states in 2D topological diffusive system. Our work constitutes the first realization of multiple corner states with high decay rates in a pure diffusion system, which provides a new idea for the design of topological protected thermal metamaterial in the future.

2.Majorana Bound States in Germanium Josephson Junctions via Phase Control

Authors:Melina Luethi, Henry F. Legg, Katharina Laubscher, Daniel Loss, Jelena Klinovaja

Abstract: We consider superconductor-normal-superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNSNS) planar Josephson junctions in hole systems with spin-orbit interaction that is cubic in momentum (CSOI). Utilizing only the superconducting phase difference, we find parameter `sweet spots' for reasonable junction transparencies that result in a topological region of phase space, within which Majorana bound states (MBSs) appear at the ends of the junction. In planar germanium hetereostructures CSOI can be the dominant form of SOI and extremely strong. We show analytically and numerically that, within experimental regimes, our results provide an achievable roadmap for a new MBS platform with low disorder, minimal magnetic fields, and very strong spin-orbit interaction, overcoming many of the key deficiencies that have so far prevented the conclusive observation of MBSs.

3.The higher-order magnetic skyrmions in non-uniform magnetic fields

Authors:M. S. Shustin, V. A. Stepanenko, D. M. Dzebisashvili

Abstract: For 2D Hubbard model with spin-orbit Rashba coupling in external magnetic field the structure of effective spin interactions is studied in the regime of strong electron correlations and at half-filling. It is shown that in the third order of perturbation theory, the scalar and vector chiral spin-spin interactions of the same order arise. The emergence of the latter is due to orbital effects of magnetic field. It is shown that for nonuniform fields, scalar chiral interaction can lead to stabilization of axially symmetric skyrmion states with arbitrary topological charges. Taking into account the hierarchy of effective spin interactions, an analytical theory on the optimal sizes of such states -- the higher-order magnetic skyrmions -- is developed for axially symmetric magnetic fields of the form $h(r) \sim r^{\beta}$ with $\beta \in \mathbb{R}$.

4.Magnetism-induced band-edge shift as mechanism for magnetoconductance in CrPS$_4$ transistors

Authors:Fan Wu, Marco Gibertini, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Ignacio Gutiérrez-Lezama, Nicolas Ubrig, Alberto F. Morpurgo

Abstract: Transistors realized on multilayers of 2D antiferromagnetic semiconductor CrPS$_4$ exhibit large, gate-tunable low-temperature magnetoconductance, due to changes in magnetic state induced by the applied magnetic field. The microscopic mechanism coupling the conductance to the magnetic state is however not understood. We identify this mechanism by analyzing the evolution with temperature and magnetic field of the parameters determining the transistor behavior, the carrier mobility and threshold voltage. We find that for temperatures $T$ close to the n\'eel temperature $T_N$, the magnetoconductance originates from the increase in mobility due to cooling or the applied magnetic field, which reduce disorder originating from spin fluctuations. For $T<<T_N$, the mechanism is entirely different: the mobility is field and temperature independent, and what changes is the threshold voltage, so that increasing the field at fixed gate voltage increases the density of accumulated electrons. The change in threshold voltage is due to a shift in the conduction band-edge as confirmed by \emph{ab-initio} calculations that capture the magnitude of the effect. Our results demonstrate that the bandstructure of CrPS$_4$ depends on its magnetic state and reveal a mechanism for magnetoconductance in transistors that had not been identified earlier and that is of general validity for magnetic semiconductors.

5.Topological properties of a non-Hermitian two-orbital model

Authors:Dipendu Halder, Saurabh Basu

Abstract: We perform a thorough analysis of a non-Hermitian (NH) version of a tight binding chain comprising of two orbitals per unit cell. The non-Hermiticity is further bifurcated into PT symmetric and non-PT symmetric cases, respectively, characterized by non-reciprocal nearest neighbour hopping amplitudes and purely imaginary onsite potential energies. The studies on the localization and the topological properties of our models reveal several intriguing results. For example, they have complex energy gaps with distinct features, that is, a line gap for the non-PT symmetric case and a point gap for the PT symmetric case. Further, the NH skin effect, a distinctive feature of the NH system, is non-existent here and is confirmed via computing the local density of states. The bulk-boundary correspondence for both the NH variants obeys a bi-orthogonal condition. Moreover, the localization of the edge modes obtained via the inverse participation ratio shows diverse dependencies on the parameters of the Hamiltonian. Also, the topological properties are discernible from the behaviour of the topological invariant, namely, the complex Berry phase, which shows a sharp transition from a finite value to zero. Interestingly, the PT symmetric system is found to split between a PT broken and an unbroken phase depending on the values of the parameters. Finally, the results are benchmarked with the Hermitian model to compare and contrast those obtained for the NH variants.

6.Demonstration of acoustic high-order Stiefel-Whitney semimetal in bilayer graphene sonic crystals

Authors:Xiao Xiang, Xiang Ni, Feng Gao, Xiaoxiao Wu, Zhaoxian Chen, Yu-Gui Peng, Xue-Feng Zhu

Abstract: Recently, higher-order topological phases have endowed materials many exotic topological phases. For three-dimensional (3D) higher-order topologies, it hosts topologically protected 1D hinge states or 0D corner states, which extend the bulk-boundary correspondence of 3D topological phases. Meanwhile, the enrichment of group symmetries with exploration of projective symmetry algebras redefined the fundamentals of nontrivial topological matter with artificial gauge fields, leading to the discovery of new topological phases in classical wave systems. In this Letter, we construct an acoustic topological semimetal characterized by both the first and the second Stiefel-Whitney (SW) topological charges by utilizing the projective symmetry. Different from conventional high-order topologies with multiple bulk-boundary correspondences protected by different class topological invariants, acoustic high-order Stiefel-Whitney semimetal (HOSWS) has two different bulk-edge correspondences protected by only one class (SW class) topological invariant. Two types of topological hinge and surface states are embedded in bulk bands at the same frequency, featuring similar characteristics of bound states in the continuum (BICs). In experiments, we demonstrate the existence of high-quality surface state and hinge state at the interested frequency window with polarized intensity field distributions.

7.Polarization Jumps across Topological Phase Transitions in Two-dimensional Systems

Authors:Hiroki Yoshida, Tiantian Zhang, Shuichi Murakami

Abstract: In topological phase transitions involving a change in topological invariants such as the Chern number and the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological invariant, the gap closes, and the electric polarization becomes undefined at the transition. In this paper, we show that the jump of polarization across such topological phase transitions in two dimensions is described in terms of positions and monopole charges of Weyl points in the intermediate Weyl semimetal phase. We find that the jump of polarization is described by the Weyl dipole at $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological phase transitions and at phase transitions without any change in the value of the Chern number. Meanwhile, when the Chern number changes at the phase transition, the jump is expressed in terms of the relative positions of Weyl points measured from a reference point in the reciprocal space.

8.Cryogenic Multiplexing with Bottom-Up Nanowires

Authors:Dāgs Olšteins, Gunjan Nagda, Damon J. Carrad, Daria V. Beznasiuk, Christian E. N. Petersen, Sara Martí-Sánchez, Jordi Arbiol, Thomas Sand Jespersen

Abstract: Bottom-up grown nanomaterials play an integral role in the development of quantum technologies. Among these, semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are widely used in proof-of-principle experiments, however, difficulties in parallel processing of conventionally-grown NWs makes scalability unfeasible. Here, we harness selective area growth (SAG) to remove this road-block. We demonstrate large scale integrated SAG NW circuits consisting of 512 channel multiplexer/demultiplexer pairs, incorporating thousands of interconnected SAG NWs operating under deep cryogenic conditions. Multiplexers enable a range of new strategies in quantum device research and scaling by increase the device count while limiting the number of connections between room-temperature control electronics and the cryogenic samples. As an example of this potential we perform a statistical characterization of large arrays of identical SAG quantum dots thus establishing the feasibility of applying cross-bar gating strategies for efficient scaling of future SAG quantum circuits.

9.Variable Electrical Responses in Epitaxial Graphene Nanoribbons

Authors:C. -C. Yeh, S. M. Mhatre, N. T. M. Tran, H. M. Hill, H. Jin, P. -C. Liao, D. K. Patel, R. E. Elmquist, C. -T. Liang, A. F. Rigosi

Abstract: We have demonstrated the fabrication of both armchair and zigzag epitaxial graphene nanoribbon (GNR) devices on 4H-SiC using a polymer-assisted sublimation growth method. The phenomenon of terrace step formation has traditionally introduced the risk of GNR deformation along sidewalls, but a polymer-assisted sublimation method helps mitigate this risk. Each type of 50 nm wide GNR is examined electrically and optically (armchair and zigzag), with the latter method being a check on the quality of the GNR devices and the former using alternating current to investigate resistance attenuation from frequencies above 100 Hz. Rates of attenuation are determined for each type of GNR device, revealing subtle suggested differences between armchair and zigzag GNRs.

10.Coherent Optical Spin Hall Transport for Spin-optronics at Room Temperature

Authors:Ying Shi, Yusong Gan, Yuzhong Chen, Yubin Wang, Sanjib Ghosh, Alexey Kavokin, Qihua Xiong

Abstract: Spin or valley degrees of freedom in condensed matter have been proposed as efficient information carriers towards next generation spintronics. It is therefore crucial to develop effective strategies to generate and control spin or valley-locked spin currents, e.g., by exploiting the spin Hall or valley Hall effects. However, the scattering, and rapid dephasing of electrons pose major challenges to achieve macroscopic coherent spin currents and realistic spintronic or valleytronic devices, specifically at room temperature, where strong thermal fluctuations could further obscure the spin flow. Exciton polaritons in semiconductor microcavities being the quantum superposition of excitons and photons, are believed to be promising platforms for spin-dependent optoelectronic or, in short, spin-optronic devices. Long-range spin current flows of exciton polaritons may be controlled through the optical spin Hall effect. However, this effect could neither be unequivocally observed at room temperature nor be exploited for realistic polariton spintronic devices due to the presence of strong thermal fluctuations or large linear spin splittings. Here, we report the observation of room temperature optical spin Hall effect of exciton polaritons with the spin current flow over a distance as large as 60 um in a hybrid organic-inorganic FAPbBr3 perovskite microcavity. We show direct evidence of the long-range coherence at room temperature in the flow of exciton polaritons, and the spin current carried by them. By harnessing the long-range spin-Hall transport of exciton polaritons, we have demonstrated two novel room temperature polaritonic devices, namely the NOT gate and the spin-polarized beam splitter, advancing the frontier of room-temperature polaritonics in perovskite microcavities.

11.Topological flat bands in rhombohedral tetralayer and multilayer graphene on hexagonal boron nitride moire superlattices

Authors:Youngju Park, Yeonju Kim, Bheema Lingam Chittari, Jeil Jung

Abstract: We show that rhombohedral four-layer graphene (4LG) nearly aligned with a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) substrate often develops nearly flat isolated low energy bands with non-zero valley Chern numbers. The bandwidths of the isolated flatbands are controllable through an electric field and twist angle, becoming as narrow as $\sim10~$meV for interlayer potential differences between top and bottom layers of $|\Delta|\approx 10\sim15~$meV and $\theta \sim 0.5^{\circ}$ at the graphene and boron nitride interface. The local density of states (LDOS) analysis shows that the nearly flat band states are associated to the non-dimer low energy sublattice sites at the top or bottom graphene layers and their degree of localization in the moire superlattice is strongly gate tunable, exhibiting at times large delocalization despite of the narrow bandwidth. We verified that the first valence bands' valley Chern numbers are $C^{\nu=\pm1}_{V1} = \pm n$, proportional to layer number for $n$LG/BN systems up to $n = 8$ rhombohedral multilayers.

12.Designing Valley-Dependent Spin-Orbit Interaction by Curvature

Authors:A. Yamakage, T. Sato, R. Okuyama, T. Funato, W. Izumida, K. Sato, T. Kato, M. Matsuo

Abstract: We construct a general theoretical framework for describing curvature-induced spin-orbit interactions on the basis of group theory. Our theory can systematically determine the emergence of spin splitting in the band structure according to symmetry in the wavenumber space and the bending direction of the material. As illustrative examples, we derive the curvature-induced spin-orbit coupling for carbon and silicon nanotubes. Our theory offers a strategy for designing valley-contrasting spin-orbit coupled materials by tuning their curvatures.

13.Hotter is easier: unexpected temperature dependence of spin qubit frequencies

Authors:Brennan Undseth, Oriol Pietx-Casas, Eline Raymenants, Mohammad Mehmandoost, Mateusz T. Madzik, Stephan G. J. Philips, Sander L. de Snoo, David J. Michalak, Sergey V. Amitonov, Larysa Tryputen, Brian Paquelet Wuetz, Viviana Fezzi, Davide Degli Esposti, Amir Sammak, Giordano Scappucci, Lieven M. K. Vandersypen

Abstract: As spin-based quantum processors grow in size and complexity, maintaining high fidelities and minimizing crosstalk will be essential for the successful implementation of quantum algorithms and error-correction protocols. In particular, recent experiments have highlighted pernicious transient qubit frequency shifts associated with microwave qubit driving. Workarounds for small devices, including prepulsing with an off-resonant microwave burst to bring a device to a steady-state, wait times prior to measurement, and qubit-specific calibrations all bode ill for device scalability. Here, we make substantial progress in understanding and overcoming this effect. We report a surprising non-monotonic relation between mixing chamber temperature and spin Larmor frequency which is consistent with observed frequency shifts induced by microwave and baseband control signals. We find that purposefully operating the device at 200 mK greatly suppresses the adverse heating effect while not compromising qubit coherence or single-qubit fidelity benchmarks. Furthermore, systematic non-Markovian crosstalk is greatly reduced. Our results provide a straightforward means of improving the quality of multi-spin control while simplifying calibration procedures for future spin-based quantum processors.

1.Multidimensional sensing of proximity magnetic fields via intrinsic activation of dark excitons in WSe$_2$/CrCl$_3$ heterostructure

Authors:Łucja Kipczak, Zhaolong Chen, Pengru Huang, Kristina Vaklinova, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Adam Babiński, Maciej Koperski, Maciej R. Molas

Abstract: Quantum phenomena at interfaces create functionalities at the level of materials. Ferromagnetism in van der Waals systems with diverse arrangements of spins opened a pathway for utilizing proximity magnetic fields to activate properties of materials which would otherwise require external stimuli. Herewith, we realize this notion via creating heterostructures comprising bulk CrCl$_3$ ferromagnet with in-plane easy-axis magnetization and monolayer WSe$_2$ semiconductor. We demonstrate that the in-plane component of the proximity field activates the dark excitons within WSe$_2$. Zero-external-field emission from the dark states allowed us to establish the in-plane and out-of-plane components of the proximity field via inspection of the emission intensity and Zeeman effect, yielding canted orientations at the degree range of $10^{\circ}$ $-$ $30^{\circ}$ at different locations of the heterostructures, attributed to the features of interfacial topography. Our findings are relevant for the development of spintronics and valleytronics with long-lived dark states in technological timescales and sensing applications of local magnetic fields realized simultaneously in multiple dimensions.

2.Perspective on non-Hermitian physics in magnetic systems

Authors:Tao Yu, J. W. Rao

Abstract: A perspective on non-Hermitian physics in magnetic systems is addressed in this short article, including exceptional points, exceptional nodal phases, the non-Hermitian SSH model, and the non-Hermitian skin effect.

3.Ground state topology of a four-terminal superconducting double quantum dot

Authors:Lev Teshler, Hannes Weisbrich, Raffael L. Klees, Gianluca Rastelli, Wolfgang Belzig

Abstract: In recent years, various classes of systems were proposed to realize topological states of matter. One of them are multiterminal Josephson junctions where topological Andreev bound states are constructed in the synthetic space of superconducting phases. Crucially, the topology in these systems results in a quantized transconductance between two of its terminals comparable to the quantum Hall effect. In this work, we study a double quantum dot with four superconducting terminals and show that it has an experimentally accessible topological regime in which the non-trivial topology can be measured. We also include Coulomb repulsion between electrons which is usually present in experiments and show how the topological region can be maximized in parameter space.

4.Photovoltaic cell based on n-ZnO microrods and p-GaN film

Authors:Vlad Vasilyev, Borys Turko, Bogdan Sadovyi, Volodymyr Kapustianyk, Y. Eliyashevskyi, Roman Serkiz

Abstract: The photovoltaic cell based on p-GaN film/n-ZnO micro rods quasi array heterojunction was fabricated. According to the scanning electron microscopy data, the ZnO array consisted of the tightly packed vertical micro rods with a diameter of approximately 2-3 {\mu}m. The turn-on voltage of the heterojunction of ZnO/GaN (rods/film) was around 0.6 V. The diode-ideality factor was estimated to be of around 4. The current-voltage characteristic of the photovoltaic cell under UV LED illumination showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.26 V, a short-circuit current of 0.124 nA, and a fill factor of 39 %, resulting in an overall efficiency of 1.4*10(^-5) %.

5.Synchronization and spacetime vortices in one-dimensional driven-dissipative condensates and coupled oscillator models

Authors:John P. Moroney, Paul R. Eastham

Abstract: Driven-dissipative condensates, such as those formed from polaritons, expose how the coherence of Bose-Einstein condensates evolves far from equilibrium. We consider the phase and frequency ordering in the steady-states of a one-dimensional lattice of condensates, described by a coupled oscillator model with non-odd couplings, and include both time-dependent noise and a static random potential. We present numerical results for the phase and frequency distributions, and discuss them in terms of the Kardar-Paraisi-Zhang equation and the physics of spacetime vortices. We find that the nucleation of spacetime vortices causes the breakdown of the single-frequency steady-state and produces a variation in the frequency with position. Such variation would provide an experimental signature of spacetime vortices. More generally, our results expose the nature of sychronization in oscillator chains with non-odd couplings, random frequencies, and noise.

6.Perturbed Periodic Lattices: Sharp Crossover Between Effective-Mass-Like States and Wannier-Stark-Like Ladders

Authors:R. Merlin

Abstract: The concept of Wannier-Stark ladders, describing the equally spaced spectrum of a tightly-bound particle in a constant electric field, is generalized to account for arbitrary slowly-varying potentials. It is shown that an abrupt transition exists that separates Wannier-Stark-like from effective-mass-like behavior when the depth of the perturbation becomes equal to the width of the band of extended states. For potentials bounded from below, the spectrum bifurcates above the critical energy while the wavefunctions detach from the effective-mass region and split into two pieces.

7.Fractional quantum anomalous Hall states in twisted bilayer MoTe$_2$ and WSe$_2$

Authors:Aidan P. Reddy, Faisal F. Alsallom, Yang Zhang, Trithep Devakul, Liang Fu

Abstract: We demonstrate via exact diagonalization that AA stacked TMD homobilayers host fractional quantum anomalous Hall states, zero-field analogs of their finite-field cousins, at fractional fillings $n=\frac{1}{3},\, \frac{2}{3}$. Additionally, ferromagnetism is present across a broad range of fillings where the system is insulating or metallic alike. While both fractional quantum anomalous hall states are robust at angles near $\theta\approx 2^{\circ}$, the $n=\frac{1}{3}$ gives way to a charge density wave with increasing twist angle whereas the $n=\frac{2}{3}$ state survives across a much broader range of twist angles. We show that the competition between FQAH and charge density wave or metallic phases is primarily controlled by Bloch band wavefunctions and dispersion respectively.

8.Evolution of Flat Band and Van Hove Singularities with Interlayer Coupling in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

Authors:Veerpal, Ajay

Abstract: Here we present a theoretical analysis (applicable to all twist angles of TBG) of band dispersion and density of states in TBG relating evolution of flat band and Van-Hove singularities with evolution of interlayer coupling in TBG. A simple tight binding Hamiltonian with environment dependent interlayer hopping and incorporated with internal configuration of carbon atoms inside a supercell is used to calculate band dispersion and density of states in TBG. Various Hamiltonian parameters and functional form of interlayer hopping applicable to a wide range of twist angles in TBG is estimated by fitting calculated dispersion and density of states with available experimentally observed dispersion and density of states in Graphene, AB-stacked bilayer graphene and some TBG systems. Computationally obtained band dispersion reveal that flat band in TBG occurs very close to Dirac point of graphene and only along linear dimension of two-dimensional wave vector space connecting two closest Dirac points of two graphene layers of TBG.

9.Formation of the stopped polarization pulse in a rectangular quantum well

Authors:Pavel Belov, Rostislav Arkhipov

Abstract: The induced polarization oscillations in a one-dimensional rectangular quantum well are modeled by a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The finite-difference discretization over time is realized in the framework of the Crank-Nicolson algorithm, whereas over the spatial coordinate it is combined with the exterior complex-scaling technique. A formation of the harmonic oscillations of the dipole moment by an incident short unipolar pulse is shown. It is obtained that the frequency of oscillations is solely defined by the energy of the main resonant transition. Moreover, if two such short unipolar pulses are delayed by a half-period of the oscillation, then these oscillations can be abruptly induced and stopped. Thus, the so-called stopped polarization pulse is obtained. It is shown that both the amplitude and the duration of the incident unipolar pulse, contributing to the so-called electric pulse area, define the impact of the incident pulse on the quantum system.

1.Revealing the higher-order spin nature of the Hall effect in non-collinear antiferromagnet $\mathrm{Mn_3Ni_{0.35}Cu_{0.65}N}$

Authors:Adithya Rajan, Tom G. Saunderson, Fabian R. Lux, Rocío Yanes Díaz, Hasan M. Abdullah, Arnab Bose, Beatrice Bednarz, Jun-Young Kim, Dongwook Go, Tetsuya Hajiri, Gokaran Shukla, Olena Gomonay, Yugui Yao, Wanxiang Feng, Hidefumi Asano, Udo Schwingenschlögl, Luis López-Díaz, Jairo Sinova, Yuriy Mokrousov, Aurélien Manchon, Mathias Kläui

Abstract: Ferromagnets generate an anomalous Hall effect even without the presence of a magnetic field, something that conventional antiferromagnets cannot replicate but noncollinear antiferromagnets can. The anomalous Hall effect governed by the resistivity tensor plays a crucial role in determining the presence of time reversal symmetry and the topology present in the system. In this work we reveal the complex origin of the anomalous Hall effect arising in noncollinear antiferromagnets by performing Hall measurements with fields applied in selected directions in space with respect to the crystalline axes. Our coplanar magnetic field geometry goes beyond the conventional perpendicular field geometry used for ferromagnets and allows us to suppress any magnetic dipole contribution. It allows us to map the in-plane anomalous Hall contribution and we demonstrate a 120$^\circ$ symmetry which we find to be governed by the octupole moment at high fields. At low fields we subsequently discover a surprising topological Hall-like signature and, from a combination of theoretical techniques, we show that the spins can be recast into dipole, emergent octupole and noncoplanar effective magnetic moments. These co-existing orders enable magnetization dynamics unachievable in either ferromagnetic or conventional collinear antiferromagnetic materials.

2.Scattering Dynamics and Boundary States of a Non-Hermitian Dirac Equation

Authors:Yun Yong Terh, Rimi Banerjee, Haoran Xue, Y. D. Chong

Abstract: We study a non-Hermitian variant of the (2+1)-dimensional Dirac wave equation, which hosts a real energy spectrum with pairwise-orthogonal eigenstates. In the spatially uniform case, the Hamiltonian's non-Hermitian symmetries allow its eigenstates to be mapped to a pair of Hermitian Dirac subsystems. When a wave is transmitted across an interface between two spatially uniform domains with different model parameters, an anomalous form of Klein tunneling can occur, whereby reflection is suppressed while the transmitted flux is substantially higher or lower than the incident flux. The interface can even function as a simultaneous laser and coherent perfect absorber. Remarkably, the violation of flux conservation occurs entirely at the interface, as no wave amplification or damping takes place in the bulk. Moreover, at energies within the Dirac mass gaps, the interface can support exponentially localized boundary states with real energies. These features of the continuum model can also be reproduced in non-Hermitian lattice models.

3.Adversarial Hamiltonian learning of quantum dots in a minimal Kitaev chain

Authors:Rouven Koch, David van Driel, Alberto Bordin, Jose L. Lado, Eliska Greplova

Abstract: Determining Hamiltonian parameters from noisy experimental measurements is a key task for the control of experimental quantum systems. An experimental platform that recently emerged, and where knowledge of Hamiltonian parameters is crucial to fine-tune the system, is that of quantum dot-based Kitaev chains. In this work, we demonstrate an adversarial machine learning algorithm to determine the parameters of a quantum dot-based Kitaev chain. We train a convolutional conditional generative adversarial neural network (Conv-cGAN) with simulated differential conductance data and use the model to predict the parameters at which Majorana bound states are predicted to appear. In particular, the Conv-cGAN model facilitates a rapid, numerically efficient exploration of the phase diagram describing the transition between elastic co-tunneling and crossed Andreev reflection regimes. We verify the theoretical predictions of the model by applying it to experimentally measured conductance obtained from a minimal Kitaev chain consisting of two spin-polarized quantum dots coupled by a superconductor-semiconductor hybrid. Our model accurately predicts, with an average success probability of $97$\%, whether the measurement was taken in the elastic co-tunneling or crossed Andreev reflection-dominated regime. Our work constitutes a stepping stone towards fast, reliable parameter prediction for tuning quantum-dot systems into distinct Hamiltonian regimes. Ultimately, our results yield a strategy to support Kitaev chain tuning that is scalable to longer chains.

4.Generalized Wiedemann-Franz law in a two-site charge Kondo circuit: "magic" Lorenz ratio as a benchmark for the orthogonality catastrophe

Authors:M. N. Kiselev

Abstract: We show that the transport integrals of the two-site charge Kondo circuits connecting various multi-channel Kondo simulators satisfy the generalized Wiedemann-Franz law with the universal Lorenz ratios all greater than one. The "magic" Lorenz ratios are directly connected to the Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe in quantum simulators providing some additional universal measure for the strong electron-electron correlations. We present a full fledged theory for the "magic" Lorenz ratios and discuss possible routes for the experimental verifications of the theory.

5.Accurate multiscale simulation of frictional interfaces by Quantum Mechanics/Green's Function molecular dynamics

Authors:Seiji Kajita, Alberto Pacini, Gabriele Losi, Nobuaki Kikkawa, Maria Clelia Righi

Abstract: Understanding frictional phenomena is a fascinating fundamental problem with huge potential impact on energy saving. Such an understanding requires monitoring what happens at the sliding buried interface, which is almost inaccessible by experiments. Simulations represent powerful tools in this context, yet a methodological step forward is needed to fully capture the multiscale nature of the frictional phenomena. Here, we present a multiscale approach based on linked ab initio and Green's function molecular dynamics, which is above the state-of-the-art techniques used in computational tribology as it allows for a realistic description of both the interfacial chemistry and energy dissipation due to bulk phonons in non-equilibrium conditions. By considering a technologically relevant system composed of two diamond surfaces with different degrees of passivation, we show that the presented method can be used not only for monitoring in real-time tribolochemical phenomena such as the tribologically-induced surface graphitization and passivation effects but also for estimating realistic friction coefficients. This opens the way to in silico experiments of tribology to test materials to reduce friction prior to that in real labs.

6.Many-Body Coherence in Quantum Transport

Authors:Ching-Chi Hang, Liang-Yan Hsu

Abstract: In this study, we propose the concept of harnessing quantum coherence to control electron transport in a many-body system. Combining an open quantum system technique based on Hubbard operators, we show that many-body coherence can eliminate the well-known Coulomb staircase and cause strong negative differential resistance. To explore the mechanism, we analytically derive the current-coherence relationship in the zero electron-phonon coupling limit. Furthermore, by incorporating a gate field, we demonstrate the possibility of constructing a coherence-controlled transistor. This development opens up a new direction for creating quantum electronic devices based on many-body coherence.

1.Chern numbers associated with the periodic Toda lattice

Authors:K. Sato, T. Fukui

Abstract: The periodic Toda lattice can be solved by exploiting the spectral properties of the Lax operator, where boundary states play an important role. We show that such boundary states have a topological origin similar to the edge states in topological insulators, and consequently, bulk wave functions of the Lax operator yield nontrivial Chern numbers. This implies that the periodic Toda lattice belongs to the same topological class as the Thouless pump. We demonstrate that the cnoidal wave of the Toda lattice shows Chern number $-1$ per period.

2.Controlled Coherent Coupling in a Quantum Dot Molecule Revealed by Ultrafast Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy

Authors:Daniel Wigger, Johannes Schall, Marielle Deconinck, Nikolai Bart, Paweł Mrowiński, Mateusz Krzykowski, Krzysztof Gawarecki, Martin von Helversen, Ronny Schmidt, Lucas Bremer, Frederik Bopp, Dirk Reuter, Andreas D. Wieck, Sven Rodt, Julien Renard, Gilles Nogues, Arne Ludwig, Paweł Machnikowski, Jonathan J. Finley, Stephan Reitzenstein, Jacek Kasprzak

Abstract: Semiconductor quantum dot molecules are considered as promising candidates for quantum technological applications due to their wide tunability of optical properties and coverage of different energy scales associated with charge and spin physics. While previous works have studied the tunnel-coupling of the different excitonic charge complexes shared by the two quantum dots by conventional optical spectroscopy, we here report on the first demonstration of a coherently controlled inter-dot tunnel-coupling focusing on the quantum coherence of the optically active trion transitions. We employ ultrafast four-wave mixing spectroscopy to resonantly generate a quantum coherence in one trion complex, transfer it to and probe it in another trion configuration. With the help of theoretical modelling on different levels of complexity we give an instructive explanation of the underlying coupling mechanism and dynamical processes.

3.Heliknoton in a film of cubic chiral magnet

Authors:Vladyslav M. Kuchkin, Nikolai S. Kiselev, Filipp N. Rybakov, Igor S. Lobanov, Stefan Blügel, Valery M. Uzdin

Abstract: Cubic chiral magnets exhibit a remarkable diversity of two-dimensional topological magnetic textures, including skyrmions. However, the experimental confirmation of topological states localized in all three spatial dimensions remains challenging. In this paper, we investigate a three-dimensional topological state called a heliknoton, which is a hopfion embedded into a helix or conic background. We explore the range of parameters at which the heliknoton can be stabilized under realistic conditions using micromagnetic modeling, harmonic transition state theory, and stochastic spin dynamics simulations. We present theoretical Lorentz TEM images of the heliknoton, which can be used for experimental comparison. Additionally, we discuss the stability of the heliknoton at finite temperatures and the mechanism of its collapse. Our study offers a pathway for future experimental investigations of three-dimensional topological solitons in magnetic crystals.

4.Conductance Quantization in PbTe Nanowires

Authors:Wenyu Song, Yuhao Wang, Wentao Miao, Zehao Yu, Yichun Gao, Ruidong Li, Shuai Yang, Fangting Chen, Zuhan Geng, Zitong Zhang, Shan Zhang, Yunyi Zang, Zhan Cao, Dong E. Liu, Runan Shang, Xiao Feng, Lin Li, Qi-Kun Xue, Ke He, Hao Zhang

Abstract: PbTe nanowires coupled to a superconductor have recently been proposed as a potential Majorana platform. The hallmark of the one-dimensional nature of ballistic nanowires is their quantized conductance. Here, we report the observation of conductance plateaus at multiples of the quantized value $2e^2/h$ in PbTe nanowires at finite magnetic fields. The quantized plateaus, as a function of source-drain bias and magnetic field, allow for the extraction of the Land\'e $g$-factor, sub-band spacing and effective mass. The coefficient of 2 in the plateau conductance indicates the presence of valley degeneracy arising from the crystal orientation of the nanowires, which are grown on a (001) substrate. Occasionally, this degeneracy can be lifted by a gate voltage that breaks the mirror symmetry. Our results demonstrate the one-dimensionality of PbTe nanowires and fulfill one of the necessary conditions for the realization of Majorana zero modes.

5.Revealing Hidden Spin Polarization in Centrosymmetric van der Waals Materials on Ultrafast Timescales

Authors:Benito Arnoldi, Sara L. Zachritz, Sebastian Hedwig, Martin Aeschlimann, Oliver L. A. Monti, Benjamin Stadtmüller

Abstract: One of the key challenges for spintronic and novel quantum technologies is to achieve active control of the spin angular momentum of electrons in nanoscale materials on ultrafast, femtosecond timescales. While conventional ferromagnetic materials and materials supporting spin texture suffer both from conceptional limitations in miniaturization and in efficiency of optical and electronic manipulation, non-magnetic centrosymmetric layered materials with hidden spin polarization may offer an alternative pathway to manipulate the spin degree of freedom by external stimuli. Here we demonstrate a novel approach to generate transient spin polarization on a femtosecond timescale in the otherwise spin-unpolarized band structure of the centrosymmetric 2H-stacked group VI transition metal dichalcogenide WSe$_{2}$. Using ultrafast optical excitation of a fullerene layer grown on top of WSe$_{2}$, we trigger an ultrafast interlayer electron transfer from the fullerene layer into the WSe$_{2}$ crystal. The resulting transient charging of the C$_{60}$/WSe$_{2}$ interface leads to a substantial interfacial electric field that by means of spin-layer-valley locking ultimately creates ultrafast spin polarization without the need of an external magnetic field. Our findings hence open a novel pathway for optically engineering spin functionalities such as the sub-picosecond generation and manipulation of ultrafast spin currents in 2D heterostructures.

6.Correlations at higher-order exceptional points in non-Hermitian models

Authors:Doru Sticlet, Cătălin Paşcu Moca, Balázs Dóra

Abstract: We investigate the decay of spatial correlations of $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric non-Hermitian one-dimensional models that host higher-order exceptional points. Beyond a certain correlation length, they develop anomalous power-law behavior that indicates strong suppression of correlations in the non-Hermitian setups as compared to the Hermitian ones. The correlation length is also reflected in the entanglement entropy where it marks a change from logarithmic growth at short distance to a constant value at large distance, characteristic of an insulator, despite the spectrum being gapless. Two different families of models are investigated, both having a similar spectrum constrained by particle-hole symmetry. The first model offers an experimentally attractive way to generate arbitrary higher-order exceptional points and represents a non-Hermitian extension of the Dirac Hamiltonian for general spin. At the critical point it displays a decay of the correlations $\sim 1/x^2$ and $1/x^3$ irrespective of the order of the exceptional point. The second model is constructed using unidirectional hopping and display enhanced suppression of correlations $\sim 1/x^a$, $a\ge 2$ with a power law that depends on the order of the exceptional point.

7.Supercurrent, Multiple Andreev Reflections and Shapiro Steps in InAs Nanosheet Josephson Junctions

Authors:Shili Yan, Haitian Su, Dong Pan, Weijie Li, Zhaozheng Lyu, Mo Chen, Xingjun Wu, Li Lu, Jianhua Zhao, Ji-Yin Wang, H. Q. Xu

Abstract: High-quality free-standing InAs nanosheets are emerging layered semiconductor materials with potentials in designing planar Josephson junction devices for novel physics studies due to their unique properties including strong spin-orbit couplings, large Land\'e g-factors and the two dimensional nature. Here, we report an experimental study of proximity induced superconductivity in planar Josephson junction devices made from free-standing InAs nanosheets. The nanosheets are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and the Josephson junction devices are fabricated by directly contacting the nanosheets with superconductor Al electrodes. The fabricated devices are explored by low-temperature carrier transport measurements. The measurements show that the devices exhibit a gate-tunable supercurrent, multiple Andreev reflections, and a good quality superconductor-semiconductor interface. The superconducting characteristics of the Josephson junctions are investigated at different magnetic fields and temperatures, and are analyzed based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. The measurements of ac Josephson effect are also conducted under microwave radiations with different radiation powers and frequencies, and integer Shapiro steps are observed. Our work demonstrates that InAs nanosheet based hybrid devices are desired systems for investigating forefront physics, such as the two-dimensional topological superconductivity.

8.Nanoscale electronic transport at graphene/pentacene van der Waals interface

Authors:Michel Daher Mansour, Jacopo Oswald, Davide Beretta, Michael Stiefe, Roman Furrer, Michel Calame, Dominique Vuillaume

Abstract: We report a study on the relationship between structure and electron transport properties of nanoscale graphene/pentacene interfaces. We fabricated graphene/pentacene interfaces from 10-30 nm thick needle-like pentacene nanostructures down to two-three layers (2L-3L) dendritic pentacene islands, and we measured their electron transport properties by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). The energy barrier at the interfaces, i.e. the energy position of the pentacene highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) with respect to the Fermi energy of the graphene and the C-AFM metal tip, are determined and discussed with the appropriate electron transport model (double Schottky diode model and Landauer-Buttiker model, respectively) taking into account the voltage-dependent charge doping of graphene. In both types of samples, the energy barrier at the graphene/pentacene interface is slightly larger than that at the pentacene/metal tip interface, resulting in 0.47-0.55 eV and 0.21-0.34 eV, respectively, for the 10-30 nm thick needle-like pentacene islands, and in 0.92-1.44 eV and 0.67-1.05 eV, respectively, for the 2L-3L thick dendritic pentacene nanostructures. We attribute this difference to the molecular organization details of the pentacene/graphene heterostructures, with pentacene molecules lying flat on the graphene in the needle-like pentacene nansotructures, while standing upright in 2L-3L dendritic islands, as observed from Raman spectroscopy.

9.Transmissions of gapped graphene in tilting and oscillating barriers

Authors:Miloud Mekkaoui, Ahmed Jellal, Abderrahim El Mouhafid

Abstract: We examine the transmissions in gapped graphene through a combination of double barriers tilting and time-oscillating potential. The latter introduces extra sidebands to the transmission probability, which occur at energy levels determined by the frequency and incident energy. The sidebands are generated as a result of the absorption or emission of photons yielded from the oscillating potential. Our results indicate that transmission probabilities in gapped graphene can be manipulated by regulating the incident energy, the oscillating potential, or the distance between two barriers and their heights. It has been observed that the transmissions may be impeded or prevented by tuning the gap.

10.The quartic Blochnium: an anharmonic quasicharge superconducting qubit

Authors:Luca Chirolli, Matteo Carrega, Francesco Giazotto

Abstract: The quasicharge superconducting qubit realizes the dual of the transmon and shows strong robustness to flux and charge fluctuations thanks to a very large inductance closed on a Josephson junction. At the same time, a weak anharmonicity of the spectrum is inherited from the parent transmon, that introduces leakage errors and is prone to frequency crowding in multi-qubit setups. We propose a novel design that employs a quartic superinductor and confers a good degree of anharmonicity to the spectrum. The quartic regime is achieved through a properly designed chain of Josephson junction loops that avoids strong quantum fluctuations without introducing a severe dependence on the external flux.

11.Quantized Hall current in topological nodal-line semimetal

Authors:Po-Hsin Shih, Thi-Nga Do, Godfrey Gumbs, Danhong Huang, Hsin Lin, Tay-Rong Chang

Abstract: Photocurrent acts as one of measurable responses of material to light, which has proved itself to be crucial for sensing and energy harvesting. Topological semimetals with gapless energy dispersion and abundant topological surface and bulk states exhibit exotic photocurrent responses, such as novel quantized circular photogalvanic effect observed in Weyl semimetals. Here we find that for a topological nodal-line semimetal (NLSM) with nodal ring bulk states and drumhead surface states (DSS), a significant photocurrent can be produced by an electromagnetic (EM) wave by means of the quantum Hall effect. The Hall current is enabled by electron transfer between Landau levels (LLs) and triggered by both the electric field and magnetic field components of an EM wave. This Hall current is physically connected to an unusually large quantum-Hall conductivity of the zeroth LLs resulting from quantized DSS. These LLs are found to be highly degenerate due to the unique band-folding effect associated with magnetic-field-induced expansion of a unit cell. Furthermore, we observe that the Hall current induced solely by an in-plane linearly-polarized EM wave becomes a quantized entity which allows for possible direct measurement of the DSS density in a topological NLSM. This work paves a way toward designing high-magnetic-field-sensitivity detection devices for industrial and space applications, such as the development of self-detection of current-surge-induced overheating in electronic devices and accurate Earth's magnetic-anomaly maps for guiding a self-navigating drone or an aircraft.

12.Superconductor-polariton non-dissipative drag in optical microcavity

Authors:Azat F. Aminov, Alexey A. Sokolik, Yurii E. Lozovik

Abstract: We consider non-dissipative drag between Bose-condensed exciton polaritons in optical microcavity and embedded superconductors. This effect consists in induction of a non-dissipative electric current in the superconductor by motion of polariton Bose condensate due to electron-polariton interaction, or vice versa. Using many-body theory, we calculate the drag density, characterizing magnitude of this effect, with taking into account dynamical screening of the interaction. Hoping to diminish the interaction screening and microcavity photon absorption, we consider atomically-thin superconductors (both conventional s-wave and copper-oxide d-wave) of planar and nanoribbon shapes. Our estimates show that in realistic conditions the drag effect could be rather weak but observable in accurate experiments in the case of dipolar interlayer excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers. Use of spatially direct excitons, semiconductor quantum wells as the host for excitons, or thin films of bulk metallic superconductors considerably lowers the drag density.

1.Cavity magnomechanical coupling with coupled magnon modes in a synthetic antiferromagnet

Authors:Motoki Asano, Hiroki Matsumoto, Masamitsu Hayashi, Daiki Hatanaka

Abstract: On-chip cavity magnomechanics is an emerging field exploring acoustic and magnonic functionalities of various ferromagnetic materials and structures using strongly confined phonons. It is expected that such cavity magnomechanics can be extended to multilayer ferromagnets, especially synthetic antiferromagnets (SAFs) that exhibit zero net magnetization through interlayer exchange coupling. However, the conventional theoretical framework for a single ferromagnet cannot be used directly because of the antiferromagnetic magnetization dynamics associated with the interlayer exchange coupling. In this paper, we theoretically investigate phonon-magnon coupling with a three-layer SAF. Our formulation of the phonon-magnon coupling constants reveals that the acoustic (optical) magnon mode dominantly couples to the cavity phonon when the magnetization angles in the two ferromagnetic layers are antiparallel (orthogonal). Moreover, numerical calculations including the effects of dipole-dipole interactions and in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy allow us to predict phonon frequency shifts and linewidth broadening that can be detected in experiments. These theoretical insights would greatly help us to make a strategy for bringing the system into the strong coupling regime and to devise novel control protocols in analogy to cavity quantum electrodynamics and cavity optomechanics.

2.Current-induced bond rupture in single-molecule junctions: Effects of multiple electronic states and vibrational modes

Authors:Yaling Ke, Jan Dvořák, Martin Čížek, Raffaele Borrelli, Michael Thoss

Abstract: Current-induced bond rupture is a fundamental process in nanoelectronic architectures such as molecular junctions and in scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of molecules at surfaces. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important for the design of molecular junctions that are stable at higher bias voltages and is a prerequisite for further developments in the field of current-induced chemistry. In this work, we analyse the mechanisms of current-induced bond rupture employing a recently developed method, which combines the hierarchical equations of motion approach in twin space with the matrix product state formalism, and allows accurate, fully quantum mechanical simulations of the complex bond rupture dynamics. Extending previous work [J. Chem. Phys. 154, 234702 (2021)], we consider specifically the effect of multiple electronic states and multiple vibrational modes. The results obtained for a series of models of increasing complexity show the importance of vibronic coupling between different electronic states of the charged molecule, which can enhance the dissociation rate at low bias voltages profoundly.

3.Thermoelectric effect of skyrmion crystal confined in a magnetic disk

Authors:Junnosuke Matsuki, Masahito Mochizuki

Abstract: We theoretically propose that an electric voltage can be generated by thermal gradient with a rotating skyrmion crystal confined in a magnetic disk. We find that the rotation of skyrmion crystal induced by diffusive thermal magnon currents in the presence of temperature gradient gives rise to spinmotive forces in the radial direction through coupling to conduction-electron spins. The amplitude of generated spinmotive force is larger for a larger temperature gradient at a lower temperature. The proposed phenomenon can be exploited as spintronics-based thermoelectric devices to realize the conversion of heat to electricity.

4.Ground State Properties of Quantum Skyrmions described by Neural Network Quantum States

Authors:Ashish Joshi, Robert Peters, Thore Posske

Abstract: We investigate the ground state properties of quantum skyrmions in a ferromagnet using variational Monte Carlo with the neural network quantum state as variational ansatz. We study the ground states of a two-dimensional quantum Heisenberg model in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We show that the ground state accommodates a quantum skyrmion for a large range of parameters, especially at large DMI. The spins in these quantum skyrmions are weakly entangled, and the entanglement increases with decreasing DMI. We also find that the central spin is completely disentangled from the rest of the lattice, establishing a non-destructive way of detecting this type of skyrmion by local magnetization measurements. While neural networks are well suited to detect weakly entangled skyrmions with large DMI, they struggle to describe skyrmions in the small DMI regime due to nearly degenerate ground states and strong entanglement. In this paper, we propose a method to identify this regime and a technique to alleviate the problem. Finally, we analyze the workings of the neural network and explore its limits by pruning. Our work shows that neural network quantum states can be efficiently used to describe the quantum magnetism of large systems exceeding the size manageable in exact diagonalization by far.

5.Optical readout of the chemical potential of two-dimensional electrons

Authors:Zhengchao Xia, Yihang Zeng, Bowen Shen, Roei Dery, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Jie Shan, Kin Fai Mak

Abstract: The chemical potential u of an electron system is a fundamental property of a solid. A precise measurement of u plays a crucial role in understanding the electron interaction and quantum states of matter. However, thermodynamics measurements in micro and nanoscale samples are challenging because of the small sample volume and large background signals. Here, we report an optical readout technique for u of an arbitrary two-dimensional (2D) material. A monolayer semiconductor sensor is capacitively coupled to the sample. The sensor optical response determines a bias that fixes its chemical potential to the band edge and directly reads u of the sample. We demonstrate the technique in AB-stacked MoTe2/WSe2 moire bilayers. We obtain u with DC sensitivity about 20 ueV/sqrt(Hz), and the compressibility and interlayer electric polarization using AC readout. The results reveal a correlated insulating state at the doping density of one hole per moire unit cell, which evolves from a Mott to a charge-transfer insulator with increasing out-of-plane electric field. Furthermore, we image u and quantify the spatial inhomogeneity of the sample. Our work opens the door for high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of the thermodynamic properties of 2D quantum materials.

6.Interface states in two-dimensional quasicrystals with broken inversion symmetry

Authors:Danilo Beli, Matheus I. N. Rosa, Luca Lomazzi, Carlos De Marqui Jr, Massimo Ruzzene

Abstract: We investigate the existence of interface states induced by broken inversion symmetries in two-dimensional quasicrystal lattices. We introduce a 10-fold rotationally symmetric quasicrystal lattice whose inversion symmetry is broken through a mass dimerization that produces two 5-fold symmetric sub-lattices. By considering resonator scatterers attached to an elastic plate, we illustrate the emergence of bands of interface states that accompany a band inversion of the quasicrystal spectrum as a function of the dimerization parameter. These bands are filled by modes which are localized along domain-wall interfaces separating regions of opposite inversion symmetry. These features draw parallels to the dynamic behavior of topological interface states in the context of the valley Hall effect, which has been so far limited to periodic lattices. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate wave-guiding in a quasicrystal lattice featuring a zig-zag interface with sharp turns of 36 degrees, which goes beyond the limitation of 60 degrees associated with 6-fold symmetric (i.e., honeycomb) periodic lattices. Our results provide new opportunities for symmetry-based quasicrystalline topological waveguides that do not require time-reversal symmetry breaking, and that allow for higher freedom in the design of their waveguiding trajectories by leveraging higher-order rotational symmetries.

7.Coulomb staircase in an asymmetrically coupled quantum dot

Authors:George McArdle, Rose Davies, Igor V. Lerner, Igor V. Yurkevich

Abstract: We investigate the Coulomb blockade in quantum dots asymmetrically coupled to the leads for an arbitrary voltage bias focusing on the regime where electrons do not thermalise during their dwell time in the dot. By solving the quantum kinetic equation, we show that the current-voltage characteristics are crucially dependent on the ratio of the Fermi energy to charging energy on the dot. In the standard regime when the Fermi energy is large, there is a Coulomb staircase which is practically the same as in the thermalised regime. In the opposite case of the large charging energy, we identify a new regime in which only one step is left in the staircase, and we anticipate experimental confirmation of this finding.

8.Excitonic Mott insulator in a Bose-Fermi-Hubbard system of moiré $\rm{WS}_2$/$\rm{WSe}_2$ heterobilayer

Authors:Beini Gao, Daniel G. Suárez-Forero, Supratik Sarkar, Tsung-Sheng Huang, Deric Session, Mahmoud Jalali Mehrabad, Ruihao Ni, Ming Xie, Jonathan Vannucci, Sunil Mittal, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Atac Imamoglu, You Zhou, Mohammad Hafezi

Abstract: Understanding the Hubbard model is crucial for investigating various quantum many-body states and its fermionic and bosonic versions have been largely realized separately. Recently, transition metal dichalcogenides heterobilayers have emerged as a promising platform for simulating the rich physics of the Hubbard model. In this work, we explore the interplay between fermionic and bosonic populations, using a $\rm{WS}_2$/$\rm{WSe}_2$ heterobilayer device that hosts this hybrid particle density. We independently tune the fermionic and bosonic populations by electronic doping and optical injection of electron-hole pairs, respectively. This enables us to form strongly interacting excitons that are manifested in a large energy gap in the photoluminescence spectrum. The incompressibility of excitons is further corroborated by measuring exciton diffusion, which remains constant upon increasing pumping intensity, as opposed to the expected behavior of a weakly interacting gas of bosons, suggesting the formation of a bosonic Mott insulator. We explain our observations using a two-band model including phase space filling. Our system provides a controllable approach to the exploration of quantum many-body effects in the generalized Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model.

9.Water Induced Ferroelectric Switching: The Crucial Role of Collective Dynamics

Authors:Muhammad Awais Aslam, Igor Stankovic, Gennadiy Murastov, Amy Carl, Zehao Song, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Alois Lugstein, Christian Teichert, Roman Gorbachev, Raul David Rodriguez, Aleksandar Matkovic

Abstract: The interaction mechanisms of water with nanoscale geometries remain poorly understood. This study focuses on behaviour of water clusters under varying external electric fields with a particular focus on molecular ferroelectric devices. We employ a two-fold approach, combining experiments with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations on graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors. We show that bilayer graphene nanoribbons provide stable anchoring of water clusters on the oxygenated edges, resulting in a ferroelectric effect. A molecular dynamics model is then used to investigate water cluster behaviour under varying external electric fields. Finally, we show that these nanoribbons exhibit significant and persistent remanent fields that can be employed in ferroelectric heterostructures and neuromorphic circuits.

10.Planar Hall effect in topological Weyl and nodal line semimetals

Authors:Lei Li, Jin Cao, Chaoxi Cui, Zhi-Ming Yu, Yugui Yao

Abstract: Using symmetry analysis and semiclassical Boltzmann equation, we theoretically explore the planar Hall effect (PHE) in three-dimensional materials. We demonstrate that PHE is a general phenomenon that can occur in various systems regardless of band topology. Both the Lorentz force and Berry curvature effects can induce significant PHE, and the leading contributions of both effects linearly depend on the electric and magnetic fields. The Lorentz force and Berry curvature PHE coefficient possess only antisymmetric and symmetric parts, respectively. Both contributions respect the same crystalline symmetry constraints but differ under time-reversal symmetry. Remarkably, for topological Weyl semimetal, the Berry curvature PHE coefficient is a constant that does not depends on the Fermi energy, while the Lorentz force contribution linearly increases with the Fermi energy, resulting from the linear dispersion of the Weyl point. Furthermore, we find that the PHE in topological nodal line semimetals is mainly induced by the Lorentz force, as the Berry curvature in these systems vanishes near the nodal line. Our study not only highlights the significance of the Lorentz force in PHE, but also reveals its unique characteristics, which will be beneficial for determining the Lorentz force contribution experimentally.

11.Mapping twist-tuned multi-band topology in bilayer WSe$_2$

Authors:Benjamin A. Foutty, Carlos R. Kometter, Trithep Devakul, Aidan P. Reddy, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Liang Fu, Benjamin E. Feldman

Abstract: Semiconductor moir\'e superlattices have been shown to host a wide array of interaction-driven ground states. However, twisted homobilayers have been difficult to study in the limit of large moir\'e wavelength, where interactions are most dominant, and despite numerous predictions of nontrivial topology in these homobilayers, experimental evidence has remained elusive. Here, we conduct local electronic compressibility measurements of twisted bilayer WSe$_2$ at small twist angles. We demonstrate multiple topological bands which host a series of Chern insulators at zero magnetic field near a 'magic angle' around $1.23^\circ$. Using a locally applied electric field, we induce a topological quantum phase transition at one hole per moir\'e unit cell. Furthermore, by measuring at a variety of local twist angles, we characterize how the interacting ground states of the underlying honeycomb superlattice depend on the size of the moir\'e unit cell. Our work establishes the topological phase diagram of a generalized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model in tWSe$_2$, demonstrating a tunable platform for strongly correlated topological phases.

1.Anomalous impact of thermal fluctuations on spintransfer torque induced ferrimagnetic switching

Authors:Zhengping Yuan, Jingwei Long, Zhengde Xu, Yue Xin, Lihua An, Jie Ren, Xue Zhang, Yumeng Yang, Zhifeng Zhu

Abstract: The dynamics of a spin torque driven ferrimagnetic (FiM) system is investigated using the two-sublattice macrospin model. We demonstrate an ultrafast switching in the picosecond range. However, we find that the excessive current leads to the magnetic oscillation. Therefore, faster switching cannot be achieved by unlimitedly increasing the current. By systematically studying the impact of thermal fluctuations, we find the dynamics of FiMs can also be distinguished into the precessional region, the thermally activated region, and the cross-over region. However, in the precessional region, there is a significant deviation between FiM and ferromagnet (FM), i.e., the FM is insensitive to thermal fluctuations since its switching is only determined by the amount of net charge. In contrast, we find that the thermal effect is pronounced even a very short current pulse is applied to the FiM. We attribute this anomalous effect to the complex relation between the anisotropy and overdrive current. By controlling the magnetic anisotropy, we demonstrate that the FiM can also be configured to be insensitive to thermal fluctuations. This controllable thermal property makes the FiM promising in many emerging applications such as the implementation of tunable activation functions in the neuromorphic computing.

2.Role of magnetic field on the electronic properties of an $α$-$T_3$ ring

Authors:Mijanur Islam, Tutul Biswas, Saurabh Basu

Abstract: We consider a quantum ring of a certain radius R built from a sheet of the $\alpha$-$T_3$ lattice and solve for its spectral properties in presence of an external magnetic field. The energy spectrum consists of a conduction band, a valence band and a zero energy flat band, all having a number of discrete levels therein which can be characterized by the angular momentum quantum number, m. The energy levels in the flat band are infinitely degenerate irrespective of the value of $\alpha$. We reveal a two-fold degeneracy of the levels in the conduction band as well as in the valence band for $\alpha$ = 0 and $\alpha$ = 1. However, the m = 0 level for $\alpha$ = 1 is an exception. Corresponding to an intermediate value of $\alpha$, namely, 0 <$\alpha$< 1, the energy levels become nondegenerate. The scenario remains unaltered when the ring is threaded by a magnetic flux which is an integer multiple of the flux quantum. We also calculate the persistent current which exhibits quantum oscillations as a function of the magnetic field with a period of one flux quantum at a particular Dirac point, which is often referred to as a valley. The total current oscillates with a periodicity of one flux quantum for any intermediate value of $\alpha$. We have also explored the effect of a mass term (that breaks the sublattice symmetry) in the Hamiltonian. In the absence of a magnetic field, the energy levels in the flat band become dispersive, except for the m = 0 level in the case of $\alpha$ = 1. In presence of the field, each of the flat band levels becomes dispersive for any $\alpha \neq$ 0. Finally, we also see the effect of the mass term on the behaviour of the persistent current, which shows periodicity of one flux quantum, but the total current remains finite for all values of $\alpha$.

3.Efficient characteristics of exchange coupling and spin-flop transition in Py/Gd bilayer using anisotropic magnetoresistance

Authors:Kaiyuan Zhou, Xiang Zhan, Zishuang Li, Haotian Li, Chunjie Yan, Lina Chen, Ronghua Liu

Abstract: The interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling rare-earth/transition-metal bilayer ferrimagnet systems have attracted much attention because they present variously unusual temperature-and field-dependent nontrivial magnetic states and dynamics. These properties and the implementation of their applications in spintronics highly depend on the significant temperature dependence of the magnetic exchange stiffness constant A. Here, we quantitatively determine the temperature dependence of magnetic exchange stiffness A_{Py-Gd} and A_{Gd} in the artificially layered ferrimagnet consisting of a Py/Gd bilayer, using a measurement of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of the bilayer thin film at different temperatures and magnetic fields. The obtained temperature dependence of A_{Py-Gd} and A_{Gd} exhibit a scaling power law with the magnetization of Gd. The critical field of spin-flop transition and its temperature dependence can also be directly obtained by this method. Additionally, the experimental results are well reproduced by micromagnetic simulations with the obtained parameters A_{Py-Gd} and A_{Gd}, which further confirms the reliability of this easily accessible technique.

4.Feedback enhanced Dyakonov-Shur instability in Graphene-FET

Authors:Pedro Cosme, Diogo Simões

Abstract: Graphene devices are known to have the potential to operate THz signals. In particular, graphene field-effect transistors have been proposed as devices to host plasmonic instabilities in the THz realm; for instance, Dyakonov-Shur instability which relies upon dc excitation. In this work, starting from a hydrodynamical description of the charge carriers, we extend the transmission line description of graphene field-effect transistors to a scheme with a positive feedback loop, also considering the effects of delay, which leads to the transcendental transfer function with terms of the form $e^{as}{\rm sech}^k(s)/s$. Applying the conditions for the excitation of Dyakonov-Shur instability, we report an enhanced voltage gain in the linear regime that is corroborated by our simulations of the nonlinear hydrodynamic model for the charge carriers. This translates to both greater saturation amplitude -- often up to 50% increase -- and fastest growth rate of the self-oscillations. Thus, we bring forth a prospective concept for the realization of a THz oscillator suitable for future plasmonic circuitry.

5.Defects in Graphene : A Topological Description

Authors:Amit Goft, Yuval Abulafia, Nadav Orion, Claude L. Schochet, Eric Akkermans

Abstract: Specific types of spatial defects or potentials can turn monolayer graphene into a topological material. These topological defects are classified by a spatial dimension $D$ and they are systematically obtained from the Hamiltonian by means of its symbol $\mathcal{H} (\boldsymbol{k}, \boldsymbol{r}) $, an operator which generalises the Bloch Hamiltonian and contains all topological information. This approach, when applied to Dirac operators, allows to recover the tenfold classification of insulators and superconductors. The existence of a stable $\mathbb{Z}$-topology is predicted as a condition on the dimension $D$, similar to the classification of defects in thermodynamic phase transitions. Kekule distortions, vacancies and adatoms in graphene are proposed as examples of such defects and their topological equivalence is discussed.

6.Anisotropic linear and non-linear excitonic optical properties of buckled monolayer semiconductors

Authors:M. F. C. Martins Quintela, T. Garm Pedersen

Abstract: The optical properties of two-dimensional materials are exceptional in several respects. They are highly anisotropic and frequently dominated by excitonic effects. Dipole-allowed second order non-linear optical properties require broken inversion symmetry. Hence, several two-dimensional materials show strong in-plane (IP) non-linearity but negligible out-of-plane (OOP) response due to vertical symmetry. By considering buckled hexagonal monolayers, we analyze the critical role of broken vertical symmetry on their excitonic optical response. Both linear as well as second order shift current and second harmonic response are studied. We demonstrate that substantial OOP non-linear response can be obtained, in particular, through off-diagonal tensor elements coupling IP excitation to OOP response. Our findings are explained by excitonic selection rules for OOP response and the impact of dielectric screening on excitons is elucidated.

7.Edge-selective extremal damping from topological heritage of dissipative Chern insulators

Authors:Suraj S. Hegde, Toni Ehmcke, Tobias Meng

Abstract: One of the most important practical hallmarks of topological matter is the presence of topologically protected, exponentially localised edge states at interfaces of regions characterised by unequal topological invariants. Here, we show that even when driven far from their equilibrium ground state, Chern insulators can inherit topological edge features from their parent Hamiltonian. In particular, we show that the asymptotic long-time approach of the non-equilibrium steady state, governed by a Lindblad Master equation, can exhibit edge-selective extremal damping. This phenomenon derives from edge states of non-Hermitian extensions of the parent Chern insulator Hamiltonian. The combination of (non-Hermitian) topology and dissipation hence allows to design topologically robust, spatially localised damping patterns.

8.The Casimir effect for stack of graphenes

Authors:Natalia Emelianova, Rashid Kashapov, Nail Khusnutdinov

Abstract: We consider a stack of parallel sheets composed of conducting planes with tensorial conductivities. Using the scattering matrix approach, we derive explicit formulas for the Casimir energy of two, three, and four planes, as well as a recurrence relation for arbitrary planes. Specifically, for a stack of graphene, we solve the recurrence relations and obtain formulas for the Casimir energy and force acting on the planes within the stack. Moreover, we calculate the binding energy in the graphene stack with graphite interplane separation, which amounts to $E_{ib} = 9.9$ meV/atom. Notably, the Casimir force on graphene sheets decreases rapidly for planes beyond the first one. In particular, for the second graphene layer in the stack, the force is $35$ times smaller than that experienced by the first layer.

9.Magneto-optical induced supermode switching in quantum fluids of light

Authors:Magdalena Furman, Rafał Mirek, Mateusz Król, Wojciech Pacuski, Helgi Sigurðsson, Jacek Szczytko, Barbara Piętka

Abstract: The insensitivity of photons towards external magnetic fields forms one of the hardest barriers against efficient magneto-optical control, aiming at modulating the polarization state of light. However, there is even scarcer evidence of magneto-optical effects that can spatially modulate light. Here, we demonstrate the latter by exploiting strongly coupled states of semimagnetic matter and light in planar semiconductor microcavities. We nonresonantly excite two spatially adjacent exciton-polariton condensates which, through inherent ballistic near field coupling mechanism, spontaneously synchronise into a dissipative quantum fluidic supermode of definite parity. Applying a magnetic field along the optical axis, we continuously adjust the light-matter composition of the condensate exciton-polaritons, inducing a supermode switch into a higher order mode of opposite parity. Our findings set the ground towards magnetic spatial modulation of nonlinear light.

1.Geometric phase and a nonreciprocal spin wave circular polarizer

Authors:Yu Liu, Jin Lan

Abstract: We show that spin wave acquires a polarization-dependent geometric phase along a cyclic trajectory of non-coplanar magnetizations in antiferromagnets. Specifically, we demonstrate that a cyclic set of 90 degree antiferromagnetic domain walls simultaneously introduce geometric and dynamic phases to spin wave, and thus leads to asymmetric magnitude of overall phase for left-/right-circular components. Based on the polarization-dependent phase, we propose theoretically and confirm by micromagnetic simulations that, a Mach-Zehner interferometer with cyclic 90 degree domain walls in one arm and homogenous domain in the other arm, naturally acts as a spin wave circular polarizer. Moreover, the circular polarizer has intrinsic nonreciprocity, which filters opposite polarization in opposite propagation direction.

2.Thermal signature of helical molecule: Beyond nearest-neighbor electron hopping

Authors:Suparna Sarkar, Santanu K. Maiti, David Laroze

Abstract: We investigate, for the first time, the thermal signature of a single-stranded helical molecule, subjected to a transverse electric field, by analyzing electronic specific heat (ESH). Depending on the hopping of electrons, two different kinds of helical systems are considered. In one case the hopping is confined within a few neighboring lattice sites which is referred to as short-range hopping (SRH) helix, while in the other case, electrons can hop in all possible sites making the system a long-range hopping (LRH) one. The interplay between helicity and the electric field is quite significant. Our detailed study shows that, in the low-temperature limit, the SRH helix is more sensitive to temperature than its counterpart. Whereas, the situation gets reversed in the limit of high temperatures. The thermal response of the helix can be modified selectively by means of the electric field, and the difference between specific heats of the two helices gradually decreases with increasing the field strength. The molecular handedness (viz, left-handed or right-handed) rather has no appreciable effect on the thermal signature. Finally, one important usefulness of ESH is discussed. If the helix contains a point defect, then by comparing the results of perfect and defective helices, one can estimate the location of the defect, which might be useful in diagnosing bad cells and different diseases.

3.Universal platform of point-gap topological phases from topological materials

Authors:Daichi Nakamura, Kazuya Inaka, Nobuyuki Okuma, Masatoshi Sato

Abstract: Whereas point-gap topological phases are responsible for exceptional phenomena intrinsic to non-Hermitian systems, their realization in quantum materials is still elusive. Here we propose a simple and universal platform of point-gap topological phases constructed from Hermitian topological insulators and superconductors. We show that (d-1)-dimensional point-gap topological phases are realized by making a boundary in d-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors dissipative. A crucial observation of the proposal is that adding a decay constant to boundary modes in d-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors is topologically equivalent to attaching a (d-1)-dimensional point-gap topological phase to the boundary. We furthermore establish the proposal from the extended version of the Nielsen-Ninomiya theorem, relating dissipative gapless modes to point-gap topological numbers. From the bulk-boundary correspondence of the point-gap topological phases, the resultant point-gap topological phases exhibit exceptional boundary states or in-gap higher-order non-Hermitian skin effects.

4.One-dimensional topological superconductivity in a van der Waals heterostructure

Authors:Jose Martinez-Castro, Tobias Wichmann, Keda Jin, Tomas Samuely, Zhongkui Lyu, Jiaqiang Yan, Oleksander Onufriienko, Pavol Szabó, F. Stefan Tautz, Markus Ternes, Felix Lüpke

Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) topological superconductivity is a state of matter that is not found in nature. However, it can be realised, for example, by inducing superconductivity into the quantum spin Hall edge state of a two-dimensional topological insulator. Because topological superconductors are proposed to host Majorana zero modes, they have been suggested as a platform for topological quantum computing. Yet, conclusive proof of 1D topological superconductivity has remained elusive. Here, we employ low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy to show 1D topological superconductivity in a van der Waals heterostructure by directly probing its superconducting properties, instead of relying on the observation of Majorana zero modes at its boundary. We realise this by placing the two-dimensional topological insulator monolayer WTe$_2$ on the superconductor NbSe$_2$. We find that the superconducting topological edge state is robust against magnetic fields, a hallmark of its triplet pairing. Its topological protection is underpinned by a lateral self-proximity effect, which is resilient against disorder in the monolayer edge. By creating this exotic state in a van der Waals heterostructure, we provide an adaptable platform for the future realization of Majorana bound states. Finally, our results more generally demonstrate the power of Abrikosov vortices as effective experimental probes for superconductivity in nanostructures.

5.Effects of first- and second-order topological phases on the equilibrium crystal shapes

Authors:Yutaro Tanaka, Shuichi Murakami

Abstract: We study equilibrium crystal shapes of a topological insulator (TI), a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) protected by mirror symmetry, and a second-order topological insulator (SOTI) protected by inversion symmetry. By adding magnetic fields to the three-dimensional TI, we can realize the mirror-symmetry-protected TCI and the inversion-symmetry-protected SOTI. They each have topological boundary states in different positions: the TCI has gapless states on the surfaces that are invariant under the symmetry operation, and the SOTI has gapless states at the intersections between certain surfaces. In this paper, we discuss how these boundary states affect the surface energies and the equilibrium crystal shapes in terms of the calculations of the simple tight-binding model by using the Wulff construction. By comparing the changes in the shapes of the TI to that of the trivial insulator through the process of applying the magnetic fields, we show that the presence/absence of the topological boundary states affects the emergence of the specific facets in a different way from the trivial insulator.

6.Optically induced spin electromotive force in ferromagnetic-semiconductor quantum well structure

Authors:Igor V. Rozhansky, Ina V. Kalitukha, Grigorii S. Dimitriev, Olga S. Ken, Mikhail V. Dorokhin, Boris N. Zvonkov, Dmitri S. Arteev, Nikita S. Averkiev, Vladimir L. Korenev

Abstract: Hybrid structures combining ferromagnetic (FM) and semiconductor constituents have great potential for future applications in the field of spintronics. A systematic approach to study spin-dependent transport in the GaMnAs/GaAs/InGaAs quantum well (QW) hybrid structure with a few nanometer thick GaAs barrier is developed. It is demonstrated that a combination of spin electromotive force measurements and photoluminescence detection provides a powerful tool for studying the properties of such hybrid structures and allows to resolve the dynamic FM proximity effect on a nanometer scale. The method can be generalized on various systems including rapidly developing 2D van der Waals materials.

7.The impact of local pinning sites in magnetic tunnel junctions with non-homogeneous free layers

Authors:Alex. S. Jenkins, Leandro Martins, Luana Benetti, Alejandro Schulman, Pedro Anacleto, Marcel Claro, Elvira Paz, Ihsan Çaha, Francis Leonard Deepak, Ricardo Ferreira

Abstract: Pinning at local defects is a significant road block for the successful implementation of technological paradigms which rely on the dynamic properties of non-trivial magnetic textures. In this report a comprehensive study of the influence of local pinning sites for non-homogeneous magnetic layers integrated as the free layer of a magnetic tunnel junction is presented, both experimentally and with corresponding micromagnetic simulations. The pinning sites are found to be extremely detrimental to the frequency controllability of the devices, a key requirement for their use as synapses in a frequency multiplexed artificial neural networks. In addition to describing the impact of the local pinning sites in the more conventional NiFe, a vortex-based magnetic tunnel junction with an amorphous free layer is presented which shows significantly improved frequency selectivity, marking a clear direction for the design of future low power devices.

8.Disentangled higher-orbital bands and chiral symmetric topology in confined Mie resonance photonic crystals

Authors:Jing Li, Hongfei Wang, Shiyin Jia, Peng Zhan, Minghui Lu, Zhenlin Wang, Yanfeng Chen, Bi-Ye Xie

Abstract: Topological phases based on tight-binding models have been extensively studied in recent decades. By mimicking the linear combination of atomic orbitals in tight-binding models based on the evanescent couplings between resonators in classical waves, numerous experimental demonstrations of topological phases have been successfully conducted. However, in dielectric photonic crystals, the Mie resonances' states decay too slowly as $1/r$ when $r$ $\to$ $\infty$, leading to intrinsically different physical properties between tight-binding models and dielectric photonic crystals. Here, we propose a confined Mie resonance photonic crystal by embedding perfect electric conductors in between dielectric rods, leading to a perfectly matched band structure as the tight-binding models with nearest-neighbour couplings. As a consequence, disentangled band structure spanned by higher atomic orbitals is observed. Moreover, we also achieve a three-dimensional photonic crystal with a complete photonic bandgap and third-order topology based on our design. Our implementation provides a versatile platform for studying exotic higher-orbital bands and achieving tight-binding-like 3D topological photonic crystals.

9.Skyrmion dynamics in moiré magnets

Authors:Polina Shaban, Igor Lobanov, Valerii Uzdin, Ivan Iorsh

Abstract: We consider a twisted magnetic bilayer subject to the perpendicular electric field. The interplay of induced Dzyaloshinskii - Moriya interaction and spatially varying moir\'e exchange potential results in complex non-collinear magnetic phases in these structures. We numerically demonstrate the coexistence of intralayer skyrmions and bound interlayer skyrmion pairs and show that they are characterized by distinct dynamics under the action of external in-plane electric field. Specifically we demonstrate the railing behaviour of skyrmions along the domain walls which could find applications in spintronic devices based on van der Waals magnets.

10.Implementing Microwave Impedance Microscopy in a Dilution Refrigerator

Authors:Zhanzhi Jiang, Su Kong Chong, Peng Zhang, Peng Deng, Shizai Chu, Shahin Jahanbani, Kang Lung Wang, Keji Lai

Abstract: We report the implementation of a dilution-refrigerator-based scanning microwave impedance microscope (MIM) with a base temperature of ~ 100 mK. The vibration noise of our apparatus with tuning-fork feedback control is as low as 1 nm. Using this setup, we have demonstrated the imaging of quantum anomalous Hall states in magnetically (Cr and V) doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates. Both the conductive edge modes and topological phase transitions near coercive fields of Cr-doped and V-doped layers are visualized in the field-dependent results. Our work establishes the experimental platform for investigating nanoscale quantum phenomena under ultralow temperatures.

11.Signatures of Fractional Quantum Anomalous Hall States in Twisted MoTe2 Bilayer

Authors:Jiaqi Cai, Eric Anderson, Chong Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Xiaoyu Liu, William Holtzmann, Yinong Zhang, Fengren Fan, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Ying Ran, Ting Cao, Liang Fu, Di Xiao, Wang Yao, Xiaodong Xu

Abstract: The interplay between spontaneous symmetry breaking and topology can result in exotic quantum states of matter. A celebrated example is the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state, which exhibits an integer quantum Hall effect at zero magnetic field thanks to its intrinsic ferromagnetism. In the presence of strong electron-electron interactions, exotic fractional-QAH (FQAH) states at zero magnetic field can emerge. These states could host fractional excitations, including non-Abelian anyons - crucial building blocks for topological quantum computation. Flat Chern bands are widely considered as a desirable venue to realize the FQAH state. For this purpose, twisted transition metal dichalcogenide homobilayers in rhombohedral stacking have recently been predicted to be a promising material platform. Here, we report experimental signatures of FQAH states in 3.7-degree twisted MoTe2 bilayer. Magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal robust ferromagnetic states at fractionally hole filled moir\'e minibands. Using trion photoluminescence as a sensor, we obtain a Landau fan diagram which shows linear shifts in carrier densities corresponding to the v=-2/3 and -3/5 ferromagnetic states with applied magnetic field. These shifts match the Streda formula dispersion of FQAH states with fractionally quantized Hall conductance of -2/3$e^2/h$ and -3/5$e^2/h$, respectively. Moreover, the v=-1 state exhibits a dispersion corresponding to Chern number -1, consistent with the predicted QAH state. In comparison, several non-ferromagnetic states on the electron doping side do not disperse, i.e., are trivial correlated insulators. The observed topological states can be further electrically driven into topologically trivial states. Our findings provide clear evidence of the long-sought FQAH states, putting forward MoTe2 moir\'e superlattices as a fascinating platform for exploring fractional excitations.

1.Anomalous non-Hermitian skin effect: the topological inequivalence of skin modes versus point gap

Authors:Gang-Feng Guo, Xi-Xi Bao, Han-Jie Zhu, Xiao-Ming Zhao, Lin Zhuang, Lei Tan, Wu-Ming Liu

Abstract: Non-Hermitian skin effect, the localization of an extensive number of eigenstates at the ends of the system, has greatly expanded the frontier of physical laws. It has long been believed that the present of skin modes is equivalent to the topologically nontrivial point gap of complex eigenvalues under periodic boundary conditions, and vice versa. However, we find that this concomitance can be broken, i.e., the skin modes can be present or absent whereas the point gap is topologically trivial or nontrivial, respectively, named anomalous non-Hermitian skin effect. This anomalous phenomenon arises when the unidirectional hopping amplitudes leading to the decoupling-like behaviors among subsystems are emergence. The emergence of the anomalous non-Hermitian skin effect is accompanied by the mutations of the open boundary energy spectrum, whose structure exhibits the multifold exceptional point and can not be recovered by continuum bands. Moreover, an experimental setup using circuits is proposed to simulate this novel quantum effect. Our results reveal the topologically inequivalent between skin modes and point gap. This new effect not only can give a deeper understanding of non-Bloch theory and the critical phenomenon in non-Hermitian systems, but may also inspire new applications such as in the sensors field.

2.Bulk-edge correspondence of Stiefel-Whitney and Euler insulators through the entanglement spectrum and cutting procedure

Authors:Ryo Takahashi, Tomoki Ozawa

Abstract: We propose a novel type of bulk-edge correspondence for two-dimensional Stiefel-Whitney insulators and Euler insulators, which are topological insulators protected by the $PT$ symmetry. We find that, although the energy spectrum under the open boundary condition is generally gapped, the entanglement spectrum is gapless when the Stiefel-Whitney or Euler class is nonzero. The robustness of the gapless spectrum for Stiefel-Whitney insulator can be understood through an emergent anti-unitary particle-hole symmetry. For the Euler insulators, we propose a conjecture, which is supported by our numerical calculation, that the Euler class is equal to the number of crossing in the entanglement spectrum, taking into account the degree of the crossings. We also discuss that these crossings of the entanglement spectrum are related to the gap closing points in the cutting procedure, which is the energy spectrum as the magnitude of the boundary hopping is varied.

3.Hall effect of ferro/antiferromagnetic wallpaper fermions

Authors:Koki Mizuno, Ai Yamakage

Abstract: Nonsymmorphic crystals can host characteristic double surface Dirac cones with fourfold degeneracy on the Dirac points, called wallpaper fermion, protected by wallpaper group symmetry. We clarify the charge and spin Hall effect of wallpaper fermions in the presence of the (anti)ferromagnetism.Based on a four-sublattice model, we construct the effective Hamiltonian of wallpaper fermions coupled with the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic moment.Both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic moments induce an energy gap for the wallpaper fermions, leading to quantized (spin) Hall conductivity. The ferromagnetic wallpaper fermion induces the Hall conductivity quantized into $e^2/h$, which is twice that for a single Dirac fermion on the surface of topological insulators. On the other hand, the spin Hall conductivity decays and reaches to be a finite value as the antiferromagnetic coupling increases. We also show that the results above are valid for a general model of wallpaper fermions from symmetry consideration.

4.Exciton dynamics in CdTe/CdZnTe quantum well

Authors:A. V. Mikhailov St. Petersburg State University, A. S. Kurdyubov St. Petersburg State University, E. S. Khramtsov St. Petersburg State University, I. V. Ignatiev St. Petersburg State University, B. F. Gribakin Univ. Montpellier, S. Cronenberger Univ. Montpellier, D. Scalbert Univ. Montpellier, M. R. Vladimirova Univ. Montpellier, R. André Institut Néel

Abstract: Exciton energy structure and population dynamics in a wide CdTe/CdZnTe quantum well are studied by spectrally-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy. Multiple excitonic resonances in reflectance spectra are observed and identified by solving numerically three-dimensional Schr\"odinger equation. The pump-probe reflectivity signal is shown to be dominated by the photoinduced nonradiative broadening of the excitonic resonances, while pump-induced exciton energy shift and reduction of the oscillator strength appear to be negligible. This broadening is induced by the reservoir of dark excitons with large in-plane wave vector, which are coupled to the the bright excitons states. The dynamics of the pump-induced nonradiative broadening observed experimentally is characterised by three components: signal build up on the scale of tens of picoseconds (i) and bi-exponential decay on the scale of one nanosecond (ii) and ten nanosecons (iii). Possible mechanisms of the reservoir population and depletion responsible for this behaviour are discussed.

5.Realizing Majorana zero modes in magnetic field-free InAs-Al nanowires with fewer growth constraints

Authors:Benjamin D Woods, Mark Friesen

Abstract: Common proposals for realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes in semiconductor-superconductor hybrids require large magnetic fields, which paradoxically suppress the superconducting gap of the parent superconductor. Although two-channel schemes have been proposed as a way to eliminate magnetic fields, geometric constraints make their implementation challenging, since the channels should be immersed in nearly antiparallel electric fields. Here, we propose an experimentally favorable scheme for realizing field-free topological superconductivity, in two-channel InAs-Al nanowires, that overcomes such growth constraints. Crucially, we show that antiparallel fields are not required, if the channels are energetically detuned. We compute topological phase diagrams for realistically modeled nanowires, finding a broad range of parameters that could potentially harbor Majorana zero modes. This work, therefore, solves a major technical challenge and opens the door to near-term experiments.

1.Majorana differential shot noise and its universal thermoelectric crossover

Authors:Sergey Smirnov

Abstract: Nonequilibrium states driven by both electric bias voltages $V$ and temperature differences $\Delta T$ (or thermal voltages $eV_T\equiv k_B\Delta T$) are unique probes of various systems. Whereas average currents $I(V,V_T)$ are traditionally measured in majority of experiments, an essential part of nonequilibrium dynamics, stored particularly in fluctuations, remains largely unexplored. Here we focus on Majorana quantum dot devices, specifically on their differential shot noise $\partial S^>(V,V_T)/\partial V$, and demonstrate that in contrast to the differential electric or thermoelectric conductance, $\partial I(V,V_T)/\partial V$ or $\partial I(V,V_T)/\partial V_T$, it reveals a crossover from thermoelectric to pure thermal nonequilibrium behavior. It is shown that this Majorana crossover in $\partial S^>(V,V_T)/\partial V$ is induced by an interplay of the electric and thermal driving, occurs at an energy scale determined by the Majorana tunneling amplitude, and exhibits a number of universal characteristics which may be accessed in solely noise experiments or in combination with measurements of average currents.

2.Scalable fabrication of gap-plasmon-based dynamic and chromogenic nanostructures by capillary-interaction driven self-assembly of liquid-metal

Authors:Renu Raman Sahu, Alwar Samy Ramasamy, Santosh Bhonsle S, Mark Vailshery D C, Tapajyoti Das Gupta

Abstract: Dynamically tunable nanoengineered structures for coloration show promising applications in sensing, displays, and communication. However, their potential challenge remains in having a scalable manufacturing process over large scales in tens of cm of area. For the first time, we report a novel approach for fabricating chromogenic nanostructures that respond to mechanical stimuli by utilizing the fluidic properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a substrate and the interfacial tension of liquid metal-based plasmonic nanoparticles. Relying on the PDMS tunable property and a physical deposition method, our approach is single-step, scalable, and does not rely on high carbon footprint lithographic processes. By tuning the oligomer content in PDMS, we show that varieties of structural colors covering a significant gamut in CIE coordinates are achieved. We develop a model which depicts the formation of Ga nanodroplets from the capillary interaction of oligomers in PDMS with Ga. We showcase the capabilities of our processing technique by presenting prototypes of reflective displays and sensors for monitoring body parts, smart bandages, and the capacity of the nanostructured film to map force in real time. These examples illustrate this technology's broad range of applications, such as large-area displays, devices for human-computer interactions, healthcare, and visual communication.

3.Stiefel-Whitney topological charges in a three-dimensional acoustic nodal-line crystal

Authors:Haoran Xue, Z. Y. Chen, Zheyu Cheng, J. X. Dai, Yang Long, Y. X. Zhao, Baile Zhang

Abstract: Band topology of materials describes the extent Bloch wavefunctions are twisted in momentum space. Such descriptions rely on a set of topological invariants, generally referred to as topological charges, which form a characteristic class in the mathematical structure of fiber bundles associated with the Bloch wavefunctions. For example, the celebrated Chern number and its variants belong to the Chern class, characterizing topological charges for complex Bloch wavefunctions. Nevertheless, under the space-time inversion symmetry, Bloch wavefunctions can be purely real in the entire momentum space; consequently, their topological classification does not fall into the Chern class, but requires another characteristic class known as the Stiefel-Whitney class. Here, in a three-dimensional acoustic crystal, we demonstrate a topological nodal-line semimetal that is characterized by a doublet of topological charges, the first and second Stiefel-Whitney numbers, simultaneously. Such a doubly charged nodal line gives rise to a doubled bulk-boundary correspondence: while the first Stiefel-Whitney number induces ordinary drumhead states of the nodal line, the second Stiefel-Whitney number supports hinge Fermi arc states at odd inversion-related pairs of hinges. These results establish the Stiefel-Whitney topological charges as intrinsic topological invariants for topological materials, with their unique bulk-boundary correspondence beyond the conventional framework of topological band theory.

4.Twisted Heating-Cooling Transition of Near-field Radiation in Drifted Metasurfaces

Authors:Jiebin Peng, Zi Wang, Jie Ren

Abstract: The magic angle twisted bilayer systems give rise to many exotic phenomena in two-dimensional electronic or photonic platforms. Here, we study the twisted near-field energy radiation between graphene metasurfaces with nonequilibrium drifted Dirac electrons. Anomalously, we find unconventional radiative flux that directs heat from cold to hot. This far-from-equilibrium phenomenon leads to a heating-cooling transition beyond a thermal magic twist angle, facilitated by twist-induced photonic topological transitions. The underlying mechanism is related to the spectrum match and mismatch caused by the cooperation between the non-reciprocal nature of drifted plasmon polaritons and their topological features. Furthermore, we report the unintuitive distance dependence of radiative energy flux under large twist angles. The near-field radiation becomes thermal insulating when increasing to a critical distance, and subsequently reverses the radiative flux to increase the cooling power as the distance increases further. Our results indicate the promising future of nonequilibrium drifted and twisted devices and pave the way towards tunable radiative thermal management.

5.Magnon squeezing in conical spin spirals

Authors:Dennis Wuhrer, Levente Rózsa, Ulrich Nowak, Wolfgang Belzig

Abstract: We investigate squeezing of magnons in a conical spin spiral configuration. We find that while the energy of magnons propagating along the $\boldsymbol{k}$ and the $-\boldsymbol{k}$ directions can be different due to the non-reciprocal dispersion, these two modes are connected by the squeezing, hence can be described by the same squeezing parameter. The squeezing parameter diverges at the center of the Brillouin zone due to the translational Goldstone mode of the system, but the squeezing also vanishes for certain wave vectors. We discuss possible ways of detecting the squeezing.

6.A spintronic Huxley-Hodgkin-analogue neuron implemented with a single magnetic tunnel junction

Authors:Davi R. Rodrigues, Rayan Moukhader, Yanxiang Luo, Bin Fang, Adrien Pontlevy, Abbas Hamadeh, Zhongming Zeng, Mario Carpentieri, Giovanni Finocchio

Abstract: Spiking neural networks aim to emulate the brain's properties to achieve similar parallelism and high-processing power. A caveat of these neural networks is the high computational cost to emulate, while current proposals for analogue implementations are energy inefficient and not scalable. We propose a device based on a single magnetic tunnel junction to perform neuron firing for spiking neural networks without the need of any resetting procedure. We leverage two physics, magnetism and thermal effects, to obtain a bio-realistic spiking behavior analogous to the Huxley-Hodgkin model of the neuron. The device is also able to emulate the simpler Leaky-Integrate and Fire model. Numerical simulations using experimental-based parameters demonstrate firing frequency in the MHz to GHz range under constant input at room temperature. The compactness, scalability, low cost, CMOS-compatibility, and power efficiency of magnetic tunnel junctions advocate for their broad use in hardware implementations of spiking neural networks.

7.Optical grade bromide-based thin film electrolytes

Authors:Nicola Melchioni, Giacomo Trupiano, Giorgio Tofani, Riccardo Bertini, Andrea Mezzetta, Federica Bianco, Lorenzo Guazzelli, Fabio Beltram, Christian Silvio Pomelli, Stefano Roddaro, Alessandro Tredicucci, Federico Paolucci

Abstract: Controlling the charge density in low-dimensional materials with an electrostatic potential is a powerful tool to explore and influence their electronic and optical properties. Conventional solid gates impose strict geometrical constraints to the devices and often absorb electromagnetic radiation in the infrared (IR) region. A powerful alternative is ionic liquid (IL) gating. This technique only needs a metallic electrode in contact with the IL and the highest achievable electric field is limited by the electrochemical interactions of the IL with the environment. Despite the excellent gating properties, a large number of ILs is hardly exploitable for optical experiments in the mid-IR region, because they typically suffer from low optical transparency and degradation in ambient conditions. Here, we report the realization of two electrolytes based on bromide ILs dissolved in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We demonstrate that such electrolytes can induce state-of-the-art charge densities as high as $20\times10^{15}\ \mathrm{cm^{-2}}$. Thanks to the low water absorption of PMMA, they work both in vacuum and in ambient atmosphere after a simple vacuum curing. Furthermore, our electrolytes can be spin coated into flat thin films with optical transparency in the range from 600 cm$^{-1}$ to 4000 cm$^{-1}$. Thanks to these properties, the electrolytes are excellent candidates to fill the gap as versatile gating layers for electronic and mid-IR optoelectronic devices.

8.Revealing a spatially inhomogeneous broadening effect in artificial quantum structures caused by electron-adsorbate scattering

Authors:Marco Weiss, Fabian Stilp, Alfred J. Weymouth, Franz J. Giessibl

Abstract: What defines the lifetime of electronic states in artificial quantum structures? We measured the spectral widths of resonant eigenstates in a circular, CO-based quantum corral on a Cu(111) surface and found that the widths are related to the size of the corral and that the line shape is essentially Gaussian. A model linking the energy dependence with the movement of single surface electrons shows that the observed behavior is consistent with lifetime limitations due to interaction with the corral walls.

9.Topological enhancement of non-normality in non-Hermitian skin effects

Authors:Yusuke O. Nakai, Nobuyuki Okuma, Daichi Nakamura, Kenji Shimomura, Masatoshi Sato

Abstract: The non-Hermitian skin effects are representative phenomena intrinsic to non-Hermitian systems: the energy spectra and eigenstates under the open boundary condition (OBC) drastically differ from those under the periodic boundary condition (PBC). Whereas a non-trivial topology under the PBC characterizes the non-Hermitian skin effects, their proper measure under the OBC has not been clarified yet. This paper reveals that topological enhancement of non-normality under the OBC accurately quantifies the non-Hermitian skin effects. Correspondingly to spectrum and state changes of the skin effects, we introduce two scalar measures of non-normality and argue that the non-Hermitian skin effects enhance both macroscopically under the OBC. We also show that the enhanced non-normality correctly describes phase transitions causing the non-Hermitian skin effects and reveals the absence of non-Hermitian skin effects protected by average symmetry. The topological enhancement of non-normality governs the perturbation sensitivity of the OBC spectra and the anomalous time-evolution dynamics through the Bauer-Fike theorem.

10.Josephson-like tunnel resonance and large Coulomb drag in GaAs-based electron-hole bilayers

Authors:M. L. Davis Solid State Physics Laboratory ETH Zürich, S. Parolo Solid State Physics Laboratory ETH Zürich, C. Reichl Solid State Physics Laboratory ETH Zürich, W. Dietsche Solid State Physics Laboratory ETH Zürich Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung Stuttgart, W. Wegscheider Solid State Physics Laboratory ETH Zürich Quantum Center ETH Zürich

Abstract: Bilayers consisting of two-dimensional (2D) electron and hole gases separated by a 10 nm thick AlGaAs barrier are formed by charge accumulation in epitaxially grown GaAs. Both vertical and lateral electric transport are measured in the millikelvin temperature range. The conductivity between the layers shows a sharp tunnel resonance at a density of $1.1 \cdot 10^{10} \text{ cm}^{-2}$, which is consistent with a Josephson-like enhanced tunnel conductance. The tunnel resonance disappears with increasing densities and the two 2D charge gases start to show 2D-Fermi-gas behavior. Interlayer interactions persist causing a positive drag voltage that is very large at small densities. The transition from the Josephson-like tunnel resonance to the Fermi-gas behavior is interpreted as a phase transition from an exciton gas in the Bose-Einstein-condensate state to a degenerate electron-hole Fermi gas.

1.Topological Monomodes in non-Hermitian Systems

Authors:E. Slootman, W. Cherifi, L. Eek, R. Arouca, M. Bourennane, C. Morais Smith

Abstract: We show theoretically and experimentally the existence of topological monomodes in non-Hermitian systems created by loss engineering. This challenges the idea that edge states always come in pairs in $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry-protected topological systems. We theoretically show the existence of a monomode in a non-Hermitian 1D and 2D SSH models. Furthermore, we classify the systems in terms of the (non-Hermitian) symmetries that are present and calculate the corresponding topological invariant. To corroborate the theory, we present experiments in photonic lattices in which a monomode is observed in a non-Hermitian 1D SSH chain.

2.Evidence of magnetoelectronic electromagnon mediated transport in flexoelectronic heterostructures

Authors:Anand Katailiha, Paul C. Lou, Ravindra G. Bhardwaj, Ward P. Beyermann, Sandeep Kumar

Abstract: The superposition of atomic vibrations and flexoelectronic effect gives rise to a cross correlation between free charge carriers and temporal magnetic moment of phonons in conducting heterostructures under an applied strain gradient. The resulting dynamical coupling is expected to give rise to quasiparticle excitations called as magnetoelectronic electromagnon that carries electronic charge and temporal magnetic moment. Here, we report experimental evidence of magnetoelectronic electromagnon in the freestanding degenerately doped p-Si based heterostructure thin film samples. These quasiparticle excitations give rise to long-distance (>100um) spin transport; demonstrated using spatially modulated transverse magneto-thermoelectric and non-local resistance measurements. The magnetoelectronic electromagnons are non-reciprocal and give rise to large magnetochiral anisotropy (0.352 A-1T-1) that diminishes at lower temperatures. The superposition of non-reciprocal magnetoelectronic electromagnons gives rise to longitudinal and transverse modulations in charge carrier density, spin density and magnetic moment; demonstrated using the Hall effect and edge dependent magnetoresistance measurements, which can also be called as inhomogeneous magnetoelectronic multiferroic effect. These quasiparticle excitations are analogues to photons where time dependent polarization and temporal magnetic moment replaces electric and magnetic field, respectively and most likely topological because it manifests topological Nernst effect. Hence, the magnetoelectronic electromagnon can potentially give rise to quantum interference and entanglement effects in conducting solid state system at room temperature in addition to efficient spin transport.

3.Coexisting and interacting spin torque driven free and reference layer magnetic droplet solitons

Authors:Sheng Jiang, Sunjae Chung, Martina Ahlberg, Anreas Frisk, Q. Tuan Le, Hamid Mazraati, Afshin Houshang, Olle Heinonen, Johan Åkerman

Abstract: Magnetic droplets are nanoscale, non-topological, magnetodynamical solitons that can be nucleated in spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) or spin Hall nano-oscillators (SHNOs). All theoretical, numerical, and experimental droplet studies have so far focused on the free layer (FL), and any additional dynamics in the reference layer (RL) have been entirely ignored. Here we show, using all-perpendicular STNOs, that there is not only significant magnetodynamics in the RL, but the reference layer itself can host a droplet coexisting with the FL droplet. Both droplets are observed experimentally as stepwise changes and sharp peaks in the dc and differential resistance, respectively. Whereas the single FL droplet is highly stable, the coexistence state exhibits high-power broadband microwave noise. Micromagnetic simulations corroborate the experimental results and reveal a strong interaction between the droplets. Our demonstration of strongly interacting and closely spaced droplets offers a unique platform for fundamental studies of highly non-linear soliton pair dynamics.

4.CMOS + stochastic nanomagnets: heterogeneous computers for probabilistic inference and learning

Authors:Keito Kobayashi, Nihal Singh, Qixuan Cao, Kemal Selcuk, Tianrui Hu, Shaila Niazi, Navid Anjum Aadit, Shun Kanai, Hideo Ohno, Shunsuke Fukami, Kerem Y. Camsari

Abstract: With the slowing down of Moore's law, augmenting complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors with emerging nanotechnologies (X) is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we demonstrate how stochastic magnetic tunnel junction (sMTJ)-based probabilistic bits, or p-bits, can be combined with versatile Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) to design an energy-efficient, heterogeneous CMOS + X (X = sMTJ) prototype. Our heterogeneous computer successfully performs probabilistic inference and asynchronous Boltzmann learning despite device-to-device variations in sMTJs. A comprehensive comparison using a CMOS predictive process design kit (PDK) reveals that digital CMOS-based p-bits emulating high-quality randomness use over 10,000 transistors with the energy per generated random number being roughly two orders of magnitude greater than the sMTJ-based p-bits that dissipate only 2 fJ. Scaled and integrated versions of our approach can significantly advance probabilistic computing and its applications in various domains, including probabilistic machine learning, optimization, and quantum simulation.

5.Radiative suppression of exciton-exciton annihilation in a two-dimensional semiconductor

Authors:Luca Sortino, Merve Gülmüs, Benjamin Tilmann, Leonardo de S. Menezes, Stefan A. Maier

Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors possess strongly bound excitons, opening novel opportunities for engineering light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. However, their in-plane confinement leads to large non-radiative exciton-exciton annihilation (EEA) processes, setting a fundamental limit for their photonic applications. In this work, we demonstrate suppression of EEA via enhancement of light-matter interaction in hybrid 2D semiconductor-dielectric nanophotonic platforms, by coupling excitons in WS$ _2 $ monolayers with optical Mie resonances in dielectric nanoantennas. The hybrid system reaches an intermediate light-matter coupling regime, with photoluminescence enhancement factors up to 10$ ^2 $. Probing the exciton ultrafast dynamics reveal suppressed EEA for coupled excitons, even under high exciton densities $>$ 10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2} $. We extract EEA coefficients in the order of 10$^{-3} $, compared to 10$^{-2} $ for uncoupled monolayers, as well as absorption enhancement of 3.9 and a Purcell factor of 4.5. Our results highlight engineering the photonic environment as a route to achieve higher quantum efficiencies for low-power hybrid devices, and larger exciton densities, towards strongly correlated excitonic phases in 2D semiconductors.

6.Reentrant proximity-induced superconductivity for GeTe semimetal

Authors:V. D. Esin, D. Yu. Kazmin, Yu. S. Barash, A. V. Timonina, N. N. Kolesnikov, E. V. Deviatov

Abstract: We experimentally investigate charge transport in In-GeTe and In-GeTe-In proximity devices, which are formed as junctions between superconducting indium leads and thick single crystal flakes of $\alpha$-GeTe topological semimetal. We observe nonmonotonic effects of the applied external magnetic field, including reentrant superconductivity in In-GeTe-In Josephson junctions: supercurrent reappears at some finite magnetic field. For a single In-GeTe Andreev junction, the superconducting gap is partially suppressed in zero magnetic field, while the gap is increased nearly to the bulk value for some finite field before its full suppression. We discuss possible reasons for the results obtained, taking into account spin polarization of Fermi arc surface states in topological semimetal $\alpha$-GeTe with a strong spin-orbit coupling. In particular, the zero-field surface state spin polarization partially suppresses the superconductivity, while it is recovered due to the modified spin-split surface state configuration in finite fields. As an alternative possible scenario, the transition into the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state is discussed. However, the role of strong spin-orbit coupling in forming the nonmonotonic behavior has not been analyzed for heterostructures in the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state, which is crucial for junctions involving GeTe topological semimetal.

7.Long-range coupling between superconducting dots induced by periodic driving

Authors:Andriani Keliri, Benoît Douçot

Abstract: We consider a Josephson bijunction consisting of three superconducting reservoirs connected through two quantum dots. In equilibrium, the interdot coupling is sizable only for distances smaller than the superconducting coherence length. Application of commensurate dc voltages results in a time-periodic Hamiltonian and induces an interdot coupling at large distances. The basic mechanism of this long-range coupling is shown to be due to local multiple Andreev reflections on each dot, followed by quasiparticle propagation at energies larger than the superconducting gap. At large interdot distances we derive an effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian describing two resonances coupled through a continuum.

1.Magnetic field study of exciton nonradiative broadening excitation spectra in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

Authors:M. A. Chukeev, A. S. Kurdyubov, I. I. Ryzhov, V. A. Lovtcius, Yu. P. Efimov, S. A. Eliseev, P. S. Grigoryev

Abstract: Exciton excited states in the quantum well are studied via their effect on the nonradiative broadening of the ground exciton resonance. Dependence of the nonradiative broadening of the ground exciton state on the photon energy of additional laser excitation was measured. Applying magnetic field up to 6 T, we could trace the formation of Landau levels and evolution of the exciton states of size quantization in a 14-nm GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well. Sensitivity of the technique allowed for observation of the second exciton state of size quantization, unavailable for conventional reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our interpretation is supported by the numerical calculation of the exciton energies of the heavy-hole and light-hole subsystems. The numerical problems were solved using the finite-difference method on the nonuniform grid. The ground Landau level of the free electron-hole pair was observed and numerically analysed. In addition to energies of the excited states, electron hole distances and exciton-light interaction constant was investigated using the obtained in the numerical procedure exciton wave functions.

2.Quadrature skyrmions in two-dimensionally arrayed parametric resonators

Authors:Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Daiki Hatanaka, Motoki Asano

Abstract: Skyrmions are topological solitons in two-dimensional systems and have been observed in various physical systems. Generating and controlling skyrmions in artificial resonator arrays lead to novel acoustic, photonic, and electric devices, but it is a challenge to implement a vector variable with the chiral exchange interaction. Here, we propose to use quadrature variables, where their parametric coupling enables skyrmions to be stabilized. A finite-element simulation indicates that a stable acoustic skyrmion would exist in a realistic structure consisting of a piezoelectric membrane array.

3.Excitation and voltage-gated modulation of single-mode dynamics in a planar nano-gap spin Hall nano-oscillator

Authors:Lina Chen, Yu Chen, Zhenyu Gao, Kaiyuan Zhou, Zui Tao, Yong Pu, Tiejun Zhou, Ronghua Liu

Abstract: We experimentally study the dynamical modes excited by current-induced spin-orbit torque and its electrostatic gating effect in a 3-terminal planar nano-gap spin Hall nano-oscillator (SHNO) with a moderate interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (IPMA). Both quasilinear propagating spin-wave and localized "bullet" modes are achieved and controlled by varying the applied in-plane magnetic field and driving current. The minimum linewidth shows a linear dependence on the actual temperature of the active area, confirming single-mode dynamics based on the nonlinear theory of spin-torque nano-oscillation with a single mode. The observed electrostatic gating tuning oscillation frequency arises from voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy and threshold current of SHNO via modification of the nonlinear damping and/or the interfacial spin-orbit coupling of the magnetic multilayer. In contrast to previously observed two-mode coexistence degrading the spectral purity in Py/Pt-based SHNOs with a negligible IPMA, a single coherent spin-wave mode with a low driven current can be achieved by selecting the ferromagnet layer with a suitable IPMA because the nonlinear mode coupling can be diminished by bringing in the PMA field to compensate the easy-plane shape anisotropy. Moreover, the simulations demonstrate that the experimentally observed current and gate-voltage modulation of auto-oscillation modes are also closely associated with the nonlinear damping and mode coupling, which are determined by the ellipticity of magnetization precession. The demonstrated nonlinear mode coupling mechanism and electrical control approach of spin-wave modes could provide the clue to facilitate the implementation of the mutual synchronization map for neuromorphic computing applications in SHNO array networks.

4.Electron Pairing of Interfering Interface-Based Edge Modes

Authors:Sourav Biswas, Hemanta Kumar Kundu, Vladimir Umansky, Moty Heiblum

Abstract: The remarkable Cooper-like pairing phenomenon in the Aharonov-Bohm interference of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI)$\rm{-}$operating in the integer quantum Hall regime$\rm{-}$remains baffling. Here, we report the interference of paired electrons employing 'interface edge modes'. These modes are born at the interface between the bulk of the FPI and an outer gated region tuned to a lower filling factor. Such configuration allows toggling the spin and the orbital of the Landau level (LL) of the edge modes at the interface. We find that electron pairing occurs only when the two modes (the interfering outer and the first inner) belong to the same spinless LL.

5.Strongly Nonlinear Topological Phases of Cascaded Topoelectrical Circuits

Authors:Jijie Tang, Fangyuan Ma, Feng Li, Honglian Guo, Di Zhou

Abstract: Circuits provide ideal platforms of topological phases and matter, yet the study of topological circuits in the strongly nonlinear regime, has been lacking. We propose and experimentally demonstrate strongly nonlinear topological phases and transitions in one-dimensional electrical circuits composed of nonlinear capacitors. Nonlinear topological interface modes arise on domain walls of the circuit lattices, whose topological phases are controlled by the amplitudes of nonlinear voltage waves. Experimentally measured topological transition amplitudes are in good agreement with those derived from nonlinear topological band theory. Our prototype paves the way towards flexible metamaterials with amplitude-controlled rich topological phases and is readily extendable to two and three-dimensional systems that allow novel applications.

6.Anomalous spin textures in a 2D topological superconductor induced by point impurities

Authors:Dunkan Martínez GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Álvaro Díaz-Fernández GISC, Departamento de Física Aplicada a las Ingenierías Aeronáutica y Naval, Pedro A Orellana Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Francisco Domínguez-Adame GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Abstract: Topological superconductors are foreseen as good candidates for the search of Majorana zero modes, where they appear as edge states and can be used for quantum computation. In this context, it becomes necessary to study the robustness and behavior of electron states in topological superconductors when a magnetic or non-magnetic impurity is present. We focus on scattering resonances in the bands and on spin texture to know what the spin behavior of the electrons in the system will be. We find that the scattering resonances appear outside the superconducting gap, thus providing evidence of topological robustness. We also find non-trivial and anisotropic spin textures related to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The spin textures show a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction governed by Friedel oscillations. We believe that our results are useful for further studies which consider many-point-impurity scattering or a more structured impurity potential with a finite range.

7.Observation of orbital pumping

Authors:Hiroki Hayashi, Kazuya Ando

Abstract: Harnessing spin and orbital angular momentum is a fundamental concept in condensed matter physics, materials science, and quantum-device applications. In particular, the search for new phenomena that generate a flow of spin angular momentum, a spin current, has led to the development of spintronics, advancing the understanding of angular momentum dynamics at the nanoscale. In contrast to this success, the generation and detection of orbital currents, the orbital counterpart of spin currents, remains a significant challenge. Here, we report the observation of orbital pumping, a phenomenon in which magnetization dynamics pumps an orbital current, a flow of orbital angular momentum. The orbital pumping is the orbital counterpart of the spin pumping, which is one of the most versatile and powerful mechanisms for spin-current generation. We show that the orbital pumping in Ni/Ti bilayers injects an orbital current into the Ti layer, which is detected through the inverse orbital Hall effect. Our findings provide a promising approach for generating orbital currents and pave the way for exploring the physics of orbital transport in solids.

1.Identifying dissipative phase transitions from entropy and conductance

Authors:Zhanyu Ma, Cheolhee Han, Yigal Meir, Eran Sela

Abstract: Dissipative phase transitions (DPT) occur when a small quantum system interacts with a bath of harmonic oscillators. At equilibrium, DPTs are accompanied by an entropy change, signaling the loss of coherence. Despite extensive efforts, equilibrium DPTs have yet to be observed. Here, we demonstrate that ongoing experiments on double quantum dots that measure entropy using a nearby quantum point contact (QPC) realize the celebrated spin-boson model and allow to measure the entropy change of its DPT. We find a Kosterlitz-Thouless flow diagram, leading to a universal jump in the spin-bath interaction, reflected in a discontinuity in the zero temperature QPC conductance.

2.Chiral chains with two valleys and disorder of finite correlation length

Authors:Jean-Baptiste Touchais, Pascal Simon, Andrej Mesaros

Abstract: In one-dimensional disordered systems with a chiral symmetry it is well-known that electrons at energy $E = 0$ avoid localization and simultaneously exhibit a diverging density of states (DOS). For $N$ coupled chains with zero-correlation-length disorder, the diverging DOS remains for odd $N$, but a vanishing DOS is found for even $N$. We use a thin spinless graphene nanotube with disordered Semenoff mass and disordered Haldane coupling to construct $N = 2$ chiral chain models which at low energy have two linear band crossings at different momenta $\pm K$ (two valleys) and disorder with an arbitrary correlation length $\xi$ in units of lattice constant $a$. We find that the finite momentum $\pm K$ forces the disorder in one valley to depend on the disorder in the other valley, thus departing from known analytical results which assume having $N$ independent disorders (whatever their spatial correlation lengths). Our main numerical results show that for this inter-dependent mass disorder the DOS is also suppressed in the limit of strongly coupled valleys (lattice-white noise limit, $\xi/a = 0$) and exhibits a non-trivial crossover as the valleys decouple ($\xi/a\gtrsim 5$) into the DOS shapes of the $N = 1$ continuum model with finite correlation length $\xi$. We also show that changing the intra-unit-cell geometry of the disordered Haldane coupling can tune the amount of inter-valley scattering yet at lowest energies it produces the decoupled-valley behavior ($N = 1$) all the way down to lattice white noise.

3.Effect of Inversion Asymmetry on Bilayer Graphene's Superconducting and Exciton Condensates

Authors:Xiang Hu, Enrico Rossi, Yafis Barlas

Abstract: Inversion asymmetry in bilayer graphene can be tuned by the displacement field. As a result, the band dispersion in biased bilayer graphene acquires flat band regions near the Dirac points along with a non-trivial band geometry. We analyze the effect of inversion symmetry on the critical temperature and superfluid stiffness of the superconducting state of AB-stacked graphene bilayer and on the exciton condensate in double layers formed by two AB-stacked graphene bilayers. The geometric superfluid stiffness in bilayer graphene superconductors is found to be negligible due to the small superconducting gap. Furthermore, we show that the geometric superfluid stiffness is maximized for a constant order parameter. Therefore, it can be neglected in biased bilayer graphene superconductors with any pairing symmetry. However, the displacement field enhances the geometric superfluid stiffness in exciton condensates. It is most prominent at low densities and high displacement fields. A consequence of the geometric superfluid stiffness is a modest enhancement of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature in bilayer graphene's exciton condensate.