arXiv daily: Machine Learning

arXiv daily: Machine Learning (cs.LG)

1.TensorFlow Chaotic Prediction and Blow Up

Authors:M. Andrecut

Abstract: Predicting the dynamics of chaotic systems is one of the most challenging tasks for neural networks, and machine learning in general. Here we aim to predict the spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics of a high-dimensional non-linear system. In our attempt we use the TensorFlow library, representing the state of the art for deep neural networks training and prediction. While our results are encouraging, and show that the dynamics of the considered system can be predicted for short time, we also indirectly discovered an unexpected and undesirable behavior of the TensorFlow library. More specifically, the longer term prediction of the system's chaotic behavior quickly deteriorates and blows up due to the nondeterministic behavior of the TensorFlow library. Here we provide numerical evidence of the short time prediction ability, and of the longer term predictability blow up.

2.Is Solving Graph Neural Tangent Kernel Equivalent to Training Graph Neural Network?

Authors:Lianke Qin, Zhao Song, Baocheng Sun

Abstract: A rising trend in theoretical deep learning is to understand why deep learning works through Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK) [jgh18], a kernel method that is equivalent to using gradient descent to train a multi-layer infinitely-wide neural network. NTK is a major step forward in the theoretical deep learning because it allows researchers to use traditional mathematical tools to analyze properties of deep neural networks and to explain various neural network techniques from a theoretical view. A natural extension of NTK on graph learning is \textit{Graph Neural Tangent Kernel (GNTK)}, and researchers have already provide GNTK formulation for graph-level regression and show empirically that this kernel method can achieve similar accuracy as GNNs on various bioinformatics datasets [dhs+19]. The remaining question now is whether solving GNTK regression is equivalent to training an infinite-wide multi-layer GNN using gradient descent. In this paper, we provide three new theoretical results. First, we formally prove this equivalence for graph-level regression. Second, we present the first GNTK formulation for node-level regression. Finally, we prove the equivalence for node-level regression.

3.Improved Auto-Encoding using Deterministic Projected Belief Networks

Authors:Paul M Baggenstoss

Abstract: In this paper, we exploit the unique properties of a deterministic projected belief network (D-PBN) to take full advantage of trainable compound activation functions (TCAs). A D-PBN is a type of auto-encoder that operates by "backing up" through a feed-forward neural network. TCAs are activation functions with complex monotonic-increasing shapes that change the distribution of the data so that the linear transformation that follows is more effective. Because a D-PBN operates by "backing up", the TCAs are inverted in the reconstruction process, restoring the original distribution of the data, thus taking advantage of a given TCA in both analysis and reconstruction. In this paper, we show that a D-PBN auto-encoder with TCAs can significantly out-perform standard auto-encoders including variational auto-encoders.

4.Learning Beyond Similarities: Incorporating Dissimilarities between Positive Pairs in Self-Supervised Time Series Learning

Authors:Adrian Atienza, Jakob Bardram, Sadasivan Puthusserypady

Abstract: By identifying similarities between successive inputs, Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) methods for time series analysis have demonstrated their effectiveness in encoding the inherent static characteristics of temporal data. However, an exclusive emphasis on similarities might result in representations that overlook the dynamic attributes critical for modeling cardiovascular diseases within a confined subject cohort. Introducing Distilled Encoding Beyond Similarities (DEBS), this paper pioneers an SSL approach that transcends mere similarities by integrating dissimilarities among positive pairs. The framework is applied to electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, leading to a notable enhancement of +10\% in the detection accuracy of Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) across diverse subjects. DEBS underscores the potential of attaining a more refined representation by encoding the dynamic characteristics of time series data, tapping into dissimilarities during the optimization process. Broadly, the strategy delineated in this study holds the promise of unearthing novel avenues for advancing SSL methodologies tailored to temporal data.

5.Adaptive approximation of monotone functions

Authors:Pierre Gaillard Thoth, Sébastien Gerchinovitz IMT, Étienne de Montbrun TSE-R

Abstract: We study the classical problem of approximating a non-decreasing function $f: \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{Y}$ in $L^p(\mu)$ norm by sequentially querying its values, for known compact real intervals $\mathcal{X}$, $\mathcal{Y}$ and a known probability measure $\mu$ on $\cX$. For any function~$f$ we characterize the minimum number of evaluations of $f$ that algorithms need to guarantee an approximation $\hat{f}$ with an $L^p(\mu)$ error below $\epsilon$ after stopping. Unlike worst-case results that hold uniformly over all $f$, our complexity measure is dependent on each specific function $f$. To address this problem, we introduce GreedyBox, a generalization of an algorithm originally proposed by Novak (1992) for numerical integration. We prove that GreedyBox achieves an optimal sample complexity for any function $f$, up to logarithmic factors. Additionally, we uncover results regarding piecewise-smooth functions. Perhaps as expected, the $L^p(\mu)$ error of GreedyBox decreases much faster for piecewise-$C^2$ functions than predicted by the algorithm (without any knowledge on the smoothness of $f$). A simple modification even achieves optimal minimax approximation rates for such functions, which we compute explicitly. In particular, our findings highlight multiple performance gaps between adaptive and non-adaptive algorithms, smooth and piecewise-smooth functions, as well as monotone or non-monotone functions. Finally, we provide numerical experiments to support our theoretical results.

6.VerilogEval: Evaluating Large Language Models for Verilog Code Generation

Authors:Mingjie Liu, Nathaniel Pinckney, Brucek Khailany, Haoxing Ren

Abstract: The increasing popularity of large language models (LLMs) has paved the way for their application in diverse domains. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework tailored specifically for evaluating LLM performance in the context of Verilog code generation for hardware design and verification. We present a comprehensive evaluation dataset consisting of 156 problems from the Verilog instructional website HDLBits. The evaluation set consists of a diverse set of Verilog code generation tasks, ranging from simple combinational circuits to complex finite state machines. The Verilog code completions can be automatically tested for functional correctness by comparing the transient simulation outputs of the generated design with a golden solution. We also demonstrate that the Verilog code generation capability of pretrained language models could be improved with supervised fine-tuning by bootstrapping with LLM generated synthetic problem-code pairs.

7.Equivariant Data Augmentation for Generalization in Offline Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Cristina Pinneri, Sarah Bechtle, Markus Wulfmeier, Arunkumar Byravan, Jingwei Zhang, William F. Whitney, Martin Riedmiller

Abstract: We present a novel approach to address the challenge of generalization in offline reinforcement learning (RL), where the agent learns from a fixed dataset without any additional interaction with the environment. Specifically, we aim to improve the agent's ability to generalize to out-of-distribution goals. To achieve this, we propose to learn a dynamics model and check if it is equivariant with respect to a fixed type of transformation, namely translations in the state space. We then use an entropy regularizer to increase the equivariant set and augment the dataset with the resulting transformed samples. Finally, we learn a new policy offline based on the augmented dataset, with an off-the-shelf offline RL algorithm. Our experimental results demonstrate that our approach can greatly improve the test performance of the policy on the considered environments.

8.Structure-Preserving Transformers for Sequences of SPD Matrices

Authors:Mathieu Seraphim, Alexis Lechervy, Florian Yger, Luc Brun, Olivier Etard

Abstract: In recent years, Transformer-based auto-attention mechanisms have been successfully applied to the analysis of a variety of context-reliant data types, from texts to images and beyond, including data from non-Euclidean geometries. In this paper, we present such a mechanism, designed to classify sequences of Symmetric Positive Definite matrices while preserving their Riemannian geometry throughout the analysis. We apply our method to automatic sleep staging on timeseries of EEG-derived covariance matrices from a standard dataset, obtaining high levels of stage-wise performance.

9.Statistically Valid Variable Importance Assessment through Conditional Permutations

Authors:Ahmad Chamma Inria Universite Paris Saclay CEA, Denis A. Engemann Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Neuroscience and Rare Diseases, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland, Bertrand Thirion Inria Universite Paris Saclay CEA

Abstract: Variable importance assessment has become a crucial step in machine-learning applications when using complex learners, such as deep neural networks, on large-scale data. Removal-based importance assessment is currently the reference approach, particularly when statistical guarantees are sought to justify variable inclusion. It is often implemented with variable permutation schemes. On the flip side, these approaches risk misidentifying unimportant variables as important in the presence of correlations among covariates. Here we develop a systematic approach for studying Conditional Permutation Importance (CPI) that is model agnostic and computationally lean, as well as reusable benchmarks of state-of-the-art variable importance estimators. We show theoretically and empirically that $\textit{CPI}$ overcomes the limitations of standard permutation importance by providing accurate type-I error control. When used with a deep neural network, $\textit{CPI}$ consistently showed top accuracy across benchmarks. An empirical benchmark on real-world data analysis in a large-scale medical dataset showed that $\textit{CPI}$ provides a more parsimonious selection of statistically significant variables. Our results suggest that $\textit{CPI}$ can be readily used as drop-in replacement for permutation-based methods.

10.Feature Engineering in Learning-to-Rank for Community Question Answering Task

Authors:Nafis Sajid, Md Rashidul Hasan, Muhammad Ibrahim

Abstract: Community question answering (CQA) forums are Internet-based platforms where users ask questions about a topic and other expert users try to provide solutions. Many CQA forums such as Quora, Stackoverflow, Yahoo!Answer, StackExchange exist with a lot of user-generated data. These data are leveraged in automated CQA ranking systems where similar questions (and answers) are presented in response to the query of the user. In this work, we empirically investigate a few aspects of this domain. Firstly, in addition to traditional features like TF-IDF, BM25 etc., we introduce a BERT-based feature that captures the semantic similarity between the question and answer. Secondly, most of the existing research works have focused on features extracted only from the question part; features extracted from answers have not been explored extensively. We combine both types of features in a linear fashion. Thirdly, using our proposed concepts, we conduct an empirical investigation with different rank-learning algorithms, some of which have not been used so far in CQA domain. On three standard CQA datasets, our proposed framework achieves state-of-the-art performance. We also analyze importance of the features we use in our investigation. This work is expected to guide the practitioners to select a better set of features for the CQA retrieval task.

11.Multi-Source Domain Adaptation meets Dataset Distillation through Dataset Dictionary Learning

Authors:Eduardo Fernandes Montesuma, Fred Ngolè Mboula, Antoine Souloumiac

Abstract: In this paper, we consider the intersection of two problems in machine learning: Multi-Source Domain Adaptation (MSDA) and Dataset Distillation (DD). On the one hand, the first considers adapting multiple heterogeneous labeled source domains to an unlabeled target domain. On the other hand, the second attacks the problem of synthesizing a small summary containing all the information about the datasets. We thus consider a new problem called MSDA-DD. To solve it, we adapt previous works in the MSDA literature, such as Wasserstein Barycenter Transport and Dataset Dictionary Learning, as well as DD method Distribution Matching. We thoroughly experiment with this novel problem on four benchmarks (Caltech-Office 10, Tennessee-Eastman Process, Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, and Case Western Reserve University), where we show that, even with as little as 1 sample per class, one achieves state-of-the-art adaptation performance.

12.Federated Dataset Dictionary Learning for Multi-Source Domain Adaptation

Authors:Fabiola Espinosa Castellon, Eduardo Fernandes Montesuma, Fred Ngolè Mboula, Aurélien Mayoue, Antoine Souloumiac, Cédric Gouy-Pallier

Abstract: In this article, we propose an approach for federated domain adaptation, a setting where distributional shift exists among clients and some have unlabeled data. The proposed framework, FedDaDiL, tackles the resulting challenge through dictionary learning of empirical distributions. In our setting, clients' distributions represent particular domains, and FedDaDiL collectively trains a federated dictionary of empirical distributions. In particular, we build upon the Dataset Dictionary Learning framework by designing collaborative communication protocols and aggregation operations. The chosen protocols keep clients' data private, thus enhancing overall privacy compared to its centralized counterpart. We empirically demonstrate that our approach successfully generates labeled data on the target domain with extensive experiments on (i) Caltech-Office, (ii) TEP, and (iii) CWRU benchmarks. Furthermore, we compare our method to its centralized counterpart and other benchmarks in federated domain adaptation.

13.Physics-constrained robust learning of open-form PDEs from limited and noisy data

Authors:Mengge Du, Longfeng Nie, Siyu Lou, Yuntian Chenc, Dongxiao Zhang

Abstract: Unveiling the underlying governing equations of nonlinear dynamic systems remains a significant challenge, especially when encountering noisy observations and no prior knowledge available. This study proposes R-DISCOVER, a framework designed to robustly uncover open-form partial differential equations (PDEs) from limited and noisy data. The framework operates through two alternating update processes: discovering and embedding. The discovering phase employs symbolic representation and a reinforcement learning (RL)-guided hybrid PDE generator to efficiently produce diverse open-form PDEs with tree structures. A neural network-based predictive model fits the system response and serves as the reward evaluator for the generated PDEs. PDEs with superior fits are utilized to iteratively optimize the generator via the RL method and the best-performing PDE is selected by a parameter-free stability metric. The embedding phase integrates the initially identified PDE from the discovering process as a physical constraint into the predictive model for robust training. The traversal of PDE trees automates the construction of the computational graph and the embedding process without human intervention. Numerical experiments demonstrate our framework's capability to uncover governing equations from nonlinear dynamic systems with limited and highly noisy data and outperform other physics-informed neural network-based discovery methods. This work opens new potential for exploring real-world systems with limited understanding.

14.Goal Space Abstraction in Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning via Set-Based Reachability Analysis

Authors:Mehdi Zadem, Sergio Mover, Sao Mai Nguyen

Abstract: Open-ended learning benefits immensely from the use of symbolic methods for goal representation as they offer ways to structure knowledge for efficient and transferable learning. However, the existing Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning (HRL) approaches relying on symbolic reasoning are often limited as they require a manual goal representation. The challenge in autonomously discovering a symbolic goal representation is that it must preserve critical information, such as the environment dynamics. In this paper, we propose a developmental mechanism for goal discovery via an emergent representation that abstracts (i.e., groups together) sets of environment states that have similar roles in the task. We introduce a Feudal HRL algorithm that concurrently learns both the goal representation and a hierarchical policy. The algorithm uses symbolic reachability analysis for neural networks to approximate the transition relation among sets of states and to refine the goal representation. We evaluate our approach on complex navigation tasks, showing the learned representation is interpretable, transferrable and results in data efficient learning.

15.deepFDEnet: A Novel Neural Network Architecture for Solving Fractional Differential Equations

Authors:Ali Nosrati Firoozsalari, Hassan Dana Mazraeh, Alireza Afzal Aghaei, Kourosh Parand

Abstract: The primary goal of this research is to propose a novel architecture for a deep neural network that can solve fractional differential equations accurately. A Gaussian integration rule and a $L_1$ discretization technique are used in the proposed design. In each equation, a deep neural network is used to approximate the unknown function. Three forms of fractional differential equations have been examined to highlight the method's versatility: a fractional ordinary differential equation, a fractional order integrodifferential equation, and a fractional order partial differential equation. The results show that the proposed architecture solves different forms of fractional differential equations with excellent precision.

16.Causal Entropy and Information Gain for Measuring Causal Control

Authors:Francisco Nunes Ferreira Quialheiro Simoes, Mehdi Dastani, Thijs van Ommen

Abstract: Artificial intelligence models and methods commonly lack causal interpretability. Despite the advancements in interpretable machine learning (IML) methods, they frequently assign importance to features which lack causal influence on the outcome variable. Selecting causally relevant features among those identified as relevant by these methods, or even before model training, would offer a solution. Feature selection methods utilizing information theoretical quantities have been successful in identifying statistically relevant features. However, the information theoretical quantities they are based on do not incorporate causality, rendering them unsuitable for such scenarios. To address this challenge, this article proposes information theoretical quantities that incorporate the causal structure of the system, which can be used to evaluate causal importance of features for some given outcome variable. Specifically, we introduce causal versions of entropy and mutual information, termed causal entropy and causal information gain, which are designed to assess how much control a feature provides over the outcome variable. These newly defined quantities capture changes in the entropy of a variable resulting from interventions on other variables. Fundamental results connecting these quantities to the existence of causal effects are derived. The use of causal information gain in feature selection is demonstrated, highlighting its superiority over standard mutual information in revealing which features provide control over a chosen outcome variable. Our investigation paves the way for the development of methods with improved interpretability in domains involving causation.

17.Market-GAN: Adding Control to Financial Market Data Generation with Semantic Context

Authors:Haochong Xia, Shuo Sun, Xinrun Wang, Bo An

Abstract: Financial simulators play an important role in enhancing forecasting accuracy, managing risks, and fostering strategic financial decision-making. Despite the development of financial market simulation methodologies, existing frameworks often struggle with adapting to specialized simulation context. We pinpoint the challenges as i) current financial datasets do not contain context labels; ii) current techniques are not designed to generate financial data with context as control, which demands greater precision compared to other modalities; iii) the inherent difficulties in generating context-aligned, high-fidelity data given the non-stationary, noisy nature of financial data. To address these challenges, our contributions are: i) we proposed the Contextual Market Dataset with market dynamics, stock ticker, and history state as context, leveraging a market dynamics modeling method that combines linear regression and Dynamic Time Warping clustering to extract market dynamics; ii) we present Market-GAN, a novel architecture incorporating a Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) for the controllable generation with context, an autoencoder for learning low-dimension features, and supervisors for knowledge transfer; iii) we introduce a two-stage training scheme to ensure that Market-GAN captures the intrinsic market distribution with multiple objectives. In the pertaining stage, with the use of the autoencoder and supervisors, we prepare the generator with a better initialization for the adversarial training stage. We propose a set of holistic evaluation metrics that consider alignment, fidelity, data usability on downstream tasks, and market facts. We evaluate Market-GAN with the Dow Jones Industrial Average data from 2000 to 2023 and showcase superior performance in comparison to 4 state-of-the-art time-series generative models.

18.Understanding Vector-Valued Neural Networks and Their Relationship with Real and Hypercomplex-Valued Neural Networks

Authors:Marcos Eduardo Valle

Abstract: Despite the many successful applications of deep learning models for multidimensional signal and image processing, most traditional neural networks process data represented by (multidimensional) arrays of real numbers. The intercorrelation between feature channels is usually expected to be learned from the training data, requiring numerous parameters and careful training. In contrast, vector-valued neural networks are conceived to process arrays of vectors and naturally consider the intercorrelation between feature channels. Consequently, they usually have fewer parameters and often undergo more robust training than traditional neural networks. This paper aims to present a broad framework for vector-valued neural networks, referred to as V-nets. In this context, hypercomplex-valued neural networks are regarded as vector-valued models with additional algebraic properties. Furthermore, this paper explains the relationship between vector-valued and traditional neural networks. Precisely, a vector-valued neural network can be obtained by placing restrictions on a real-valued model to consider the intercorrelation between feature channels. Finally, we show how V-nets, including hypercomplex-valued neural networks, can be implemented in current deep-learning libraries as real-valued networks.

19.Interpretability is in the Mind of the Beholder: A Causal Framework for Human-interpretable Representation Learning

Authors:Emanuele Marconato, Andrea Passerini, Stefano Teso

Abstract: Focus in Explainable AI is shifting from explanations defined in terms of low-level elements, such as input features, to explanations encoded in terms of interpretable concepts learned from data. How to reliably acquire such concepts is, however, still fundamentally unclear. An agreed-upon notion of concept interpretability is missing, with the result that concepts used by both post-hoc explainers and concept-based neural networks are acquired through a variety of mutually incompatible strategies. Critically, most of these neglect the human side of the problem: a representation is understandable only insofar as it can be understood by the human at the receiving end. The key challenge in Human-interpretable Representation Learning (HRL) is how to model and operationalize this human element. In this work, we propose a mathematical framework for acquiring interpretable representations suitable for both post-hoc explainers and concept-based neural networks. Our formalization of HRL builds on recent advances in causal representation learning and explicitly models a human stakeholder as an external observer. This allows us to derive a principled notion of alignment between the machine representation and the vocabulary of concepts understood by the human. In doing so, we link alignment and interpretability through a simple and intuitive name transfer game, and clarify the relationship between alignment and a well-known property of representations, namely disentanglment. We also show that alignment is linked to the issue of undesirable correlations among concepts, also known as concept leakage, and to content-style separation, all through a general information-theoretic reformulation of these properties. Our conceptualization aims to bridge the gap between the human and algorithmic sides of interpretability and establish a stepping stone for new research on human-interpretable representations.

20.Communication Efficient Private Federated Learning Using Dithering

Authors:Burak Hasircioglu, Deniz Gunduz

Abstract: The task of preserving privacy while ensuring efficient communication is a fundamental challenge in federated learning. In this work, we tackle this challenge in the trusted aggregator model, and propose a solution that achieves both objectives simultaneously. We show that employing a quantization scheme based on subtractive dithering at the clients can effectively replicate the normal noise addition process at the aggregator. This implies that we can guarantee the same level of differential privacy against other clients while substantially reducing the amount of communication required, as opposed to transmitting full precision gradients and using central noise addition. We also experimentally demonstrate that the accuracy of our proposed approach matches that of the full precision gradient method.

21.Directed Scattering for Knowledge Graph-based Cellular Signaling Analysis

Authors:Aarthi Venkat, Joyce Chew, Ferran Cardoso Rodriguez, Christopher J. Tape, Michael Perlmutter, Smita Krishnaswamy

Abstract: Directed graphs are a natural model for many phenomena, in particular scientific knowledge graphs such as molecular interaction or chemical reaction networks that define cellular signaling relationships. In these situations, source nodes typically have distinct biophysical properties from sinks. Due to their ordered and unidirectional relationships, many such networks also have hierarchical and multiscale structure. However, the majority of methods performing node- and edge-level tasks in machine learning do not take these properties into account, and thus have not been leveraged effectively for scientific tasks such as cellular signaling network inference. We propose a new framework called Directed Scattering Autoencoder (DSAE) which uses a directed version of a geometric scattering transform, combined with the non-linear dimensionality reduction properties of an autoencoder and the geometric properties of the hyperbolic space to learn latent hierarchies. We show this method outperforms numerous others on tasks such as embedding directed graphs and learning cellular signaling networks.

22.Beta Diffusion

Authors:Mingyuan Zhou, Tianqi Chen, Zhendong Wang, Huangjie Zheng

Abstract: We introduce beta diffusion, a novel generative modeling method that integrates demasking and denoising to generate data within bounded ranges. Using scaled and shifted beta distributions, beta diffusion utilizes multiplicative transitions over time to create both forward and reverse diffusion processes, maintaining beta distributions in both the forward marginals and the reverse conditionals, given the data at any point in time. Unlike traditional diffusion-based generative models relying on additive Gaussian noise and reweighted evidence lower bounds (ELBOs), beta diffusion is multiplicative and optimized with KL-divergence upper bounds (KLUBs) derived from the convexity of the KL divergence. We demonstrate that the proposed KLUBs are more effective for optimizing beta diffusion compared to negative ELBOs, which can also be derived as the KLUBs of the same KL divergence with its two arguments swapped. The loss function of beta diffusion, expressed in terms of Bregman divergence, further supports the efficacy of KLUBs for optimization. Experimental results on both synthetic data and natural images demonstrate the unique capabilities of beta diffusion in generative modeling of range-bounded data and validate the effectiveness of KLUBs in optimizing diffusion models, thereby making them valuable additions to the family of diffusion-based generative models and the optimization techniques used to train them.

23.Some notes concerning a generalized KMM-type optimization method for density ratio estimation

Authors:Cristian Daniel Alecsa

Abstract: In the present paper we introduce new optimization algorithms for the task of density ratio estimation. More precisely, we consider extending the well-known KMM method using the construction of a suitable loss function, in order to encompass more general situations involving the estimation of density ratio with respect to subsets of the training data and test data, respectively. The associated codes can be found at

24.Improving physics-informed DeepONets with hard constraints

Authors:Rüdiger Brecht, Dmytro R. Popovych, Alex Bihlo, Roman O. Popovych

Abstract: Current physics-informed (standard or operator) neural networks still rely on accurately learning the initial conditions of the system they are solving. In contrast, standard numerical methods evolve such initial conditions without needing to learn these. In this study, we propose to improve current physics-informed deep learning strategies such that initial conditions do not need to be learned and are represented exactly in the predicted solution. Moreover, this method guarantees that when a DeepONet is applied multiple times to time step a solution, the resulting function is continuous.

1.MCNS: Mining Causal Natural Structures Inside Time Series via A Novel Internal Causality Scheme

Authors:Yuanhao Liu, Dehui Du, Zihan Jiang, Anyan Huang, Yiyang Li

Abstract: Causal inference permits us to discover covert relationships of various variables in time series. However, in most existing works, the variables mentioned above are the dimensions. The causality between dimensions could be cursory, which hinders the comprehension of the internal relationship and the benefit of the causal graph to the neural networks (NNs). In this paper, we find that causality exists not only outside but also inside the time series because it reflects a succession of events in the real world. It inspires us to seek the relationship between internal subsequences. However, the challenges are the hardship of discovering causality from subsequences and utilizing the causal natural structures to improve NNs. To address these challenges, we propose a novel framework called Mining Causal Natural Structure (MCNS), which is automatic and domain-agnostic and helps to find the causal natural structures inside time series via the internal causality scheme. We evaluate the MCNS framework and impregnation NN with MCNS on time series classification tasks. Experimental results illustrate that our impregnation, by refining attention, shape selection classification, and pruning datasets, drives NN, even the data itself preferable accuracy and interpretability. Besides, MCNS provides an in-depth, solid summary of the time series and datasets.

2.Fundamental Limits of Deep Learning-Based Binary Classifiers Trained with Hinge Loss

Authors:Tilahun M. Getu, Georges Kaddoum

Abstract: Although deep learning (DL) has led to several breakthroughs in many disciplines as diverse as chemistry, computer science, electrical engineering, mathematics, medicine, neuroscience, and physics, a comprehensive understanding of why and how DL is empirically successful remains fundamentally elusive. To attack this fundamental problem and unravel the mysteries behind DL's empirical successes, significant innovations toward a unified theory of DL have been made. These innovations encompass nearly fundamental advances in optimization, generalization, and approximation. Despite these advances, however, no work to date has offered a way to quantify the testing performance of a DL-based algorithm employed to solve a pattern classification problem. To overcome this fundamental challenge in part, this paper exposes the fundamental testing performance limits of DL-based binary classifiers trained with hinge loss. For binary classifiers that are based on deep rectified linear unit (ReLU) feedforward neural networks (FNNs) and ones that are based on deep FNNs with ReLU and Tanh activation, we derive their respective novel asymptotic testing performance limits. The derived testing performance limits are validated by extensive computer experiments.

3.Electricity Demand Forecasting through Natural Language Processing with Long Short-Term Memory Networks

Authors:Yun Bai, Simon Camal, Andrea Michiorri

Abstract: Electricity demand forecasting is a well established research field. Usually this task is performed considering historical loads, weather forecasts, calendar information and known major events. Recently attention has been given on the possible use of new sources of information from textual news in order to improve the performance of these predictions. This paper proposes a Long and Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network incorporating textual news features that successfully predicts the deterministic and probabilistic tasks of the UK national electricity demand. The study finds that public sentiment and word vector representations related to transport and geopolitics have time-continuity effects on electricity demand. The experimental results show that the LSTM with textual features improves by more than 3% compared to the pure LSTM benchmark and by close to 10% over the official benchmark. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively reduces forecasting uncertainty by narrowing the confidence interval and bringing the forecast distribution closer to the truth.

4.Uncertainty-aware Traffic Prediction under Missing Data

Authors:Hao Mei, Junxian Li, Zhiming Liang, Guanjie Zheng, Bin Shi, Hua Wei

Abstract: Traffic prediction is a crucial topic because of its broad scope of applications in the transportation domain. Recently, various studies have achieved promising results. However, most studies assume the prediction locations have complete or at least partial historical records and cannot be extended to non-historical recorded locations. In real-life scenarios, the deployment of sensors could be limited due to budget limitations and installation availability, which makes most current models not applicable. Though few pieces of literature tried to impute traffic states at the missing locations, these methods need the data simultaneously observed at the locations with sensors, making them not applicable to prediction tasks. Another drawback is the lack of measurement of uncertainty in prediction, making prior works unsuitable for risk-sensitive tasks or involving decision-making. To fill the gap, inspired by the previous inductive graph neural network, this work proposed an uncertainty-aware framework with the ability to 1) extend prediction to missing locations with no historical records and significantly extend spatial coverage of prediction locations while reducing deployment of sensors and 2) generate probabilistic prediction with uncertainty quantification to help the management of risk and decision making in the down-stream tasks. Through extensive experiments on real-life datasets, the result shows our method achieved promising results on prediction tasks, and the uncertainty quantification gives consistent results which highly correlated with the locations with and without historical data. We also show that our model could help support sensor deployment tasks in the transportation field to achieve higher accuracy with a limited sensor deployment budget.

5.FedDIP: Federated Learning with Extreme Dynamic Pruning and Incremental Regularization

Authors:Qianyu Long, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Shameem Puthiya Parambath, Daning Bi

Abstract: Federated Learning (FL) has been successfully adopted for distributed training and inference of large-scale Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). However, DNNs are characterized by an extremely large number of parameters, thus, yielding significant challenges in exchanging these parameters among distributed nodes and managing the memory. Although recent DNN compression methods (e.g., sparsification, pruning) tackle such challenges, they do not holistically consider an adaptively controlled reduction of parameter exchange while maintaining high accuracy levels. We, therefore, contribute with a novel FL framework (coined FedDIP), which combines (i) dynamic model pruning with error feedback to eliminate redundant information exchange, which contributes to significant performance improvement, with (ii) incremental regularization that can achieve \textit{extreme} sparsity of models. We provide convergence analysis of FedDIP and report on a comprehensive performance and comparative assessment against state-of-the-art methods using benchmark data sets and DNN models. Our results showcase that FedDIP not only controls the model sparsity but efficiently achieves similar or better performance compared to other model pruning methods adopting incremental regularization during distributed model training. The code is available at:

6.Safe Reinforcement Learning with Dual Robustness

Authors:Zeyang Li, Chuxiong Hu, Yunan Wang, Yujie Yang, Shengbo Eben Li

Abstract: Reinforcement learning (RL) agents are vulnerable to adversarial disturbances, which can deteriorate task performance or compromise safety specifications. Existing methods either address safety requirements under the assumption of no adversary (e.g., safe RL) or only focus on robustness against performance adversaries (e.g., robust RL). Learning one policy that is both safe and robust remains a challenging open problem. The difficulty is how to tackle two intertwined aspects in the worst cases: feasibility and optimality. Optimality is only valid inside a feasible region, while identification of maximal feasible region must rely on learning the optimal policy. To address this issue, we propose a systematic framework to unify safe RL and robust RL, including problem formulation, iteration scheme, convergence analysis and practical algorithm design. This unification is built upon constrained two-player zero-sum Markov games. A dual policy iteration scheme is proposed, which simultaneously optimizes a task policy and a safety policy. The convergence of this iteration scheme is proved. Furthermore, we design a deep RL algorithm for practical implementation, called dually robust actor-critic (DRAC). The evaluations with safety-critical benchmarks demonstrate that DRAC achieves high performance and persistent safety under all scenarios (no adversary, safety adversary, performance adversary), outperforming all baselines significantly.

7.Supervised Machine Learning and Physics based Machine Learning approach for prediction of peak temperature distribution in Additive Friction Stir Deposition of Aluminium Alloy

Authors:Akshansh Mishra

Abstract: Additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) is a novel solid-state additive manufacturing technique that circumvents issues of porosity, cracking, and properties anisotropy that plague traditional powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition approaches. However, correlations between process parameters, thermal profiles, and resulting microstructure in AFSD remain poorly understood. This hinders process optimization for properties. This work employs a cutting-edge framework combining supervised machine learning (SML) and physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) to predict peak temperature distribution in AFSD from process parameters. Eight regression algorithms were implemented for SML modeling, while four PINNs leveraged governing equations for transport, wave propagation, heat transfer, and quantum mechanics. Across multiple statistical measures, ensemble techniques like gradient boosting proved superior for SML, with lowest MSE of 165.78. The integrated ML approach was also applied to classify deposition quality from process factors, with logistic regression delivering robust accuracy. By fusing data-driven learning and fundamental physics, this dual methodology provides comprehensive insights into tailoring microstructure through thermal management in AFSD. The work demonstrates the power of bridging statistical and physics-based modeling for elucidating AM process-property relationships.

8.ProMap: Datasets for Product Mapping in E-commerce

Authors:Kateřina Macková, Martin Pilát

Abstract: The goal of product mapping is to decide, whether two listings from two different e-shops describe the same products. Existing datasets of matching and non-matching pairs of products, however, often suffer from incomplete product information or contain only very distant non-matching products. Therefore, while predictive models trained on these datasets achieve good results on them, in practice, they are unusable as they cannot distinguish very similar but non-matching pairs of products. This paper introduces two new datasets for product mapping: ProMapCz consisting of 1,495 Czech product pairs and ProMapEn consisting of 1,555 English product pairs of matching and non-matching products manually scraped from two pairs of e-shops. The datasets contain both images and textual descriptions of the products, including their specifications, making them one of the most complete datasets for product mapping. Additionally, the non-matching products were selected in two phases, creating two types of non-matches -- close non-matches and medium non-matches. Even the medium non-matches are pairs of products that are much more similar than non-matches in other datasets -- for example, they still need to have the same brand and similar name and price. After simple data preprocessing, several machine learning algorithms were trained on these and two the other datasets to demonstrate the complexity and completeness of ProMap datasets. ProMap datasets are presented as a golden standard for further research of product mapping filling the gaps in existing ones.

9.Domain-Aware Augmentations for Unsupervised Online General Continual Learning

Authors:Nicolas Michel, Romain Negrel, Giovanni Chierchia, Jean-François Bercher

Abstract: Continual Learning has been challenging, especially when dealing with unsupervised scenarios such as Unsupervised Online General Continual Learning (UOGCL), where the learning agent has no prior knowledge of class boundaries or task change information. While previous research has focused on reducing forgetting in supervised setups, recent studies have shown that self-supervised learners are more resilient to forgetting. This paper proposes a novel approach that enhances memory usage for contrastive learning in UOGCL by defining and using stream-dependent data augmentations together with some implementation tricks. Our proposed method is simple yet effective, achieves state-of-the-art results compared to other unsupervised approaches in all considered setups, and reduces the gap between supervised and unsupervised continual learning. Our domain-aware augmentation procedure can be adapted to other replay-based methods, making it a promising strategy for continual learning.

10.Investigating the Impact of Action Representations in Policy Gradient Algorithms

Authors:Jan Schneider, Pierre Schumacher, Daniel Häufle, Bernhard Schölkopf, Dieter Büchler

Abstract: Reinforcement learning~(RL) is a versatile framework for learning to solve complex real-world tasks. However, influences on the learning performance of RL algorithms are often poorly understood in practice. We discuss different analysis techniques and assess their effectiveness for investigating the impact of action representations in RL. Our experiments demonstrate that the action representation can significantly influence the learning performance on popular RL benchmark tasks. The analysis results indicate that some of the performance differences can be attributed to changes in the complexity of the optimization landscape. Finally, we discuss open challenges of analysis techniques for RL algorithms.

11.Setting the Right Expectations: Algorithmic Recourse Over Time

Authors:Joao Fonseca, Andrew Bell, Carlo Abrate, Francesco Bonchi, Julia Stoyanovich

Abstract: Algorithmic systems are often called upon to assist in high-stakes decision making. In light of this, algorithmic recourse, the principle wherein individuals should be able to take action against an undesirable outcome made by an algorithmic system, is receiving growing attention. The bulk of the literature on algorithmic recourse to-date focuses primarily on how to provide recourse to a single individual, overlooking a critical element: the effects of a continuously changing context. Disregarding these effects on recourse is a significant oversight, since, in almost all cases, recourse consists of an individual making a first, unfavorable attempt, and then being given an opportunity to make one or several attempts at a later date - when the context might have changed. This can create false expectations, as initial recourse recommendations may become less reliable over time due to model drift and competition for access to the favorable outcome between individuals. In this work we propose an agent-based simulation framework for studying the effects of a continuously changing environment on algorithmic recourse. In particular, we identify two main effects that can alter the reliability of recourse for individuals represented by the agents: (1) competition with other agents acting upon recourse, and (2) competition with new agents entering the environment. Our findings highlight that only a small set of specific parameterizations result in algorithmic recourse that is reliable for agents over time. Consequently, we argue that substantial additional work is needed to understand recourse reliability over time, and to develop recourse methods that reward agents' effort.

12.DNNShifter: An Efficient DNN Pruning System for Edge Computing

Authors:Bailey J. Eccles, Philip Rodgers, Peter Kilpatrick, Ivor Spence, Blesson Varghese

Abstract: Deep neural networks (DNNs) underpin many machine learning applications. Production quality DNN models achieve high inference accuracy by training millions of DNN parameters which has a significant resource footprint. This presents a challenge for resources operating at the extreme edge of the network, such as mobile and embedded devices that have limited computational and memory resources. To address this, models are pruned to create lightweight, more suitable variants for these devices. Existing pruning methods are unable to provide similar quality models compared to their unpruned counterparts without significant time costs and overheads or are limited to offline use cases. Our work rapidly derives suitable model variants while maintaining the accuracy of the original model. The model variants can be swapped quickly when system and network conditions change to match workload demand. This paper presents DNNShifter, an end-to-end DNN training, spatial pruning, and model switching system that addresses the challenges mentioned above. At the heart of DNNShifter is a novel methodology that prunes sparse models using structured pruning. The pruned model variants generated by DNNShifter are smaller in size and thus faster than dense and sparse model predecessors, making them suitable for inference at the edge while retaining near similar accuracy as of the original dense model. DNNShifter generates a portfolio of model variants that can be swiftly interchanged depending on operational conditions. DNNShifter produces pruned model variants up to 93x faster than conventional training methods. Compared to sparse models, the pruned model variants are up to 5.14x smaller and have a 1.67x inference latency speedup, with no compromise to sparse model accuracy. In addition, DNNShifter has up to 11.9x lower overhead for switching models and up to 3.8x lower memory utilisation than existing approaches.

13.Auto-Regressive Next-Token Predictors are Universal Learners

Authors:Eran Malach

Abstract: Large language models display remarkable capabilities in logical and mathematical reasoning, allowing them to solve complex tasks. Interestingly, these abilities emerge in networks trained on the simple task of next-token prediction. In this work, we present a theoretical framework for studying auto-regressive next-token predictors. We demonstrate that even simple models such as linear next-token predictors, trained on Chain-of-Thought (CoT) data, can approximate any function efficiently computed by a Turing machine. We introduce a new complexity measure -- length complexity -- which measures the number of intermediate tokens in a CoT sequence required to approximate some target function, and analyze the interplay between length complexity and other notions of complexity. Finally, we show experimentally that simple next-token predictors, such as linear networks and shallow Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs), display non-trivial performance on text generation and arithmetic tasks. Our results demonstrate that the power of language models can be attributed, to a great extent, to the auto-regressive next-token training scheme, and not necessarily to a particular choice of architecture.

14.Unsupervised Contrast-Consistent Ranking with Language Models

Authors:Niklas Stoehr, Pengxiang Cheng, Jing Wang, Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro, Rajarshi Bhowmik

Abstract: Language models contain ranking-based knowledge and are powerful solvers of in-context ranking tasks. For instance, they may have parametric knowledge about the ordering of countries by size or may be able to rank reviews by sentiment. Recent work focuses on pairwise, pointwise, and listwise prompting techniques to elicit a language model's ranking knowledge. However, we find that even with careful calibration and constrained decoding, prompting-based techniques may not always be self-consistent in the rankings they produce. This motivates us to explore an alternative approach that is inspired by an unsupervised probing method called Contrast-Consistent Search (CCS). The idea is to train a probing model guided by a logical constraint: a model's representation of a statement and its negation must be mapped to contrastive true-false poles consistently across multiple statements. We hypothesize that similar constraints apply to ranking tasks where all items are related via consistent pairwise or listwise comparisons. To this end, we extend the binary CCS method to Contrast-Consistent Ranking (CCR) by adapting existing ranking methods such as the Max-Margin Loss, Triplet Loss, and Ordinal Regression objective. Our results confirm that, for the same language model, CCR probing outperforms prompting and even performs on a par with prompting much larger language models.

15.Optimal transport distances for directed, weighted graphs: a case study with cell-cell communication networks

Authors:James S. Nagai Institute for Computational Genomics, RWTH Aachen Medical Faculty, Germany, Ivan G. Costa Institute for Computational Genomics, RWTH Aachen Medical Faculty, Germany, Michael T. Schaub Department of Computer Science, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Abstract: Comparing graphs of optimal transport has recently gained significant attention, as the distances induced by optimal transport provide both a principled metric between graphs as well as an interpretable description of the associated changes between graphs in terms of a transport plan. As the lack of symmetry introduces challenges in the typically considered formulations, optimal transport distances for graphs have mostly been developed for undirected graphs. Here, we propose two distance measures to compare directed graphs based on variants of optimal transport: (i) an earth movers distance (Wasserstein) and (ii) a Gromov-Wasserstein (GW) distance. We evaluate these two distances and discuss their relative performance for both simulated graph data and real-world directed cell-cell communication graphs, inferred from single-cell RNA-seq data.

16.The Boundaries of Verifiable Accuracy, Robustness, and Generalisation in Deep Learning

Authors:Alexander Bastounis, Alexander N. Gorban, Anders C. Hansen, Desmond J. Higham, Danil Prokhorov, Oliver Sutton, Ivan Y. Tyukin, Qinghua Zhou

Abstract: In this work, we assess the theoretical limitations of determining guaranteed stability and accuracy of neural networks in classification tasks. We consider classical distribution-agnostic framework and algorithms minimising empirical risks and potentially subjected to some weights regularisation. We show that there is a large family of tasks for which computing and verifying ideal stable and accurate neural networks in the above settings is extremely challenging, if at all possible, even when such ideal solutions exist within the given class of neural architectures.

17.Mitigating Group Bias in Federated Learning for Heterogeneous Devices

Authors:Khotso Selialia, Yasra Chandio, Fatima M. Anwar

Abstract: Federated Learning is emerging as a privacy-preserving model training approach in distributed edge applications. As such, most edge deployments are heterogeneous in nature i.e., their sensing capabilities and environments vary across deployments. This edge heterogeneity violates the independence and identical distribution (IID) property of local data across clients and produces biased global models i.e. models that contribute to unfair decision-making and discrimination against a particular community or a group. Existing bias mitigation techniques only focus on bias generated from label heterogeneity in non-IID data without accounting for domain variations due to feature heterogeneity and do not address global group-fairness property. Our work proposes a group-fair FL framework that minimizes group-bias while preserving privacy and without resource utilization overhead. Our main idea is to leverage average conditional probabilities to compute a cross-domain group \textit{importance weights} derived from heterogeneous training data to optimize the performance of the worst-performing group using a modified multiplicative weights update method. Additionally, we propose regularization techniques to minimize the difference between the worst and best-performing groups while making sure through our thresholding mechanism to strike a balance between bias reduction and group performance degradation. Our evaluation of human emotion recognition and image classification benchmarks assesses the fair decision-making of our framework in real-world heterogeneous settings.

18.Characterizing Speed Performance of Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Samuel Wiggins, Yuan Meng, Rajgopal Kannan, Viktor Prasanna

Abstract: Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) has achieved significant success in large-scale AI systems and big-data applications such as smart grids, surveillance, etc. Existing advancements in MARL algorithms focus on improving the rewards obtained by introducing various mechanisms for inter-agent cooperation. However, these optimizations are usually compute- and memory-intensive, thus leading to suboptimal speed performance in end-to-end training time. In this work, we analyze the speed performance (i.e., latency-bounded throughput) as the key metric in MARL implementations. Specifically, we first introduce a taxonomy of MARL algorithms from an acceleration perspective categorized by (1) training scheme and (2) communication method. Using our taxonomy, we identify three state-of-the-art MARL algorithms - Multi-Agent Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (MADDPG), Target-oriented Multi-agent Communication and Cooperation (ToM2C), and Networked Multi-Agent RL (NeurComm) - as target benchmark algorithms, and provide a systematic analysis of their performance bottlenecks on a homogeneous multi-core CPU platform. We justify the need for MARL latency-bounded throughput to be a key performance metric in future literature while also addressing opportunities for parallelization and acceleration.

19.PILOT: A Pre-Trained Model-Based Continual Learning Toolbox

Authors:Hai-Long Sun, Da-Wei Zhou, Han-Jia Ye, De-Chuan Zhan

Abstract: While traditional machine learning can effectively tackle a wide range of problems, it primarily operates within a closed-world setting, which presents limitations when dealing with streaming data. As a solution, incremental learning emerges to address real-world scenarios involving new data's arrival. Recently, pre-training has made significant advancements and garnered the attention of numerous researchers. The strong performance of these pre-trained models (PTMs) presents a promising avenue for developing continual learning algorithms that can effectively adapt to real-world scenarios. Consequently, exploring the utilization of PTMs in incremental learning has become essential. This paper introduces a pre-trained model-based continual learning toolbox known as PILOT. On the one hand, PILOT implements some state-of-the-art class-incremental learning algorithms based on pre-trained models, such as L2P, DualPrompt, and CODA-Prompt. On the other hand, PILOT also fits typical class-incremental learning algorithms (e.g., DER, FOSTER, and MEMO) within the context of pre-trained models to evaluate their effectiveness.

1.Neural Network Layer Matrix Decomposition reveals Latent Manifold Encoding and Memory Capacity

Authors:Ng Shyh-Chang, A-Li Luo, Bo Qiu

Abstract: We prove the converse of the universal approximation theorem, i.e. a neural network (NN) encoding theorem which shows that for every stably converged NN of continuous activation functions, its weight matrix actually encodes a continuous function that approximates its training dataset to within a finite margin of error over a bounded domain. We further show that using the Eckart-Young theorem for truncated singular value decomposition of the weight matrix for every NN layer, we can illuminate the nature of the latent space manifold of the training dataset encoded and represented by every NN layer, and the geometric nature of the mathematical operations performed by each NN layer. Our results have implications for understanding how NNs break the curse of dimensionality by harnessing memory capacity for expressivity, and that the two are complementary. This Layer Matrix Decomposition (LMD) further suggests a close relationship between eigen-decomposition of NN layers and the latest advances in conceptualizations of Hopfield networks and Transformer NN models.

2.CleanUNet 2: A Hybrid Speech Denoising Model on Waveform and Spectrogram

Authors:Zhifeng Kong, Wei Ping, Ambrish Dantrey, Bryan Catanzaro

Abstract: In this work, we present CleanUNet 2, a speech denoising model that combines the advantages of waveform denoiser and spectrogram denoiser and achieves the best of both worlds. CleanUNet 2 uses a two-stage framework inspired by popular speech synthesis methods that consist of a waveform model and a spectrogram model. Specifically, CleanUNet 2 builds upon CleanUNet, the state-of-the-art waveform denoiser, and further boosts its performance by taking predicted spectrograms from a spectrogram denoiser as the input. We demonstrate that CleanUNet 2 outperforms previous methods in terms of various objective and subjective evaluations.

3.Learning Unbiased News Article Representations: A Knowledge-Infused Approach

Authors:Sadia Kamal, Jimmy Hartford, Jeremy Willis, Arunkumar Bagavathi

Abstract: Quantification of the political leaning of online news articles can aid in understanding the dynamics of political ideology in social groups and measures to mitigating them. However, predicting the accurate political leaning of a news article with machine learning models is a challenging task. This is due to (i) the political ideology of a news article is defined by several factors, and (ii) the innate nature of existing learning models to be biased with the political bias of the news publisher during the model training. There is only a limited number of methods to study the political leaning of news articles which also do not consider the algorithmic political bias which lowers the generalization of machine learning models to predict the political leaning of news articles published by any new news publishers. In this work, we propose a knowledge-infused deep learning model that utilizes relatively reliable external data resources to learn unbiased representations of news articles using their global and local contexts. We evaluate the proposed model by setting the data in such a way that news domains or news publishers in the test set are completely unseen during the training phase. With this setup we show that the proposed model mitigates algorithmic political bias and outperforms baseline methods to predict the political leaning of news articles with up to 73% accuracy.

4.Interpolation, Approximation and Controllability of Deep Neural Networks

Authors:Jingpu Cheng, Qianxiao Li, Ting Lin, Zuowei Shen

Abstract: We investigate the expressive power of deep residual neural networks idealized as continuous dynamical systems through control theory. Specifically, we consider two properties that arise from supervised learning, namely universal interpolation - the ability to match arbitrary input and target training samples - and the closely related notion of universal approximation - the ability to approximate input-target functional relationships via flow maps. Under the assumption of affine invariance of the control family, we give a characterisation of universal interpolation, showing that it holds for essentially any architecture with non-linearity. Furthermore, we elucidate the relationship between universal interpolation and universal approximation in the context of general control systems, showing that the two properties cannot be deduced from each other. At the same time, we identify conditions on the control family and the target function that ensures the equivalence of the two notions.

5.Emergent Communication in Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning for Future Wireless Networks

Authors:Marwa Chafii, Salmane Naoumi, Reda Alami, Ebtesam Almazrouei, Mehdi Bennis, Merouane Debbah

Abstract: In different wireless network scenarios, multiple network entities need to cooperate in order to achieve a common task with minimum delay and energy consumption. Future wireless networks mandate exchanging high dimensional data in dynamic and uncertain environments, therefore implementing communication control tasks becomes challenging and highly complex. Multi-agent reinforcement learning with emergent communication (EC-MARL) is a promising solution to address high dimensional continuous control problems with partially observable states in a cooperative fashion where agents build an emergent communication protocol to solve complex tasks. This paper articulates the importance of EC-MARL within the context of future 6G wireless networks, which imbues autonomous decision-making capabilities into network entities to solve complex tasks such as autonomous driving, robot navigation, flying base stations network planning, and smart city applications. An overview of EC-MARL algorithms and their design criteria are provided while presenting use cases and research opportunities on this emerging topic.

6.Normality Learning-based Graph Anomaly Detection via Multi-Scale Contrastive Learning

Authors:Jingcan Duan, Pei Zhang, Siwei Wang, Jingtao Hu, Hu Jin, Jiaxin Zhang, Haifang Zhou, Haifang Zhou

Abstract: Graph anomaly detection (GAD) has attracted increasing attention in machine learning and data mining. Recent works have mainly focused on how to capture richer information to improve the quality of node embeddings for GAD. Despite their significant advances in detection performance, there is still a relative dearth of research on the properties of the task. GAD aims to discern the anomalies that deviate from most nodes. However, the model is prone to learn the pattern of normal samples which make up the majority of samples. Meanwhile, anomalies can be easily detected when their behaviors differ from normality. Therefore, the performance can be further improved by enhancing the ability to learn the normal pattern. To this end, we propose a normality learning-based GAD framework via multi-scale contrastive learning networks (NLGAD for abbreviation). Specifically, we first initialize the model with the contrastive networks on different scales. To provide sufficient and reliable normal nodes for normality learning, we design an effective hybrid strategy for normality selection. Finally, the model is refined with the only input of reliable normal nodes and learns a more accurate estimate of normality so that anomalous nodes can be more easily distinguished. Eventually, extensive experiments on six benchmark graph datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our normality learning-based scheme on GAD. Notably, the proposed algorithm improves the detection performance (up to 5.89% AUC gain) compared with the state-of-the-art methods. The source code is released at

7.BatMan-CLR: Making Few-shots Meta-Learners Resilient Against Label Noise

Authors:Jeroen M. Galjaard, Robert Birke, Juan Perez, Lydia Y. Chen

Abstract: The negative impact of label noise is well studied in classical supervised learning yet remains an open research question in meta-learning. Meta-learners aim to adapt to unseen learning tasks by learning a good initial model in meta-training and consecutively fine-tuning it according to new tasks during meta-testing. In this paper, we present the first extensive analysis of the impact of varying levels of label noise on the performance of state-of-the-art meta-learners, specifically gradient-based $N$-way $K$-shot learners. We show that the accuracy of Reptile, iMAML, and foMAML drops by up to 42% on the Omniglot and CifarFS datasets when meta-training is affected by label noise. To strengthen the resilience against label noise, we propose two sampling techniques, namely manifold (Man) and batch manifold (BatMan), which transform the noisy supervised learners into semi-supervised ones to increase the utility of noisy labels. We first construct manifold samples of $N$-way $2$-contrastive-shot tasks through augmentation, learning the embedding via a contrastive loss in meta-training, and then perform classification through zeroing on the embedding in meta-testing. We show that our approach can effectively mitigate the impact of meta-training label noise. Even with 60% wrong labels \batman and \man can limit the meta-testing accuracy drop to ${2.5}$, ${9.4}$, ${1.1}$ percent points, respectively, with existing meta-learners across the Omniglot, CifarFS, and MiniImagenet datasets.

8.A Perceptron-based Fine Approximation Technique for Linear Separation

Authors:Ákos Hajnal

Abstract: This paper presents a novel online learning method that aims at finding a separator hyperplane between data points labelled as either positive or negative. Since weights and biases of artificial neurons can directly be related to hyperplanes in high-dimensional spaces, the technique is applicable to train perceptron-based binary classifiers in machine learning. In case of large or imbalanced data sets, use of analytical or gradient-based solutions can become prohibitive and impractical, where heuristics and approximation techniques are still applicable. The proposed method is based on the Perceptron algorithm, however, it tunes neuron weights in just the necessary extent during searching the separator hyperplane. Due to an appropriate transformation of the initial data set we need not to consider data labels, neither the bias term. respectively, reducing separability to a one-class classification problem. The presented method has proven converge; empirical results show that it can be more efficient than the Perceptron algorithm, especially, when the size of the data set exceeds data dimensionality.

9.How does representation impact in-context learning: A exploration on a synthetic task

Authors:Jingwen Fu, Tao Yang, Yuwang Wang, Yan Lu, Nanning Zheng

Abstract: In-context learning, i.e., learning from in-context samples, is an impressive ability of Transformer. However, the mechanism driving the in-context learning is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aim to investigate from an underexplored perspective of representation learning. The representation is more complex for in-context learning senario, where the representation can be impacted by both model weights and in-context samples. We refer the above two conceptually aspects of representation as in-weight component and in-context component, respectively. To study how the two components affect in-context learning capabilities, we construct a novel synthetic task, making it possible to device two probes, in-weights probe and in-context probe, to evaluate the two components, respectively. We demonstrate that the goodness of in-context component is highly related to the in-context learning performance, which indicates the entanglement between in-context learning and representation learning. Furthermore, we find that a good in-weights component can actually benefit the learning of the in-context component, indicating that in-weights learning should be the foundation of in-context learning. To further understand the the in-context learning mechanism and importance of the in-weights component, we proof by construction that a simple Transformer, which uses pattern matching and copy-past mechanism to perform in-context learning, can match the in-context learning performance with more complex, best tuned Transformer under the perfect in-weights component assumption. In short, those discoveries from representation learning perspective shed light on new approaches to improve the in-context capacity.

10.Selection of contributing factors for predicting landslide susceptibility using machine learning and deep learning models

Authors:Cheng Chen, Lei Fan

Abstract: Landslides are a common natural disaster that can cause casualties, property safety threats and economic losses. Therefore, it is important to understand or predict the probability of landslide occurrence at potentially risky sites. A commonly used means is to carry out a landslide susceptibility assessment based on a landslide inventory and a set of landslide contributing factors. This can be readily achieved using machine learning (ML) models such as logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (Xgboost), or deep learning (DL) models such as convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short time memory (LSTM). As the input data for these models, landslide contributing factors have varying influences on landslide occurrence. Therefore, it is logically feasible to select more important contributing factors and eliminate less relevant ones, with the aim of increasing the prediction accuracy of these models. However, selecting more important factors is still a challenging task and there is no generally accepted method. Furthermore, the effects of factor selection using various methods on the prediction accuracy of ML and DL models are unclear. In this study, the impact of the selection of contributing factors on the accuracy of landslide susceptibility predictions using ML and DL models was investigated. Four methods for selecting contributing factors were considered for all the aforementioned ML and DL models, which included Information Gain Ratio (IGR), Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operators (LASSO) and Harris Hawk Optimization (HHO). In addition, autoencoder-based factor selection methods for DL models were also investigated. To assess their performances, an exhaustive approach was adopted,...

11.Information Flow in Graph Neural Networks: A Clinical Triage Use Case

Authors:Víctor Valls, Mykhaylo Zayats, Alessandra Pascale

Abstract: Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have gained popularity in healthcare and other domains due to their ability to process multi-modal and multi-relational graphs. However, efficient training of GNNs remains challenging, with several open research questions. In this paper, we investigate how the flow of embedding information within GNNs affects the prediction of links in Knowledge Graphs (KGs). Specifically, we propose a mathematical model that decouples the GNN connectivity from the connectivity of the graph data and evaluate the performance of GNNs in a clinical triage use case. Our results demonstrate that incorporating domain knowledge into the GNN connectivity leads to better performance than using the same connectivity as the KG or allowing unconstrained embedding propagation. Moreover, we show that negative edges play a crucial role in achieving good predictions, and that using too many GNN layers can degrade performance.

12.A Machine Learning Framework to Deconstruct the Primary Drivers for Electricity Market Price Events

Authors:Milan Jain, Xueqing Sun, Sohom Datta, Abhishek Somani

Abstract: Power grids are moving towards 100% renewable energy source bulk power grids, and the overall dynamics of power system operations and electricity markets are changing. The electricity markets are not only dispatching resources economically but also taking into account various controllable actions like renewable curtailment, transmission congestion mitigation, and energy storage optimization to ensure grid reliability. As a result, price formations in electricity markets have become quite complex. Traditional root cause analysis and statistical approaches are rendered inapplicable to analyze and infer the main drivers behind price formation in the modern grid and markets with variable renewable energy (VRE). In this paper, we propose a machine learning-based analysis framework to deconstruct the primary drivers for price spike events in modern electricity markets with high renewable energy. The outcomes can be utilized for various critical aspects of market design, renewable dispatch and curtailment, operations, and cyber-security applications. The framework can be applied to any ISO or market data; however, in this paper, it is applied to open-source publicly available datasets from California Independent System Operator (CAISO) and ISO New England (ISO-NE).

13.Plasticity-Optimized Complementary Networks for Unsupervised Continual Learning

Authors:Alex Gomez-Villa, Bartlomiej Twardowski, Kai Wang, Joost van de Weijer

Abstract: Continuous unsupervised representation learning (CURL) research has greatly benefited from improvements in self-supervised learning (SSL) techniques. As a result, existing CURL methods using SSL can learn high-quality representations without any labels, but with a notable performance drop when learning on a many-tasks data stream. We hypothesize that this is caused by the regularization losses that are imposed to prevent forgetting, leading to a suboptimal plasticity-stability trade-off: they either do not adapt fully to the incoming data (low plasticity), or incur significant forgetting when allowed to fully adapt to a new SSL pretext-task (low stability). In this work, we propose to train an expert network that is relieved of the duty of keeping the previous knowledge and can focus on performing optimally on the new tasks (optimizing plasticity). In the second phase, we combine this new knowledge with the previous network in an adaptation-retrospection phase to avoid forgetting and initialize a new expert with the knowledge of the old network. We perform several experiments showing that our proposed approach outperforms other CURL exemplar-free methods in few- and many-task split settings. Furthermore, we show how to adapt our approach to semi-supervised continual learning (Semi-SCL) and show that we surpass the accuracy of other exemplar-free Semi-SCL methods and reach the results of some others that use exemplars.

14.Robust-MBDL: A Robust Multi-branch Deep Learning Based Model for Remaining Useful Life Prediction and Operational Condition Identification of Rotating Machines

Authors:Khoa Tran, Hai-Canh Vu, Lam Pham, Nassim Boudaoud

Abstract: In this paper, a Robust Multi-branch Deep learning-based system for remaining useful life (RUL) prediction and condition operations (CO) identification of rotating machines is proposed. In particular, the proposed system comprises main components: (1) an LSTM-Autoencoder to denoise the vibration data; (2) a feature extraction to generate time-domain, frequency-domain, and time-frequency based features from the denoised data; (3) a novel and robust multi-branch deep learning network architecture to exploit the multiple features. The performance of our proposed system was evaluated and compared to the state-of-the-art systems on two benchmark datasets of XJTU-SY and PRONOSTIA. The experimental results prove that our proposed system outperforms the state-of-the-art systems and presents potential for real-life applications on bearing machines.

15.Certified Robust Models with Slack Control and Large Lipschitz Constants

Authors:Max Losch, David Stutz, Bernt Schiele, Mario Fritz

Abstract: Despite recent success, state-of-the-art learning-based models remain highly vulnerable to input changes such as adversarial examples. In order to obtain certifiable robustness against such perturbations, recent work considers Lipschitz-based regularizers or constraints while at the same time increasing prediction margin. Unfortunately, this comes at the cost of significantly decreased accuracy. In this paper, we propose a Calibrated Lipschitz-Margin Loss (CLL) that addresses this issue and improves certified robustness by tackling two problems: Firstly, commonly used margin losses do not adjust the penalties to the shrinking output distribution; caused by minimizing the Lipschitz constant $K$. Secondly, and most importantly, we observe that minimization of $K$ can lead to overly smooth decision functions. This limits the model's complexity and thus reduces accuracy. Our CLL addresses these issues by explicitly calibrating the loss w.r.t. margin and Lipschitz constant, thereby establishing full control over slack and improving robustness certificates even with larger Lipschitz constants. On CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and Tiny-ImageNet, our models consistently outperform losses that leave the constant unattended. On CIFAR-100 and Tiny-ImageNet, CLL improves upon state-of-the-art deterministic $L_2$ robust accuracies. In contrast to current trends, we unlock potential of much smaller models without $K=1$ constraints.

16.Elucidating the solution space of extended reverse-time SDE for diffusion models

Authors:Qinpeng Cui, Xinyi Zhang, Zongqing Lu, Qingmin Liao

Abstract: Diffusion models (DMs) demonstrate potent image generation capabilities in various generative modeling tasks. Nevertheless, their primary limitation lies in slow sampling speed, requiring hundreds or thousands of sequential function evaluations through large neural networks to generate high-quality images. Sampling from DMs can be seen as solving corresponding stochastic differential equations (SDEs) or ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In this work, we formulate the sampling process as an extended reverse-time SDE (ER SDE), unifying prior explorations into ODEs and SDEs. Leveraging the semi-linear structure of ER SDE solutions, we offer exact solutions and arbitrarily high-order approximate solutions for VP SDE and VE SDE, respectively. Based on the solution space of the ER SDE, we yield mathematical insights elucidating the superior performance of ODE solvers over SDE solvers in terms of fast sampling. Additionally, we unveil that VP SDE solvers stand on par with their VE SDE counterparts. Finally, we devise fast and training-free samplers, ER-SDE Solvers, elevating the efficiency of stochastic samplers to unprecedented levels. Experimental results demonstrate achieving 3.45 FID in 20 function evaluations and 2.24 FID in 50 function evaluations on the ImageNet 64$\times$64 dataset.

17.Efficient Memory Management for Large Language Model Serving with PagedAttention

Authors:Woosuk Kwon, Zhuohan Li, Siyuan Zhuang, Ying Sheng, Lianmin Zheng, Cody Hao Yu, Joseph E. Gonzalez, Hao Zhang, Ion Stoica

Abstract: High throughput serving of large language models (LLMs) requires batching sufficiently many requests at a time. However, existing systems struggle because the key-value cache (KV cache) memory for each request is huge and grows and shrinks dynamically. When managed inefficiently, this memory can be significantly wasted by fragmentation and redundant duplication, limiting the batch size. To address this problem, we propose PagedAttention, an attention algorithm inspired by the classical virtual memory and paging techniques in operating systems. On top of it, we build vLLM, an LLM serving system that achieves (1) near-zero waste in KV cache memory and (2) flexible sharing of KV cache within and across requests to further reduce memory usage. Our evaluations show that vLLM improves the throughput of popular LLMs by 2-4$\times$ with the same level of latency compared to the state-of-the-art systems, such as FasterTransformer and Orca. The improvement is more pronounced with longer sequences, larger models, and more complex decoding algorithms. vLLM's source code is publicly available at

18.Optimization Guarantees of Unfolded ISTA and ADMM Networks With Smooth Soft-Thresholding

Authors:Shaik Basheeruddin Shah, Pradyumna Pradhan, Wei Pu, Ramunaidu Randhi, Miguel R. D. Rodrigues, Yonina C. Eldar

Abstract: Solving linear inverse problems plays a crucial role in numerous applications. Algorithm unfolding based, model-aware data-driven approaches have gained significant attention for effectively addressing these problems. Learned iterative soft-thresholding algorithm (LISTA) and alternating direction method of multipliers compressive sensing network (ADMM-CSNet) are two widely used such approaches, based on ISTA and ADMM algorithms, respectively. In this work, we study optimization guarantees, i.e., achieving near-zero training loss with the increase in the number of learning epochs, for finite-layer unfolded networks such as LISTA and ADMM-CSNet with smooth soft-thresholding in an over-parameterized (OP) regime. We achieve this by leveraging a modified version of the Polyak-Lojasiewicz, denoted PL$^*$, condition. Satisfying the PL$^*$ condition within a specific region of the loss landscape ensures the existence of a global minimum and exponential convergence from initialization using gradient descent based methods. Hence, we provide conditions, in terms of the network width and the number of training samples, on these unfolded networks for the PL$^*$ condition to hold. We achieve this by deriving the Hessian spectral norm of these networks. Additionally, we show that the threshold on the number of training samples increases with the increase in the network width. Furthermore, we compare the threshold on training samples of unfolded networks with that of a standard fully-connected feed-forward network (FFNN) with smooth soft-thresholding non-linearity. We prove that unfolded networks have a higher threshold value than FFNN. Consequently, one can expect a better expected error for unfolded networks than FFNN.

19.Long-term drought prediction using deep neural networks based on geospatial weather data

Authors:Vsevolod Grabar, Alexander Marusov, Alexey Zaytsev, Yury Maximov, Nazar Sotiriadi, Alexander Bulkin

Abstract: The accurate prediction of drought probability in specific regions is crucial for informed decision-making in agricultural practices. It is important to make predictions one year in advance, particularly for long-term decisions. However, forecasting this probability presents challenges due to the complex interplay of various factors within the region of interest and neighboring areas. In this study, we propose an end-to-end solution to address this issue based on various spatiotemporal neural networks. The models considered focus on predicting the drought intensity based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for subregions of interest, leveraging intrinsic factors and insights from climate models to enhance drought predictions. Comparative evaluations demonstrate the superior accuracy of Convolutional LSTM (ConvLSTM) and transformer models compared to baseline gradient boosting and logistic regression solutions. The two former models achieved impressive ROC AUC scores from 0.90 to 0.70 for forecast horizons from one to six months, outperforming baseline models. The transformer showed superiority for shorter horizons, while ConvLSTM did so for longer horizons. Thus, we recommend selecting the models accordingly for long-term drought forecasting. To ensure the broad applicability of the considered models, we conduct extensive validation across regions worldwide, considering different environmental conditions. We also run several ablation and sensitivity studies to challenge our findings and provide additional information on how to solve the problem.

20.The first step is the hardest: Pitfalls of Representing and Tokenizing Temporal Data for Large Language Models

Authors:Dimitris Spathis, Fahim Kawsar

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable generalization across diverse tasks, leading individuals to increasingly use them as personal assistants and universal computing engines. Nevertheless, a notable obstacle emerges when feeding numerical/temporal data into these models, such as data sourced from wearables or electronic health records. LLMs employ tokenizers in their input that break down text into smaller units. However, tokenizers are not designed to represent numerical values and might struggle to understand repetitive patterns and context, treating consecutive values as separate tokens and disregarding their temporal relationships. Here, we discuss recent works that employ LLMs for human-centric tasks such as in mobile health sensing and present a case study showing that popular LLMs tokenize temporal data incorrectly. To address that, we highlight potential solutions such as prompt tuning with lightweight embedding layers as well as multimodal adapters, that can help bridge this "modality gap". While the capability of language models to generalize to other modalities with minimal or no finetuning is exciting, this paper underscores the fact that their outputs cannot be meaningful if they stumble over input nuances.

21.Risk-Aware Reinforcement Learning through Optimal Transport Theory

Authors:Ali Baheri

Abstract: In the dynamic and uncertain environments where reinforcement learning (RL) operates, risk management becomes a crucial factor in ensuring reliable decision-making. Traditional RL approaches, while effective in reward optimization, often overlook the landscape of potential risks. In response, this paper pioneers the integration of Optimal Transport (OT) theory with RL to create a risk-aware framework. Our approach modifies the objective function, ensuring that the resulting policy not only maximizes expected rewards but also respects risk constraints dictated by OT distances between state visitation distributions and the desired risk profiles. By leveraging the mathematical precision of OT, we offer a formulation that elevates risk considerations alongside conventional RL objectives. Our contributions are substantiated with a series of theorems, mapping the relationships between risk distributions, optimal value functions, and policy behaviors. Through the lens of OT, this work illuminates a promising direction for RL, ensuring a balanced fusion of reward pursuit and risk awareness.

22.Rethinking Evaluation Metric for Probability Estimation Models Using Esports Data

Authors:Euihyeon Choi, Jooyoung Kim, Wonkyung Lee

Abstract: Probability estimation models play an important role in various fields, such as weather forecasting, recommendation systems, and sports analysis. Among several models estimating probabilities, it is difficult to evaluate which model gives reliable probabilities since the ground-truth probabilities are not available. The win probability estimation model for esports, which calculates the win probability under a certain game state, is also one of the fields being actively studied in probability estimation. However, most of the previous works evaluated their models using accuracy, a metric that only can measure the performance of discrimination. In this work, we firstly investigate the Brier score and the Expected Calibration Error (ECE) as a replacement of accuracy used as a performance evaluation metric for win probability estimation models in esports field. Based on the analysis, we propose a novel metric called Balance score which is a simple yet effective metric in terms of six good properties that probability estimation metric should have. Under the general condition, we also found that the Balance score can be an effective approximation of the true expected calibration error which has been imperfectly approximated by ECE using the binning technique. Extensive evaluations using simulation studies and real game snapshot data demonstrate the promising potential to adopt the proposed metric not only for the win probability estimation model for esports but also for evaluating general probability estimation models.

23.Speciality vs Generality: An Empirical Study on Catastrophic Forgetting in Fine-tuning Foundation Models

Authors:Yong Lin, Lu Tan, Hangyu Lin, Zeming Zheng, Renjie Pi, Jipeng Zhang, Shizhe Diao, Haoxiang Wang, Han Zhao, Yuan Yao, Tong Zhang

Abstract: Foundation models, including Vision Language Models (VLMs) and Large Language Models (LLMs), possess the $generality$ to handle diverse distributions and tasks, which stems from their extensive pre-training datasets. The fine-tuning of foundation models is a common practice to enhance task performance or align the model's behavior with human expectations, allowing them to gain $speciality$. However, the small datasets used for fine-tuning may not adequately cover the diverse distributions and tasks encountered during pre-training. Consequently, the pursuit of speciality during fine-tuning can lead to a loss of {generality} in the model, which is related to catastrophic forgetting (CF) in deep learning. In this study, we demonstrate this phenomenon in both VLMs and LLMs. For instance, fine-tuning VLMs like CLIP on ImageNet results in a loss of generality in handling diverse distributions, and fine-tuning LLMs like Galactica in the medical domain leads to a loss in following instructions and common sense. To address the trade-off between the speciality and generality, we investigate multiple regularization methods from continual learning, the weight averaging method (Wise-FT) from out-of-distributional (OOD) generalization, which interpolates parameters between pre-trained and fine-tuned models, and parameter-efficient fine-tuning methods like Low-Rank Adaptation (LoRA). Our findings show that both continual learning and Wise-ft methods effectively mitigate the loss of generality, with Wise-FT exhibiting the strongest performance in balancing speciality and generality.

24.ELRA: Exponential learning rate adaption gradient descent optimization method

Authors:Alexander Kleinsorge, Stefan Kupper, Alexander Fauck, Felix Rothe

Abstract: We present a novel, fast (exponential rate adaption), ab initio (hyper-parameter-free) gradient based optimizer algorithm. The main idea of the method is to adapt the learning rate $\alpha$ by situational awareness, mainly striving for orthogonal neighboring gradients. The method has a high success and fast convergence rate and does not rely on hand-tuned parameters giving it greater universality. It can be applied to problems of any dimensions n and scales only linearly (of order O(n)) with the dimension of the problem. It optimizes convex and non-convex continuous landscapes providing some kind of gradient. In contrast to the Ada-family (AdaGrad, AdaMax, AdaDelta, Adam, etc.) the method is rotation invariant: optimization path and performance are independent of coordinate choices. The impressive performance is demonstrated by extensive experiments on the MNIST benchmark data-set against state-of-the-art optimizers. We name this new class of optimizers after its core idea Exponential Learning Rate Adaption - ELRA. We present it in two variants c2min and p2min with slightly different control. The authors strongly believe that ELRA will open a completely new research direction for gradient descent optimize.

25.Modeling Supply and Demand in Public Transportation Systems

Authors:Miranda Bihler, Hala Nelson, Erin Okey, Noe Reyes Rivas, John Webb, Anna White

Abstract: The Harrisonburg Department of Public Transportation (HDPT) aims to leverage their data to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their operations. We construct two supply and demand models that help the department identify gaps in their service. The models take many variables into account, including the way that the HDPT reports to the federal government and the areas with the most vulnerable populations in Harrisonburg City. We employ data analysis and machine learning techniques to make our predictions.

26.Learning Minimalistic Tsetlin Machine Clauses with Markov Boundary-Guided Pruning

Authors:Ole-Christoffer Granmo, Per-Arne Andersen, Lei Jiao, Xuan Zhang, Christian Blakely, Tor Tveit

Abstract: A set of variables is the Markov blanket of a random variable if it contains all the information needed for predicting the variable. If the blanket cannot be reduced without losing useful information, it is called a Markov boundary. Identifying the Markov boundary of a random variable is advantageous because all variables outside the boundary are superfluous. Hence, the Markov boundary provides an optimal feature set. However, learning the Markov boundary from data is challenging for two reasons. If one or more variables are removed from the Markov boundary, variables outside the boundary may start providing information. Conversely, variables within the boundary may stop providing information. The true role of each candidate variable is only manifesting when the Markov boundary has been identified. In this paper, we propose a new Tsetlin Machine (TM) feedback scheme that supplements Type I and Type II feedback. The scheme introduces a novel Finite State Automaton - a Context-Specific Independence Automaton. The automaton learns which features are outside the Markov boundary of the target, allowing them to be pruned from the TM during learning. We investigate the new scheme empirically, showing how it is capable of exploiting context-specific independence to find Markov boundaries. Further, we provide a theoretical analysis of convergence. Our approach thus connects the field of Bayesian networks (BN) with TMs, potentially opening up for synergies when it comes to inference and learning, including TM-produced Bayesian knowledge bases and TM-based Bayesian inference.

27.Using Reed-Muller Codes for Classification with Rejection and Recovery

Authors:Daniel Fentham University of Birmingham, David Parker University of Oxford, Mark Ryan University of Birmingham

Abstract: When deploying classifiers in the real world, users expect them to respond to inputs appropriately. However, traditional classifiers are not equipped to handle inputs which lie far from the distribution they were trained on. Malicious actors can exploit this defect by making adversarial perturbations designed to cause the classifier to give an incorrect output. Classification-with-rejection methods attempt to solve this problem by allowing networks to refuse to classify an input in which they have low confidence. This works well for strongly adversarial examples, but also leads to the rejection of weakly perturbed images, which intuitively could be correctly classified. To address these issues, we propose Reed-Muller Aggregation Networks (RMAggNet), a classifier inspired by Reed-Muller error-correction codes which can correct and reject inputs. This paper shows that RMAggNet can minimise incorrectness while maintaining good correctness over multiple adversarial attacks at different perturbation budgets by leveraging the ability to correct errors in the classification process. This provides an alternative classification-with-rejection method which can reduce the amount of additional processing in situations where a small number of incorrect classifications are permissible.

28.InstaFlow: One Step is Enough for High-Quality Diffusion-Based Text-to-Image Generation

Authors:Xingchao Liu, Xiwen Zhang, Jianzhu Ma, Jian Peng, Qiang Liu

Abstract: Diffusion models have revolutionized text-to-image generation with its exceptional quality and creativity. However, its multi-step sampling process is known to be slow, often requiring tens of inference steps to obtain satisfactory results. Previous attempts to improve its sampling speed and reduce computational costs through distillation have been unsuccessful in achieving a functional one-step model. In this paper, we explore a recent method called Rectified Flow, which, thus far, has only been applied to small datasets. The core of Rectified Flow lies in its \emph{reflow} procedure, which straightens the trajectories of probability flows, refines the coupling between noises and images, and facilitates the distillation process with student models. We propose a novel text-conditioned pipeline to turn Stable Diffusion (SD) into an ultra-fast one-step model, in which we find reflow plays a critical role in improving the assignment between noise and images. Leveraging our new pipeline, we create, to the best of our knowledge, the first one-step diffusion-based text-to-image generator with SD-level image quality, achieving an FID (Frechet Inception Distance) of $23.3$ on MS COCO 2017-5k, surpassing the previous state-of-the-art technique, progressive distillation, by a significant margin ($37.2$ $\rightarrow$ $23.3$ in FID). By utilizing an expanded network with 1.7B parameters, we further improve the FID to $22.4$. We call our one-step models \emph{InstaFlow}. On MS COCO 2014-30k, InstaFlow yields an FID of $13.1$ in just $0.09$ second, the best in $\leq 0.1$ second regime, outperforming the recent StyleGAN-T ($13.9$ in $0.1$ second). Notably, the training of InstaFlow only costs 199 A100 GPU days. Project page:~\url{}.

29.Ensemble Mask Networks

Authors:Jonny Luntzel

Abstract: Can an $\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$ feedforward network learn matrix-vector multiplication? This study introduces two mechanisms - flexible masking to take matrix inputs, and a unique network pruning to respect the mask's dependency structure. Networks can approximate fixed operations such as matrix-vector multiplication $\phi(A,x) \rightarrow Ax$, motivating the mechanisms introduced with applications towards litmus-testing dependencies or interaction order in graph-based models.

30.On Computationally Efficient Learning of Exponential Family Distributions

Authors:Abhin Shah, Devavrat Shah, Gregory W. Wornell

Abstract: We consider the classical problem of learning, with arbitrary accuracy, the natural parameters of a $k$-parameter truncated \textit{minimal} exponential family from i.i.d. samples in a computationally and statistically efficient manner. We focus on the setting where the support as well as the natural parameters are appropriately bounded. While the traditional maximum likelihood estimator for this class of exponential family is consistent, asymptotically normal, and asymptotically efficient, evaluating it is computationally hard. In this work, we propose a novel loss function and a computationally efficient estimator that is consistent as well as asymptotically normal under mild conditions. We show that, at the population level, our method can be viewed as the maximum likelihood estimation of a re-parameterized distribution belonging to the same class of exponential family. Further, we show that our estimator can be interpreted as a solution to minimizing a particular Bregman score as well as an instance of minimizing the \textit{surrogate} likelihood. We also provide finite sample guarantees to achieve an error (in $\ell_2$-norm) of $\alpha$ in the parameter estimation with sample complexity $O({\sf poly}(k)/\alpha^2)$. Our method achives the order-optimal sample complexity of $O({\sf log}(k)/\alpha^2)$ when tailored for node-wise-sparse Markov random fields. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of our estimator via numerical experiments.

1.Examining the Effect of Pre-training on Time Series Classification

Authors:Jiashu Pu, Shiwei Zhao, Ling Cheng, Yongzhu Chang, Runze Wu, Tangjie Lv, Rongsheng Zhang

Abstract: Although the pre-training followed by fine-tuning paradigm is used extensively in many fields, there is still some controversy surrounding the impact of pre-training on the fine-tuning process. Currently, experimental findings based on text and image data lack consensus. To delve deeper into the unsupervised pre-training followed by fine-tuning paradigm, we have extended previous research to a new modality: time series. In this study, we conducted a thorough examination of 150 classification datasets derived from the Univariate Time Series (UTS) and Multivariate Time Series (MTS) benchmarks. Our analysis reveals several key conclusions. (i) Pre-training can only help improve the optimization process for models that fit the data poorly, rather than those that fit the data well. (ii) Pre-training does not exhibit the effect of regularization when given sufficient training time. (iii) Pre-training can only speed up convergence if the model has sufficient ability to fit the data. (iv) Adding more pre-training data does not improve generalization, but it can strengthen the advantage of pre-training on the original data volume, such as faster convergence. (v) While both the pre-training task and the model structure determine the effectiveness of the paradigm on a given dataset, the model structure plays a more significant role.

2.A physics-informed and attention-based graph learning approach for regional electric vehicle charging demand prediction

Authors:Haohao Qu, Haoxuan Kuang, Jun Li, Linlin You

Abstract: Along with the proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs), optimizing the use of EV charging space can significantly alleviate the growing load on intelligent transportation systems. As the foundation to achieve such an optimization, a spatiotemporal method for EV charging demand prediction in urban areas is required. Although several solutions have been proposed by using data-driven deep learning methods, it can be found that these performance-oriented methods may suffer from misinterpretations to correctly handle the reverse relationship between charging demands and prices. To tackle the emerging challenges of training an accurate and interpretable prediction model, this paper proposes a novel approach that enables the integration of graph and temporal attention mechanisms for feature extraction and the usage of physic-informed meta-learning in the model pre-training step for knowledge transfer. Evaluation results on a dataset of 18,013 EV charging piles in Shenzhen, China, show that the proposed approach, named PAG, can achieve state-of-the-art forecasting performance and the ability in understanding the adaptive changes in charging demands caused by price fluctuations.

3.The fine print on tempered posteriors

Authors:Konstantinos Pitas, Julyan Arbel

Abstract: We conduct a detailed investigation of tempered posteriors and uncover a number of crucial and previously undiscussed points. Contrary to previous results, we first show that for realistic models and datasets and the tightly controlled case of the Laplace approximation to the posterior, stochasticity does not in general improve test accuracy. The coldest temperature is often optimal. One might think that Bayesian models with some stochasticity can at least obtain improvements in terms of calibration. However, we show empirically that when gains are obtained this comes at the cost of degradation in test accuracy. We then discuss how targeting Frequentist metrics using Bayesian models provides a simple explanation of the need for a temperature parameter $\lambda$ in the optimization objective. Contrary to prior works, we finally show through a PAC-Bayesian analysis that the temperature $\lambda$ cannot be seen as simply fixing a misspecified prior or likelihood.

4.Discrete Denoising Diffusion Approach to Integer Factorization

Authors:Karlis Freivalds, Emils Ozolins, Guntis Barzdins

Abstract: Integer factorization is a famous computational problem unknown whether being solvable in the polynomial time. With the rise of deep neural networks, it is interesting whether they can facilitate faster factorization. We present an approach to factorization utilizing deep neural networks and discrete denoising diffusion that works by iteratively correcting errors in a partially-correct solution. To this end, we develop a new seq2seq neural network architecture, employ relaxed categorical distribution and adapt the reverse diffusion process to cope better with inaccuracies in the denoising step. The approach is able to find factors for integers of up to 56 bits long. Our analysis indicates that investment in training leads to an exponential decrease of sampling steps required at inference to achieve a given success rate, thus counteracting an exponential run-time increase depending on the bit-length.

5.Fully-Connected Spatial-Temporal Graph for Multivariate Time Series Data

Authors:Yucheng Wang, Yuecong Xu, Jianfei Yang, Min Wu, Xiaoli Li, Lihua Xie, Zhenghua Chen

Abstract: Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) data is crucial in various application fields. With its sequential and multi-source (multiple sensors) properties, MTS data inherently exhibits Spatial-Temporal (ST) dependencies, involving temporal correlations between timestamps and spatial correlations between sensors in each timestamp. To effectively leverage this information, Graph Neural Network-based methods (GNNs) have been widely adopted. However, existing approaches separately capture spatial dependency and temporal dependency and fail to capture the correlations between Different sEnsors at Different Timestamps (DEDT). Overlooking such correlations hinders the comprehensive modelling of ST dependencies within MTS data, thus restricting existing GNNs from learning effective representations. To address this limitation, we propose a novel method called Fully-Connected Spatial-Temporal Graph Neural Network (FC-STGNN), including two key components namely FC graph construction and FC graph convolution. For graph construction, we design a decay graph to connect sensors across all timestamps based on their temporal distances, enabling us to fully model the ST dependencies by considering the correlations between DEDT. Further, we devise FC graph convolution with a moving-pooling GNN layer to effectively capture the ST dependencies for learning effective representations. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of FC-STGNN on multiple MTS datasets compared to SOTA methods.

6.Neural Koopman prior for data assimilation

Authors:Anthony Frion, Lucas Drumetz, Mauro Dalla Mura, Guillaume Tochon, Abdeldjalil Aïssa El Bey

Abstract: With the increasing availability of large scale datasets, computational power and tools like automatic differentiation and expressive neural network architectures, sequential data are now often treated in a data-driven way, with a dynamical model trained from the observation data. While neural networks are often seen as uninterpretable black-box architectures, they can still benefit from physical priors on the data and from mathematical knowledge. In this paper, we use a neural network architecture which leverages the long-known Koopman operator theory to embed dynamical systems in latent spaces where their dynamics can be described linearly, enabling a number of appealing features. We introduce methods that enable to train such a model for long-term continuous reconstruction, even in difficult contexts where the data comes in irregularly-sampled time series. The potential for self-supervised learning is also demonstrated, as we show the promising use of trained dynamical models as priors for variational data assimilation techniques, with applications to e.g. time series interpolation and forecasting.

7.Learning Geometric Representations of Objects via Interaction

Authors:Alfredo Reichlin, Giovanni Luca Marchetti, Hang Yin, Anastasiia Varava, Danica Kragic

Abstract: We address the problem of learning representations from observations of a scene involving an agent and an external object the agent interacts with. To this end, we propose a representation learning framework extracting the location in physical space of both the agent and the object from unstructured observations of arbitrary nature. Our framework relies on the actions performed by the agent as the only source of supervision, while assuming that the object is displaced by the agent via unknown dynamics. We provide a theoretical foundation and formally prove that an ideal learner is guaranteed to infer an isometric representation, disentangling the agent from the object and correctly extracting their locations. We evaluate empirically our framework on a variety of scenarios, showing that it outperforms vision-based approaches such as a state-of-the-art keypoint extractor. We moreover demonstrate how the extracted representations enable the agent to solve downstream tasks via reinforcement learning in an efficient manner.

8.Neural Discovery of Permutation Subgroups

Authors:Pavan Karjol, Rohan Kashyap, Prathosh A P

Abstract: We consider the problem of discovering subgroup $H$ of permutation group $S_{n}$. Unlike the traditional $H$-invariant networks wherein $H$ is assumed to be known, we present a method to discover the underlying subgroup, given that it satisfies certain conditions. Our results show that one could discover any subgroup of type $S_{k} (k \leq n)$ by learning an $S_{n}$-invariant function and a linear transformation. We also prove similar results for cyclic and dihedral subgroups. Finally, we provide a general theorem that can be extended to discover other subgroups of $S_{n}$. We also demonstrate the applicability of our results through numerical experiments on image-digit sum and symmetric polynomial regression tasks.

9.Career Path Recommendations for Long-term Income Maximization: A Reinforcement Learning Approach

Authors:Spyros Avlonitis, Dor Lavi, Masoud Mansoury, David Graus

Abstract: This study explores the potential of reinforcement learning algorithms to enhance career planning processes. Leveraging data from Randstad The Netherlands, the study simulates the Dutch job market and develops strategies to optimize employees' long-term income. By formulating career planning as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) and utilizing machine learning algorithms such as Sarsa, Q-Learning, and A2C, we learn optimal policies that recommend career paths with high-income occupations and industries. The results demonstrate significant improvements in employees' income trajectories, with RL models, particularly Q-Learning and Sarsa, achieving an average increase of 5% compared to observed career paths. The study acknowledges limitations, including narrow job filtering, simplifications in the environment formulation, and assumptions regarding employment continuity and zero application costs. Future research can explore additional objectives beyond income optimization and address these limitations to further enhance career planning processes.

10.Practical Homomorphic Aggregation for Byzantine ML

Authors:Antoine Choffrut, Rachid Guerraoui, Rafael Pinot, Renaud Sirdey, John Stephan, Martin Zuber

Abstract: Due to the large-scale availability of data, machine learning (ML) algorithms are being deployed in distributed topologies, where different nodes collaborate to train ML models over their individual data by exchanging model-related information (e.g., gradients) with a central server. However, distributed learning schemes are notably vulnerable to two threats. First, Byzantine nodes can single-handedly corrupt the learning by sending incorrect information to the server, e.g., erroneous gradients. The standard approach to mitigate such behavior is to use a non-linear robust aggregation method at the server. Second, the server can violate the privacy of the nodes. Recent attacks have shown that exchanging (unencrypted) gradients enables a curious server to recover the totality of the nodes' data. The use of homomorphic encryption (HE), a gold standard security primitive, has extensively been studied as a privacy-preserving solution to distributed learning in non-Byzantine scenarios. However, due to HE's large computational demand especially for high-dimensional ML models, there has not yet been any attempt to design purely homomorphic operators for non-linear robust aggregators. In this work, we present SABLE, the first completely homomorphic and Byzantine robust distributed learning algorithm. SABLE essentially relies on a novel plaintext encoding method that enables us to implement the robust aggregator over batching-friendly BGV. Moreover, this encoding scheme also accelerates state-of-the-art homomorphic sorting with larger security margins and smaller ciphertext size. We perform extensive experiments on image classification tasks and show that our algorithm achieves practical execution times while matching the ML performance of its non-private counterpart.

11.Physics-informed reinforcement learning via probabilistic co-adjustment functions

Authors:Nat Wannawas, A. Aldo Faisal

Abstract: Reinforcement learning of real-world tasks is very data inefficient, and extensive simulation-based modelling has become the dominant approach for training systems. However, in human-robot interaction and many other real-world settings, there is no appropriate one-model-for-all due to differences in individual instances of the system (e.g. different people) or necessary oversimplifications in the simulation models. This requires two approaches: 1. either learning the individual system's dynamics approximately from data which requires data-intensive training or 2. using a complete digital twin of the instances, which may not be realisable in many cases. We introduce two approaches: co-kriging adjustments (CKA) and ridge regression adjustment (RRA) as novel ways to combine the advantages of both approaches. Our adjustment methods are based on an auto-regressive AR1 co-kriging model that we integrate with GP priors. This yield a data- and simulation-efficient way of using simplistic simulation models (e.g., simple two-link model) and rapidly adapting them to individual instances (e.g., biomechanics of individual people). Using CKA and RRA, we obtain more accurate uncertainty quantification of the entire system's dynamics than pure GP-based and AR1 methods. We demonstrate the efficiency of co-kriging adjustment with an interpretable reinforcement learning control example, learning to control a biomechanical human arm using only a two-link arm simulation model (offline part) and CKA derived from a small amount of interaction data (on-the-fly online). Our method unlocks an efficient and uncertainty-aware way to implement reinforcement learning methods in real world complex systems for which only imperfect simulation models exist.

12.A parameterised model for link prediction using node centrality and similarity measure based on graph embedding

Authors:Haohui Lu, Shahadat Uddin

Abstract: Link prediction is a key aspect of graph machine learning, with applications as diverse as disease prediction, social network recommendations, and drug discovery. It involves predicting new links that may form between network nodes. Despite the clear importance of link prediction, existing models have significant shortcomings. Graph Convolutional Networks, for instance, have been proven to be highly efficient for link prediction on a variety of datasets. However, they encounter severe limitations when applied to short-path networks and ego networks, resulting in poor performance. This presents a critical problem space that this work aims to address. In this paper, we present the Node Centrality and Similarity Based Parameterised Model (NCSM), a novel method for link prediction tasks. NCSM uniquely integrates node centrality and similarity measures as edge features in a customised Graph Neural Network (GNN) layer, effectively leveraging the topological information of large networks. This model represents the first parameterised GNN-based link prediction model that considers topological information. The proposed model was evaluated on five benchmark graph datasets, each comprising thousands of nodes and edges. Experimental results highlight NCSM's superiority over existing state-of-the-art models like Graph Convolutional Networks and Variational Graph Autoencoder, as it outperforms them across various metrics and datasets. This exceptional performance can be attributed to NCSM's innovative integration of node centrality, similarity measures, and its efficient use of topological information.

13.Quantized Fourier and Polynomial Features for more Expressive Tensor Network Models

Authors:Frederiek Wesel, Kim Batselier

Abstract: In the context of kernel machines, polynomial and Fourier features are commonly used to provide a nonlinear extension to linear models by mapping the data to a higher-dimensional space. Unless one considers the dual formulation of the learning problem, which renders exact large-scale learning unfeasible, the exponential increase of model parameters in the dimensionality of the data caused by their tensor-product structure prohibits to tackle high-dimensional problems. One of the possible approaches to circumvent this exponential scaling is to exploit the tensor structure present in the features by constraining the model weights to be an underparametrized tensor network. In this paper we quantize, i.e. further tensorize, polynomial and Fourier features. Based on this feature quantization we propose to quantize the associated model weights, yielding quantized models. We show that, for the same number of model parameters, the resulting quantized models have a higher bound on the VC-dimension as opposed to their non-quantized counterparts, at no additional computational cost while learning from identical features. We verify experimentally how this additional tensorization regularizes the learning problem by prioritizing the most salient features in the data and how it provides models with increased generalization capabilities. We finally benchmark our approach on large regression task, achieving state-of-the-art results on a laptop computer.

14.Learning Objective-Specific Active Learning Strategies with Attentive Neural Processes

Authors:Tim Bakker, Herke van Hoof, Max Welling

Abstract: Pool-based active learning (AL) is a promising technology for increasing data-efficiency of machine learning models. However, surveys show that performance of recent AL methods is very sensitive to the choice of dataset and training setting, making them unsuitable for general application. In order to tackle this problem, the field Learning Active Learning (LAL) suggests to learn the active learning strategy itself, allowing it to adapt to the given setting. In this work, we propose a novel LAL method for classification that exploits symmetry and independence properties of the active learning problem with an Attentive Conditional Neural Process model. Our approach is based on learning from a myopic oracle, which gives our model the ability to adapt to non-standard objectives, such as those that do not equally weight the error on all data points. We experimentally verify that our Neural Process model outperforms a variety of baselines in these settings. Finally, our experiments show that our model exhibits a tendency towards improved stability to changing datasets. However, performance is sensitive to choice of classifier and more work is necessary to reduce the performance the gap with the myopic oracle and to improve scalability. We present our work as a proof-of-concept for LAL on nonstandard objectives and hope our analysis and modelling considerations inspire future LAL work.

15.Share Your Representation Only: Guaranteed Improvement of the Privacy-Utility Tradeoff in Federated Learning

Authors:Zebang Shen, Jiayuan Ye, Anmin Kang, Hamed Hassani, Reza Shokri

Abstract: Repeated parameter sharing in federated learning causes significant information leakage about private data, thus defeating its main purpose: data privacy. Mitigating the risk of this information leakage, using state of the art differentially private algorithms, also does not come for free. Randomized mechanisms can prevent convergence of models on learning even the useful representation functions, especially if there is more disagreement between local models on the classification functions (due to data heterogeneity). In this paper, we consider a representation federated learning objective that encourages various parties to collaboratively refine the consensus part of the model, with differential privacy guarantees, while separately allowing sufficient freedom for local personalization (without releasing it). We prove that in the linear representation setting, while the objective is non-convex, our proposed new algorithm \DPFEDREP\ converges to a ball centered around the \emph{global optimal} solution at a linear rate, and the radius of the ball is proportional to the reciprocal of the privacy budget. With this novel utility analysis, we improve the SOTA utility-privacy trade-off for this problem by a factor of $\sqrt{d}$, where $d$ is the input dimension. We empirically evaluate our method with the image classification task on CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and EMNIST, and observe a significant performance improvement over the prior work under the same small privacy budget. The code can be found in this link:

16.Re-formalization of Individual Fairness

Authors:Toshihiro Kamishima

Abstract: The notion of individual fairness is a formalization of an ethical principle, "Treating like cases alike," which has been argued such as by Aristotle. In a fairness-aware machine learning context, Dwork et al. firstly formalized the notion. In their formalization, a similar pair of data in an unfair space should be mapped to similar positions in a fair space. We propose to re-formalize individual fairness by the statistical independence conditioned by individuals. This re-formalization has the following merits. First, our formalization is compatible with that of Dwork et al. Second, our formalization enables to combine individual fairness with the fairness notion, equalized odds or sufficiency, as well as statistical parity. Third, though their formalization implicitly assumes a pre-process approach for making fair prediction, our formalization is applicable to an in-process or post-process approach.

17.Mind the Uncertainty: Risk-Aware and Actively Exploring Model-Based Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Marin Vlastelica, Sebastian Blaes, Cristina Pineri, Georg Martius

Abstract: We introduce a simple but effective method for managing risk in model-based reinforcement learning with trajectory sampling that involves probabilistic safety constraints and balancing of optimism in the face of epistemic uncertainty and pessimism in the face of aleatoric uncertainty of an ensemble of stochastic neural networks.Various experiments indicate that the separation of uncertainties is essential to performing well with data-driven MPC approaches in uncertain and safety-critical control environments.

18.Hypothesis Search: Inductive Reasoning with Language Models

Authors:Ruocheng Wang, Eric Zelikman, Gabriel Poesia, Yewen Pu, Nick Haber, Noah D. Goodman

Abstract: Inductive reasoning is a core problem-solving capacity: humans can identify underlying principles from a few examples, which can then be robustly generalized to novel scenarios. Recent work has evaluated large language models (LLMs) on inductive reasoning tasks by directly prompting them yielding "in context learning." This can work well for straightforward inductive tasks, but performs very poorly on more complex tasks such as the Abstraction and Reasoning Corpus (ARC). In this work, we propose to improve the inductive reasoning ability of LLMs by generating explicit hypotheses at multiple levels of abstraction: we prompt the LLM to propose multiple abstract hypotheses about the problem, in natural language, then implement the natural language hypotheses as concrete Python programs. These programs can be directly verified by running on the observed examples and generalized to novel inputs. Because of the prohibitive cost of generation with state-of-the-art LLMs, we consider a middle step to filter the set of hypotheses that will be implemented into programs: we either ask the LLM to summarize into a smaller set of hypotheses, or ask human annotators to select a subset of the hypotheses. We verify our pipeline's effectiveness on the ARC visual inductive reasoning benchmark, its variant 1D-ARC, and string transformation dataset SyGuS. On a random 40-problem subset of ARC, our automated pipeline using LLM summaries achieves 27.5% accuracy, significantly outperforming the direct prompting baseline (accuracy of 12.5%). With the minimal human input of selecting from LLM-generated candidates, the performance is boosted to 37.5%. (And we argue this is a lower bound on the performance of our approach without filtering.) Our ablation studies show that abstract hypothesis generation and concrete program representations are both beneficial for LLMs to perform inductive reasoning tasks.

1.Leveraging Prototype Patient Representations with Feature-Missing-Aware Calibration to Mitigate EHR Data Sparsity

Authors:Yinghao Zhu, Zixiang Wang, Long He, Shiyun Xie, Zixi Chen, Jingkun An, Liantao Ma, Chengwei Pan

Abstract: Electronic Health Record (EHR) data frequently exhibits sparse characteristics, posing challenges for predictive modeling. Current direct imputation such as matrix imputation approaches hinge on referencing analogous rows or columns to complete raw missing data and do not differentiate between imputed and actual values. As a result, models may inadvertently incorporate irrelevant or deceptive information with respect to the prediction objective, thereby compromising the efficacy of downstream performance. While some methods strive to recalibrate or augment EHR embeddings after direct imputation, they often mistakenly prioritize imputed features. This misprioritization can introduce biases or inaccuracies into the model. To tackle these issues, our work resorts to indirect imputation, where we leverage prototype representations from similar patients to obtain a denser embedding. Recognizing the limitation that missing features are typically treated the same as present ones when measuring similar patients, our approach designs a feature confidence learner module. This module is sensitive to the missing feature status, enabling the model to better judge the reliability of each feature. Moreover, we propose a novel patient similarity metric that takes feature confidence into account, ensuring that evaluations are not based merely on potentially inaccurate imputed values. Consequently, our work captures dense prototype patient representations with feature-missing-aware calibration process. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that designed model surpasses established EHR-focused models with a statistically significant improvement on MIMIC-III and MIMIC-IV datasets in-hospital mortality outcome prediction task. The code is publicly available at \url{} to assure the reproducibility.

2.Towards Mitigating Architecture Overfitting in Dataset Distillation

Authors:Xuyang Zhong, Chen Liu

Abstract: Dataset distillation methods have demonstrated remarkable performance for neural networks trained with very limited training data. However, a significant challenge arises in the form of architecture overfitting: the distilled training data synthesized by a specific network architecture (i.e., training network) generates poor performance when trained by other network architectures (i.e., test networks). This paper addresses this issue and proposes a series of approaches in both architecture designs and training schemes which can be adopted together to boost the generalization performance across different network architectures on the distilled training data. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our methods. Particularly, across various scenarios involving different sizes of distilled data, our approaches achieve comparable or superior performance to existing methods when training on the distilled data using networks with larger capacities.

3.Counterfactual Explanations via Locally-guided Sequential Algorithmic Recourse

Authors:Edward A. Small, Jeffrey N. Clark, Christopher J. McWilliams, Kacper Sokol, Jeffrey Chan, Flora D. Salim, Raul Santos-Rodriguez

Abstract: Counterfactuals operationalised through algorithmic recourse have become a powerful tool to make artificial intelligence systems explainable. Conceptually, given an individual classified as y -- the factual -- we seek actions such that their prediction becomes the desired class y' -- the counterfactual. This process offers algorithmic recourse that is (1) easy to customise and interpret, and (2) directly aligned with the goals of each individual. However, the properties of a "good" counterfactual are still largely debated; it remains an open challenge to effectively locate a counterfactual along with its corresponding recourse. Some strategies use gradient-driven methods, but these offer no guarantees on the feasibility of the recourse and are open to adversarial attacks on carefully created manifolds. This can lead to unfairness and lack of robustness. Other methods are data-driven, which mostly addresses the feasibility problem at the expense of privacy, security and secrecy as they require access to the entire training data set. Here, we introduce LocalFACE, a model-agnostic technique that composes feasible and actionable counterfactual explanations using locally-acquired information at each step of the algorithmic recourse. Our explainer preserves the privacy of users by only leveraging data that it specifically requires to construct actionable algorithmic recourse, and protects the model by offering transparency solely in the regions deemed necessary for the intervention.

4.Offline Recommender System Evaluation under Unobserved Confounding

Authors:Olivier Jeunen, Ben London

Abstract: Off-Policy Estimation (OPE) methods allow us to learn and evaluate decision-making policies from logged data. This makes them an attractive choice for the offline evaluation of recommender systems, and several recent works have reported successful adoption of OPE methods to this end. An important assumption that makes this work is the absence of unobserved confounders: random variables that influence both actions and rewards at data collection time. Because the data collection policy is typically under the practitioner's control, the unconfoundedness assumption is often left implicit, and its violations are rarely dealt with in the existing literature. This work aims to highlight the problems that arise when performing off-policy estimation in the presence of unobserved confounders, specifically focusing on a recommendation use-case. We focus on policy-based estimators, where the logging propensities are learned from logged data. We characterise the statistical bias that arises due to confounding, and show how existing diagnostics are unable to uncover such cases. Because the bias depends directly on the true and unobserved logging propensities, it is non-identifiable. As the unconfoundedness assumption is famously untestable, this becomes especially problematic. This paper emphasises this common, yet often overlooked issue. Through synthetic data, we empirically show how na\"ive propensity estimation under confounding can lead to severely biased metric estimates that are allowed to fly under the radar. We aim to cultivate an awareness among researchers and practitioners of this important problem, and touch upon potential research directions towards mitigating its effects.

5.Adaptive Distributed Kernel Ridge Regression: A Feasible Distributed Learning Scheme for Data Silos

Authors:Di Wang, Xiaotong Liu, Shao-Bo Lin, Ding-Xuan Zhou

Abstract: Data silos, mainly caused by privacy and interoperability, significantly constrain collaborations among different organizations with similar data for the same purpose. Distributed learning based on divide-and-conquer provides a promising way to settle the data silos, but it suffers from several challenges, including autonomy, privacy guarantees, and the necessity of collaborations. This paper focuses on developing an adaptive distributed kernel ridge regression (AdaDKRR) by taking autonomy in parameter selection, privacy in communicating non-sensitive information, and the necessity of collaborations in performance improvement into account. We provide both solid theoretical verification and comprehensive experiments for AdaDKRR to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. Theoretically, we prove that under some mild conditions, AdaDKRR performs similarly to running the optimal learning algorithms on the whole data, verifying the necessity of collaborations and showing that no other distributed learning scheme can essentially beat AdaDKRR under the same conditions. Numerically, we test AdaDKRR on both toy simulations and two real-world applications to show that AdaDKRR is superior to other existing distributed learning schemes. All these results show that AdaDKRR is a feasible scheme to defend against data silos, which are highly desired in numerous application regions such as intelligent decision-making, pricing forecasting, and performance prediction for products.

6.Viewing the process of generating counterfactuals as a source of knowledge -- Application to the Naive Bayes classifier

Authors:Vincent Lemaire, Nathan Le Boudec, Françoise Fessant, Victor Guyomard

Abstract: There are now many comprehension algorithms for understanding the decisions of a machine learning algorithm. Among these are those based on the generation of counterfactual examples. This article proposes to view this generation process as a source of creating a certain amount of knowledge that can be stored to be used, later, in different ways. This process is illustrated in the additive model and, more specifically, in the case of the naive Bayes classifier, whose interesting properties for this purpose are shown.

7.Navigating Out-of-Distribution Electricity Load Forecasting during COVID-19: A Continual Learning Approach Leveraging Human Mobility

Authors:Arian Prabowo, Kaixuan Chen, Hao Xue, Subbu Sethuvenkatraman, Flora D. Salim

Abstract: In traditional deep learning algorithms, one of the key assumptions is that the data distribution remains constant during both training and deployment. However, this assumption becomes problematic when faced with Out-of-Distribution periods, such as the COVID-19 lockdowns, where the data distribution significantly deviates from what the model has seen during training. This paper employs a two-fold strategy: utilizing continual learning techniques to update models with new data and harnessing human mobility data collected from privacy-preserving pedestrian counters located outside buildings. In contrast to online learning, which suffers from 'catastrophic forgetting' as newly acquired knowledge often erases prior information, continual learning offers a holistic approach by preserving past insights while integrating new data. This research applies FSNet, a powerful continual learning algorithm, to real-world data from 13 building complexes in Melbourne, Australia, a city which had the second longest total lockdown duration globally during the pandemic. Results underscore the crucial role of continual learning in accurate energy forecasting, particularly during Out-of-Distribution periods. Secondary data such as mobility and temperature provided ancillary support to the primary forecasting model. More importantly, while traditional methods struggled to adapt during lockdowns, models featuring at least online learning demonstrated resilience, with lockdown periods posing fewer challenges once armed with adaptive learning techniques. This study contributes valuable methodologies and insights to the ongoing effort to improve energy load forecasting during future Out-of-Distribution periods.

8.Federated Learning for Early Dropout Prediction on Healthy Ageing Applications

Authors:Christos Chrysanthos Nikolaidis, Vasileios Perifanis, Nikolaos Pavlidis, Pavlos S. Efraimidis

Abstract: The provision of social care applications is crucial for elderly people to improve their quality of life and enables operators to provide early interventions. Accurate predictions of user dropouts in healthy ageing applications are essential since they are directly related to individual health statuses. Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have enabled highly accurate predictions, outperforming traditional statistical methods that struggle to cope with individual patterns. However, ML requires a substantial amount of data for training, which is challenging due to the presence of personal identifiable information (PII) and the fragmentation posed by regulations. In this paper, we present a federated machine learning (FML) approach that minimizes privacy concerns and enables distributed training, without transferring individual data. We employ collaborative training by considering individuals and organizations under FML, which models both cross-device and cross-silo learning scenarios. Our approach is evaluated on a real-world dataset with non-independent and identically distributed (non-iid) data among clients, class imbalance and label ambiguity. Our results show that data selection and class imbalance handling techniques significantly improve the predictive accuracy of models trained under FML, demonstrating comparable or superior predictive performance than traditional ML models.

9.Generating the Ground Truth: Synthetic Data for Label Noise Research

Authors:Sjoerd de Vries, Dirk Thierens

Abstract: Most real-world classification tasks suffer from label noise to some extent. Such noise in the data adversely affects the generalization error of learned models and complicates the evaluation of noise-handling methods, as their performance cannot be accurately measured without clean labels. In label noise research, typically either noisy or incomplex simulated data are accepted as a baseline, into which additional noise with known properties is injected. In this paper, we propose SYNLABEL, a framework that aims to improve upon the aforementioned methodologies. It allows for creating a noiseless dataset informed by real data, by either pre-specifying or learning a function and defining it as the ground truth function from which labels are generated. Furthermore, by resampling a number of values for selected features in the function domain, evaluating the function and aggregating the resulting labels, each data point can be assigned a soft label or label distribution. Such distributions allow for direct injection and quantification of label noise. The generated datasets serve as a clean baseline of adjustable complexity into which different types of noise may be introduced. We illustrate how the framework can be applied, how it enables quantification of label noise and how it improves over existing methodologies.

10.Graph Neural Networks Use Graphs When They Shouldn't

Authors:Maya Bechler-Speicher, Ido Amos, Ran Gilad-Bachrach, Amir Globerson

Abstract: Predictions over graphs play a crucial role in various domains, including social networks, molecular biology, medicine, and more. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have emerged as the dominant approach for learning on graph data. Instances of graph labeling problems consist of the graph-structure (i.e., the adjacency matrix), along with node-specific feature vectors. In some cases, this graph-structure is non-informative for the predictive task. For instance, molecular properties such as molar mass depend solely on the constituent atoms (node features), and not on the molecular structure. While GNNs have the ability to ignore the graph-structure in such cases, it is not clear that they will. In this work, we show that GNNs actually tend to overfit the graph-structure in the sense that they use it even when a better solution can be obtained by ignoring it. We examine this phenomenon with respect to different graph distributions and find that regular graphs are more robust to this overfitting. We then provide a theoretical explanation for this phenomenon, via analyzing the implicit bias of gradient-descent-based learning of GNNs in this setting. Finally, based on our empirical and theoretical findings, we propose a graph-editing method to mitigate the tendency of GNNs to overfit graph-structures that should be ignored. We show that this method indeed improves the accuracy of GNNs across multiple benchmarks.

11.Online Submodular Maximization via Online Convex Optimization

Authors:T. Si-Salem, G. Özcan, I. Nikolaou, E. Terzi, S. Ioannidis

Abstract: We study monotone submodular maximization under general matroid constraints in the online setting. We prove that online optimization of a large class of submodular functions, namely, weighted threshold potential functions, reduces to online convex optimization (OCO). This is precisely because functions in this class admit a concave relaxation; as a result, OCO policies, coupled with an appropriate rounding scheme, can be used to achieve sublinear regret in the combinatorial setting. We show that our reduction extends to many different versions of the online learning problem, including the dynamic regret, bandit, and optimistic-learning settings.

12.Zero-Shot Robustification of Zero-Shot Models With Foundation Models

Authors:Dyah Adila, Changho Shin, Linrong Cai, Frederic Sala

Abstract: Zero-shot inference is a powerful paradigm that enables the use of large pretrained models for downstream classification tasks without further training. However, these models are vulnerable to inherited biases that can impact their performance. The traditional solution is fine-tuning, but this undermines the key advantage of pretrained models, which is their ability to be used out-of-the-box. We propose RoboShot, a method that improves the robustness of pretrained model embeddings in a fully zero-shot fashion. First, we use zero-shot language models (LMs) to obtain useful insights from task descriptions. These insights are embedded and used to remove harmful and boost useful components in embeddings -- without any supervision. Theoretically, we provide a simple and tractable model for biases in zero-shot embeddings and give a result characterizing under what conditions our approach can boost performance. Empirically, we evaluate RoboShot on nine image and NLP classification tasks and show an average improvement of 15.98% over several zero-shot baselines. Additionally, we demonstrate that RoboShot is compatible with a variety of pretrained and language models.

13.Learning from Power Signals: An Automated Approach to Electrical Disturbance Identification Within a Power Transmission System

Authors:Jonathan D. Boyd, Joshua H. Tyler, Anthony M. Murphy, Donald R. Reising

Abstract: As power quality becomes a higher priority in the electric utility industry, the amount of disturbance event data continues to grow. Utilities do not have the required personnel to analyze each event by hand. This work presents an automated approach for analyzing power quality events recorded by digital fault recorders and power quality monitors operating within a power transmission system. The automated approach leverages rule-based analytics to examine the time and frequency domain characteristics of the voltage and current signals. Customizable thresholds are set to categorize each disturbance event. The events analyzed within this work include various faults, motor starting, and incipient instrument transformer failure. Analytics for fourteen different event types have been developed. The analytics were tested on 160 signal files and yielded an accuracy of ninety-nine percent. Continuous, nominal signal data analysis is performed using an approach coined as the cyclic histogram. The cyclic histogram process will be integrated into the digital fault recorders themselves to facilitate the detection of subtle signal variations that are too small to trigger a disturbance event and that can occur over hours or days. In addition to reducing memory requirements by a factor of 320, it is anticipated that cyclic histogram processing will aid in identifying incipient events and identifiers. This project is expected to save engineers time by automating the classification of disturbance events and increase the reliability of the transmission system by providing near real time detection and identification of disturbances as well as prevention of problems before they occur.

14.Active Learning for Classifying 2D Grid-Based Level Completability

Authors:Mahsa Bazzaz, Seth Cooper

Abstract: Determining the completability of levels generated by procedural generators such as machine learning models can be challenging, as it can involve the use of solver agents that often require a significant amount of time to analyze and solve levels. Active learning is not yet widely adopted in game evaluations, although it has been used successfully in natural language processing, image and speech recognition, and computer vision, where the availability of labeled data is limited or expensive. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for learning level completability classification. Through an active learning approach, we train deep-learning models to classify the completability of generated levels for Super Mario Bros., Kid Icarus, and a Zelda-like game. We compare active learning for querying levels to label with completability against random queries. Our results show using an active learning approach to label levels results in better classifier performance with the same amount of labeled data.

15.Generalization Bounds: Perspectives from Information Theory and PAC-Bayes

Authors:Fredrik Hellström, Giuseppe Durisi, Benjamin Guedj, Maxim Raginsky

Abstract: A fundamental question in theoretical machine learning is generalization. Over the past decades, the PAC-Bayesian approach has been established as a flexible framework to address the generalization capabilities of machine learning algorithms, and design new ones. Recently, it has garnered increased interest due to its potential applicability for a variety of learning algorithms, including deep neural networks. In parallel, an information-theoretic view of generalization has developed, wherein the relation between generalization and various information measures has been established. This framework is intimately connected to the PAC-Bayesian approach, and a number of results have been independently discovered in both strands. In this monograph, we highlight this strong connection and present a unified treatment of generalization. We present techniques and results that the two perspectives have in common, and discuss the approaches and interpretations that differ. In particular, we demonstrate how many proofs in the area share a modular structure, through which the underlying ideas can be intuited. We pay special attention to the conditional mutual information (CMI) framework; analytical studies of the information complexity of learning algorithms; and the application of the proposed methods to deep learning. This monograph is intended to provide a comprehensive introduction to information-theoretic generalization bounds and their connection to PAC-Bayes, serving as a foundation from which the most recent developments are accessible. It is aimed broadly towards researchers with an interest in generalization and theoretical machine learning.

16.Robust Representation Learning for Privacy-Preserving Machine Learning: A Multi-Objective Autoencoder Approach

Authors:Sofiane Ouaari, Ali Burak Ünal, Mete Akgün, Nico Pfeifer

Abstract: Several domains increasingly rely on machine learning in their applications. The resulting heavy dependence on data has led to the emergence of various laws and regulations around data ethics and privacy and growing awareness of the need for privacy-preserving machine learning (ppML). Current ppML techniques utilize methods that are either purely based on cryptography, such as homomorphic encryption, or that introduce noise into the input, such as differential privacy. The main criticism given to those techniques is the fact that they either are too slow or they trade off a model s performance for improved confidentiality. To address this performance reduction, we aim to leverage robust representation learning as a way of encoding our data while optimizing the privacy-utility trade-off. Our method centers on training autoencoders in a multi-objective manner and then concatenating the latent and learned features from the encoding part as the encoded form of our data. Such a deep learning-powered encoding can then safely be sent to a third party for intensive training and hyperparameter tuning. With our proposed framework, we can share our data and use third party tools without being under the threat of revealing its original form. We empirically validate our results on unimodal and multimodal settings, the latter following a vertical splitting system and show improved performance over state-of-the-art.

17.Variations and Relaxations of Normalizing Flows

Authors:Keegan Kelly, Lorena Piedras, Sukrit Rao, David Roth

Abstract: Normalizing Flows (NFs) describe a class of models that express a complex target distribution as the composition of a series of bijective transformations over a simpler base distribution. By limiting the space of candidate transformations to diffeomorphisms, NFs enjoy efficient, exact sampling and density evaluation, enabling NFs to flexibly behave as both discriminative and generative models. Their restriction to diffeomorphisms, however, enforces that input, output and all intermediary spaces share the same dimension, limiting their ability to effectively represent target distributions with complex topologies. Additionally, in cases where the prior and target distributions are not homeomorphic, Normalizing Flows can leak mass outside of the support of the target. This survey covers a selection of recent works that combine aspects of other generative model classes, such as VAEs and score-based diffusion, and in doing so loosen the strict bijectivity constraints of NFs to achieve a balance of expressivity, training speed, sample efficiency and likelihood tractability.

18.Subwords as Skills: Tokenization for Sparse-Reward Reinforcement Learning

Authors:David Yunis, Justin Jung, Falcon Dai, Matthew Walter

Abstract: Exploration in sparse-reward reinforcement learning is difficult due to the requirement of long, coordinated sequences of actions in order to achieve any reward. Moreover, in continuous action spaces there are an infinite number of possible actions, which only increases the difficulty of exploration. One class of methods designed to address these issues forms temporally extended actions, often called skills, from interaction data collected in the same domain, and optimizes a policy on top of this new action space. Typically such methods require a lengthy pretraining phase, especially in continuous action spaces, in order to form the skills before reinforcement learning can begin. Given prior evidence that the full range of the continuous action space is not required in such tasks, we propose a novel approach to skill-generation with two components. First we discretize the action space through clustering, and second we leverage a tokenization technique borrowed from natural language processing to generate temporally extended actions. Such a method outperforms baselines for skill-generation in several challenging sparse-reward domains, and requires orders-of-magnitude less computation in skill-generation and online rollouts.

19.On the Actionability of Outcome Prediction

Authors:Lydia T. Liu, Solon Barocas, Jon Kleinberg, Karen Levy

Abstract: Predicting future outcomes is a prevalent application of machine learning in social impact domains. Examples range from predicting student success in education to predicting disease risk in healthcare. Practitioners recognize that the ultimate goal is not just to predict but to act effectively. Increasing evidence suggests that relying on outcome predictions for downstream interventions may not have desired results. In most domains there exists a multitude of possible interventions for each individual, making the challenge of taking effective action more acute. Even when causal mechanisms connecting the individual's latent states to outcomes is well understood, in any given instance (a specific student or patient), practitioners still need to infer -- from budgeted measurements of latent states -- which of many possible interventions will be most effective for this individual. With this in mind, we ask: when are accurate predictors of outcomes helpful for identifying the most suitable intervention? Through a simple model encompassing actions, latent states, and measurements, we demonstrate that pure outcome prediction rarely results in the most effective policy for taking actions, even when combined with other measurements. We find that except in cases where there is a single decisive action for improving the outcome, outcome prediction never maximizes "action value", the utility of taking actions. Making measurements of actionable latent states, where specific actions lead to desired outcomes, considerably enhances the action value compared to outcome prediction, and the degree of improvement depends on action costs and the outcome model. This analysis emphasizes the need to go beyond generic outcome prediction in interventional settings by incorporating knowledge of plausible actions and latent states.

1.AdaPlus: Integrating Nesterov Momentum and Precise Stepsize Adjustment on AdamW Basis

Authors:Lei Guan

Abstract: This paper proposes an efficient optimizer called AdaPlus which integrates Nesterov momentum and precise stepsize adjustment on AdamW basis. AdaPlus combines the advantages of AdamW, Nadam, and AdaBelief and, in particular, does not introduce any extra hyper-parameters. We perform extensive experimental evaluations on three machine learning tasks to validate the effectiveness of AdaPlus. The experiment results validate that AdaPlus (i) is the best adaptive method which performs most comparable with (even slightly better than) SGD with momentum on image classification tasks and (ii) outperforms other state-of-the-art optimizers on language modeling tasks and illustrates the highest stability when training GANs. The experiment code of AdaPlus is available at:

2.Linear Regression using Heterogeneous Data Batches

Authors:Ayush Jain, Rajat Sen, Weihao Kong, Abhimanyu Das, Alon Orlitsky

Abstract: In many learning applications, data are collected from multiple sources, each providing a \emph{batch} of samples that by itself is insufficient to learn its input-output relationship. A common approach assumes that the sources fall in one of several unknown subgroups, each with an unknown input distribution and input-output relationship. We consider one of this setup's most fundamental and important manifestations where the output is a noisy linear combination of the inputs, and there are $k$ subgroups, each with its own regression vector. Prior work~\cite{kong2020meta} showed that with abundant small-batches, the regression vectors can be learned with only few, $\tilde\Omega( k^{3/2})$, batches of medium-size with $\tilde\Omega(\sqrt k)$ samples each. However, the paper requires that the input distribution for all $k$ subgroups be isotropic Gaussian, and states that removing this assumption is an ``interesting and challenging problem". We propose a novel gradient-based algorithm that improves on the existing results in several ways. It extends the applicability of the algorithm by: (1) allowing the subgroups' underlying input distributions to be different, unknown, and heavy-tailed; (2) recovering all subgroups followed by a significant proportion of batches even for infinite $k$; (3) removing the separation requirement between the regression vectors; (4) reducing the number of batches and allowing smaller batch sizes.

3.An LSTM-Based Predictive Monitoring Method for Data with Time-varying Variability

Authors:Jiaqi Qiu, Yu Lin, Inez Zwetsloot

Abstract: The recurrent neural network and its variants have shown great success in processing sequences in recent years. However, this deep neural network has not aroused much attention in anomaly detection through predictively process monitoring. Furthermore, the traditional statistic models work on assumptions and hypothesis tests, while neural network (NN) models do not need that many assumptions. This flexibility enables NN models to work efficiently on data with time-varying variability, a common inherent aspect of data in practice. This paper explores the ability of the recurrent neural network structure to monitor processes and proposes a control chart based on long short-term memory (LSTM) prediction intervals for data with time-varying variability. The simulation studies provide empirical evidence that the proposed model outperforms other NN-based predictive monitoring methods for mean shift detection. The proposed method is also applied to time series sensor data, which confirms that the proposed method is an effective technique for detecting abnormalities.

4.sasdim: self-adaptive noise scaling diffusion model for spatial time series imputation

Authors:Shunyang Zhang, Senzhang Wang, Xianzhen Tan, Ruochen Liu, Jian Zhang, Jianxin Wang

Abstract: Spatial time series imputation is critically important to many real applications such as intelligent transportation and air quality monitoring. Although recent transformer and diffusion model based approaches have achieved significant performance gains compared with conventional statistic based methods, spatial time series imputation still remains as a challenging issue due to the complex spatio-temporal dependencies and the noise uncertainty of the spatial time series data. Especially, recent diffusion process based models may introduce random noise to the imputations, and thus cause negative impact on the model performance. To this end, we propose a self-adaptive noise scaling diffusion model named SaSDim to more effectively perform spatial time series imputation. Specially, we propose a new loss function that can scale the noise to the similar intensity, and propose the across spatial-temporal global convolution module to more effectively capture the dynamic spatial-temporal dependencies. Extensive experiments conducted on three real world datasets verify the effectiveness of SaSDim by comparison with current state-of-the-art baselines.

5.Aggregating Correlated Estimations with (Almost) no Training

Authors:Theo Delemazure LAMSADE, François Durand CREM, LINCS, Fabien Mathieu LINCS

Abstract: Many decision problems cannot be solved exactly and use several estimation algorithms that assign scores to the different available options. The estimation errors can have various correlations, from low (e.g. between two very different approaches) to high (e.g. when using a given algorithm with different hyperparameters). Most aggregation rules would suffer from this diversity of correlations. In this article, we propose different aggregation rules that take correlations into account, and we compare them to naive rules in various experiments based on synthetic data. Our results show that when sufficient information is known about the correlations between errors, a maximum likelihood aggregation should be preferred. Otherwise, typically with limited training data, we recommend a method that we call Embedded Voting (EV).

6.Establishing a real-time traffic alarm in the city of Valencia with Deep Learning

Authors:Miguel Folgado, Veronica Sanz, Johannes Hirn, Edgar Lorenzo-Saez, Javier Urchueguia

Abstract: Urban traffic emissions represent a significant concern due to their detrimental impacts on both public health and the environment. Consequently, decision-makers have flagged their reduction as a crucial goal. In this study, we first analyze the correlation between traffic flux and pollution in the city of Valencia, Spain. Our results demonstrate that traffic has a significant impact on the levels of certain pollutants (especially $\text{NO}_\text{x}$). Secondly, we develop an alarm system to predict if a street is likely to experience unusually high traffic in the next 30 minutes, using an independent three-tier level for each street. To make the predictions, we use traffic data updated every 10 minutes and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks. We trained the LSTM using traffic data from 2018, and tested it using traffic data from 2019.

7.Representation Learning Dynamics of Self-Supervised Models

Authors:Pascal Esser, Satyaki Mukherjee, Debarghya Ghoshdastidar

Abstract: Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) is an important paradigm for learning representations from unlabelled data, and SSL with neural networks has been highly successful in practice. However current theoretical analysis of SSL is mostly restricted to generalisation error bounds. In contrast, learning dynamics often provide a precise characterisation of the behaviour of neural networks based models but, so far, are mainly known in supervised settings. In this paper, we study the learning dynamics of SSL models, specifically representations obtained by minimising contrastive and non-contrastive losses. We show that a naive extension of the dymanics of multivariate regression to SSL leads to learning trivial scalar representations that demonstrates dimension collapse in SSL. Consequently, we formulate SSL objectives with orthogonality constraints on the weights, and derive the exact (network width independent) learning dynamics of the SSL models trained using gradient descent on the Grassmannian manifold. We also argue that the infinite width approximation of SSL models significantly deviate from the neural tangent kernel approximations of supervised models. We numerically illustrate the validity of our theoretical findings, and discuss how the presented results provide a framework for further theoretical analysis of contrastive and non-contrastive SSL.

8.iLoRE: Dynamic Graph Representation with Instant Long-term Modeling and Re-occurrence Preservation

Authors:Siwei Zhang, Yun Xiong, Yao Zhang, Xixi Wu, Yiheng Sun, Jiawei Zhang

Abstract: Continuous-time dynamic graph modeling is a crucial task for many real-world applications, such as financial risk management and fraud detection. Though existing dynamic graph modeling methods have achieved satisfactory results, they still suffer from three key limitations, hindering their scalability and further applicability. i) Indiscriminate updating. For incoming edges, existing methods would indiscriminately deal with them, which may lead to more time consumption and unexpected noisy information. ii) Ineffective node-wise long-term modeling. They heavily rely on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) as a backbone, which has been demonstrated to be incapable of fully capturing node-wise long-term dependencies in event sequences. iii) Neglect of re-occurrence patterns. Dynamic graphs involve the repeated occurrence of neighbors that indicates their importance, which is disappointedly neglected by existing methods. In this paper, we present iLoRE, a novel dynamic graph modeling method with instant node-wise Long-term modeling and Re-occurrence preservation. To overcome the indiscriminate updating issue, we introduce the Adaptive Short-term Updater module that will automatically discard the useless or noisy edges, ensuring iLoRE's effectiveness and instant ability. We further propose the Long-term Updater to realize more effective node-wise long-term modeling, where we innovatively propose the Identity Attention mechanism to empower a Transformer-based updater, bypassing the limited effectiveness of typical RNN-dominated designs. Finally, the crucial re-occurrence patterns are also encoded into a graph module for informative representation learning, which will further improve the expressiveness of our method. Our experimental results on real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our iLoRE for dynamic graph modeling.

9.Dynamic Early Exiting Predictive Coding Neural Networks

Authors:Alaa Zniber, Ouassim Karrakchou, Mounir Ghogho

Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) sensors are nowadays heavily utilized in various real-world applications ranging from wearables to smart buildings passing by agrotechnology and health monitoring. With the huge amounts of data generated by these tiny devices, Deep Learning (DL) models have been extensively used to enhance them with intelligent processing. However, with the urge for smaller and more accurate devices, DL models became too heavy to deploy. It is thus necessary to incorporate the hardware's limited resources in the design process. Therefore, inspired by the human brain known for its efficiency and low power consumption, we propose a shallow bidirectional network based on predictive coding theory and dynamic early exiting for halting further computations when a performance threshold is surpassed. We achieve comparable accuracy to VGG-16 in image classification on CIFAR-10 with fewer parameters and less computational complexity.

10.RDGSL: Dynamic Graph Representation Learning with Structure Learning

Authors:Siwei Zhang, Yun Xiong, Yao Zhang, Yiheng Sun, Xi Chen, Yizhu Jiao, Yangyong Zhu

Abstract: Temporal Graph Networks (TGNs) have shown remarkable performance in learning representation for continuous-time dynamic graphs. However, real-world dynamic graphs typically contain diverse and intricate noise. Noise can significantly degrade the quality of representation generation, impeding the effectiveness of TGNs in downstream tasks. Though structure learning is widely applied to mitigate noise in static graphs, its adaptation to dynamic graph settings poses two significant challenges. i) Noise dynamics. Existing structure learning methods are ill-equipped to address the temporal aspect of noise, hampering their effectiveness in such dynamic and ever-changing noise patterns. ii) More severe noise. Noise may be introduced along with multiple interactions between two nodes, leading to the re-pollution of these nodes and consequently causing more severe noise compared to static graphs. In this paper, we present RDGSL, a representation learning method in continuous-time dynamic graphs. Meanwhile, we propose dynamic graph structure learning, a novel supervisory signal that empowers RDGSL with the ability to effectively combat noise in dynamic graphs. To address the noise dynamics issue, we introduce the Dynamic Graph Filter, where we innovatively propose a dynamic noise function that dynamically captures both current and historical noise, enabling us to assess the temporal aspect of noise and generate a denoised graph. We further propose the Temporal Embedding Learner to tackle the challenge of more severe noise, which utilizes an attention mechanism to selectively turn a blind eye to noisy edges and hence focus on normal edges, enhancing the expressiveness for representation generation that remains resilient to noise. Our method demonstrates robustness towards downstream tasks, resulting in up to 5.1% absolute AUC improvement in evolving classification versus the second-best baseline.

11.Granger Causal Inference in Multivariate Hawkes Processes by Minimum Message Length

Authors:Katerina Hlavackova-Schindler, Anna Melnykova, Irene Tubikanec

Abstract: Multivariate Hawkes processes (MHPs) are versatile probabilistic tools used to model various real-life phenomena: earthquakes, operations on stock markets, neuronal activity, virus propagation and many others. In this paper, we focus on MHPs with exponential decay kernels and estimate connectivity graphs, which represent the Granger causal relations between their components. We approach this inference problem by proposing an optimization criterion and model selection algorithm based on the minimum message length (MML) principle. MML compares Granger causal models using the Occam's razor principle in the following way: even when models have a comparable goodness-of-fit to the observed data, the one generating the most concise explanation of the data is preferred. While most of the state-of-art methods using lasso-type penalization tend to overfitting in scenarios with short time horizons, the proposed MML-based method achieves high F1 scores in these settings. We conduct a numerical study comparing the proposed algorithm to other related classical and state-of-art methods, where we achieve the highest F1 scores in specific sparse graph settings. We illustrate the proposed method also on G7 sovereign bond data and obtain causal connections, which are in agreement with the expert knowledge available in the literature.

12.Non-Parametric Representation Learning with Kernels

Authors:Pascal Esser, Maximilian Fleissner, Debarghya Ghoshdastidar

Abstract: Unsupervised and self-supervised representation learning has become popular in recent years for learning useful features from unlabelled data. Representation learning has been mostly developed in the neural network literature, and other models for representation learning are surprisingly unexplored. In this work, we introduce and analyze several kernel-based representation learning approaches: Firstly, we define two kernel Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) models using contrastive loss functions and secondly, a Kernel Autoencoder (AE) model based on the idea of embedding and reconstructing data. We argue that the classical representer theorems for supervised kernel machines are not always applicable for (self-supervised) representation learning, and present new representer theorems, which show that the representations learned by our kernel models can be expressed in terms of kernel matrices. We further derive generalisation error bounds for representation learning with kernel SSL and AE, and empirically evaluate the performance of these methods in both small data regimes as well as in comparison with neural network based models.

13.Data-Juicer: A One-Stop Data Processing System for Large Language Models

Authors:Daoyuan Chen, Yilun Huang, Zhijian Ma, Hesen Chen, Xuchen Pan, Ce Ge, Dawei Gao, Yuexiang Xie, Zhaoyang Liu, Jinyang Gao, Yaliang Li, Bolin Ding, Jingren Zhou

Abstract: The immense evolution in Large Language Models (LLMs) has underscored the importance of massive, diverse, and high-quality data. Despite this, existing open-source tools for LLM data processing remain limited and mostly tailored to specific datasets, with an emphasis on the reproducibility of released data over adaptability and usability, inhibiting potential applications. In response, we propose a one-stop, powerful yet flexible and user-friendly LLM data processing system named Data-Juicer. Our system offers over 50 built-in versatile operators and pluggable tools, which synergize modularity, composability, and extensibility dedicated to diverse LLM data processing needs. By incorporating visualized and automatic evaluation capabilities, Data-Juicer enables a timely feedback loop to accelerate data processing and gain data insights. To enhance usability, Data-Juicer provides out-of-the-box components for users with various backgrounds, and fruitful data recipes for LLM pre-training and post-tuning usages. Further, we employ multi-facet system optimization and seamlessly integrate Data-Juicer with both LLM and distributed computing ecosystems, to enable efficient and scalable data processing. Empirical validation of the generated data recipes reveals considerable improvements in LLaMA performance for various pre-training and post-tuning cases, demonstrating up to 7.45% relative improvement of averaged score across 16 LLM benchmarks and 16.25% higher win rate using pair-wise GPT-4 evaluation. The system's efficiency and scalability are also validated, supported by up to 88.7% reduction in single-machine processing time, 77.1% and 73.1% less memory and CPU usage respectively, and 7.91x processing acceleration when utilizing distributed computing ecosystems. Our system, data recipes, and multiple tutorial demos are released, calling for broader research centered on LLM data.

14.Diffusion Generative Inverse Design

Authors:Marin Vlastelica, Tatiana López-Guevara, Kelsey Allen, Peter Battaglia, Arnaud Doucet, Kimberley Stachenfeld

Abstract: Inverse design refers to the problem of optimizing the input of an objective function in order to enact a target outcome. For many real-world engineering problems, the objective function takes the form of a simulator that predicts how the system state will evolve over time, and the design challenge is to optimize the initial conditions that lead to a target outcome. Recent developments in learned simulation have shown that graph neural networks (GNNs) can be used for accurate, efficient, differentiable estimation of simulator dynamics, and support high-quality design optimization with gradient- or sampling-based optimization procedures. However, optimizing designs from scratch requires many expensive model queries, and these procedures exhibit basic failures on either non-convex or high-dimensional problems.In this work, we show how denoising diffusion models (DDMs) can be used to solve inverse design problems efficiently and propose a particle sampling algorithm for further improving their efficiency. We perform experiments on a number of fluid dynamics design challenges, and find that our approach substantially reduces the number of calls to the simulator compared to standard techniques.

15.Probabilistic Self-supervised Learning via Scoring Rules Minimization

Authors:Amirhossein Vahidi, Simon Schoßer, Lisa Wimmer, Yawei Li, Bernd Bischl, Eyke Hüllermeier, Mina Rezaei

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic self-supervised learning via Scoring Rule Minimization (ProSMIN), which leverages the power of probabilistic models to enhance representation quality and mitigate collapsing representations. Our proposed approach involves two neural networks; the online network and the target network, which collaborate and learn the diverse distribution of representations from each other through knowledge distillation. By presenting the input samples in two augmented formats, the online network is trained to predict the target network representation of the same sample under a different augmented view. The two networks are trained via our new loss function based on proper scoring rules. We provide a theoretical justification for ProSMIN's convergence, demonstrating the strict propriety of its modified scoring rule. This insight validates the method's optimization process and contributes to its robustness and effectiveness in improving representation quality. We evaluate our probabilistic model on various downstream tasks, such as in-distribution generalization, out-of-distribution detection, dataset corruption, low-shot learning, and transfer learning. Our method achieves superior accuracy and calibration, surpassing the self-supervised baseline in a wide range of experiments on large-scale datasets like ImageNet-O and ImageNet-C, ProSMIN demonstrates its scalability and real-world applicability.

16.No-Regret Caching with Noisy Request Estimates

Authors:Younes Ben Mazziane, Francescomaria Faticanti, Giovanni Neglia, Sara Alouf

Abstract: Online learning algorithms have been successfully used to design caching policies with regret guarantees. Existing algorithms assume that the cache knows the exact request sequence, but this may not be feasible in high load and/or memory-constrained scenarios, where the cache may have access only to sampled requests or to approximate requests' counters. In this paper, we propose the Noisy-Follow-the-Perturbed-Leader (NFPL) algorithm, a variant of the classic Follow-the-Perturbed-Leader (FPL) when request estimates are noisy, and we show that the proposed solution has sublinear regret under specific conditions on the requests estimator. The experimental evaluation compares the proposed solution against classic caching policies and validates the proposed approach under both synthetic and real request traces.

17.Efficiency is Not Enough: A Critical Perspective of Environmentally Sustainable AI

Authors:Dustin Wright, Christian Igel, Gabrielle Samuel, Raghavendra Selvan

Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) is currently spearheaded by machine learning (ML) methods such as deep learning (DL) which have accelerated progress on many tasks thought to be out of reach of AI. These ML methods can often be compute hungry, energy intensive, and result in significant carbon emissions, a known driver of anthropogenic climate change. Additionally, the platforms on which ML systems run are associated with environmental impacts including and beyond carbon emissions. The solution lionized by both industry and the ML community to improve the environmental sustainability of ML is to increase the efficiency with which ML systems operate in terms of both compute and energy consumption. In this perspective, we argue that efficiency alone is not enough to make ML as a technology environmentally sustainable. We do so by presenting three high level discrepancies between the effect of efficiency on the environmental sustainability of ML when considering the many variables which it interacts with. In doing so, we comprehensively demonstrate, at multiple levels of granularity both technical and non-technical reasons, why efficiency is not enough to fully remedy the environmental impacts of ML. Based on this, we present and argue for systems thinking as a viable path towards improving the environmental sustainability of ML holistically.

18.An Efficient Approach to Unsupervised Out-of-Distribution Detection with Variational Autoencoders

Authors:Zezhen Zeng, Bin Liu

Abstract: This paper is concerned with deep generative models (DGMs) for unsupervised out-of-distribution (OOD) detection. In particular, we focus on vanilla Variational Autoencoders (VAE) that use a standard normal prior distribution for the latent variables. These models have a smaller model size, enabling faster training and inference, making them well-suited for resource-limited applications compared to more complex DGMs. We propose a novel OOD score called Error Reduction (ER) specifically designed for vanilla VAE. ER incorporate the idea of reconstructing image inputs from their lossy counterparts and takes into account the Kolmogorov complexity of the images. Experimental results on diverse datasets demonstrate the superiority of our approach over baseline methods. Our code is available at:

19.TensorBank:Tensor Lakehouse for Foundation Model Training

Authors:Romeo Kienzler, Benedikt Blumenstiel, Zoltan Arnold Nagy, S. Karthik Mukkavilli, Johannes Schmude, Marcus Freitag, Michael Behrendt, Daniel Salles Civitarese, Hendrik Hamann

Abstract: Storing and streaming high dimensional data for foundation model training became a critical requirement with the rise of foundation models beyond natural language. In this paper we introduce TensorBank, a petabyte scale tensor lakehouse capable of streaming tensors from Cloud Object Store (COS) to GPU memory at wire speed based on complex relational queries. We use Hierarchical Statistical Indices (HSI) for query acceleration. Our architecture allows to directly address tensors on block level using HTTP range reads. Once in GPU memory, data can be transformed using PyTorch transforms. We provide a generic PyTorch dataset type with a corresponding dataset factory translating relational queries and requested transformations as an instance. By making use of the HSI, irrelevant blocks can be skipped without reading them as those indices contain statistics on their content at different hierarchical resolution levels. This is an opinionated architecture powered by open standards and making heavy use of open-source technology. Although, hardened for production use using geospatial-temporal data, this architecture generalizes to other use case like computer vision, computational neuroscience, biological sequence analysis and more.

20.Exploiting Spatial-temporal Data for Sleep Stage Classification via Hypergraph Learning

Authors:Yuze Liu, Ziming Zhao, Tiehua Zhang, Kang Wang, Xin Chen, Xiaowei Huang, Jun Yin, Zhishu Shen

Abstract: Sleep stage classification is crucial for detecting patients' health conditions. Existing models, which mainly use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for modelling Euclidean data and Graph Convolution Networks (GNN) for modelling non-Euclidean data, are unable to consider the heterogeneity and interactivity of multimodal data as well as the spatial-temporal correlation simultaneously, which hinders a further improvement of classification performance. In this paper, we propose a dynamic learning framework STHL, which introduces hypergraph to encode spatial-temporal data for sleep stage classification. Hypergraphs can construct multi-modal/multi-type data instead of using simple pairwise between two subjects. STHL creates spatial and temporal hyperedges separately to build node correlations, then it conducts type-specific hypergraph learning process to encode the attributes into the embedding space. Extensive experiments show that our proposed STHL outperforms the state-of-the-art models in sleep stage classification tasks.

21.A Simple Asymmetric Momentum Make SGD Greatest Again

Authors:Gongyue Zhang, Dinghuang Zhang, Shuwen Zhao, Donghan Liu, Carrie M. Toptan, Honghai Liu

Abstract: We propose the simplest SGD enhanced method ever, Loss-Controlled Asymmetric Momentum(LCAM), aimed directly at the Saddle Point problem. Compared to the traditional SGD with Momentum, there's no increase in computational demand, yet it outperforms all current optimizers. We use the concepts of weight conjugation and traction effect to explain this phenomenon. We designed experiments to rapidly reduce the learning rate at specified epochs to trap parameters more easily at saddle points. We selected WRN28-10 as the test network and chose cifar10 and cifar100 as test datasets, an identical group to the original paper of WRN and Cosine Annealing Scheduling(CAS). We compared the ability to bypass saddle points of Asymmetric Momentum with different priorities. Finally, using WRN28-10 on Cifar100, we achieved a peak average test accuracy of 80.78\% around 120 epoch. For comparison, the original WRN paper reported 80.75\%, while CAS was at 80.42\%, all at 200 epoch. This means that while potentially increasing accuracy, we use nearly half convergence time. Our demonstration code is available at\\

22.Generalized Simplicial Attention Neural Networks

Authors:Claudio Battiloro, Lucia Testa, Lorenzo Giusti, Stefania Sardellitti, Paolo Di Lorenzo, Sergio Barbarossa

Abstract: The aim of this work is to introduce Generalized Simplicial Attention Neural Networks (GSANs), i.e., novel neural architectures designed to process data defined on simplicial complexes using masked self-attentional layers. Hinging on topological signal processing principles, we devise a series of self-attention schemes capable of processing data components defined at different simplicial orders, such as nodes, edges, triangles, and beyond. These schemes learn how to weight the neighborhoods of the given topological domain in a task-oriented fashion, leveraging the interplay among simplices of different orders through the Dirac operator and its Dirac decomposition. We also theoretically establish that GSANs are permutation equivariant and simplicial-aware. Finally, we illustrate how our approach compares favorably with other methods when applied to several (inductive and transductive) tasks such as trajectory prediction, missing data imputation, graph classification, and simplex prediction.

23.Model-based Offline Policy Optimization with Adversarial Network

Authors:Junming Yang, Xingguo Chen, Shengyuan Wang, Bolei Zhang

Abstract: Model-based offline reinforcement learning (RL), which builds a supervised transition model with logging dataset to avoid costly interactions with the online environment, has been a promising approach for offline policy optimization. As the discrepancy between the logging data and online environment may result in a distributional shift problem, many prior works have studied how to build robust transition models conservatively and estimate the model uncertainty accurately. However, the over-conservatism can limit the exploration of the agent, and the uncertainty estimates may be unreliable. In this work, we propose a novel Model-based Offline policy optimization framework with Adversarial Network (MOAN). The key idea is to use adversarial learning to build a transition model with better generalization, where an adversary is introduced to distinguish between in-distribution and out-of-distribution samples. Moreover, the adversary can naturally provide a quantification of the model's uncertainty with theoretical guarantees. Extensive experiments showed that our approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art baselines on widely studied offline RL benchmarks. It can also generate diverse in-distribution samples, and quantify the uncertainty more accurately.

24.Bias Propagation in Federated Learning

Authors:Hongyan Chang, Reza Shokri

Abstract: We show that participating in federated learning can be detrimental to group fairness. In fact, the bias of a few parties against under-represented groups (identified by sensitive attributes such as gender or race) can propagate through the network to all the parties in the network. We analyze and explain bias propagation in federated learning on naturally partitioned real-world datasets. Our analysis reveals that biased parties unintentionally yet stealthily encode their bias in a small number of model parameters, and throughout the training, they steadily increase the dependence of the global model on sensitive attributes. What is important to highlight is that the experienced bias in federated learning is higher than what parties would otherwise encounter in centralized training with a model trained on the union of all their data. This indicates that the bias is due to the algorithm. Our work calls for auditing group fairness in federated learning and designing learning algorithms that are robust to bias propagation.

25.Language Models for Novelty Detection in System Call Traces

Authors:Quentin Fournier, Daniel Aloise, Leandro R. Costa

Abstract: Due to the complexity of modern computer systems, novel and unexpected behaviors frequently occur. Such deviations are either normal occurrences, such as software updates and new user activities, or abnormalities, such as misconfigurations, latency issues, intrusions, and software bugs. Regardless, novel behaviors are of great interest to developers, and there is a genuine need for efficient and effective methods to detect them. Nowadays, researchers consider system calls to be the most fine-grained and accurate source of information to investigate the behavior of computer systems. Accordingly, this paper introduces a novelty detection methodology that relies on a probability distribution over sequences of system calls, which can be seen as a language model. Language models estimate the likelihood of sequences, and since novelties deviate from previously observed behaviors by definition, they would be unlikely under the model. Following the success of neural networks for language models, three architectures are evaluated in this work: the widespread LSTM, the state-of-the-art Transformer, and the lower-complexity Longformer. However, large neural networks typically require an enormous amount of data to be trained effectively, and to the best of our knowledge, no massive modern datasets of kernel traces are publicly available. This paper addresses this limitation by introducing a new open-source dataset of kernel traces comprising over 2 million web requests with seven distinct behaviors. The proposed methodology requires minimal expert hand-crafting and achieves an F-score and AuROC greater than 95% on most novelties while being data- and task-agnostic. The source code and trained models are publicly available on GitHub while the datasets are available on Zenodo.

26.Improving equilibrium propagation without weight symmetry through Jacobian homeostasis

Authors:Axel Laborieux, Friedemann Zenke

Abstract: Equilibrium propagation (EP) is a compelling alternative to the backpropagation of error algorithm (BP) for computing gradients of neural networks on biological or analog neuromorphic substrates. Still, the algorithm requires weight symmetry and infinitesimal equilibrium perturbations, i.e., nudges, to estimate unbiased gradients efficiently. Both requirements are challenging to implement in physical systems. Yet, whether and how weight asymmetry affects its applicability is unknown because, in practice, it may be masked by biases introduced through the finite nudge. To address this question, we study generalized EP, which can be formulated without weight symmetry, and analytically isolate the two sources of bias. For complex-differentiable non-symmetric networks, we show that the finite nudge does not pose a problem, as exact derivatives can still be estimated via a Cauchy integral. In contrast, weight asymmetry introduces bias resulting in low task performance due to poor alignment of EP's neuronal error vectors compared to BP. To mitigate this issue, we present a new homeostatic objective that directly penalizes functional asymmetries of the Jacobian at the network's fixed point. This homeostatic objective dramatically improves the network's ability to solve complex tasks such as ImageNet 32x32. Our results lay the theoretical groundwork for studying and mitigating the adverse effects of imperfections of physical networks on learning algorithms that rely on the substrate's relaxation dynamics.

27.Distributionally Robust Model-based Reinforcement Learning with Large State Spaces

Authors:Shyam Sundhar Ramesh, Pier Giuseppe Sessa, Yifan Hu, Andreas Krause, Ilija Bogunovic

Abstract: Three major challenges in reinforcement learning are the complex dynamical systems with large state spaces, the costly data acquisition processes, and the deviation of real-world dynamics from the training environment deployment. To overcome these issues, we study distributionally robust Markov decision processes with continuous state spaces under the widely used Kullback-Leibler, chi-square, and total variation uncertainty sets. We propose a model-based approach that utilizes Gaussian Processes and the maximum variance reduction algorithm to efficiently learn multi-output nominal transition dynamics, leveraging access to a generative model (i.e., simulator). We further demonstrate the statistical sample complexity of the proposed method for different uncertainty sets. These complexity bounds are independent of the number of states and extend beyond linear dynamics, ensuring the effectiveness of our approach in identifying near-optimal distributionally-robust policies. The proposed method can be further combined with other model-free distributionally robust reinforcement learning methods to obtain a near-optimal robust policy. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm to distributional shifts and its superior performance in terms of the number of samples needed.

28.Sample Size in Natural Language Processing within Healthcare Research

Authors:Jaya Chaturvedi, Diana Shamsutdinova, Felix Zimmer, Sumithra Velupillai, Daniel Stahl, Robert Stewart, Angus Roberts

Abstract: Sample size calculation is an essential step in most data-based disciplines. Large enough samples ensure representativeness of the population and determine the precision of estimates. This is true for most quantitative studies, including those that employ machine learning methods, such as natural language processing, where free-text is used to generate predictions and classify instances of text. Within the healthcare domain, the lack of sufficient corpora of previously collected data can be a limiting factor when determining sample sizes for new studies. This paper tries to address the issue by making recommendations on sample sizes for text classification tasks in the healthcare domain. Models trained on the MIMIC-III database of critical care records from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center were used to classify documents as having or not having Unspecified Essential Hypertension, the most common diagnosis code in the database. Simulations were performed using various classifiers on different sample sizes and class proportions. This was repeated for a comparatively less common diagnosis code within the database of diabetes mellitus without mention of complication. Smaller sample sizes resulted in better results when using a K-nearest neighbours classifier, whereas larger sample sizes provided better results with support vector machines and BERT models. Overall, a sample size larger than 1000 was sufficient to provide decent performance metrics. The simulations conducted within this study provide guidelines that can be used as recommendations for selecting appropriate sample sizes and class proportions, and for predicting expected performance, when building classifiers for textual healthcare data. The methodology used here can be modified for sample size estimates calculations with other datasets.

29.Encoding Seasonal Climate Predictions for Demand Forecasting with Modular Neural Network

Authors:Smit Marvaniya, Jitendra Singh, Nicolas Galichet, Fred Ochieng Otieno, Geeth De Mel, Kommy Weldemariam

Abstract: Current time-series forecasting problems use short-term weather attributes as exogenous inputs. However, in specific time-series forecasting solutions (e.g., demand prediction in the supply chain), seasonal climate predictions are crucial to improve its resilience. Representing mid to long-term seasonal climate forecasts is challenging as seasonal climate predictions are uncertain, and encoding spatio-temporal relationship of climate forecasts with demand is complex. We propose a novel modeling framework that efficiently encodes seasonal climate predictions to provide robust and reliable time-series forecasting for supply chain functions. The encoding framework enables effective learning of latent representations -- be it uncertain seasonal climate prediction or other time-series data (e.g., buyer patterns) -- via a modular neural network architecture. Our extensive experiments indicate that learning such representations to model seasonal climate forecast results in an error reduction of approximately 13\% to 17\% across multiple real-world data sets compared to existing demand forecasting methods.

30.RoBoSS: A Robust, Bounded, Sparse, and Smooth Loss Function for Supervised Learning

Authors:Mushir Akhtar, M. Tanveer, Mohd. Arshad

Abstract: In the domain of machine learning algorithms, the significance of the loss function is paramount, especially in supervised learning tasks. It serves as a fundamental pillar that profoundly influences the behavior and efficacy of supervised learning algorithms. Traditional loss functions, while widely used, often struggle to handle noisy and high-dimensional data, impede model interpretability, and lead to slow convergence during training. In this paper, we address the aforementioned constraints by proposing a novel robust, bounded, sparse, and smooth (RoBoSS) loss function for supervised learning. Further, we incorporate the RoBoSS loss function within the framework of support vector machine (SVM) and introduce a new robust algorithm named $\mathcal{L}_{rbss}$-SVM. For the theoretical analysis, the classification-calibrated property and generalization ability are also presented. These investigations are crucial for gaining deeper insights into the performance of the RoBoSS loss function in the classification tasks and its potential to generalize well to unseen data. To empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed $\mathcal{L}_{rbss}$-SVM, we evaluate it on $88$ real-world UCI and KEEL datasets from diverse domains. Additionally, to exemplify the effectiveness of the proposed $\mathcal{L}_{rbss}$-SVM within the biomedical realm, we evaluated it on two medical datasets: the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal dataset and the breast cancer (BreaKHis) dataset. The numerical results substantiate the superiority of the proposed $\mathcal{L}_{rbss}$-SVM model, both in terms of its remarkable generalization performance and its efficiency in training time.

31.MA-VAE: Multi-head Attention-based Variational Autoencoder Approach for Anomaly Detection in Multivariate Time-series Applied to Automotive Endurance Powertrain Testing

Authors:Lucas Correia, Jan-Christoph Goos, Philipp Klein, Thomas Bäck, Anna V. Kononova

Abstract: A clear need for automatic anomaly detection applied to automotive testing has emerged as more and more attention is paid to the data recorded and manual evaluation by humans reaches its capacity. Such real-world data is massive, diverse, multivariate and temporal in nature, therefore requiring modelling of the testee behaviour. We propose a variational autoencoder with multi-head attention (MA-VAE), which, when trained on unlabelled data, not only provides very few false positives but also manages to detect the majority of the anomalies presented. In addition to that, the approach offers a novel way to avoid the bypass phenomenon, an undesirable behaviour investigated in literature. Lastly, the approach also introduces a new method to remap individual windows to a continuous time series. The results are presented in the context of a real-world industrial data set and several experiments are undertaken to further investigate certain aspects of the proposed model. When configured properly, it is 9% of the time wrong when an anomaly is flagged and discovers 67% of the anomalies present. Also, MA-VAE has the potential to perform well with only a fraction of the training and validation subset, however, to extract it, a more sophisticated threshold estimation method is required.

32.Graph-Based Automatic Feature Selection for Multi-Class Classification via Mean Simplified Silhouette

Authors:David Levin, Gonen Singer

Abstract: This paper introduces a novel graph-based filter method for automatic feature selection (abbreviated as GB-AFS) for multi-class classification tasks. The method determines the minimum combination of features required to sustain prediction performance while maintaining complementary discriminating abilities between different classes. It does not require any user-defined parameters such as the number of features to select. The methodology employs the Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance in conjunction with t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) to generate a low-dimensional space reflecting how effectively each feature can differentiate between each pair of classes. The minimum number of features is selected using our newly developed Mean Simplified Silhouette (abbreviated as MSS) index, designed to evaluate the clustering results for the feature selection task. Experimental results on public data sets demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed GB-AFS over other filter-based techniques and automatic feature selection approaches. Moreover, the proposed algorithm maintained the accuracy achieved when utilizing all features, while using only $7\%$ to $30\%$ of the features. Consequently, this resulted in a reduction of the time needed for classifications, from $15\%$ to $70\%$.

33.s-ID: Causal Effect Identification in a Sub-Population

Authors:Amir Mohammad Abouei, Ehsan Mokhtarian, Negar Kiyavash

Abstract: Causal inference in a sub-population involves identifying the causal effect of an intervention on a specific subgroup within a larger population. However, ignoring the subtleties introduced by sub-populations can either lead to erroneous inference or limit the applicability of existing methods. We introduce and advocate for a causal inference problem in sub-populations (henceforth called s-ID), in which we merely have access to observational data of the targeted sub-population (as opposed to the entire population). Existing inference problems in sub-populations operate on the premise that the given data distributions originate from the entire population, thus, cannot tackle the s-ID problem. To address this gap, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions that must hold in the causal graph for a causal effect in a sub-population to be identifiable from the observational distribution of that sub-population. Given these conditions, we present a sound and complete algorithm for the s-ID problem.

34.Graph Self-Contrast Representation Learning

Authors:Minjie Chen, Yao Cheng, Ye Wang, Xiang Li, Ming Gao

Abstract: Graph contrastive learning (GCL) has recently emerged as a promising approach for graph representation learning. Some existing methods adopt the 1-vs-K scheme to construct one positive and K negative samples for each graph, but it is difficult to set K. For those methods that do not use negative samples, it is often necessary to add additional strategies to avoid model collapse, which could only alleviate the problem to some extent. All these drawbacks will undoubtedly have an adverse impact on the generalizability and efficiency of the model. In this paper, to address these issues, we propose a novel graph self-contrast framework GraphSC, which only uses one positive and one negative sample, and chooses triplet loss as the objective. Specifically, self-contrast has two implications. First, GraphSC generates both positive and negative views of a graph sample from the graph itself via graph augmentation functions of various intensities, and use them for self-contrast. Second, GraphSC uses Hilbert-Schmidt Independence Criterion (HSIC) to factorize the representations into multiple factors and proposes a masked self-contrast mechanism to better separate positive and negative samples. Further, Since the triplet loss only optimizes the relative distance between the anchor and its positive/negative samples, it is difficult to ensure the absolute distance between the anchor and positive sample. Therefore, we explicitly reduced the absolute distance between the anchor and positive sample to accelerate convergence. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the performance of GraphSC against 19 other state-of-the-art methods in both unsupervised and transfer learning settings.

35.PolyLUT: Learning Piecewise Polynomials for Ultra-Low Latency FPGA LUT-based Inference

Authors:Marta Andronic, George A. Constantinides

Abstract: Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are widely used to implement deep learning inference. Standard deep neural network inference involves the computation of interleaved linear maps and nonlinear activation functions. Prior work for ultra-low latency implementations has hardcoded the combination of linear maps and nonlinear activations inside FPGA lookup tables (LUTs). Our work is motivated by the idea that the LUTs in an FPGA can be used to implement a much greater variety of functions than this. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to training neural networks for FPGA deployment using multivariate polynomials as the basic building block. Our method takes advantage of the flexibility offered by the soft logic, hiding the polynomial evaluation inside the LUTs with zero overhead. We show that by using polynomial building blocks, we can achieve the same accuracy using considerably fewer layers of soft logic than by using linear functions, leading to significant latency and area improvements. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in three tasks: network intrusion detection, jet identification at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, and handwritten digit recognition using the MNIST dataset.

36.Exact Inference for Continuous-Time Gaussian Process Dynamics

Authors:Katharina Ensinger, Nicholas Tagliapietra, Sebastian Ziesche, Sebastian Trimpe

Abstract: Physical systems can often be described via a continuous-time dynamical system. In practice, the true system is often unknown and has to be learned from measurement data. Since data is typically collected in discrete time, e.g. by sensors, most methods in Gaussian process (GP) dynamics model learning are trained on one-step ahead predictions. This can become problematic in several scenarios, e.g. if measurements are provided at irregularly-sampled time steps or physical system properties have to be conserved. Thus, we aim for a GP model of the true continuous-time dynamics. Higher-order numerical integrators provide the necessary tools to address this problem by discretizing the dynamics function with arbitrary accuracy. Many higher-order integrators require dynamics evaluations at intermediate time steps making exact GP inference intractable. In previous work, this problem is often tackled by approximating the GP posterior with variational inference. However, exact GP inference is preferable in many scenarios, e.g. due to its mathematical guarantees. In order to make direct inference tractable, we propose to leverage multistep and Taylor integrators. We demonstrate how to derive flexible inference schemes for these types of integrators. Further, we derive tailored sampling schemes that allow to draw consistent dynamics functions from the learned posterior. This is crucial to sample consistent predictions from the dynamics model. We demonstrate empirically and theoretically that our approach yields an accurate representation of the continuous-time system.

37.Explaining grokking through circuit efficiency

Authors:Vikrant Varma, Rohin Shah, Zachary Kenton, János Kramár, Ramana Kumar

Abstract: One of the most surprising puzzles in neural network generalisation is grokking: a network with perfect training accuracy but poor generalisation will, upon further training, transition to perfect generalisation. We propose that grokking occurs when the task admits a generalising solution and a memorising solution, where the generalising solution is slower to learn but more efficient, producing larger logits with the same parameter norm. We hypothesise that memorising circuits become more inefficient with larger training datasets while generalising circuits do not, suggesting there is a critical dataset size at which memorisation and generalisation are equally efficient. We make and confirm four novel predictions about grokking, providing significant evidence in favour of our explanation. Most strikingly, we demonstrate two novel and surprising behaviours: ungrokking, in which a network regresses from perfect to low test accuracy, and semi-grokking, in which a network shows delayed generalisation to partial rather than perfect test accuracy.

38.Delta-LoRA: Fine-Tuning High-Rank Parameters with the Delta of Low-Rank Matrices

Authors:Bojia Zi, Xianbiao Qi, Lingzhi Wang, Jianan Wang, Kam-Fai Wong, Lei Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we present Delta-LoRA, which is a novel parameter-efficient approach to fine-tune large language models (LLMs). In contrast to LoRA and other low-rank adaptation methods such as AdaLoRA, Delta-LoRA not only updates the low-rank matrices $\bA$ and $\bB$, but also propagate the learning to the pre-trained weights $\bW$ via updates utilizing the delta of the product of two low-rank matrices ($\bA^{(t+1)}\bB^{(t+1)} - \bA^{(t)}\bB^{(t)}$). Such a strategy effectively addresses the limitation that the incremental update of low-rank matrices is inadequate for learning representations capable for downstream tasks. Moreover, as the update of $\bW$ does not need to compute the gradients of $\bW$ and store their momentums, Delta-LoRA shares comparable memory requirements and computational costs with LoRA. Extensive experiments show that Delta-LoRA significantly outperforms existing low-rank adaptation methods. We further support these results with comprehensive analyses that underscore the effectiveness of Delta-LoRA.

39.On the Minimax Regret in Online Ranking with Top-k Feedback

Authors:Mingyuan Zhang, Ambuj Tewari

Abstract: In online ranking, a learning algorithm sequentially ranks a set of items and receives feedback on its ranking in the form of relevance scores. Since obtaining relevance scores typically involves human annotation, it is of great interest to consider a partial feedback setting where feedback is restricted to the top-$k$ items in the rankings. Chaudhuri and Tewari [2017] developed a framework to analyze online ranking algorithms with top $k$ feedback. A key element in their work was the use of techniques from partial monitoring. In this paper, we further investigate online ranking with top $k$ feedback and solve some open problems posed by Chaudhuri and Tewari [2017]. We provide a full characterization of minimax regret rates with the top $k$ feedback model for all $k$ and for the following ranking performance measures: Pairwise Loss, Discounted Cumulative Gain, and Precision@n. In addition, we give an efficient algorithm that achieves the minimax regret rate for Precision@n.

40.Tensorization: Creating and Utilising Multidimensional Datasets for Multiway Analysis and Tensorised Deep Neural Networks -- Python Tutorial and Survey

Authors:Manal Helal

Abstract: As the size and complexity of data continue to increase, the need for efficient and effective analysis methods becomes ever more crucial. Tensorization, the process of converting 2-dimensional datasets into multidimensional structures, has emerged as a promising approach for multiway analysis methods. This paper explores the steps involved in tensorization, multidimensional data sources, various multiway analysis methods employed, and the benefits of these approaches. A small example of Blind Source Separation (BSS) is presented comparing 2-dimensional algorithms and a multiway algorithm in Python. Results indicate that multiway analysis is more expressive. Additionally, tensorization techniques aid in compressing deep learning models by reducing the number of required parameters while enhancing the expression of relationships across dimensions. A survey of the multi-away analysis methods and integration with various Deep Neural Networks models is presented using case studies in different domains.

41.Efficient RL via Disentangled Environment and Agent Representations

Authors:Kevin Gmelin, Shikhar Bahl, Russell Mendonca, Deepak Pathak

Abstract: Agents that are aware of the separation between themselves and their environments can leverage this understanding to form effective representations of visual input. We propose an approach for learning such structured representations for RL algorithms, using visual knowledge of the agent, such as its shape or mask, which is often inexpensive to obtain. This is incorporated into the RL objective using a simple auxiliary loss. We show that our method, Structured Environment-Agent Representations, outperforms state-of-the-art model-free approaches over 18 different challenging visual simulation environments spanning 5 different robots. Website at

1.Why do universal adversarial attacks work on large language models?: Geometry might be the answer

Authors:Varshini Subhash, Anna Bialas, Weiwei Pan, Finale Doshi-Velez

Abstract: Transformer based large language models with emergent capabilities are becoming increasingly ubiquitous in society. However, the task of understanding and interpreting their internal workings, in the context of adversarial attacks, remains largely unsolved. Gradient-based universal adversarial attacks have been shown to be highly effective on large language models and potentially dangerous due to their input-agnostic nature. This work presents a novel geometric perspective explaining universal adversarial attacks on large language models. By attacking the 117M parameter GPT-2 model, we find evidence indicating that universal adversarial triggers could be embedding vectors which merely approximate the semantic information in their adversarial training region. This hypothesis is supported by white-box model analysis comprising dimensionality reduction and similarity measurement of hidden representations. We believe this new geometric perspective on the underlying mechanism driving universal attacks could help us gain deeper insight into the internal workings and failure modes of LLMs, thus enabling their mitigation.

2.SortedNet, a Place for Every Network and Every Network in its Place: Towards a Generalized Solution for Training Many-in-One Neural Networks

Authors:Mojtaba Valipour, Mehdi Rezagholizadeh, Hossein Rajabzadeh, Marzieh Tahaei, Boxing Chen, Ali Ghodsi

Abstract: As the size of deep learning models continues to grow, finding optimal models under memory and computation constraints becomes increasingly more important. Although usually the architecture and constituent building blocks of neural networks allow them to be used in a modular way, their training process is not aware of this modularity. Consequently, conventional neural network training lacks the flexibility to adapt the computational load of the model during inference. This paper proposes SortedNet, a generalized and scalable solution to harness the inherent modularity of deep neural networks across various dimensions for efficient dynamic inference. Our training considers a nested architecture for the sub-models with shared parameters and trains them together with the main model in a sorted and probabilistic manner. This sorted training of sub-networks enables us to scale the number of sub-networks to hundreds using a single round of training. We utilize a novel updating scheme during training that combines random sampling of sub-networks with gradient accumulation to improve training efficiency. Furthermore, the sorted nature of our training leads to a search-free sub-network selection at inference time; and the nested architecture of the resulting sub-networks leads to minimal storage requirement and efficient switching between sub-networks at inference. Our general dynamic training approach is demonstrated across various architectures and tasks, including large language models and pre-trained vision models. Experimental results show the efficacy of the proposed approach in achieving efficient sub-networks while outperforming state-of-the-art dynamic training approaches. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of training up to 160 different sub-models simultaneously, showcasing the extensive scalability of our proposed method while maintaining 96% of the model performance.

3.Leveraging Learning Metrics for Improved Federated Learning

Authors:Andre Fu

Abstract: Currently in the federated setting, no learning schemes leverage the emerging research of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) in particular the novel learning metrics that help determine how well a model is learning. One of these novel learning metrics is termed `Effective Rank' (ER) which measures the Shannon Entropy of the singular values of a matrix, thus enabling a metric determining how well a layer is mapping. By joining federated learning and the learning metric, effective rank, this work will \textbf{(1)} give the first federated learning metric aggregation method \textbf{(2)} show that effective rank is well-suited to federated problems by out-performing baseline Federated Averaging \cite{konevcny2016federated} and \textbf{(3)} develop a novel weight-aggregation scheme relying on effective rank.

4.Efficient Surrogate Models for Materials Science Simulations: Machine Learning-based Prediction of Microstructure Properties

Authors:Binh Duong Nguyen, Pavlo Potapenko, Aytekin Dermici, Kishan Govinda, Stefan Sandfeld

Abstract: Determining, understanding, and predicting the so-called structure-property relation is an important task in many scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, biology, meteorology, physics, engineering, and materials science. Structure refers to the spatial distribution of, e.g., substances, material, or matter in general, while property is a resulting characteristic that usually depends in a non-trivial way on spatial details of the structure. Traditionally, forward simulations models have been used for such tasks. Recently, several machine learning algorithms have been applied in these scientific fields to enhance and accelerate simulation models or as surrogate models. In this work, we develop and investigate the applications of six machine learning techniques based on two different datasets from the domain of materials science: data from a two-dimensional Ising model for predicting the formation of magnetic domains and data representing the evolution of dual-phase microstructures from the Cahn-Hilliard model. We analyze the accuracy and robustness of all models and elucidate the reasons for the differences in their performances. The impact of including domain knowledge through tailored features is studied, and general recommendations based on the availability and quality of training data are derived from this.

5.Multi-fidelity reduced-order surrogate modeling

Authors:Paolo Conti, Mengwu Guo, Andrea Manzoni, Attilio Frangi, Steven L. Brunton, J. Nathan Kutz

Abstract: High-fidelity numerical simulations of partial differential equations (PDEs) given a restricted computational budget can significantly limit the number of parameter configurations considered and/or time window evaluated for modeling a given system. Multi-fidelity surrogate modeling aims to leverage less accurate, lower-fidelity models that are computationally inexpensive in order to enhance predictive accuracy when high-fidelity data are limited or scarce. However, low-fidelity models, while often displaying important qualitative spatio-temporal features, fail to accurately capture the onset of instability and critical transients observed in the high-fidelity models, making them impractical as surrogate models. To address this shortcoming, we present a new data-driven strategy that combines dimensionality reduction with multi-fidelity neural network surrogates. The key idea is to generate a spatial basis by applying the classical proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to high-fidelity solution snapshots, and approximate the dynamics of the reduced states - time-parameter-dependent expansion coefficients of the POD basis - using a multi-fidelity long-short term memory (LSTM) network. By mapping low-fidelity reduced states to their high-fidelity counterpart, the proposed reduced-order surrogate model enables the efficient recovery of full solution fields over time and parameter variations in a non-intrusive manner. The generality and robustness of this method is demonstrated by a collection of parametrized, time-dependent PDE problems where the low-fidelity model can be defined by coarser meshes and/or time stepping, as well as by misspecified physical features. Importantly, the onset of instabilities and transients are well captured by this surrogate modeling technique.

6.Multitask Deep Learning for Accurate Risk Stratification and Prediction of Next Steps for Coronary CT Angiography Patients

Authors:Juan Lu, Mohammed Bennamoun, Jonathon Stewart, JasonK. Eshraghian, Yanbin Liu, Benjamin Chow, Frank M. Sanfilippo, Girish Dwivedi

Abstract: Diagnostic investigation has an important role in risk stratification and clinical decision making of patients with suspected and documented Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). However, the majority of existing tools are primarily focused on the selection of gatekeeper tests, whereas only a handful of systems contain information regarding the downstream testing or treatment. We propose a multi-task deep learning model to support risk stratification and down-stream test selection for patients undergoing Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA). The analysis included 14,021 patients who underwent CCTA between 2006 and 2017. Our novel multitask deep learning framework extends the state-of-the art Perceiver model to deal with real-world CCTA report data. Our model achieved an Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUC) of 0.76 in CAD risk stratification, and 0.72 AUC in predicting downstream tests. Our proposed deep learning model can accurately estimate the likelihood of CAD and provide recommended downstream tests based on prior CCTA data. In clinical practice, the utilization of such an approach could bring a paradigm shift in risk stratification and downstream management. Despite significant progress using deep learning models for tabular data, they do not outperform gradient boosting decision trees, and further research is required in this area. However, neural networks appear to benefit more readily from multi-task learning than tree-based models. This could offset the shortcomings of using single task learning approach when working with tabular data.

7.Explainable Active Learning for Preference Elicitation

Authors:Furkan Cantürk, Reyhan Aydoğan

Abstract: Gaining insights into the preferences of new users and subsequently personalizing recommendations necessitate managing user interactions intelligently, namely, posing pertinent questions to elicit valuable information effectively. In this study, our focus is on a specific scenario of the cold-start problem, where the recommendation system lacks adequate user presence or access to other users' data is restricted, obstructing employing user profiling methods utilizing existing data in the system. We employ Active Learning (AL) to solve the addressed problem with the objective of maximizing information acquisition with minimal user effort. AL operates for selecting informative data from a large unlabeled set to inquire an oracle to label them and eventually updating a machine learning (ML) model. We operate AL in an integrated process of unsupervised, semi-supervised, and supervised ML within an explanatory preference elicitation process. It harvests user feedback (given for the system's explanations on the presented items) over informative samples to update an underlying ML model estimating user preferences. The designed user interaction facilitates personalizing the system by incorporating user feedback into the ML model and also enhances user trust by refining the system's explanations on recommendations. We implement the proposed preference elicitation methodology for food recommendation. We conducted human experiments to assess its efficacy in the short term and also experimented with several AL strategies over synthetic user profiles that we created for two food datasets, aiming for long-term performance analysis. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed preference elicitation with limited user-labeled data while also enhancing user trust through accurate explanations.

8.FederatedScope-LLM: A Comprehensive Package for Fine-tuning Large Language Models in Federated Learning

Authors:Weirui Kuang, Bingchen Qian, Zitao Li, Daoyuan Chen, Dawei Gao, Xuchen Pan, Yuexiang Xie, Yaliang Li, Bolin Ding, Jingren Zhou

Abstract: LLMs have demonstrated great capabilities in various NLP tasks. Different entities can further improve the performance of those LLMs on their specific downstream tasks by fine-tuning LLMs. When several entities have similar interested tasks, but their data cannot be shared because of privacy concerns regulations, federated learning (FL) is a mainstream solution to leverage the data of different entities. However, fine-tuning LLMs in federated learning settings still lacks adequate support from existing FL frameworks because it has to deal with optimizing the consumption of significant communication and computational resources, data preparation for different tasks, and distinct information protection demands. This paper first discusses these challenges of federated fine-tuning LLMs, and introduces our package FS-LLM as a main contribution, which consists of the following components: (1) we build an end-to-end benchmarking pipeline, automizing the processes of dataset preprocessing, federated fine-tuning execution, and performance evaluation on federated LLM fine-tuning; (2) we provide comprehensive federated parameter-efficient fine-tuning algorithm implementations and versatile programming interfaces for future extension in FL scenarios with low communication and computation costs, even without accessing the full model; (3) we adopt several accelerating and resource-efficient operators for fine-tuning LLMs with limited resources and the flexible pluggable sub-routines for interdisciplinary study. We conduct extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness of FS-LLM and benchmark advanced LLMs with state-of-the-art parameter-efficient fine-tuning algorithms in FL settings, which also yields valuable insights into federated fine-tuning LLMs for the research community. To facilitate further research and adoption, we release FS-LLM at

9.Where Did the Gap Go? Reassessing the Long-Range Graph Benchmark

Authors:Jan Tönshoff, Martin Ritzert, Eran Rosenbluth, Martin Grohe

Abstract: The recent Long-Range Graph Benchmark (LRGB, Dwivedi et al. 2022) introduced a set of graph learning tasks strongly dependent on long-range interaction between vertices. Empirical evidence suggests that on these tasks Graph Transformers significantly outperform Message Passing GNNs (MPGNNs). In this paper, we carefully reevaluate multiple MPGNN baselines as well as the Graph Transformer GPS (Ramp\'a\v{s}ek et al. 2022) on LRGB. Through a rigorous empirical analysis, we demonstrate that the reported performance gap is overestimated due to suboptimal hyperparameter choices. It is noteworthy that across multiple datasets the performance gap completely vanishes after basic hyperparameter optimization. In addition, we discuss the impact of lacking feature normalization for LRGB's vision datasets and highlight a spurious implementation of LRGB's link prediction metric. The principal aim of our paper is to establish a higher standard of empirical rigor within the graph machine learning community.

10.Anomaly detection with semi-supervised classification based on risk estimators

Authors:Le Thi Khanh Hien, Sukanya Patra, Souhaib Ben Taieb

Abstract: A significant limitation of one-class classification anomaly detection methods is their reliance on the assumption that unlabeled training data only contains normal instances. To overcome this impractical assumption, we propose two novel classification-based anomaly detection methods. Firstly, we introduce a semi-supervised shallow anomaly detection method based on an unbiased risk estimator. Secondly, we present a semi-supervised deep anomaly detection method utilizing a nonnegative (biased) risk estimator. We establish estimation error bounds and excess risk bounds for both risk minimizers. Additionally, we propose techniques to select appropriate regularization parameters that ensure the nonnegativity of the empirical risk in the shallow model under specific loss functions. Our extensive experiments provide strong evidence of the effectiveness of the risk-based anomaly detection methods.

11.Advancing Personalized Federated Learning: Group Privacy, Fairness, and Beyond

Authors:Filippo Galli, Kangsoo Jung, Sayan Biswas, Catuscia Palamidessi, Tommaso Cucinotta

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) is a framework for training machine learning models in a distributed and collaborative manner. During training, a set of participating clients process their data stored locally, sharing only the model updates obtained by minimizing a cost function over their local inputs. FL was proposed as a stepping-stone towards privacy-preserving machine learning, but it has been shown vulnerable to issues such as leakage of private information, lack of personalization of the model, and the possibility of having a trained model that is fairer to some groups than to others. In this paper, we address the triadic interaction among personalization, privacy guarantees, and fairness attained by models trained within the FL framework. Differential privacy and its variants have been studied and applied as cutting-edge standards for providing formal privacy guarantees. However, clients in FL often hold very diverse datasets representing heterogeneous communities, making it important to protect their sensitive information while still ensuring that the trained model upholds the aspect of fairness for the users. To attain this objective, a method is put forth that introduces group privacy assurances through the utilization of $d$-privacy (aka metric privacy). $d$-privacy represents a localized form of differential privacy that relies on a metric-oriented obfuscation approach to maintain the original data's topological distribution. This method, besides enabling personalized model training in a federated approach and providing formal privacy guarantees, possesses significantly better group fairness measured under a variety of standard metrics than a global model trained within a classical FL template. Theoretical justifications for the applicability are provided, as well as experimental validation on real-world datasets to illustrate the working of the proposed method.

12.Area-norm COBRA on Conditional Survival Prediction

Authors:Rahul Goswami, Arabin Kr. Dey

Abstract: The paper explores a different variation of combined regression strategy to calculate the conditional survival function. We use regression based weak learners to create the proposed ensemble technique. The proposed combined regression strategy uses proximity measure as area between two survival curves. The proposed model shows a construction which ensures that it performs better than the Random Survival Forest. The paper discusses a novel technique to select the most important variable in the combined regression setup. We perform a simulation study to show that our proposition for finding relevance of the variables works quite well. We also use three real-life datasets to illustrate the model.

13.New metrics for analyzing continual learners

Authors:Nicolas Michel, Giovanni Chierchia, Romain Negrel, Jean-François Bercher, Toshihiko Yamasaki

Abstract: Deep neural networks have shown remarkable performance when trained on independent and identically distributed data from a fixed set of classes. However, in real-world scenarios, it can be desirable to train models on a continuous stream of data where multiple classification tasks are presented sequentially. This scenario, known as Continual Learning (CL) poses challenges to standard learning algorithms which struggle to maintain knowledge of old tasks while learning new ones. This stability-plasticity dilemma remains central to CL and multiple metrics have been proposed to adequately measure stability and plasticity separately. However, none considers the increasing difficulty of the classification task, which inherently results in performance loss for any model. In that sense, we analyze some limitations of current metrics and identify the presence of setup-induced forgetting. Therefore, we propose new metrics that account for the task's increasing difficulty. Through experiments on benchmark datasets, we demonstrate that our proposed metrics can provide new insights into the stability-plasticity trade-off achieved by models in the continual learning environment.

14.Geometry-aware Line Graph Transformer Pre-training for Molecular Property Prediction

Authors:Peizhen Bai, Xianyuan Liu, Haiping Lu

Abstract: Molecular property prediction with deep learning has gained much attention over the past years. Owing to the scarcity of labeled molecules, there has been growing interest in self-supervised learning methods that learn generalizable molecular representations from unlabeled data. Molecules are typically treated as 2D topological graphs in modeling, but it has been discovered that their 3D geometry is of great importance in determining molecular functionalities. In this paper, we propose the Geometry-aware line graph transformer (Galformer) pre-training, a novel self-supervised learning framework that aims to enhance molecular representation learning with 2D and 3D modalities. Specifically, we first design a dual-modality line graph transformer backbone to encode the topological and geometric information of a molecule. The designed backbone incorporates effective structural encodings to capture graph structures from both modalities. Then we devise two complementary pre-training tasks at the inter and intra-modality levels. These tasks provide properly supervised information and extract discriminative 2D and 3D knowledge from unlabeled molecules. Finally, we evaluate Galformer against six state-of-the-art baselines on twelve property prediction benchmarks via downstream fine-tuning. Experimental results show that Galformer consistently outperforms all baselines on both classification and regression tasks, demonstrating its effectiveness.

15.Application of Deep Learning Methods in Monitoring and Optimization of Electric Power Systems

Authors:Ognjen Kundacina

Abstract: This PhD thesis thoroughly examines the utilization of deep learning techniques as a means to advance the algorithms employed in the monitoring and optimization of electric power systems. The first major contribution of this thesis involves the application of graph neural networks to enhance power system state estimation. The second key aspect of this thesis focuses on utilizing reinforcement learning for dynamic distribution network reconfiguration. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is affirmed through extensive experimentation and simulations.

16.Structure and Gradient Dynamics Near Global Minima of Two-layer Neural Networks

Authors:Leyang Zhang, Yaoyu Zhang, Tao Luo

Abstract: Under mild assumptions, we investigate the structure of loss landscape of two-layer neural networks near global minima, determine the set of parameters which give perfect generalization, and fully characterize the gradient flows around it. With novel techniques, our work uncovers some simple aspects of the complicated loss landscape and reveals how model, target function, samples and initialization affect the training dynamics differently. Based on these results, we also explain why (overparametrized) neural networks could generalize well.

17.Curating Naturally Adversarial Datasets for Trustworthy AI in Healthcare

Authors:Sydney Pugh, Ivan Ruchkin, Insup Lee, James Weimer

Abstract: Deep learning models have shown promising predictive accuracy for time-series healthcare applications. However, ensuring the robustness of these models is vital for building trustworthy AI systems. Existing research predominantly focuses on robustness to synthetic adversarial examples, crafted by adding imperceptible perturbations to clean input data. However, these synthetic adversarial examples do not accurately reflect the most challenging real-world scenarios, especially in the context of healthcare data. Consequently, robustness to synthetic adversarial examples may not necessarily translate to robustness against naturally occurring adversarial examples, which is highly desirable for trustworthy AI. We propose a method to curate datasets comprised of natural adversarial examples to evaluate model robustness. The method relies on probabilistic labels obtained from automated weakly-supervised labeling that combines noisy and cheap-to-obtain labeling heuristics. Based on these labels, our method adversarially orders the input data and uses this ordering to construct a sequence of increasingly adversarial datasets. Our evaluation on six medical case studies and three non-medical case studies demonstrates the efficacy and statistical validity of our approach to generating naturally adversarial datasets

18.Consistency of Lloyd's Algorithm Under Perturbations

Authors:Dhruv Patel, Hui Shen, Shankar Bhamidi, Yufeng Liu, Vladas Pipiras

Abstract: In the context of unsupervised learning, Lloyd's algorithm is one of the most widely used clustering algorithms. It has inspired a plethora of work investigating the correctness of the algorithm under various settings with ground truth clusters. In particular, in 2016, Lu and Zhou have shown that the mis-clustering rate of Lloyd's algorithm on $n$ independent samples from a sub-Gaussian mixture is exponentially bounded after $O(\log(n))$ iterations, assuming proper initialization of the algorithm. However, in many applications, the true samples are unobserved and need to be learned from the data via pre-processing pipelines such as spectral methods on appropriate data matrices. We show that the mis-clustering rate of Lloyd's algorithm on perturbed samples from a sub-Gaussian mixture is also exponentially bounded after $O(\log(n))$ iterations under the assumptions of proper initialization and that the perturbation is small relative to the sub-Gaussian noise. In canonical settings with ground truth clusters, we derive bounds for algorithms such as $k$-means$++$ to find good initializations and thus leading to the correctness of clustering via the main result. We show the implications of the results for pipelines measuring the statistical significance of derived clusters from data such as SigClust. We use these general results to derive implications in providing theoretical guarantees on the misclustering rate for Lloyd's algorithm in a host of applications, including high-dimensional time series, multi-dimensional scaling, and community detection for sparse networks via spectral clustering.

19.Geometry-Informed Neural Operator for Large-Scale 3D PDEs

Authors:Zongyi Li, Nikola Borislavov Kovachki, Chris Choy, Boyi Li, Jean Kossaifi, Shourya Prakash Otta, Mohammad Amin Nabian, Maximilian Stadler, Christian Hundt, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Anima Anandkumar

Abstract: We propose the geometry-informed neural operator (GINO), a highly efficient approach to learning the solution operator of large-scale partial differential equations with varying geometries. GINO uses a signed distance function and point-cloud representations of the input shape and neural operators based on graph and Fourier architectures to learn the solution operator. The graph neural operator handles irregular grids and transforms them into and from regular latent grids on which Fourier neural operator can be efficiently applied. GINO is discretization-convergent, meaning the trained model can be applied to arbitrary discretization of the continuous domain and it converges to the continuum operator as the discretization is refined. To empirically validate the performance of our method on large-scale simulation, we generate the industry-standard aerodynamics dataset of 3D vehicle geometries with Reynolds numbers as high as five million. For this large-scale 3D fluid simulation, numerical methods are expensive to compute surface pressure. We successfully trained GINO to predict the pressure on car surfaces using only five hundred data points. The cost-accuracy experiments show a $26,000 \times$ speed-up compared to optimized GPU-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulators on computing the drag coefficient. When tested on new combinations of geometries and boundary conditions (inlet velocities), GINO obtains a one-fourth reduction in error rate compared to deep neural network approaches.

20.PolyGET: Accelerating Polymer Simulations by Accurate and Generalizable Forcefield with Equivariant Transformer

Authors:Rui Feng, Huan Tran, Aubrey Toland, Binghong Chen, Qi Zhu, Rampi Ramprasad, Chao Zhang

Abstract: Polymer simulation with both accuracy and efficiency is a challenging task. Machine learning (ML) forcefields have been developed to achieve both the accuracy of ab initio methods and the efficiency of empirical force fields. However, existing ML force fields are usually limited to single-molecule settings, and their simulations are not robust enough. In this paper, we present PolyGET, a new framework for Polymer Forcefields with Generalizable Equivariant Transformers. PolyGET is designed to capture complex quantum interactions between atoms and generalize across various polymer families, using a deep learning model called Equivariant Transformers. We propose a new training paradigm that focuses exclusively on optimizing forces, which is different from existing methods that jointly optimize forces and energy. This simple force-centric objective function avoids competing objectives between energy and forces, thereby allowing for learning a unified forcefield ML model over different polymer families. We evaluated PolyGET on a large-scale dataset of 24 distinct polymer types and demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in force accuracy and robust MD simulations. Furthermore, PolyGET can simulate large polymers with high fidelity to the reference ab initio DFT method while being able to generalize to unseen polymers.

21.Fast and Regret Optimal Best Arm Identification: Fundamental Limits and Low-Complexity Algorithms

Authors:Qining Zhang, Lei Ying

Abstract: This paper considers a stochastic multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem with dual objectives: (i) quick identification and commitment to the optimal arm, and (ii) reward maximization throughout a sequence of $T$ consecutive rounds. Though each objective has been individually well-studied, i.e., best arm identification for (i) and regret minimization for (ii), the simultaneous realization of both objectives remains an open problem, despite its practical importance. This paper introduces \emph{Regret Optimal Best Arm Identification} (ROBAI) which aims to achieve these dual objectives. To solve ROBAI with both pre-determined stopping time and adaptive stopping time requirements, we present the $\mathsf{EOCP}$ algorithm and its variants respectively, which not only achieve asymptotic optimal regret in both Gaussian and general bandits, but also commit to the optimal arm in $\mathcal{O}(\log T)$ rounds with pre-determined stopping time and $\mathcal{O}(\log^2 T)$ rounds with adaptive stopping time. We further characterize lower bounds on the commitment time (equivalent to sample complexity) of ROBAI, showing that $\mathsf{EOCP}$ and its variants are sample optimal with pre-determined stopping time, and almost sample optimal with adaptive stopping time. Numerical results confirm our theoretical analysis and reveal an interesting ``over-exploration'' phenomenon carried by classic $\mathsf{UCB}$ algorithms, such that $\mathsf{EOCP}$ has smaller regret even though it stops exploration much earlier than $\mathsf{UCB}$ ($\mathcal{O}(\log T)$ versus $\mathcal{O}(T)$), which suggests over-exploration is unnecessary and potentially harmful to system performance.

22.Baseline Defenses for Adversarial Attacks Against Aligned Language Models

Authors:Neel Jain, Avi Schwarzschild, Yuxin Wen, Gowthami Somepalli, John Kirchenbauer, Ping-yeh Chiang, Micah Goldblum, Aniruddha Saha, Jonas Geiping, Tom Goldstein

Abstract: As Large Language Models quickly become ubiquitous, their security vulnerabilities are critical to understand. Recent work shows that text optimizers can produce jailbreaking prompts that bypass moderation and alignment. Drawing from the rich body of work on adversarial machine learning, we approach these attacks with three questions: What threat models are practically useful in this domain? How do baseline defense techniques perform in this new domain? How does LLM security differ from computer vision? We evaluate several baseline defense strategies against leading adversarial attacks on LLMs, discussing the various settings in which each is feasible and effective. Particularly, we look at three types of defenses: detection (perplexity based), input preprocessing (paraphrase and retokenization), and adversarial training. We discuss white-box and gray-box settings and discuss the robustness-performance trade-off for each of the defenses considered. Surprisingly, we find much more success with filtering and preprocessing than we would expect from other domains, such as vision, providing a first indication that the relative strengths of these defenses may be weighed differently in these domains.

1.Domain-adaptive Message Passing Graph Neural Network

Authors:Xiao Shen, Shirui Pan, Kup-Sze Choi, Xi Zhou

Abstract: Cross-network node classification (CNNC), which aims to classify nodes in a label-deficient target network by transferring the knowledge from a source network with abundant labels, draws increasing attention recently. To address CNNC, we propose a domain-adaptive message passing graph neural network (DM-GNN), which integrates graph neural network (GNN) with conditional adversarial domain adaptation. DM-GNN is capable of learning informative representations for node classification that are also transferrable across networks. Firstly, a GNN encoder is constructed by dual feature extractors to separate ego-embedding learning from neighbor-embedding learning so as to jointly capture commonality and discrimination between connected nodes. Secondly, a label propagation node classifier is proposed to refine each node's label prediction by combining its own prediction and its neighbors' prediction. In addition, a label-aware propagation scheme is devised for the labeled source network to promote intra-class propagation while avoiding inter-class propagation, thus yielding label-discriminative source embeddings. Thirdly, conditional adversarial domain adaptation is performed to take the neighborhood-refined class-label information into account during adversarial domain adaptation, so that the class-conditional distributions across networks can be better matched. Comparisons with eleven state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed DM-GNN.

2.Curvature-based Pooling within Graph Neural Networks

Authors:Cedric Sanders, Andreas Roth, Thomas Liebig

Abstract: Over-squashing and over-smoothing are two critical issues, that limit the capabilities of graph neural networks (GNNs). While over-smoothing eliminates the differences between nodes making them indistinguishable, over-squashing refers to the inability of GNNs to propagate information over long distances, as exponentially many node states are squashed into fixed-size representations. Both phenomena share similar causes, as both are largely induced by the graph topology. To mitigate these problems in graph classification tasks, we propose CurvPool, a novel pooling method. CurvPool exploits the notion of curvature of a graph to adaptively identify structures responsible for both over-smoothing and over-squashing. By clustering nodes based on the Balanced Forman curvature, CurvPool constructs a graph with a more suitable structure, allowing deeper models and the combination of distant information. We compare it to other state-of-the-art pooling approaches and establish its competitiveness in terms of classification accuracy, computational complexity, and flexibility. CurvPool outperforms several comparable methods across all considered tasks. The most consistent results are achieved by pooling densely connected clusters using the sum aggregation, as this allows additional information about the size of each pool.

3.Conditioning Score-Based Generative Models by Neuro-Symbolic Constraints

Authors:Davide Scassola, Sebastiano Saccani, Ginevra Carbone, Luca Bortolussi

Abstract: Score-based and diffusion models have emerged as effective approaches for both conditional and unconditional generation. Still conditional generation is based on either a specific training of a conditional model or classifier guidance, which requires training a noise-dependent classifier, even when the classifier for uncorrupted data is given. We propose an approach to sample from unconditional score-based generative models enforcing arbitrary logical constraints, without any additional training. Firstly, we show how to manipulate the learned score in order to sample from an un-normalized distribution conditional on a user-defined constraint. Then, we define a flexible and numerically stable neuro-symbolic framework for encoding soft logical constraints. Combining these two ingredients we obtain a general, but approximate, conditional sampling algorithm. We further developed effective heuristics aimed at improving the approximation. Finally, we show the effectiveness of our approach for various types of constraints and data: tabular data, images and time series.

4.Scalable Incomplete Multi-View Clustering with Structure Alignment

Authors:Yi Wen, Siwei Wang, Ke Liang, Weixuan Liang, Xinhang Wan, Xinwang Liu, Suyuan Liu, Jiyuan Liu, En Zhu

Abstract: The success of existing multi-view clustering (MVC) relies on the assumption that all views are complete. However, samples are usually partially available due to data corruption or sensor malfunction, which raises the research of incomplete multi-view clustering (IMVC). Although several anchor-based IMVC methods have been proposed to process the large-scale incomplete data, they still suffer from the following drawbacks: i) Most existing approaches neglect the inter-view discrepancy and enforce cross-view representation to be consistent, which would corrupt the representation capability of the model; ii) Due to the samples disparity between different views, the learned anchor might be misaligned, which we referred as the Anchor-Unaligned Problem for Incomplete data (AUP-ID). Such the AUP-ID would cause inaccurate graph fusion and degrades clustering performance. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel incomplete anchor graph learning framework termed Scalable Incomplete Multi-View Clustering with Structure Alignment (SIMVC-SA). Specially, we construct the view-specific anchor graph to capture the complementary information from different views. In order to solve the AUP-ID, we propose a novel structure alignment module to refine the cross-view anchor correspondence. Meanwhile, the anchor graph construction and alignment are jointly optimized in our unified framework to enhance clustering quality. Through anchor graph construction instead of full graphs, the time and space complexity of the proposed SIMVC-SA is proven to be linearly correlated with the number of samples. Extensive experiments on seven incomplete benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. Our code is publicly available at

5.Forecasting Emergency Department Crowding with Advanced Machine Learning Models and Multivariable Input

Authors:Jalmari Tuominen, Eetu Pulkkinen, Jaakko Peltonen, Juho Kanniainen, Niku Oksala, Ari Palomäki, Antti Roine

Abstract: Emergency department (ED) crowding is a significant threat to patient safety and it has been repeatedly associated with increased mortality. Forecasting future service demand has the potential patient outcomes. Despite active research on the subject, several gaps remain: 1) proposed forecasting models have become outdated due to quick influx of advanced machine learning models (ML), 2) amount of multivariable input data has been limited and 3) discrete performance metrics have been rarely reported. In this study, we document the performance of a set of advanced ML models in forecasting ED occupancy 24 hours ahead. We use electronic health record data from a large, combined ED with an extensive set of explanatory variables, including the availability of beds in catchment area hospitals, traffic data from local observation stations, weather variables, etc. We show that N-BEATS and LightGBM outpeform benchmarks with 11 % and 9 % respective improvements and that DeepAR predicts next day crowding with an AUC of 0.76 (95 % CI 0.69-0.84). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to document the superiority of LightGBM and N-BEATS over statistical benchmarks in the context of ED forecasting.

6.Development and validation of an interpretable machine learning-based calculator for predicting 5-year weight trajectories after bariatric surgery: a multinational retrospective cohort SOPHIA study

Authors:Patrick Saux Scool, CRIStAL, Pierre Bauvin Scool, Violeta Raverdy Scool, Julien Teigny Scool, Hélène Verkindt Scool, Tomy Soumphonphakdy Scool, Maxence Debert Scool, Anne Jacobs Scool, CRIStAL, Daan Jacobs Scool, CRIStAL, Valerie Monpellier Scool, CRIStAL, Phong Ching Lee Scool, CRIStAL, Chin Hong Lim Scool, CRIStAL, Johanna C Andersson-Assarsson Scool, CRIStAL, Lena Carlsson Scool, CRIStAL, Per-Arne Svensson Scool, CRIStAL, Florence Galtier Scool, CRIStAL, Guelareh Dezfoulian Scool, CRIStAL, Mihaela Moldovanu Scool, CRIStAL, Severine Andrieux Scool, CRIStAL, Julien Couster Scool, CRIStAL, Marie Lepage Scool, CRIStAL, Erminia Lembo Scool, CRIStAL, Ornella Verrastro Scool, CRIStAL, Maud Robert Scool, CRIStAL, Paulina Salminen Scool, CRIStAL, Geltrude Mingrone Scool, CRIStAL, Ralph Peterli Scool, CRIStAL, Ricardo V Cohen Scool, CRIStAL, Carlos Zerrweck Scool, CRIStAL, David Nocca Scool, CRIStAL, Carel W Le Roux Scool, CRIStAL, Robert Caiazzo Scool, CRIStAL, Philippe Preux Scool, CRIStAL, François Pattou

Abstract: Background Weight loss trajectories after bariatric surgery vary widely between individuals, and predicting weight loss before the operation remains challenging. We aimed to develop a model using machine learning to provide individual preoperative prediction of 5-year weight loss trajectories after surgery. Methods In this multinational retrospective observational study we enrolled adult participants (aged $\ge$18 years) from ten prospective cohorts (including ABOS [NCT01129297], BAREVAL [NCT02310178], the Swedish Obese Subjects study, and a large cohort from the Dutch Obesity Clinic [Nederlandse Obesitas Kliniek]) and two randomised trials (SleevePass [NCT00793143] and SM-BOSS [NCT00356213]) in Europe, the Americas, and Asia, with a 5 year followup after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, or gastric band. Patients with a previous history of bariatric surgery or large delays between scheduled and actual visits were excluded. The training cohort comprised patients from two centres in France (ABOS and BAREVAL). The primary outcome was BMI at 5 years. A model was developed using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator to select variables and the classification and regression trees algorithm to build interpretable regression trees. The performances of the model were assessed through the median absolute deviation (MAD) and root mean squared error (RMSE) of BMI. Findings10 231 patients from 12 centres in ten countries were included in the analysis, corresponding to 30 602 patient-years. Among participants in all 12 cohorts, 7701 (75$\bullet$3%) were female, 2530 (24$\bullet$7%) were male. Among 434 baseline attributes available in the training cohort, seven variables were selected: height, weight, intervention type, age, diabetes status, diabetes duration, and smoking status. At 5 years, across external testing cohorts the overall mean MAD BMI was 2$\bullet$8 kg/m${}^2$ (95% CI 2$\bullet$6-3$\bullet$0) and mean RMSE BMI was 4$\bullet$7 kg/m${}^2$ (4$\bullet$4-5$\bullet$0), and the mean difference between predicted and observed BMI was-0$\bullet$3 kg/m${}^2$ (SD 4$\bullet$7). This model is incorporated in an easy to use and interpretable web-based prediction tool to help inform clinical decision before surgery. InterpretationWe developed a machine learning-based model, which is internationally validated, for predicting individual 5-year weight loss trajectories after three common bariatric interventions.

7.A Causal Discovery Approach To Learn How Urban Form Shapes Sustainable Mobility Across Continents

Authors:Felix Wagner, Florian Nachtigall, Lukas Franken, Nikola Milojevic-Dupont, Rafael H. M. Pereira, Nicolas Koch, Jakob Runge, Marta Gonzalez, Felix Creutzig

Abstract: Global sustainability requires low-carbon urban transport systems, shaped by adequate infrastructure, deployment of low-carbon transport modes and shifts in travel behavior. To adequately implement alterations in infrastructure, it's essential to grasp the location-specific cause-and-effect mechanisms that the constructed environment has on travel. Yet, current research falls short in representing causal relationships between the 6D urban form variables and travel, generalizing across different regions, and modeling urban form effects at high spatial resolution. Here, we address all three gaps by utilizing a causal discovery and an explainable machine learning framework to detect urban form effects on intra-city travel based on high-resolution mobility data of six cities across three continents. We show that both distance to city center, demographics and density indirectly affect other urban form features. By considering the causal relationships, we find that location-specific influences align across cities, yet vary in magnitude. In addition, the spread of the city and the coverage of jobs across the city are the strongest determinants of travel-related emissions, highlighting the benefits of compact development and associated benefits. Differences in urban form effects across the cities call for a more holistic definition of 6D measures. Our work is a starting point for location-specific analysis of urban form effects on mobility behavior using causal discovery approaches, which is highly relevant for city planners and municipalities across continents.

8.Towards Long-Tailed Recognition for Graph Classification via Collaborative Experts

Authors:Siyu Yi, Zhengyang Mao, Wei Ju, Yongdao Zhou, Luchen Liu, Xiao Luo, Ming Zhang

Abstract: Graph classification, aiming at learning the graph-level representations for effective class assignments, has received outstanding achievements, which heavily relies on high-quality datasets that have balanced class distribution. In fact, most real-world graph data naturally presents a long-tailed form, where the head classes occupy much more samples than the tail classes, it thus is essential to study the graph-level classification over long-tailed data while still remaining largely unexplored. However, most existing long-tailed learning methods in visions fail to jointly optimize the representation learning and classifier training, as well as neglect the mining of the hard-to-classify classes. Directly applying existing methods to graphs may lead to sub-optimal performance, since the model trained on graphs would be more sensitive to the long-tailed distribution due to the complex topological characteristics. Hence, in this paper, we propose a novel long-tailed graph-level classification framework via Collaborative Multi-expert Learning (CoMe) to tackle the problem. To equilibrate the contributions of head and tail classes, we first develop balanced contrastive learning from the view of representation learning, and then design an individual-expert classifier training based on hard class mining. In addition, we execute gated fusion and disentangled knowledge distillation among the multiple experts to promote the collaboration in a multi-expert framework. Comprehensive experiments are performed on seven widely-used benchmark datasets to demonstrate the superiority of our method CoMe over state-of-the-art baselines.

9.Communication-Efficient Decentralized Federated Learning via One-Bit Compressive Sensing

Authors:Shenglong Zhou, Kaidi Xu, Geoffrey Ye Li

Abstract: Decentralized federated learning (DFL) has gained popularity due to its practicality across various applications. Compared to the centralized version, training a shared model among a large number of nodes in DFL is more challenging, as there is no central server to coordinate the training process. Especially when distributed nodes suffer from limitations in communication or computational resources, DFL will experience extremely inefficient and unstable training. Motivated by these challenges, in this paper, we develop a novel algorithm based on the framework of the inexact alternating direction method (iADM). On one hand, our goal is to train a shared model with a sparsity constraint. This constraint enables us to leverage one-bit compressive sensing (1BCS), allowing transmission of one-bit information among neighbour nodes. On the other hand, communication between neighbour nodes occurs only at certain steps, reducing the number of communication rounds. Therefore, the algorithm exhibits notable communication efficiency. Additionally, as each node selects only a subset of neighbours to participate in the training, the algorithm is robust against stragglers. Additionally, complex items are computed only once for several consecutive steps and subproblems are solved inexactly using closed-form solutions, resulting in high computational efficiency. Finally, numerical experiments showcase the algorithm's effectiveness in both communication and computation.

10.Robust Representation Learning for Unreliable Partial Label Learning

Authors:Yu Shi, Dong-Dong Wu, Xin Geng, Min-Ling Zhang

Abstract: Partial Label Learning (PLL) is a type of weakly supervised learning where each training instance is assigned a set of candidate labels, but only one label is the ground-truth. However, this idealistic assumption may not always hold due to potential annotation inaccuracies, meaning the ground-truth may not be present in the candidate label set. This is known as Unreliable Partial Label Learning (UPLL) that introduces an additional complexity due to the inherent unreliability and ambiguity of partial labels, often resulting in a sub-optimal performance with existing methods. To address this challenge, we propose the Unreliability-Robust Representation Learning framework (URRL) that leverages unreliability-robust contrastive learning to help the model fortify against unreliable partial labels effectively. Concurrently, we propose a dual strategy that combines KNN-based candidate label set correction and consistency-regularization-based label disambiguation to refine label quality and enhance the ability of representation learning within the URRL framework. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art PLL methods on various datasets with diverse degrees of unreliability and ambiguity. Furthermore, we provide a theoretical analysis of our approach from the perspective of the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Upon acceptance, we pledge to make the code publicly accessible.

11.Robust Networked Federated Learning for Localization

Authors:Reza Mirzaeifard, Naveen K. D. Venkategowda, Stefan Werner

Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of localization, which is inherently non-convex and non-smooth in a federated setting where the data is distributed across a multitude of devices. Due to the decentralized nature of federated environments, distributed learning becomes essential for scalability and adaptability. Moreover, these environments are often plagued by outlier data, which presents substantial challenges to conventional methods, particularly in maintaining estimation accuracy and ensuring algorithm convergence. To mitigate these challenges, we propose a method that adopts an $L_1$-norm robust formulation within a distributed sub-gradient framework, explicitly designed to handle these obstacles. Our approach addresses the problem in its original form, without resorting to iterative simplifications or approximations, resulting in enhanced computational efficiency and improved estimation accuracy. We demonstrate that our method converges to a stationary point, highlighting its effectiveness and reliability. Through numerical simulations, we confirm the superior performance of our approach, notably in outlier-rich environments, which surpasses existing state-of-the-art localization methods.

12.Constructing Indoor Region-based Radio Map without Location Labels

Authors:Zheng Xing, Junting Chen

Abstract: Radio map construction requires a large amount of radio measurement data with location labels, which imposes a high deployment cost. This paper develops a region-based radio map from received signal strength (RSS) measurements without location labels. The construction is based on a set of blindly collected RSS measurement data from a device that visits each region in an indoor area exactly once, where the footprints and timestamps are not recorded. The main challenge is to cluster the RSS data and match clusters with the physical regions. Classical clustering algorithms fail to work as the RSS data naturally appears as non-clustered due to multipaths and noise. In this paper, a signal subspace model with a sequential prior is constructed for the RSS data, and an integrated segmentation and clustering algorithm is developed, which is shown to find the globally optimal solution in a special case. Furthermore, the clustered data is matched with the physical regions using a graph-based approach. Based on real measurements from an office space, the proposed scheme reduces the region localization error by roughly 50% compared to a weighted centroid localization (WCL) baseline, and it even outperforms some supervised localization schemes, including k-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and deep neural network (DNN), which require labeled data for training.

13.Efficacy of Neural Prediction-Based NAS for Zero-Shot NAS Paradigm

Authors:Minh Le, Nhan Nguyen, Ngoc Hoang Luong

Abstract: In prediction-based Neural Architecture Search (NAS), performance indicators derived from graph convolutional networks have shown significant success. These indicators, achieved by representing feed-forward structures as component graphs through one-hot encoding, face a limitation: their inability to evaluate architecture performance across varying search spaces. In contrast, handcrafted performance indicators (zero-shot NAS), which use the same architecture with random initialization, can generalize across multiple search spaces. Addressing this limitation, we propose a novel approach for zero-shot NAS using deep learning. Our method employs Fourier sum of sines encoding for convolutional kernels, enabling the construction of a computational feed-forward graph with a structure similar to the architecture under evaluation. These encodings are learnable and offer a comprehensive view of the architecture's topological information. An accompanying multi-layer perceptron (MLP) then ranks these architectures based on their encodings. Experimental results show that our approach surpasses previous methods using graph convolutional networks in terms of correlation on the NAS-Bench-201 dataset and exhibits a higher convergence rate. Moreover, our extracted feature representation trained on each NAS-Benchmark is transferable to other NAS-Benchmarks, showing promising generalizability across multiple search spaces. The code is available at:

14.Rank Collapse Causes Over-Smoothing and Over-Correlation in Graph Neural Networks

Authors:Andreas Roth, Thomas Liebig

Abstract: Our study reveals new theoretical insights into over-smoothing and feature over-correlation in deep graph neural networks. We show the prevalence of invariant subspaces, demonstrating a fixed relative behavior that is unaffected by feature transformations. Our work clarifies recent observations related to convergence to a constant state and a potential over-separation of node states, as the amplification of subspaces only depends on the spectrum of the aggregation function. In linear scenarios, this leads to node representations being dominated by a low-dimensional subspace with an asymptotic convergence rate independent of the feature transformations. This causes a rank collapse of the node representations, resulting in over-smoothing when smooth vectors span this subspace, and over-correlation even when over-smoothing is avoided. Guided by our theory, we propose a sum of Kronecker products as a beneficial property that can provably prevent over-smoothing, over-correlation, and rank collapse. We empirically extend our insights to the non-linear case, demonstrating the inability of existing models to capture linearly independent features.

15.Irregular Traffic Time Series Forecasting Based on Asynchronous Spatio-Temporal Graph Convolutional Network

Authors:Weijia Zhang, Le Zhang, Jindong Han, Hao Liu, Jingbo Zhou, Yu Mei, Hui Xiong

Abstract: Accurate traffic forecasting at intersections governed by intelligent traffic signals is critical for the advancement of an effective intelligent traffic signal control system. However, due to the irregular traffic time series produced by intelligent intersections, the traffic forecasting task becomes much more intractable and imposes three major new challenges: 1) asynchronous spatial dependency, 2) irregular temporal dependency among traffic data, and 3) variable-length sequence to be predicted, which severely impede the performance of current traffic forecasting methods. To this end, we propose an Asynchronous Spatio-tEmporal graph convolutional nEtwoRk (ASeer) to predict the traffic states of the lanes entering intelligent intersections in a future time window. Specifically, by linking lanes via a traffic diffusion graph, we first propose an Asynchronous Graph Diffusion Network to model the asynchronous spatial dependency between the time-misaligned traffic state measurements of lanes. After that, to capture the temporal dependency within irregular traffic state sequence, a learnable personalized time encoding is devised to embed the continuous time for each lane. Then we propose a Transformable Time-aware Convolution Network that learns meta-filters to derive time-aware convolution filters with transformable filter sizes for efficient temporal convolution on the irregular sequence. Furthermore, a Semi-Autoregressive Prediction Network consisting of a state evolution unit and a semiautoregressive predictor is designed to effectively and efficiently predict variable-length traffic state sequences. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of ASeer in six metrics.

16.Latent Variable Multi-output Gaussian Processes for Hierarchical Datasets

Authors:Chunchao Ma, Arthur Leroy, Mauricio Alvarez

Abstract: Multi-output Gaussian processes (MOGPs) have been introduced to deal with multiple tasks by exploiting the correlations between different outputs. Generally, MOGPs models assume a flat correlation structure between the outputs. However, such a formulation does not account for more elaborate relationships, for instance, if several replicates were observed for each output (which is a typical setting in biological experiments). This paper proposes an extension of MOGPs for hierarchical datasets (i.e. datasets for which the relationships between observations can be represented within a tree structure). Our model defines a tailored kernel function accounting for hierarchical structures in the data to capture different levels of correlations while leveraging the introduction of latent variables to express the underlying dependencies between outputs through a dedicated kernel. This latter feature is expected to significantly improve scalability as the number of tasks increases. An extensive experimental study involving both synthetic and real-world data from genomics and motion capture is proposed to support our claims.

17.FedDD: Toward Communication-efficient Federated Learning with Differential Parameter Dropout

Authors:Zhiying Feng, Xu Chen, Qiong Wu, Wen Wu, Xiaoxi Zhang, Qianyi Huang

Abstract: Federated Learning (FL) requires frequent exchange of model parameters, which leads to long communication delay, especially when the network environments of clients vary greatly. Moreover, the parameter server needs to wait for the slowest client (i.e., straggler, which may have the largest model size, lowest computing capability or worst network condition) to upload parameters, which may significantly degrade the communication efficiency. Commonly-used client selection methods such as partial client selection would lead to the waste of computing resources and weaken the generalization of the global model. To tackle this problem, along a different line, in this paper, we advocate the approach of model parameter dropout instead of client selection, and accordingly propose a novel framework of Federated learning scheme with Differential parameter Dropout (FedDD). FedDD consists of two key modules: dropout rate allocation and uploaded parameter selection, which will optimize the model parameter uploading ratios tailored to different clients' heterogeneous conditions and also select the proper set of important model parameters for uploading subject to clients' dropout rate constraints. Specifically, the dropout rate allocation is formulated as a convex optimization problem, taking system heterogeneity, data heterogeneity, and model heterogeneity among clients into consideration. The uploaded parameter selection strategy prioritizes on eliciting important parameters for uploading to speedup convergence. Furthermore, we theoretically analyze the convergence of the proposed FedDD scheme. Extensive performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed FedDD scheme can achieve outstanding performances in both communication efficiency and model convergence, and also possesses a strong generalization capability to data of rare classes.

18.Majorization-Minimization for sparse SVMs

Authors:Alessandro Benfenati, Emilie Chouzenoux, Giorgia Franchini, Salla Latva-Aijo, Dominik Narnhofer, Jean-Christophe Pesquet, Sebastian J. Scott, Mahsa Yousefi

Abstract: Several decades ago, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) were introduced for performing binary classification tasks, under a supervised framework. Nowadays, they often outperform other supervised methods and remain one of the most popular approaches in the machine learning arena. In this work, we investigate the training of SVMs through a smooth sparse-promoting-regularized squared hinge loss minimization. This choice paves the way to the application of quick training methods built on majorization-minimization approaches, benefiting from the Lipschitz differentiabililty of the loss function. Moreover, the proposed approach allows us to handle sparsity-preserving regularizers promoting the selection of the most significant features, so enhancing the performance. Numerical tests and comparisons conducted on three different datasets demonstrate the good performance of the proposed methodology in terms of qualitative metrics (accuracy, precision, recall, and F 1 score) as well as computational cost.

19.Federated Learning in UAV-Enhanced Networks: Joint Coverage and Convergence Time Optimization

Authors:Mariam Yahya, Setareh Maghsudi, Slawomir Stanczak

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) involves several devices that collaboratively train a shared model without transferring their local data. FL reduces the communication overhead, making it a promising learning method in UAV-enhanced wireless networks with scarce energy resources. Despite the potential, implementing FL in UAV-enhanced networks is challenging, as conventional UAV placement methods that maximize coverage increase the FL delay significantly. Moreover, the uncertainty and lack of a priori information about crucial variables, such as channel quality, exacerbate the problem. In this paper, we first analyze the statistical characteristics of a UAV-enhanced wireless sensor network (WSN) with energy harvesting. We then develop a model and solution based on the multi-objective multi-armed bandit theory to maximize the network coverage while minimizing the FL delay. Besides, we propose another solution that is particularly useful with large action sets and strict energy constraints at the UAVs. Our proposal uses a scalarized best-arm identification algorithm to find the optimal arms that maximize the ratio of the expected reward to the expected energy cost by sequentially eliminating one or more arms in each round. Then, we derive the upper bound on the error probability of our multi-objective and cost-aware algorithm. Numerical results show the effectiveness of our approach.

20.Transformers as Support Vector Machines

Authors:Davoud Ataee Tarzanagh, Yingcong Li, Christos Thrampoulidis, Samet Oymak

Abstract: Since its inception in "Attention Is All You Need", transformer architecture has led to revolutionary advancements in NLP. The attention layer within the transformer admits a sequence of input tokens $X$ and makes them interact through pairwise similarities computed as softmax$(XQK^\top X^\top)$, where $(K,Q)$ are the trainable key-query parameters. In this work, we establish a formal equivalence between the optimization geometry of self-attention and a hard-margin SVM problem that separates optimal input tokens from non-optimal tokens using linear constraints on the outer-products of token pairs. This formalism allows us to characterize the implicit bias of 1-layer transformers optimized with gradient descent: (1) Optimizing the attention layer with vanishing regularization, parameterized by $(K,Q)$, converges in direction to an SVM solution minimizing the nuclear norm of the combined parameter $W=KQ^\top$. Instead, directly parameterizing by $W$ minimizes a Frobenius norm objective. We characterize this convergence, highlighting that it can occur toward locally-optimal directions rather than global ones. (2) Complementing this, we prove the local/global directional convergence of gradient descent under suitable geometric conditions. Importantly, we show that over-parameterization catalyzes global convergence by ensuring the feasibility of the SVM problem and by guaranteeing a benign optimization landscape devoid of stationary points. (3) While our theory applies primarily to linear prediction heads, we propose a more general SVM equivalence that predicts the implicit bias with nonlinear heads. Our findings are applicable to arbitrary datasets and their validity is verified via experiments. We also introduce several open problems and research directions. We believe these findings inspire the interpretation of transformers as a hierarchy of SVMs that separates and selects optimal tokens.

21.Learning to Taste: A Multimodal Wine Dataset

Authors:Thoranna Bender, Simon Møe Sørensen, Alireza Kashani, K. Eldjarn Hjorleifsson, Grethe Hyldig, Søren Hauberg, Serge Belongie, Frederik Warburg

Abstract: We present WineSensed, a large multimodal wine dataset for studying the relations between visual perception, language, and flavor. The dataset encompasses 897k images of wine labels and 824k reviews of wines curated from the Vivino platform. It has over 350k unique vintages, annotated with year, region, rating, alcohol percentage, price, and grape composition. We obtained fine-grained flavor annotations on a subset by conducting a wine-tasting experiment with 256 participants who were asked to rank wines based on their similarity in flavor, resulting in more than 5k pairwise flavor distances. We propose a low-dimensional concept embedding algorithm that combines human experience with automatic machine similarity kernels. We demonstrate that this shared concept embedding space improves upon separate embedding spaces for coarse flavor classification (alcohol percentage, country, grape, price, rating) and aligns with the intricate human perception of flavor.

1.FedCiR: Client-Invariant Representation Learning for Federated Non-IID Features

Authors:Zijian Li, Zehong Lin, Jiawei Shao, Yuyi Mao, Jun Zhang

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) is a distributed learning paradigm that maximizes the potential of data-driven models for edge devices without sharing their raw data. However, devices often have non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID) data, meaning their local data distributions can vary significantly. The heterogeneity in input data distributions across devices, commonly referred to as the feature shift problem, can adversely impact the training convergence and accuracy of the global model. To analyze the intrinsic causes of the feature shift problem, we develop a generalization error bound in FL, which motivates us to propose FedCiR, a client-invariant representation learning framework that enables clients to extract informative and client-invariant features. Specifically, we improve the mutual information term between representations and labels to encourage representations to carry essential classification knowledge, and diminish the mutual information term between the client set and representations conditioned on labels to promote representations of clients to be client-invariant. We further incorporate two regularizers into the FL framework to bound the mutual information terms with an approximate global representation distribution to compensate for the absence of the ground-truth global representation distribution, thus achieving informative and client-invariant feature extraction. To achieve global representation distribution approximation, we propose a data-free mechanism performed by the server without compromising privacy. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in achieving client-invariant representation learning and solving the data heterogeneity issue.

2.Peering Through Preferences: Unraveling Feedback Acquisition for Aligning Large Language Models

Authors:Hritik Bansal, John Dang, Aditya Grover

Abstract: Aligning large language models (LLMs) with human values and intents critically involves the use of human or AI feedback. While dense feedback annotations are expensive to acquire and integrate, sparse feedback presents a structural design choice between ratings (e.g., score Response A on a scale of 1-7) and rankings (e.g., is Response A better than Response B?). In this work, we analyze the effect of this design choice for the alignment and evaluation of LLMs. We uncover an inconsistency problem wherein the preferences inferred from ratings and rankings significantly disagree 60% for both human and AI annotators. Our subsequent analysis identifies various facets of annotator biases that explain this phenomena, such as human annotators would rate denser responses higher while preferring accuracy during pairwise judgments. To our surprise, we also observe that the choice of feedback protocol also has a significant effect on the evaluation of aligned LLMs. In particular, we find that LLMs that leverage rankings data for alignment (say model X) are preferred over those that leverage ratings data (say model Y), with a rank-based evaluation protocol (is X/Y's response better than reference response?) but not with a rating-based evaluation protocol (score Rank X/Y's response on a scale of 1-7). Our findings thus shed light on critical gaps in methods for evaluating the real-world utility of language models and their strong dependence on the feedback protocol used for alignment. Our code and data are available at

3.Federated Two Stage Decoupling With Adaptive Personalization Layers

Authors:Hangyu Zhu, Yuxiang Fan, Zhenping Xie

Abstract: Federated learning has gained significant attention due to its groundbreaking ability to enable distributed learning while maintaining privacy constraints. However, as a consequence of data heterogeneity among decentralized devices, it inherently experiences significant learning degradation and slow convergence speed. Therefore, it is natural to employ the concept of clustering homogeneous clients into the same group, allowing only the model weights within each group to be aggregated. While most existing clustered federated learning methods employ either model gradients or inference outputs as metrics for client partitioning, with the goal of grouping similar devices together, may still have heterogeneity within each cluster. Moreover, there is a scarcity of research exploring the underlying reasons for determining the appropriate timing for clustering, resulting in the common practice of assigning each client to its own individual cluster, particularly in the context of highly non independent and identically distributed (Non-IID) data. In this paper, we introduce a two-stage decoupling federated learning algorithm with adaptive personalization layers named FedTSDP, where client clustering is performed twice according to inference outputs and model weights, respectively. Hopkins amended sampling is adopted to determine the appropriate timing for clustering and the sampling weight of public unlabeled data. In addition, a simple yet effective approach is developed to adaptively adjust the personalization layers based on varying degrees of data skew. Experimental results show that our proposed method has reliable performance on both IID and non-IID scenarios.

4.MSGNN: Multi-scale Spatio-temporal Graph Neural Network for Epidemic Forecasting

Authors:Mingjie Qiu, Zhiyi Tan, Bing-kun Bao

Abstract: Infectious disease forecasting has been a key focus and proved to be crucial in controlling epidemic. A recent trend is to develop forecast-ing models based on graph neural networks (GNNs). However, existing GNN-based methods suffer from two key limitations: (1) Current models broaden receptive fields by scaling the depth of GNNs, which is insuffi-cient to preserve the semantics of long-range connectivity between distant but epidemic related areas. (2) Previous approaches model epidemics within single spatial scale, while ignoring the multi-scale epidemic pat-terns derived from different scales. To address these deficiencies, we devise the Multi-scale Spatio-temporal Graph Neural Network (MSGNN) based on an innovative multi-scale view. To be specific, in the proposed MSGNN model, we first devise a novel graph learning module, which directly captures long-range connectivity from trans-regional epidemic signals and integrates them into a multi-scale graph. Based on the learned multi-scale graph, we utilize a newly designed graph convolution module to exploit multi-scale epidemic patterns. This module allows us to facilitate multi-scale epidemic modeling by mining both scale-shared and scale-specific pat-terns. Experimental results on forecasting new cases of COVID-19 in United State demonstrate the superiority of our method over state-of-arts. Further analyses and visualization also show that MSGNN offers not only accurate, but also robust and interpretable forecasting result.

5.Domain Generalization without Excess Empirical Risk

Authors:Ozan Sener, Vladlen Koltun

Abstract: Given data from diverse sets of distinct distributions, domain generalization aims to learn models that generalize to unseen distributions. A common approach is designing a data-driven surrogate penalty to capture generalization and minimize the empirical risk jointly with the penalty. We argue that a significant failure mode of this recipe is an excess risk due to an erroneous penalty or hardness in joint optimization. We present an approach that eliminates this problem. Instead of jointly minimizing empirical risk with the penalty, we minimize the penalty under the constraint of optimality of the empirical risk. This change guarantees that the domain generalization penalty cannot impair optimization of the empirical risk, i.e., in-distribution performance. To solve the proposed optimization problem, we demonstrate an exciting connection to rate-distortion theory and utilize its tools to design an efficient method. Our approach can be applied to any penalty-based domain generalization method, and we demonstrate its effectiveness by applying it to three examplar methods from the literature, showing significant improvements.

6.Minimum Width for Deep, Narrow MLP: A Diffeomorphism and the Whitney Embedding Theorem Approach

Authors:Geonho Hwang

Abstract: Recently, there has been significant attention on determining the minimum width for the universal approximation property of deep, narrow MLPs. Among these challenges, approximating a continuous function under the uniform norm is important and challenging, with the gap between its lower and upper bound being hard to narrow. In this regard, we propose a novel upper bound for the minimum width, given by $\operatorname{max}(2d_x+1, d_y) + \alpha(\sigma)$, to achieve uniform approximation in deep narrow MLPs, where $0\leq \alpha(\sigma)\leq 2$ represents the constant depending on the activation function. We demonstrate this bound through two key proofs. First, we establish that deep, narrow MLPs with little additional width can approximate diffeomorphisms. Secondly, we utilize the Whitney embedding theorem to show that any continuous function can be approximated by embeddings, further decomposed into linear transformations and diffeomorphisms.

7.Towards One-Shot Learning for Text Classification using Inductive Logic Programming

Authors:Ghazal Afroozi Milani University of Surrey, Daniel Cyrus University of Surrey, Alireza Tamaddoni-Nezhad University of Surrey

Abstract: With the ever-increasing potential of AI to perform personalised tasks, it is becoming essential to develop new machine learning techniques which are data-efficient and do not require hundreds or thousands of training data. In this paper, we explore an Inductive Logic Programming approach for one-shot text classification. In particular, we explore the framework of Meta-Interpretive Learning (MIL), along with using common-sense background knowledge extracted from ConceptNet. Results indicate that MIL can learn text classification rules from a small number of training examples. Moreover, the higher complexity of chosen examples, the higher accuracy of the outcome.

8.Cyclophobic Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Stefan Sylvius Wagner, Peter Arndt, Jan Robine, Stefan Harmeling

Abstract: In environments with sparse rewards, finding a good inductive bias for exploration is crucial to the agent's success. However, there are two competing goals: novelty search and systematic exploration. While existing approaches such as curiosity-driven exploration find novelty, they sometimes do not systematically explore the whole state space, akin to depth-first-search vs breadth-first-search. In this paper, we propose a new intrinsic reward that is cyclophobic, i.e., it does not reward novelty, but punishes redundancy by avoiding cycles. Augmenting the cyclophobic intrinsic reward with a sequence of hierarchical representations based on the agent's cropped observations we are able to achieve excellent results in the MiniGrid and MiniHack environments. Both are particularly hard, as they require complex interactions with different objects in order to be solved. Detailed comparisons with previous approaches and thorough ablation studies show that our newly proposed cyclophobic reinforcement learning is more sample efficient than other state of the art methods in a variety of tasks.

9.Low-Rank Multitask Learning based on Tensorized SVMs and LSSVMs

Authors:Jiani Liu, Qinghua Tao, Ce Zhu, Yipeng Liu, Xiaolin Huang, Johan A. K. Suykens

Abstract: Multitask learning (MTL) leverages task-relatedness to enhance performance. With the emergence of multimodal data, tasks can now be referenced by multiple indices. In this paper, we employ high-order tensors, with each mode corresponding to a task index, to naturally represent tasks referenced by multiple indices and preserve their structural relations. Based on this representation, we propose a general framework of low-rank MTL methods with tensorized support vector machines (SVMs) and least square support vector machines (LSSVMs), where the CP factorization is deployed over the coefficient tensor. Our approach allows to model the task relation through a linear combination of shared factors weighted by task-specific factors and is generalized to both classification and regression problems. Through the alternating optimization scheme and the Lagrangian function, each subproblem is transformed into a convex problem, formulated as a quadratic programming or linear system in the dual form. In contrast to previous MTL frameworks, our decision function in the dual induces a weighted kernel function with a task-coupling term characterized by the similarities of the task-specific factors, better revealing the explicit relations across tasks in MTL. Experimental results validate the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed methods compared to existing state-of-the-art approaches in MTL. The code of implementation will be available at

10.Consensus of state of the art mortality prediction models: From all-cause mortality to sudden death prediction

Authors:Dr Yola Jones, Dr Fani Deligianni, Dr Jeff Dalton, Dr Pierpaolo Pellicori, Professor John G F Cleland

Abstract: Worldwide, many millions of people die suddenly and unexpectedly each year, either with or without a prior history of cardiovascular disease. Such events are sparse (once in a lifetime), many victims will not have had prior investigations for cardiac disease and many different definitions of sudden death exist. Accordingly, sudden death is hard to predict. This analysis used NHS Electronic Health Records (EHRs) for people aged $\geq$50 years living in the Greater Glasgow and Clyde (GG\&C) region in 2010 (n = 380,000) to try to overcome these challenges. We investigated whether medical history, blood tests, prescription of medicines, and hospitalisations might, in combination, predict a heightened risk of sudden death. We compared the performance of models trained to predict either sudden death or all-cause mortality. We built six models for each outcome of interest: three taken from state-of-the-art research (BEHRT, Deepr and Deep Patient), and three of our own creation. We trained these using two different data representations: a language-based representation, and a sparse temporal matrix. We used global interpretability to understand the most important features of each model, and compare how much agreement there was amongst models using Rank Biased Overlap. It is challenging to account for correlated variables without increasing the complexity of the interpretability technique. We overcame this by clustering features into groups and comparing the most important groups for each model. We found the agreement between models to be much higher when accounting for correlated variables. Our analysis emphasises the challenge of predicting sudden death and emphasises the need for better understanding and interpretation of machine learning models applied to healthcare applications.

11.Application of Zone Method based Machine Learning and Physics-Informed Neural Networks in Reheating Furnaces

Authors:Ujjal Kr Dutta, Aldo Lipani, Chuan Wang, Yukun Hu

Abstract: Despite the high economic relevance of Foundation Industries, certain components like Reheating furnaces within their manufacturing chain are energy-intensive. Notable energy consumption reduction could be obtained by reducing the overall heating time in furnaces. Computer-integrated Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) powered control systems in furnaces could be enablers in achieving the Net-Zero goals in Foundation Industries for sustainable manufacturing. In this work, due to the infeasibility of achieving good quality data in scenarios like reheating furnaces, classical Hottel's zone method based computational model has been used to generate data for ML and Deep Learning (DL) based model training via regression. It should be noted that the zone method provides an elegant way to model the physical phenomenon of Radiative Heat Transfer (RHT), the dominating heat transfer mechanism in high-temperature processes inside heating furnaces. Using this data, an extensive comparison among a wide range of state-of-the-art, representative ML and DL methods has been made against their temperature prediction performances in varying furnace environments. Owing to their holistic balance among inference times and model performance, DL stands out among its counterparts. To further enhance the Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) generalization capability of the trained DL models, we propose a Physics-Informed Neural Network (PINN) by incorporating prior physical knowledge using a set of novel Energy-Balance regularizers. Our setup is a generic framework, is geometry-agnostic of the 3D structure of the underlying furnace, and as such could accommodate any standard ML regression model, to serve as a Digital Twin of the underlying physical processes, for transitioning Foundation Industries towards Industry 4.0.

12.Advanced Deep Regression Models for Forecasting Time Series Oil Production

Authors:Siavash Hosseini, Thangarajah Akilan

Abstract: Global oil demand is rapidly increasing and is expected to reach 106.3 million barrels per day by 2040. Thus, it is vital for hydrocarbon extraction industries to forecast their production to optimize their operations and avoid losses. Big companies have realized that exploiting the power of deep learning (DL) and the massive amount of data from various oil wells for this purpose can save a lot of operational costs and reduce unwanted environmental impacts. In this direction, researchers have proposed models using conventional machine learning (ML) techniques for oil production forecasting. However, these techniques are inappropriate for this problem as they can not capture historical patterns found in time series data, resulting in inaccurate predictions. This research aims to overcome these issues by developing advanced data-driven regression models using sequential convolutions and long short-term memory (LSTM) units. Exhaustive analyses are conducted to select the optimal sequence length, model hyperparameters, and cross-well dataset formation to build highly generalized robust models. A comprehensive experimental study on Volve oilfield data validates the proposed models. It reveals that the LSTM-based sequence learning model can predict oil production better than the 1-D convolutional neural network (CNN) with mean absolute error (MAE) and R2 score of 111.16 and 0.98, respectively. It is also found that the LSTM-based model performs better than all the existing state-of-the-art solutions and achieves a 37% improvement compared to a standard linear regression, which is considered the baseline model in this work.

13.survex: an R package for explaining machine learning survival models

Authors:Mikołaj Spytek, Mateusz Krzyziński, Sophie Hanna Langbein, Hubert Baniecki, Marvin N. Wright, Przemysław Biecek

Abstract: Due to their flexibility and superior performance, machine learning models frequently complement and outperform traditional statistical survival models. However, their widespread adoption is hindered by a lack of user-friendly tools to explain their internal operations and prediction rationales. To tackle this issue, we introduce the survex R package, which provides a cohesive framework for explaining any survival model by applying explainable artificial intelligence techniques. The capabilities of the proposed software encompass understanding and diagnosing survival models, which can lead to their improvement. By revealing insights into the decision-making process, such as variable effects and importances, survex enables the assessment of model reliability and the detection of biases. Thus, transparency and responsibility may be promoted in sensitive areas, such as biomedical research and healthcare applications.

14.Spatial Graph Coarsening: Weather and Weekday Prediction with London's Bike-Sharing Service using GNN

Authors:Yuta Sato, Pak Hei Lam, Shruti Gupta, Fareesah Hussain

Abstract: This study introduced the use of Graph Neural Network (GNN) for predicting the weather and weekday of a day in London, from the dataset of Santander Cycles bike-sharing system as a graph classification task. The proposed GNN models newly introduced (i) a concatenation operator of graph features with trained node embeddings and (ii) a graph coarsening operator based on geographical contiguity, namely "Spatial Graph Coarsening". With the node features of land-use characteristics and number of households around the bike stations and graph features of temperatures in the city, our proposed models outperformed the baseline model in cross-entropy loss and accuracy of the validation dataset.

1.Large language models converge toward human-like concept organization

Authors:Mathias Lykke Gammelgaard, Jonathan Gabel Christiansen, Anders Søgaard

Abstract: Large language models show human-like performance in knowledge extraction, reasoning and dialogue, but it remains controversial whether this performance is best explained by memorization and pattern matching, or whether it reflects human-like inferential semantics and world knowledge. Knowledge bases such as WikiData provide large-scale, high-quality representations of inferential semantics and world knowledge. We show that large language models learn to organize concepts in ways that are strikingly similar to how concepts are organized in such knowledge bases. Knowledge bases model collective, institutional knowledge, and large language models seem to induce such knowledge from raw text. We show that bigger and better models exhibit more human-like concept organization, across four families of language models and three knowledge graph embeddings.

2.OEBench: Investigating Open Environment Challenges in Real-World Relational Data Streams

Authors:Yiqun Diao, Yutong Yang, Qinbin Li, Bingsheng He, Mian Lu

Abstract: Relational datasets are widespread in real-world scenarios and are usually delivered in a streaming fashion. This type of data stream can present unique challenges, such as distribution drifts, outliers, emerging classes, and changing features, which have recently been described as open environment challenges for machine learning. While some work has been done on incremental learning for data streams, their evaluations are mostly conducted with manually partitioned datasets. Moreover, while several real-world streaming datasets are available, it is uncertain whether these open environment challenges are prevalent and how existing incremental learning algorithms perform on real datasets. To fill this gap, we develop an Open Environment Benchmark named OEBench to evaluate open environment challenges in relational data streams. Specifically, we investigate 55 real-world streaming datasets and establish that open environment scenarios are indeed widespread in real-world datasets, which presents significant challenges for stream learning algorithms. Through benchmarks, we find that increased data quantity may not consistently enhance the model accuracy when applied in open environment scenarios, where machine learning models can be significantly compromised by distribution shifts, anomalies, or untrustworthy data within real-world data streams. The current techniques are insufficient in effectively mitigating these challenges posed by open environments. Thus, it is promising to conduct more researches to address real-world new challenges of open environment scenarios.

3.MadSGM: Multivariate Anomaly Detection with Score-based Generative Models

Authors:Haksoo Lim, Sewon Park, Minjung Kim, Jaehoon Lee, Seonkyu Lim, Noseong Park

Abstract: The time-series anomaly detection is one of the most fundamental tasks for time-series. Unlike the time-series forecasting and classification, the time-series anomaly detection typically requires unsupervised (or self-supervised) training since collecting and labeling anomalous observations are difficult. In addition, most existing methods resort to limited forms of anomaly measurements and therefore, it is not clear whether they are optimal in all circumstances. To this end, we present a multivariate time-series anomaly detector based on score-based generative models, called MadSGM, which considers the broadest ever set of anomaly measurement factors: i) reconstruction-based, ii) density-based, and iii) gradient-based anomaly measurements. We also design a conditional score network and its denoising score matching loss for the time-series anomaly detection. Experiments on five real-world benchmark datasets illustrate that MadSGM achieves the most robust and accurate predictions.

4.Advancing Adversarial Robustness Through Adversarial Logit Update

Authors:Hao Xuan, Peican Zhu, Xingyu Li

Abstract: Deep Neural Networks are susceptible to adversarial perturbations. Adversarial training and adversarial purification are among the most widely recognized defense strategies. Although these methods have different underlying logic, both rely on absolute logit values to generate label predictions. In this study, we theoretically analyze the logit difference around successful adversarial attacks from a theoretical point of view and propose a new principle, namely Adversarial Logit Update (ALU), to infer adversarial sample's labels. Based on ALU, we introduce a new classification paradigm that utilizes pre- and post-purification logit differences for model's adversarial robustness boost. Without requiring adversarial or additional data for model training, our clean data synthesis model can be easily applied to various pre-trained models for both adversarial sample detection and ALU-based data classification. Extensive experiments on both CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and tiny-ImageNet datasets show that even with simple components, the proposed solution achieves superior robustness performance compared to state-of-the-art methods against a wide range of adversarial attacks. Our python implementation is submitted in our Supplementary document and will be published upon the paper's acceptance.

5.How Faithful are Self-Explainable GNNs?

Authors:Marc Christiansen, Lea Villadsen, Zhiqiang Zhong, Stefano Teso, Davide Mottin

Abstract: Self-explainable deep neural networks are a recent class of models that can output ante-hoc local explanations that are faithful to the model's reasoning, and as such represent a step forward toward filling the gap between expressiveness and interpretability. Self-explainable graph neural networks (GNNs) aim at achieving the same in the context of graph data. This begs the question: do these models fulfill their implicit guarantees in terms of faithfulness? In this extended abstract, we analyze the faithfulness of several self-explainable GNNs using different measures of faithfulness, identify several limitations -- both in the models themselves and in the evaluation metrics -- and outline possible ways forward.

6.Stochastic Graph Bandit Learning with Side-Observations

Authors:Xueping Gong, Jiheng Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the stochastic contextual bandit with general function space and graph feedback. We propose an algorithm that addresses this problem by adapting to both the underlying graph structures and reward gaps. To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first to provide a gap-dependent upper bound in this stochastic setting, bridging the research gap left by the work in [35]. In comparison to [31,33,35], our method offers improved regret upper bounds and does not require knowledge of graphical quantities. We conduct numerical experiments to demonstrate the computational efficiency and effectiveness of our approach in terms of regret upper bounds. These findings highlight the significance of our algorithm in advancing the field of stochastic contextual bandits with graph feedback, opening up avenues for practical applications in various domains.

7.Mixup-Augmented Meta-Learning for Sample-Efficient Fine-Tuning of Protein Simulators

Authors:Jingbang Chen, Yian Wang, Xingwei Qu, Shuangjia Zheng, Yaodong Yang, Hao Dong, Jie Fu

Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations have emerged as a fundamental instrument for studying biomolecules. At the same time, it is desirable to perform simulations of a collection of particles under various conditions in which the molecules can fluctuate. In this paper, we explore and adapt the soft prompt-based learning method to molecular dynamics tasks. Our model can remarkably generalize to unseen and out-of-distribution scenarios with limited training data. While our work focuses on temperature as a test case, the versatility of our approach allows for efficient simulation through any continuous dynamic conditions, such as pressure and volumes. Our framework has two stages: 1) Pre-trains with data mixing technique, augments molecular structure data and temperature prompts, then applies a curriculum learning method by increasing the ratio of them smoothly. 2) Meta-learning-based fine-tuning framework improves sample-efficiency of fine-tuning process and gives the soft prompt-tuning better initialization points. Comprehensive experiments reveal that our framework excels in accuracy for in-domain data and demonstrates strong generalization capabilities for unseen and out-of-distribution samples.

8.Evaluation and Analysis of Hallucination in Large Vision-Language Models

Authors:Junyang Wang, Yiyang Zhou, Guohai Xu, Pengcheng Shi, Chenlin Zhao, Haiyang Xu, Qinghao Ye, Ming Yan, Ji Zhang, Jihua Zhu, Jitao Sang, Haoyu Tang

Abstract: Large Vision-Language Models (LVLMs) have recently achieved remarkable success. However, LVLMs are still plagued by the hallucination problem, which limits the practicality in many scenarios. Hallucination refers to the information of LVLMs' responses that does not exist in the visual input, which poses potential risks of substantial consequences. There has been limited work studying hallucination evaluation in LVLMs. In this paper, we propose Hallucination Evaluation based on Large Language Models (HaELM), an LLM-based hallucination evaluation framework. HaELM achieves an approximate 95% performance comparable to ChatGPT and has additional advantages including low cost, reproducibility, privacy preservation and local deployment. Leveraging the HaELM, we evaluate the hallucination in current LVLMs. Furthermore, we analyze the factors contributing to hallucination in LVLMs and offer helpful suggestions to mitigate the hallucination problem. Our training data and human annotation hallucination data will be made public soon.

9.Biquality Learning: a Framework to Design Algorithms Dealing with Closed-Set Distribution Shifts

Authors:Pierre Nodet, Vincent Lemaire, Alexis Bondu, Antoine Cornuéjols

Abstract: Training machine learning models from data with weak supervision and dataset shifts is still challenging. Designing algorithms when these two situations arise has not been explored much, and existing algorithms cannot always handle the most complex distributional shifts. We think the biquality data setup is a suitable framework for designing such algorithms. Biquality Learning assumes that two datasets are available at training time: a trusted dataset sampled from the distribution of interest and the untrusted dataset with dataset shifts and weaknesses of supervision (aka distribution shifts). The trusted and untrusted datasets available at training time make designing algorithms dealing with any distribution shifts possible. We propose two methods, one inspired by the label noise literature and another by the covariate shift literature for biquality learning. We experiment with two novel methods to synthetically introduce concept drift and class-conditional shifts in real-world datasets across many of them. We opened some discussions and assessed that developing biquality learning algorithms robust to distributional changes remains an interesting problem for future research.

10.On the improvement of model-predictive controllers

Authors:L. Féret, A. Gepperth, S. Lambeck

Abstract: This article investigates synthetic model-predictive control (MPC) problems to demonstrate that an increased precision of the internal prediction model (PM) automatially entails an improvement of the controller as a whole. In contrast to reinforcement learning (RL), MPC uses the PM to predict subsequent states of the controlled system (CS), instead of directly recommending suitable actions. To assess how the precision of the PM translates into the quality of the model-predictive controller, we compare a DNN-based PM to the optimal baseline PM for three well-known control problems of varying complexity. The baseline PM achieves perfect accuracy by accessing the simulation of the CS itself. Based on the obtained results, we argue that an improvement of the PM will always improve the controller as a whole, without considering the impact of other components such as action selection (which, in this article, relies on evolutionary optimization).

11.ABS-SGD: A Delayed Synchronous Stochastic Gradient Descent Algorithm with Adaptive Batch Size for Heterogeneous GPU Clusters

Authors:Xin Zhou, Ling Chen, Houming Wu

Abstract: As the size of models and datasets grows, it has become increasingly common to train models in parallel. However, existing distributed stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithms suffer from insufficient utilization of computational resources and poor convergence in heterogeneous clusters. In this paper, we propose a delayed synchronous SGD algorithm with adaptive batch size (ABS-SGD) for heterogeneous GPU clusters. In ABS-SGD, workers perform global synchronization to accumulate delayed gradients and use the accumulated delayed gradients to update parameters. While workers are performing global synchronization for delayed gradients, they perform the computation of the next batch without specifying batch size in advance, which lasts until the next global synchronization starts, realizing the full utilization of computational resources. Since the gradient delay is only one iteration, the stale gradient problem can be alleviated. We theoretically prove the convergence of ABS-SGD in heterogeneous clusters. Extensive experiments in three types of heterogeneous clusters demonstrate that ABS-SGD can make full use of computational resources and accelerate model convergence: When training ResNet18 network with 4 workers, ABS-SGD increases the convergence speed by 1.30x on average compared with the best baseline algorithm.

12.Evaluating Explanation Methods for Multivariate Time Series Classification

Authors:Davide Italo Serramazza, Thu Trang Nguyen, Thach Le Nguyen, Georgiana Ifrim

Abstract: Multivariate time series classification is an important computational task arising in applications where data is recorded over time and over multiple channels. For example, a smartwatch can record the acceleration and orientation of a person's motion, and these signals are recorded as multivariate time series. We can classify this data to understand and predict human movement and various properties such as fitness levels. In many applications classification alone is not enough, we often need to classify but also understand what the model learns (e.g., why was a prediction given, based on what information in the data). The main focus of this paper is on analysing and evaluating explanation methods tailored to Multivariate Time Series Classification (MTSC). We focus on saliency-based explanation methods that can point out the most relevant channels and time series points for the classification decision. We analyse two popular and accurate multivariate time series classifiers, ROCKET and dResNet, as well as two popular explanation methods, SHAP and dCAM. We study these methods on 3 synthetic datasets and 2 real-world datasets and provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the explanations provided. We find that flattening the multivariate datasets by concatenating the channels works as well as using multivariate classifiers directly and adaptations of SHAP for MTSC work quite well. Additionally, we also find that the popular synthetic datasets we used are not suitable for time series analysis.

13.Classification-Aware Neural Topic Model Combined With Interpretable Analysis -- For Conflict Classification

Authors:Tianyu Liang, Yida Mu, Soonho Kim, Darline Larissa Kengne Kuate, Julie Lang, Rob Vos, Xingyi Song

Abstract: A large number of conflict events are affecting the world all the time. In order to analyse such conflict events effectively, this paper presents a Classification-Aware Neural Topic Model (CANTM-IA) for Conflict Information Classification and Topic Discovery. The model provides a reliable interpretation of classification results and discovered topics by introducing interpretability analysis. At the same time, interpretation is introduced into the model architecture to improve the classification performance of the model and to allow interpretation to focus further on the details of the data. Finally, the model architecture is optimised to reduce the complexity of the model.

14.The Relative Gaussian Mechanism and its Application to Private Gradient Descent

Authors:Hadrien Hendrikx, Paul Mangold, Aurélien Bellet

Abstract: The Gaussian Mechanism (GM), which consists in adding Gaussian noise to a vector-valued query before releasing it, is a standard privacy protection mechanism. In particular, given that the query respects some L2 sensitivity property (the L2 distance between outputs on any two neighboring inputs is bounded), GM guarantees R\'enyi Differential Privacy (RDP). Unfortunately, precisely bounding the L2 sensitivity can be hard, thus leading to loose privacy bounds. In this work, we consider a Relative L2 sensitivity assumption, in which the bound on the distance between two query outputs may also depend on their norm. Leveraging this assumption, we introduce the Relative Gaussian Mechanism (RGM), in which the variance of the noise depends on the norm of the output. We prove tight bounds on the RDP parameters under relative L2 sensitivity, and characterize the privacy loss incurred by using output-dependent noise. In particular, we show that RGM naturally adapts to a latent variable that would control the norm of the output. Finally, we instantiate our framework to show tight guarantees for Private Gradient Descent, a problem that naturally fits our relative L2 sensitivity assumption.

15.Structural Node Embeddings with Homomorphism Counts

Authors:Hinrikus Wolf, Luca Oeljeklaus, Pascal Kühner, Martin Grohe

Abstract: Graph homomorphism counts, first explored by Lov\'asz in 1967, have recently garnered interest as a powerful tool in graph-based machine learning. Grohe (PODS 2020) proposed the theoretical foundations for using homomorphism counts in machine learning on graph level as well as node level tasks. By their very nature, these capture local structural information, which enables the creation of robust structural embeddings. While a first approach for graph level tasks has been made by Nguyen and Maehara (ICML 2020), we experimentally show the effectiveness of homomorphism count based node embeddings. Enriched with node labels, node weights, and edge weights, these offer an interpretable representation of graph data, allowing for enhanced explainability of machine learning models. We propose a theoretical framework for isomorphism-invariant homomorphism count based embeddings which lend themselves to a wide variety of downstream tasks. Our approach capitalises on the efficient computability of graph homomorphism counts for bounded treewidth graph classes, rendering it a practical solution for real-world applications. We demonstrate their expressivity through experiments on benchmark datasets. Although our results do not match the accuracy of state-of-the-art neural architectures, they are comparable to other advanced graph learning models. Remarkably, our approach demarcates itself by ensuring explainability for each individual feature. By integrating interpretable machine learning algorithms like SVMs or Random Forests, we establish a seamless, end-to-end explainable pipeline. Our study contributes to the advancement of graph-based techniques that offer both performance and interpretability.

16.On-Device Learning with Binary Neural Networks

Authors:Lorenzo Vorabbi, Davide Maltoni, Stefano Santi

Abstract: Existing Continual Learning (CL) solutions only partially address the constraints on power, memory and computation of the deep learning models when deployed on low-power embedded CPUs. In this paper, we propose a CL solution that embraces the recent advancements in CL field and the efficiency of the Binary Neural Networks (BNN), that use 1-bit for weights and activations to efficiently execute deep learning models. We propose a hybrid quantization of CWR* (an effective CL approach) that considers differently forward and backward pass in order to retain more precision during gradient update step and at the same time minimizing the latency overhead. The choice of a binary network as backbone is essential to meet the constraints of low power devices and, to the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first attempt to prove on-device learning with BNN. The experimental validation carried out confirms the validity and the suitability of the proposed method.

17.Elucidating the Exposure Bias in Diffusion Models

Authors:Mang Ning, Mingxiao Li, Jianlin Su, Albert Ali Salah, Itir Onal Ertugrul

Abstract: Diffusion models have demonstrated impressive generative capabilities, but their 'exposure bias' problem, described as the input mismatch between training and sampling, lacks in-depth exploration. In this paper, we systematically investigate the exposure bias problem in diffusion models by first analytically modelling the sampling distribution, based on which we then attribute the prediction error at each sampling step as the root cause of the exposure bias issue. Furthermore, we discuss potential solutions to this issue and propose an intuitive metric for it. Along with the elucidation of exposure bias, we propose a simple, yet effective, training-free method called Epsilon Scaling to alleviate the exposure bias. We show that Epsilon Scaling explicitly moves the sampling trajectory closer to the vector field learned in the training phase by scaling down the network output (Epsilon), mitigating the input mismatch between training and sampling. Experiments on various diffusion frameworks (ADM, DDPM/DDIM, LDM), unconditional and conditional settings, and deterministic vs. stochastic sampling verify the effectiveness of our method.

18.Imperceptible Adversarial Attack on Deep Neural Networks from Image Boundary

Authors:Fahad Alrasheedi, Xin Zhong

Abstract: Although Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), such as the convolutional neural networks (CNN) and Vision Transformers (ViTs), have been successfully applied in the field of computer vision, they are demonstrated to be vulnerable to well-sought Adversarial Examples (AEs) that can easily fool the DNNs. The research in AEs has been active, and many adversarial attacks and explanations have been proposed since they were discovered in 2014. The mystery of the AE's existence is still an open question, and many studies suggest that DNN training algorithms have blind spots. The salient objects usually do not overlap with boundaries; hence, the boundaries are not the DNN model's attention. Nevertheless, recent studies show that the boundaries can dominate the behavior of the DNN models. Hence, this study aims to look at the AEs from a different perspective and proposes an imperceptible adversarial attack that systemically attacks the input image boundary for finding the AEs. The experimental results have shown that the proposed boundary attacking method effectively attacks six CNN models and the ViT using only 32% of the input image content (from the boundaries) with an average success rate (SR) of 95.2% and an average peak signal-to-noise ratio of 41.37 dB. Correlation analyses are conducted, including the relation between the adversarial boundary's width and the SR and how the adversarial boundary changes the DNN model's attention. This paper's discoveries can potentially advance the understanding of AEs and provide a different perspective on how AEs can be constructed.

19.Lie-Poisson Neural Networks (LPNets): Data-Based Computing of Hamiltonian Systems with Symmetries

Authors:Christopher Eldred, François Gay-Balmaz, Sofiia Huraka, Vakhtang Putkaradze

Abstract: An accurate data-based prediction of the long-term evolution of Hamiltonian systems requires a network that preserves the appropriate structure under each time step. Every Hamiltonian system contains two essential ingredients: the Poisson bracket and the Hamiltonian. Hamiltonian systems with symmetries, whose paradigm examples are the Lie-Poisson systems, have been shown to describe a broad category of physical phenomena, from satellite motion to underwater vehicles, fluids, geophysical applications, complex fluids, and plasma physics. The Poisson bracket in these systems comes from the symmetries, while the Hamiltonian comes from the underlying physics. We view the symmetry of the system as primary, hence the Lie-Poisson bracket is known exactly, whereas the Hamiltonian is regarded as coming from physics and is considered not known, or known approximately. Using this approach, we develop a network based on transformations that exactly preserve the Poisson bracket and the special functions of the Lie-Poisson systems (Casimirs) to machine precision. We present two flavors of such systems: one, where the parameters of transformations are computed from data using a dense neural network (LPNets), and another, where the composition of transformations is used as building blocks (G-LPNets). We also show how to adapt these methods to a larger class of Poisson brackets. We apply the resulting methods to several examples, such as rigid body (satellite) motion, underwater vehicles, a particle in a magnetic field, and others. The methods developed in this paper are important for the construction of accurate data-based methods for simulating the long-term dynamics of physical systems.

20.Heterogeneous Multi-Task Gaussian Cox Processes

Authors:Feng Zhou, Quyu Kong, Zhijie Deng, Fengxiang He, Peng Cui, Jun Zhu

Abstract: This paper presents a novel extension of multi-task Gaussian Cox processes for modeling multiple heterogeneous correlated tasks jointly, e.g., classification and regression, via multi-output Gaussian processes (MOGP). A MOGP prior over the parameters of the dedicated likelihoods for classification, regression and point process tasks can facilitate sharing of information between heterogeneous tasks, while allowing for nonparametric parameter estimation. To circumvent the non-conjugate Bayesian inference in the MOGP modulated heterogeneous multi-task framework, we employ the data augmentation technique and derive a mean-field approximation to realize closed-form iterative updates for estimating model parameters. We demonstrate the performance and inference on both 1D synthetic data as well as 2D urban data of Vancouver.

21.The CausalBench challenge: A machine learning contest for gene network inference from single-cell perturbation data

Authors:Mathieu Chevalley, Jacob Sackett-Sanders, Yusuf Roohani, Pascal Notin, Artemy Bakulin, Dariusz Brzezinski, Kaiwen Deng, Yuanfang Guan, Justin Hong, Michael Ibrahim, Wojciech Kotlowski, Marcin Kowiel, Panagiotis Misiakos, Achille Nazaret, Markus Püschel, Chris Wendler, Arash Mehrjou, Patrick Schwab

Abstract: In drug discovery, mapping interactions between genes within cellular systems is a crucial early step. This helps formulate hypotheses regarding molecular mechanisms that could potentially be targeted by future medicines. The CausalBench Challenge was an initiative to invite the machine learning community to advance the state of the art in constructing gene-gene interaction networks. These networks, derived from large-scale, real-world datasets of single cells under various perturbations, are crucial for understanding the causal mechanisms underlying disease biology. Using the framework provided by the CausalBench benchmark, participants were tasked with enhancing the capacity of the state of the art methods to leverage large-scale genetic perturbation data. This report provides an analysis and summary of the methods submitted during the challenge to give a partial image of the state of the art at the time of the challenge. The winning solutions significantly improved performance compared to previous baselines, establishing a new state of the art for this critical task in biology and medicine.

22.Robust Long-Tailed Learning via Label-Aware Bounded CVaR

Authors:Hong Zhu, Runpeng Yu, Xing Tang, Yifei Wang, Yuan Fang, Yisen Wang

Abstract: Data in the real-world classification problems are always imbalanced or long-tailed, wherein the majority classes have the most of the samples that dominate the model training. In such setting, the naive model tends to have poor performance on the minority classes. Previously, a variety of loss modifications have been proposed to address the long-tailed leaning problem, while these methods either treat the samples in the same class indiscriminatingly or lack a theoretical guarantee. In this paper, we propose two novel approaches based on CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) to improve the performance of long-tailed learning with a solid theoretical ground. Specifically, we firstly introduce a Label-Aware Bounded CVaR (LAB-CVaR) loss to overcome the pessimistic result of the original CVaR, and further design the optimal weight bounds for LAB-CVaR theoretically. Based on LAB-CVaR, we additionally propose a LAB-CVaR with logit adjustment (LAB-CVaR-logit) loss to stabilize the optimization process, where we also offer the theoretical support. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets with long-tailed label distributions verify the superiority of our proposed methods.

23.Random feature approximation for general spectral methods

Authors:Mike Nguyen, Nicole Mücke

Abstract: Random feature approximation is arguably one of the most popular techniques to speed up kernel methods in large scale algorithms and provides a theoretical approach to the analysis of deep neural networks. We analyze generalization properties for a large class of spectral regularization methods combined with random features, containing kernel methods with implicit regularization such as gradient descent or explicit methods like Tikhonov regularization. For our estimators we obtain optimal learning rates over regularity classes (even for classes that are not included in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space), which are defined through appropriate source conditions. This improves or completes previous results obtained in related settings for specific kernel algorithms.

24.From SMOTE to Mixup for Deep Imbalanced Classification

Authors:Wei-Chao Cheng, Tan-Ha Mai, Hsuan-Tien Lin

Abstract: Given imbalanced data, it is hard to train a good classifier using deep learning because of the poor generalization of minority classes. Traditionally, the well-known synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) for data augmentation, a data mining approach for imbalanced learning, has been used to improve this generalization. However, it is unclear whether SMOTE also benefits deep learning. In this work, we study why the original SMOTE is insufficient for deep learning, and enhance SMOTE using soft labels. Connecting the resulting soft SMOTE with Mixup, a modern data augmentation technique, leads to a unified framework that puts traditional and modern data augmentation techniques under the same umbrella. A careful study within this framework shows that Mixup improves generalization by implicitly achieving uneven margins between majority and minority classes. We then propose a novel margin-aware Mixup technique that more explicitly achieves uneven margins. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our proposed technique yields state-of-the-art performance on deep imbalanced classification while achieving superior performance on extremely imbalanced data. The code is open-sourced in our developed package to foster future research in this direction.

25.A Comparative Study of Loss Functions: Traffic Predictions in Regular and Congestion Scenarios

Authors:Yangxinyu Xie, Tanwi Mallick

Abstract: Spatiotemporal graph neural networks have achieved state-of-the-art performance in traffic forecasting. However, they often struggle to forecast congestion accurately due to the limitations of traditional loss functions. While accurate forecasting of regular traffic conditions is crucial, a reliable AI system must also accurately forecast congestion scenarios to maintain safe and efficient transportation. In this paper, we explore various loss functions inspired by heavy tail analysis and imbalanced classification problems to address this issue. We evaluate the efficacy of these loss functions in forecasting traffic speed, with an emphasis on congestion scenarios. Through extensive experiments on real-world traffic datasets, we discovered that when optimizing for Mean Absolute Error (MAE), the MAE-Focal Loss function stands out as the most effective. When optimizing Mean Squared Error (MSE), Gumbel Loss proves to be the superior choice. These choices effectively forecast traffic congestion events without compromising the accuracy of regular traffic speed forecasts. This research enhances deep learning models' capabilities in forecasting sudden speed changes due to congestion and underscores the need for more research in this direction. By elevating the accuracy of congestion forecasting, we advocate for AI systems that are reliable, secure, and resilient in practical traffic management scenarios.

26.Input margins can predict generalization too

Authors:Coenraad Mouton, Marthinus W. Theunissen, Marelie H. Davel

Abstract: Understanding generalization in deep neural networks is an active area of research. A promising avenue of exploration has been that of margin measurements: the shortest distance to the decision boundary for a given sample or its representation internal to the network. While margins have been shown to be correlated with the generalization ability of a model when measured at its hidden representations (hidden margins), no such link between large margins and generalization has been established for input margins. We show that while input margins are not generally predictive of generalization, they can be if the search space is appropriately constrained. We develop such a measure based on input margins, which we refer to as `constrained margins'. The predictive power of this new measure is demonstrated on the 'Predicting Generalization in Deep Learning' (PGDL) dataset and contrasted with hidden representation margins. We find that constrained margins achieve highly competitive scores and outperform other margin measurements in general. This provides a novel insight on the relationship between generalization and classification margins, and highlights the importance of considering the data manifold for investigations of generalization in DNNs.

27.Policy composition in reinforcement learning via multi-objective policy optimization

Authors:Shruti Mishra, Ankit Anand, Jordan Hoffmann, Nicolas Heess, Martin Riedmiller, Abbas Abdolmaleki, Doina Precup

Abstract: We enable reinforcement learning agents to learn successful behavior policies by utilizing relevant pre-existing teacher policies. The teacher policies are introduced as objectives, in addition to the task objective, in a multi-objective policy optimization setting. Using the Multi-Objective Maximum a Posteriori Policy Optimization algorithm \citep{abdolmaleki2020distributional}, we show that teacher policies can help speed up learning, particularly in the absence of shaping rewards. In two domains with continuous observation and action spaces, our agents successfully compose teacher policies in sequence and in parallel, and are also able to further extend the policies of the teachers in order to solve the task. Depending on the specified combination of task and teacher(s), teacher(s) may naturally act to limit the final performance of an agent. The extent to which agents are required to adhere to teacher policies are determined by hyperparameters which determine both the effect of teachers on learning speed and the eventual performance of the agent on the task. In the {\tt humanoid} domain \citep{deepmindcontrolsuite2018}, we also equip agents with the ability to control the selection of teachers. With this ability, agents are able to meaningfully compose from the teacher policies to achieve a superior task reward on the {\tt walk} task than in cases without access to the teacher policies. We show the resemblance of composed task policies with the corresponding teacher policies through videos.

28.An Adaptive Tangent Feature Perspective of Neural Networks

Authors:Daniel LeJeune, Sina Alemohammad

Abstract: In order to better understand feature learning in neural networks, we propose a framework for understanding linear models in tangent feature space where the features are allowed to be transformed during training. We consider linear transformations of features, resulting in a joint optimization over parameters and transformations with a bilinear interpolation constraint. We show that this optimization problem has an equivalent linearly constrained optimization with structured regularization that encourages approximately low rank solutions. Specializing to neural network structure, we gain insights into how the features and thus the kernel function change, providing additional nuance to the phenomenon of kernel alignment when the target function is poorly represented using tangent features. In addition to verifying our theoretical observations in real neural networks on a simple regression problem, we empirically show that an adaptive feature implementation of tangent feature classification has an order of magnitude lower sample complexity than the fixed tangent feature model on MNIST and CIFAR-10.

1.Policy Diversity for Cooperative Agents

Authors:Mingxi Tan, Andong Tian, Ludovic Denoyer

Abstract: Standard cooperative multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) methods aim to find the optimal team cooperative policy to complete a task. However there may exist multiple different ways of cooperating, which usually are very needed by domain experts. Therefore, identifying a set of significantly different policies can alleviate the task complexity for them. Unfortunately, there is a general lack of effective policy diversity approaches specifically designed for the multi-agent domain. In this work, we propose a method called Moment-Matching Policy Diversity to alleviate this problem. This method can generate different team policies to varying degrees by formalizing the difference between team policies as the difference in actions of selected agents in different policies. Theoretically, we show that our method is a simple way to implement a constrained optimization problem that regularizes the difference between two trajectory distributions by using the maximum mean discrepancy. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated on a challenging team-based shooter.

2.Machine Unlearning Methodology base on Stochastic Teacher Network

Authors:Xulong Zhang, Jianzong Wang, Ning Cheng, Yifu Sun, Chuanyao Zhang, Jing Xiao

Abstract: The rise of the phenomenon of the "right to be forgotten" has prompted research on machine unlearning, which grants data owners the right to actively withdraw data that has been used for model training, and requires the elimination of the contribution of that data to the model. A simple method to achieve this is to use the remaining data to retrain the model, but this is not acceptable for other data owners who continue to participate in training. Existing machine unlearning methods have been found to be ineffective in quickly removing knowledge from deep learning models. This paper proposes using a stochastic network as a teacher to expedite the mitigation of the influence caused by forgotten data on the model. We performed experiments on three datasets, and the findings demonstrate that our approach can efficiently mitigate the influence of target data on the model within a single epoch. This allows for one-time erasure and reconstruction of the model, and the reconstruction model achieves the same performance as the retrained model.

3.Reinforcement Learning for Generative AI: A Survey

Authors:Yuanjiang Cao, Lina Yao, Julian McAuley, Quan Z. Sheng

Abstract: Deep Generative AI has been a long-standing essential topic in the machine learning community, which can impact a number of application areas like text generation and computer vision. The major paradigm to train a generative model is maximum likelihood estimation, which pushes the learner to capture and approximate the target data distribution by decreasing the divergence between the model distribution and the target distribution. This formulation successfully establishes the objective of generative tasks, while it is incapable of satisfying all the requirements that a user might expect from a generative model. Reinforcement learning, serving as a competitive option to inject new training signals by creating new objectives that exploit novel signals, has demonstrated its power and flexibility to incorporate human inductive bias from multiple angles, such as adversarial learning, hand-designed rules and learned reward model to build a performant model. Thereby, reinforcement learning has become a trending research field and has stretched the limits of generative AI in both model design and application. It is reasonable to summarize and conclude advances in recent years with a comprehensive review. Although there are surveys in different application areas recently, this survey aims to shed light on a high-level review that spans a range of application areas. We provide a rigorous taxonomy in this area and make sufficient coverage on various models and applications. Notably, we also surveyed the fast-developing large language model area. We conclude this survey by showing the potential directions that might tackle the limit of current models and expand the frontiers for generative AI.

4.DiffSmooth: Certifiably Robust Learning via Diffusion Models and Local Smoothing

Authors:Jiawei Zhang, Zhongzhu Chen, Huan Zhang, Chaowei Xiao, Bo Li

Abstract: Diffusion models have been leveraged to perform adversarial purification and thus provide both empirical and certified robustness for a standard model. On the other hand, different robustly trained smoothed models have been studied to improve the certified robustness. Thus, it raises a natural question: Can diffusion model be used to achieve improved certified robustness on those robustly trained smoothed models? In this work, we first theoretically show that recovered instances by diffusion models are in the bounded neighborhood of the original instance with high probability; and the "one-shot" denoising diffusion probabilistic models (DDPM) can approximate the mean of the generated distribution of a continuous-time diffusion model, which approximates the original instance under mild conditions. Inspired by our analysis, we propose a certifiably robust pipeline DiffSmooth, which first performs adversarial purification via diffusion models and then maps the purified instances to a common region via a simple yet effective local smoothing strategy. We conduct extensive experiments on different datasets and show that DiffSmooth achieves SOTA-certified robustness compared with eight baselines. For instance, DiffSmooth improves the SOTA-certified accuracy from $36.0\%$ to $53.0\%$ under $\ell_2$ radius $1.5$ on ImageNet. The code is available at [].

5.Fair Few-shot Learning with Auxiliary Sets

Authors:Song Wang, Jing Ma, Lu Cheng, Jundong Li

Abstract: Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing machine learning (ML) models that can promote fairness, i.e., eliminating biased predictions towards certain populations (e.g., individuals from a specific demographic group). Most existing works learn such models based on well-designed fairness constraints in optimization. Nevertheless, in many practical ML tasks, only very few labeled data samples can be collected, which can lead to inferior fairness performance. This is because existing fairness constraints are designed to restrict the prediction disparity among different sensitive groups, but with few samples, it becomes difficult to accurately measure the disparity, thus rendering ineffective fairness optimization. In this paper, we define the fairness-aware learning task with limited training samples as the \emph{fair few-shot learning} problem. To deal with this problem, we devise a novel framework that accumulates fairness-aware knowledge across different meta-training tasks and then generalizes the learned knowledge to meta-test tasks. To compensate for insufficient training samples, we propose an essential strategy to select and leverage an auxiliary set for each meta-test task. These auxiliary sets contain several labeled training samples that can enhance the model performance regarding fairness in meta-test tasks, thereby allowing for the transfer of learned useful fairness-oriented knowledge to meta-test tasks. Furthermore, we conduct extensive experiments on three real-world datasets to validate the superiority of our framework against the state-of-the-art baselines.

6.HRGCN: Heterogeneous Graph-level Anomaly Detection with Hierarchical Relation-augmented Graph Neural Networks

Authors:Jiaxi Li, Guansong Pang, Ling Chen, Mohammad-Reza Namazi-Rad

Abstract: This work considers the problem of heterogeneous graph-level anomaly detection. Heterogeneous graphs are commonly used to represent behaviours between different types of entities in complex industrial systems for capturing as much information about the system operations as possible. Detecting anomalous heterogeneous graphs from a large set of system behaviour graphs is crucial for many real-world applications like online web/mobile service and cloud access control. To address the problem, we propose HRGCN, an unsupervised deep heterogeneous graph neural network, to model complex heterogeneous relations between different entities in the system for effectively identifying these anomalous behaviour graphs. HRGCN trains a hierarchical relation-augmented Heterogeneous Graph Neural Network (HetGNN), which learns better graph representations by modelling the interactions among all the system entities and considering both source-to-destination entity (node) types and their relation (edge) types. Extensive evaluation on two real-world application datasets shows that HRGCN outperforms state-of-the-art competing anomaly detection approaches. We further present a real-world industrial case study to justify the effectiveness of HRGCN in detecting anomalous (e.g., congested) network devices in a mobile communication service. HRGCN is available at

7.Simple Modification of the Upper Confidence Bound Algorithm by Generalized Weighted Averages

Authors:Nobuhito Manome, Shuji Shinohara, Ung-il Chung

Abstract: The multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem is a classical problem that models sequential decision-making under uncertainty in reinforcement learning. In this study, we propose a new generalized upper confidence bound (UCB) algorithm (GWA-UCB1) by extending UCB1, which is a representative algorithm for MAB problems, using generalized weighted averages, and present an effective algorithm for various problem settings. GWA-UCB1 is a two-parameter generalization of the balance between exploration and exploitation in UCB1 and can be implemented with a simple modification of the UCB1 formula. Therefore, this algorithm can be easily applied to UCB-based reinforcement learning models. In preliminary experiments, we investigated the optimal parameters of a simple generalized UCB1 (G-UCB1), prepared for comparison and GWA-UCB1, in a stochastic MAB problem with two arms. Subsequently, we confirmed the performance of the algorithms with the investigated parameters on stochastic MAB problems when arm reward probabilities were sampled from uniform or normal distributions and on survival MAB problems assuming more realistic situations. GWA-UCB1 outperformed G-UCB1, UCB1-Tuned, and Thompson sampling in most problem settings and can be useful in many situations. The code is available at

8.EdgeMoE: Fast On-Device Inference of MoE-based Large Language Models

Authors:Rongjie Yi, Liwei Guo, Shiyun Wei, Ao Zhou, Shangguang Wang, Mengwei Xu

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs) such as GPTs and LLaMa have ushered in a revolution in machine intelligence, owing to their exceptional capabilities in a wide range of machine learning tasks. However, the transition of LLMs from data centers to edge devices presents a set of challenges and opportunities. While this shift can enhance privacy and availability, it is hampered by the enormous parameter sizes of these models, leading to impractical runtime costs. In light of these considerations, we introduce EdgeMoE, the first on-device inference engine tailored for mixture-of-expert (MoE) LLMs, a popular variant of sparse LLMs that exhibit nearly constant computational complexity as their parameter size scales. EdgeMoE achieves both memory and computational efficiency by strategically partitioning the model across the storage hierarchy. Specifically, non-expert weights are stored in the device's memory, while expert weights are kept in external storage and are fetched into memory only when they are activated. This design is underpinned by a crucial insight that expert weights, though voluminous, are infrequently accessed due to sparse activation patterns. To further mitigate the overhead associated with expert I/O swapping, EdgeMoE incorporates two innovative techniques: (1) Expert-wise bitwidth adaptation: This method reduces the size of expert weights with an acceptable level of accuracy loss. (2) Expert management: It predicts the experts that will be activated in advance and preloads them into the compute-I/O pipeline, thus further optimizing the process. In empirical evaluations conducted on well-established MoE LLMs and various edge devices, EdgeMoE demonstrates substantial memory savings and performance improvements when compared to competitive baseline solutions.

9.Can Transformer and GNN Help Each Other?

Authors:Peiyan Zhang, Yuchen Yan, Chaozhuo Li, Senzhang Wang, Xing Xie, Sunghun Kim

Abstract: Although Transformer has achieved great success in natural language process and computer vision, it has difficulty generalizing to medium and large-scale graph data for two important reasons: (i) High complexity. (ii) Failing to capture the complex and entangled structure information. In graph representation learning, Graph Neural Networks(GNNs) can fuse the graph structure and node attributes but have limited receptive fields. Therefore, we question whether can we combine Transformers and GNNs to help each other. In this paper, we propose a new model named TransGNN where the Transformer layer and GNN layer are used alternately to improve each other. Specifically, to expand the receptive field and disentangle the information aggregation from edges, we propose using Transformer to aggregate more relevant nodes' information to improve the message passing of GNNs. Besides, to capture the graph structure information, we utilize positional encoding and make use of the GNN layer to fuse the structure into node attributes, which improves the Transformer in graph data. We also propose to sample the most relevant nodes for Transformer and two efficient samples update strategies to lower the complexity. At last, we theoretically prove that TransGNN is more expressive than GNNs only with extra linear complexity. The experiments on eight datasets corroborate the effectiveness of TransGNN on node and graph classification tasks.

10.Target-independent XLA optimization using Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Milan Ganai, Haichen Li, Theodore Enns, Yida Wang, Randy Huang

Abstract: An important challenge in Machine Learning compilers like XLA is multi-pass optimization and analysis. There has been recent interest chiefly in XLA target-dependent optimization on the graph-level, subgraph-level, and kernel-level phases. We specifically focus on target-independent optimization XLA HLO pass ordering: our approach aims at finding the optimal sequence of compiler optimization passes, which is decoupled from target-dependent optimization. However, there is little domain specific study in pass ordering for XLA HLO. To this end, we propose introducing deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) based search for optimal XLA HLO pass ordering. We also propose enhancements to the deep RL algorithms to further improve optimal search performance and open the research direction for domain-specific guidance for RL. We create an XLA Gym experimentation framework as a tool to enable RL algorithms to interact with the compiler for passing optimizations and thereby train agents. Overall, in our experimentation we observe an average of $13.3\%$ improvement in operation count reduction on a benchmark of GPT-2 training graphs and $10.4\%$ improvement on a diverse benchmark including GPT-2, BERT, and ResNet graphs using the proposed approach over the compiler's default phase ordering.

11.Online Continual Learning on Hierarchical Label Expansion

Authors:Byung Hyun Lee, Okchul Jung, Jonghyun Choi, Se Young Chun

Abstract: Continual learning (CL) enables models to adapt to new tasks and environments without forgetting previously learned knowledge. While current CL setups have ignored the relationship between labels in the past task and the new task with or without small task overlaps, real-world scenarios often involve hierarchical relationships between old and new tasks, posing another challenge for traditional CL approaches. To address this challenge, we propose a novel multi-level hierarchical class incremental task configuration with an online learning constraint, called hierarchical label expansion (HLE). Our configuration allows a network to first learn coarse-grained classes, with data labels continually expanding to more fine-grained classes in various hierarchy depths. To tackle this new setup, we propose a rehearsal-based method that utilizes hierarchy-aware pseudo-labeling to incorporate hierarchical class information. Additionally, we propose a simple yet effective memory management and sampling strategy that selectively adopts samples of newly encountered classes. Our experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively use hierarchy on our HLE setup to improve classification accuracy across all levels of hierarchies, regardless of depth and class imbalance ratio, outperforming prior state-of-the-art works by significant margins while also outperforming them on the conventional disjoint, blurry and i-Blurry CL setups.

12.Are Existing Out-Of-Distribution Techniques Suitable for Network Intrusion Detection?

Authors:Andrea Corsini, Shanchieh Jay Yang

Abstract: Machine learning (ML) has become increasingly popular in network intrusion detection. However, ML-based solutions always respond regardless of whether the input data reflects known patterns, a common issue across safety-critical applications. While several proposals exist for detecting Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) in other fields, it remains unclear whether these approaches can effectively identify new forms of intrusions for network security. New attacks, not necessarily affecting overall distributions, are not guaranteed to be clearly OOD as instead, images depicting new classes are in computer vision. In this work, we investigate whether existing OOD detectors from other fields allow the identification of unknown malicious traffic. We also explore whether more discriminative and semantically richer embedding spaces within models, such as those created with contrastive learning and multi-class tasks, benefit detection. Our investigation covers a set of six OOD techniques that employ different detection strategies. These techniques are applied to models trained in various ways and subsequently exposed to unknown malicious traffic from the same and different datasets (network environments). Our findings suggest that existing detectors can identify a consistent portion of new malicious traffic, and that improved embedding spaces enhance detection. We also demonstrate that simple combinations of certain detectors can identify almost 100% of malicious traffic in our tested scenarios.

13.Meta Attentive Graph Convolutional Recurrent Network for Traffic Forecasting

Authors:Adnan Zeb, Yongchao Ye, Shiyao Zhang, James J. Q. Yu

Abstract: Traffic forecasting is a fundamental problem in intelligent transportation systems. Existing traffic predictors are limited by their expressive power to model the complex spatial-temporal dependencies in traffic data, mainly due to the following limitations. Firstly, most approaches are primarily designed to model the local shared patterns, which makes them insufficient to capture the specific patterns associated with each node globally. Hence, they fail to learn each node's unique properties and diversified patterns. Secondly, most existing approaches struggle to accurately model both short- and long-term dependencies simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a novel traffic predictor, named Meta Attentive Graph Convolutional Recurrent Network (MAGCRN). MAGCRN utilizes a Graph Convolutional Recurrent Network (GCRN) as a core module to model local dependencies and improves its operation with two novel modules: 1) a Node-Specific Meta Pattern Learning (NMPL) module to capture node-specific patterns globally and 2) a Node Attention Weight Generation Module (NAWG) module to capture short- and long-term dependencies by connecting the node-specific features with the ones learned initially at each time step during GCRN operation. Experiments on six real-world traffic datasets demonstrate that NMPL and NAWG together enable MAGCRN to outperform state-of-the-art baselines on both short- and long-term predictions.

14.Self-Supervision for Tackling Unsupervised Anomaly Detection: Pitfalls and Opportunities

Authors:Leman Akoglu, Jaemin Yoo

Abstract: Self-supervised learning (SSL) is a growing torrent that has recently transformed machine learning and its many real world applications, by learning on massive amounts of unlabeled data via self-generated supervisory signals. Unsupervised anomaly detection (AD) has also capitalized on SSL, by self-generating pseudo-anomalies through various data augmentation functions or external data exposure. In this vision paper, we first underline the importance of the choice of SSL strategies on AD performance, by presenting evidences and studies from the AD literature. Equipped with the understanding that SSL incurs various hyperparameters (HPs) to carefully tune, we present recent developments on unsupervised model selection and augmentation tuning for SSL-based AD. We then highlight emerging challenges and future opportunities; on designing new pretext tasks and augmentation functions for different data modalities, creating novel model selection solutions for systematically tuning the SSL HPs, as well as on capitalizing on the potential of pretrained foundation models on AD through effective density estimation.

15.Task-Aware Machine Unlearning and Its Application in Load Forecasting

Authors:Wangkun Xu, Fei Teng

Abstract: Data privacy and security have become a non-negligible factor in load forecasting. Previous researches mainly focus on training stage enhancement. However, once the model is trained and deployed, it may need to `forget' (i.e., remove the impact of) part of training data if the data is found to be malicious or as requested by the data owner. This paper introduces machine unlearning algorithm which is specifically designed to remove the influence of part of the original dataset on an already trained forecaster. However, direct unlearning inevitably degrades the model generalization ability. To balance between unlearning completeness and performance degradation, a performance-aware algorithm is proposed by evaluating the sensitivity of local model parameter change using influence function and sample re-weighting. Moreover, we observe that the statistic criterion cannot fully reflect the operation cost of down-stream tasks. Therefore, a task-aware machine unlearning is proposed whose objective is a tri-level optimization with dispatch and redispatch problems considered. We theoretically prove the existence of the gradient of such objective, which is key to re-weighting the remaining samples. We test the unlearning algorithms on linear and neural network load forecasters with realistic load dataset. The simulation demonstrates the balance on unlearning completeness and operational cost. All codes can be found at

16.Group Regression for Query Based Object Detection and Tracking

Authors:Felicia Ruppel, Florian Faion, Claudius Gläser, Klaus Dietmayer

Abstract: Group regression is commonly used in 3D object detection to predict box parameters of similar classes in a joint head, aiming to benefit from similarities while separating highly dissimilar classes. For query-based perception methods, this has, so far, not been feasible. We close this gap and present a method to incorporate multi-class group regression, especially designed for the 3D domain in the context of autonomous driving, into existing attention and query-based perception approaches. We enhance a transformer based joint object detection and tracking model with this approach, and thoroughly evaluate its behavior and performance. For group regression, the classes of the nuScenes dataset are divided into six groups of similar shape and prevalence, each being regressed by a dedicated head. We show that the proposed method is applicable to many existing transformer based perception approaches and can bring potential benefits. The behavior of query group regression is thoroughly analyzed in comparison to a unified regression head, e.g. in terms of class-switching behavior and distribution of the output parameters. The proposed method offers many possibilities for further research, such as in the direction of deep multi-hypotheses tracking.

17.Prediction of Tourism Flow with Sparse Geolocation Data

Authors:Julian Lemmel, Zahra Babaiee, Marvin Kleinlehner, Ivan Majic, Philipp Neubauer, Johannes Scholz, Radu Grosu, Sophie A. Neubauer

Abstract: Modern tourism in the 21st century is facing numerous challenges. Among these the rapidly growing number of tourists visiting space-limited regions like historical cities, museums and bottlenecks such as bridges is one of the biggest. In this context, a proper and accurate prediction of tourism volume and tourism flow within a certain area is important and critical for visitor management tasks such as sustainable treatment of the environment and prevention of overcrowding. Static flow control methods like conventional low-level controllers or limiting access to overcrowded venues could not solve the problem yet. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art deep-learning methods such as RNNs, GNNs, and Transformers as well as the classic statistical ARIMA method. Granular limited data supplied by a tourism region is extended by exogenous data such as geolocation trajectories of individual tourists, weather and holidays. In the field of visitor flow prediction with sparse data, we are thereby capable of increasing the accuracy of our predictions, incorporating modern input feature handling as well as mapping geolocation data on top of discrete POI data.

18.Large Graph Models: A Perspective

Authors:Ziwei Zhang, Haoyang Li, Zeyang Zhang, Yijian Qin, Xin Wang, Wenwu Zhu

Abstract: Large models have emerged as the most recent groundbreaking achievements in artificial intelligence, and particularly machine learning. However, when it comes to graphs, large models have not achieved the same level of success as in other fields, such as natural language processing and computer vision. In order to promote applying large models for graphs forward, we present a perspective paper to discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with developing large graph models. First, we discuss the desired characteristics of large graph models. Then, we present detailed discussions from three key perspectives: representation basis, graph data, and graph models. In each category, we provide a brief overview of recent advances and highlight the remaining challenges together with our visions. Finally, we discuss valuable applications of large graph models. We believe this perspective paper is able to encourage further investigations into large graph models, ultimately pushing us one step closer towards artificial general intelligence (AGI).

19.Kernel Limit of Recurrent Neural Networks Trained on Ergodic Data Sequences

Authors:Samuel Chun-Hei Lam, Justin Sirignano, Konstantinos Spiliopoulos

Abstract: Mathematical methods are developed to characterize the asymptotics of recurrent neural networks (RNN) as the number of hidden units, data samples in the sequence, hidden state updates, and training steps simultaneously grow to infinity. In the case of an RNN with a simplified weight matrix, we prove the convergence of the RNN to the solution of an infinite-dimensional ODE coupled with the fixed point of a random algebraic equation. The analysis requires addressing several challenges which are unique to RNNs. In typical mean-field applications (e.g., feedforward neural networks), discrete updates are of magnitude $\mathcal{O}(\frac{1}{N})$ and the number of updates is $\mathcal{O}(N)$. Therefore, the system can be represented as an Euler approximation of an appropriate ODE/PDE, which it will converge to as $N \rightarrow \infty$. However, the RNN hidden layer updates are $\mathcal{O}(1)$. Therefore, RNNs cannot be represented as a discretization of an ODE/PDE and standard mean-field techniques cannot be applied. Instead, we develop a fixed point analysis for the evolution of the RNN memory states, with convergence estimates in terms of the number of update steps and the number of hidden units. The RNN hidden layer is studied as a function in a Sobolev space, whose evolution is governed by the data sequence (a Markov chain), the parameter updates, and its dependence on the RNN hidden layer at the previous time step. Due to the strong correlation between updates, a Poisson equation must be used to bound the fluctuations of the RNN around its limit equation. These mathematical methods give rise to the neural tangent kernel (NTK) limits for RNNs trained on data sequences as the number of data samples and size of the neural network grow to infinity.

20.On the Tradeoff between Privacy Preservation and Byzantine-Robustness in Decentralized Learning

Authors:Haoxiang Ye, Heng Zhu, Qing Ling

Abstract: This paper jointly considers privacy preservation and Byzantine-robustness in decentralized learning. In a decentralized network, honest-but-curious agents faithfully follow the prescribed algorithm, but expect to infer their neighbors' private data from messages received during the learning process, while dishonest-and-Byzantine agents disobey the prescribed algorithm, and deliberately disseminate wrong messages to their neighbors so as to bias the learning process. For this novel setting, we investigate a generic privacy-preserving and Byzantine-robust decentralized stochastic gradient descent (SGD) framework, in which Gaussian noise is injected to preserve privacy and robust aggregation rules are adopted to counteract Byzantine attacks. We analyze its learning error and privacy guarantee, discovering an essential tradeoff between privacy preservation and Byzantine-robustness in decentralized learning -- the learning error caused by defending against Byzantine attacks is exacerbated by the Gaussian noise added to preserve privacy. Numerical experiments are conducted and corroborate our theoretical findings.

21.AI in the Gray: Exploring Moderation Policies in Dialogic Large Language Models vs. Human Answers in Controversial Topics

Authors:Vahid Ghafouri, Vibhor Agarwal, Yong Zhang, Nishanth Sastry, Jose Such, Guillermo Suarez-Tangil

Abstract: The introduction of ChatGPT and the subsequent improvement of Large Language Models (LLMs) have prompted more and more individuals to turn to the use of ChatBots, both for information and assistance with decision-making. However, the information the user is after is often not formulated by these ChatBots objectively enough to be provided with a definite, globally accepted answer. Controversial topics, such as "religion", "gender identity", "freedom of speech", and "equality", among others, can be a source of conflict as partisan or biased answers can reinforce preconceived notions or promote disinformation. By exposing ChatGPT to such debatable questions, we aim to understand its level of awareness and if existing models are subject to socio-political and/or economic biases. We also aim to explore how AI-generated answers compare to human ones. For exploring this, we use a dataset of a social media platform created for the purpose of debating human-generated claims on polemic subjects among users, dubbed Kialo. Our results show that while previous versions of ChatGPT have had important issues with controversial topics, more recent versions of ChatGPT (gpt-3.5-turbo) are no longer manifesting significant explicit biases in several knowledge areas. In particular, it is well-moderated regarding economic aspects. However, it still maintains degrees of implicit libertarian leaning toward right-winged ideals which suggest the need for increased moderation from the socio-political point of view. In terms of domain knowledge on controversial topics, with the exception of the "Philosophical" category, ChatGPT is performing well in keeping up with the collective human level of knowledge. Finally, we see that sources of Bing AI have slightly more tendency to the center when compared to human answers. All the analyses we make are generalizable to other types of biases and domains.

22.Comparing AutoML and Deep Learning Methods for Condition Monitoring using Realistic Validation Scenarios

Authors:Payman Goodarzi, Andreas Schütze, Tizian Schneider

Abstract: This study extensively compares conventional machine learning methods and deep learning for condition monitoring tasks using an AutoML toolbox. The experiments reveal consistent high accuracy in random K-fold cross-validation scenarios across all tested models. However, when employing leave-one-group-out (LOGO) cross-validation on the same datasets, no clear winner emerges, indicating the presence of domain shift in real-world scenarios. Additionally, the study assesses the scalability and interpretability of conventional methods and neural networks. Conventional methods offer explainability with their modular structure aiding feature identification. In contrast, neural networks require specialized interpretation techniques like occlusion maps to visualize important regions in the input data. Finally, the paper highlights the significance of feature selection, particularly in condition monitoring tasks with limited class variations. Low-complexity models prove sufficient for such tasks, as only a few features from the input signal are typically needed. In summary, these findings offer crucial insights into the strengths and limitations of various approaches, providing valuable benchmarks and identifying the most suitable methods for condition monitoring applications, thereby enhancing their applicability in real-world scenarios.

23.Rate-Optimal Policy Optimization for Linear Markov Decision Processes

Authors:Uri Sherman, Alon Cohen, Tomer Koren, Yishay Mansour

Abstract: We study regret minimization in online episodic linear Markov Decision Processes, and obtain rate-optimal $\widetilde O (\sqrt K)$ regret where $K$ denotes the number of episodes. Our work is the first to establish the optimal (w.r.t.~$K$) rate of convergence in the stochastic setting with bandit feedback using a policy optimization based approach, and the first to establish the optimal (w.r.t.~$K$) rate in the adversarial setup with full information feedback, for which no algorithm with an optimal rate guarantee is currently known.

24.Edge Generation Scheduling for DAG Tasks using Deep Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Binqi Sun, Mirco Theile, Ziyuan Qin, Daniele Bernardini, Debayan Roy, Andrea Bastoni, Marco Caccamo

Abstract: Directed acyclic graph (DAG) tasks are currently adopted in the real-time domain to model complex applications from the automotive, avionics, and industrial domain that implement their functionalities through chains of intercommunicating tasks. This paper studies the problem of scheduling real-time DAG tasks by presenting a novel schedulability test based on the concept of trivial schedulability. Using this schedulability test, we propose a new DAG scheduling framework (edge generation scheduling -- EGS) that attempts to minimize the DAG width by iteratively generating edges while guaranteeing the deadline constraint. We study how to efficiently solve the problem of generating edges by developing a deep reinforcement learning algorithm combined with a graph representation neural network to learn an efficient edge generation policy for EGS. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by comparing it with state-of-the-art DAG scheduling heuristics and an optimal mixed-integer linear programming baseline. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art by requiring fewer processors to schedule the same DAG tasks.

25.Adversarial Predictions of Data Distributions Across Federated Internet-of-Things Devices

Authors:Samir Rajani, Dario Dematties, Nathaniel Hudson, Kyle Chard, Nicola Ferrier, Rajesh Sankaran, Peter Beckman

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) is increasingly becoming the default approach for training machine learning models across decentralized Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. A key advantage of FL is that no raw data are communicated across the network, providing an immediate layer of privacy. Despite this, recent works have demonstrated that data reconstruction can be done with the locally trained model updates which are communicated across the network. However, many of these works have limitations with regard to how the gradients are computed in backpropagation. In this work, we demonstrate that the model weights shared in FL can expose revealing information about the local data distributions of IoT devices. This leakage could expose sensitive information to malicious actors in a distributed system. We further discuss results which show that injecting noise into model weights is ineffective at preventing data leakage without seriously harming the global model accuracy.

26.RESTORE: Graph Embedding Assessment Through Reconstruction

Authors:Hong Yung Yip, Chidaksh Ravuru, Neelabha Banerjee, Shashwat Jha, Amit Sheth, Aman Chadha, Amitava Das

Abstract: Following the success of Word2Vec embeddings, graph embeddings (GEs) have gained substantial traction. GEs are commonly generated and evaluated extrinsically on downstream applications, but intrinsic evaluations of the original graph properties in terms of topological structure and semantic information have been lacking. Understanding these will help identify the deficiency of the various families of GE methods when vectorizing graphs in terms of preserving the relevant knowledge or learning incorrect knowledge. To address this, we propose RESTORE, a framework for intrinsic GEs assessment through graph reconstruction. We show that reconstructing the original graph from the underlying GEs yields insights into the relative amount of information preserved in a given vector form. We first introduce the graph reconstruction task. We generate GEs from three GE families based on factorization methods, random walks, and deep learning (with representative algorithms from each family) on the CommonSense Knowledge Graph (CSKG). We analyze their effectiveness in preserving the (a) topological structure of node-level graph reconstruction with an increasing number of hops and (b) semantic information on various word semantic and analogy tests. Our evaluations show deep learning-based GE algorithm (SDNE) is overall better at preserving (a) with a mean average precision (mAP) of 0.54 and 0.35 for 2 and 3-hop reconstruction respectively, while the factorization-based algorithm (HOPE) is better at encapsulating (b) with an average Euclidean distance of 0.14, 0.17, and 0.11 for 1, 2, and 3-hop reconstruction respectively. The modest performance of these GEs leaves room for further research avenues on better graph representation learning.

27.Fast Feedforward Networks

Authors:Peter Belcak, Roger Wattenhofer

Abstract: We break the linear link between the layer size and its inference cost by introducing the fast feedforward (FFF) architecture, a logarithmic-time alternative to feedforward networks. We show that FFFs give comparable performance to feedforward networks at an exponential fraction of their inference cost, are quicker to deliver performance compared to mixture-of-expert networks, and can readily take the place of either in transformers. Pushing FFFs to the absolute limit, we train a vision transformer to perform single-neuron inferences at the cost of only 5.8% performance decrease against the full-width variant. Our implementation is available as a Python package; just use "pip install fastfeedforward".

1.Physics-Inspired Neural Graph ODE for Long-term Dynamical Simulation

Authors:Yang Liu, Jiashun Cheng, Haihong Zhao, Tingyang Xu, Peilin Zhao, Fugee Tsung, Jia Li, Yu Rong

Abstract: Simulating and modeling the long-term dynamics of multi-object physical systems is an essential and challenging task. Current studies model the physical systems utilizing Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) with equivariant properties. Specifically, they model the dynamics as a sequence of discrete states with a fixed time interval and learn a direct mapping for all the two adjacent states. However, this direct mapping overlooks the continuous nature between the two states. Namely, we have verified that there are countless possible trajectories between two discrete dynamic states in current GNN-based direct mapping models. This issue greatly hinders the model generalization ability, leading to poor performance of the long-term simulation. In this paper, to better model the latent trajectory through discrete supervision signals, we propose a Physics-Inspired Neural Graph ODE (PINGO) algorithm. In PINGO, to ensure the uniqueness of the trajectory, we construct a Physics-Inspired Neural ODE framework to update the latent trajectory. Meanwhile, to effectively capture intricate interactions among objects, we use a GNN-based model to parameterize Neural ODE in a plug-and-play manner. Furthermore, we prove that the discrepancy between the learned trajectory of PIGNO and the true trajectory can be theoretically bounded. Extensive experiments verify our theoretical findings and demonstrate that our model yields an order-of-magnitude improvement over the state-of-the-art baselines, especially on long-term predictions and roll-out errors.

2.Optimizing Group-Fair Plackett-Luce Ranking Models for Relevance and Ex-Post Fairness

Authors:Sruthi Gorantla, Eshaan Bhansali, Amit Deshpande, Anand Louis

Abstract: In learning-to-rank (LTR), optimizing only the relevance (or the expected ranking utility) can cause representational harm to certain categories of items. Moreover, if there is implicit bias in the relevance scores, LTR models may fail to optimize for true relevance. Previous works have proposed efficient algorithms to train stochastic ranking models that achieve fairness of exposure to the groups ex-ante (or, in expectation), which may not guarantee representation fairness to the groups ex-post, that is, after realizing a ranking from the stochastic ranking model. Typically, ex-post fairness is achieved by post-processing, but previous work does not train stochastic ranking models that are aware of this post-processing. In this paper, we propose a novel objective that maximizes expected relevance only over those rankings that satisfy given representation constraints to ensure ex-post fairness. Building upon recent work on an efficient sampler for ex-post group-fair rankings, we propose a group-fair Plackett-Luce model and show that it can be efficiently optimized for our objective in the LTR framework. Experiments on three real-world datasets show that our group-fair algorithm guarantees fairness alongside usually having better relevance compared to the LTR baselines. In addition, our algorithm also achieves better relevance than post-processing baselines, which also ensures ex-post fairness. Further, when implicit bias is injected into the training data, our algorithm typically outperforms existing LTR baselines in relevance.

3.Model-free Reinforcement Learning with Stochastic Reward Stabilization for Recommender Systems

Authors:Tianchi Cai, Shenliao Bao, Jiyan Jiang, Shiji Zhou, Wenpeng Zhang, Lihong Gu, Jinjie Gu, Guannan Zhang

Abstract: Model-free RL-based recommender systems have recently received increasing research attention due to their capability to handle partial feedback and long-term rewards. However, most existing research has ignored a critical feature in recommender systems: one user's feedback on the same item at different times is random. The stochastic rewards property essentially differs from that in classic RL scenarios with deterministic rewards, which makes RL-based recommender systems much more challenging. In this paper, we first demonstrate in a simulator environment where using direct stochastic feedback results in a significant drop in performance. Then to handle the stochastic feedback more efficiently, we design two stochastic reward stabilization frameworks that replace the direct stochastic feedback with that learned by a supervised model. Both frameworks are model-agnostic, i.e., they can effectively utilize various supervised models. We demonstrate the superiority of the proposed frameworks over different RL-based recommendation baselines with extensive experiments on a recommendation simulator as well as an industrial-level recommender system.

4.Kissing to Find a Match: Efficient Low-Rank Permutation Representation

Authors:Hannah Dröge, Zorah Lähner, Yuval Bahat, Onofre Martorell, Felix Heide, Michael Möller

Abstract: Permutation matrices play a key role in matching and assignment problems across the fields, especially in computer vision and robotics. However, memory for explicitly representing permutation matrices grows quadratically with the size of the problem, prohibiting large problem instances. In this work, we propose to tackle the curse of dimensionality of large permutation matrices by approximating them using low-rank matrix factorization, followed by a nonlinearity. To this end, we rely on the Kissing number theory to infer the minimal rank required for representing a permutation matrix of a given size, which is significantly smaller than the problem size. This leads to a drastic reduction in computation and memory costs, e.g., up to $3$ orders of magnitude less memory for a problem of size $n=20000$, represented using $8.4\times10^5$ elements in two small matrices instead of using a single huge matrix with $4\times 10^8$ elements. The proposed representation allows for accurate representations of large permutation matrices, which in turn enables handling large problems that would have been infeasible otherwise. We demonstrate the applicability and merits of the proposed approach through a series of experiments on a range of problems that involve predicting permutation matrices, from linear and quadratic assignment to shape matching problems.

5.Heterogeneous Federated Learning via Personalized Generative Networks

Authors:Zahra Taghiyarrenani, Abdallah Abdallah, Slawomir Nowaczyk, Sepideh Pashami

Abstract: Federated Learning (FL) allows several clients to construct a common global machine-learning model without having to share their data. FL, however, faces the challenge of statistical heterogeneity between the client's data, which degrades performance and slows down the convergence toward the global model. In this paper, we provide theoretical proof that minimizing heterogeneity between clients facilitates the convergence of a global model for every single client. This becomes particularly important under empirical concept shifts among clients, rather than merely considering imbalanced classes, which have been studied until now. Therefore, we propose a method for knowledge transfer between clients where the server trains client-specific generators. Each generator generates samples for the corresponding client to remove the conflict with other clients' models. Experiments conducted on synthetic and real data, along with a theoretical study, support the effectiveness of our method in constructing a well-generalizable global model by reducing the conflict between local models.

6.Heterogeneous Decentralized Machine Unlearning with Seed Model Distillation

Authors:Guanhua Ye, Guanhua Ye, Quoc Viet Hung Nguyen, Hongzhi Yin

Abstract: As some recent information security legislation endowed users with unconditional rights to be forgotten by any trained machine learning model, personalized IoT service providers have to put unlearning functionality into their consideration. The most straightforward method to unlearn users' contribution is to retrain the model from the initial state, which is not realistic in high throughput applications with frequent unlearning requests. Though some machine unlearning frameworks have been proposed to speed up the retraining process, they fail to match decentralized learning scenarios. In this paper, we design a decentralized unlearning framework called HDUS, which uses distilled seed models to construct erasable ensembles for all clients. Moreover, the framework is compatible with heterogeneous on-device models, representing stronger scalability in real-world applications. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets show that our HDUS achieves state-of-the-art performance.

7.Integrating LLMs and Decision Transformers for Language Grounded Generative Quality-Diversity

Authors:Achkan Salehi, Stephane Doncieux

Abstract: Quality-Diversity is a branch of stochastic optimization that is often applied to problems from the Reinforcement Learning and control domains in order to construct repertoires of well-performing policies/skills that exhibit diversity with respect to a behavior space. Such archives are usually composed of a finite number of reactive agents which are each associated to a unique behavior descriptor, and instantiating behavior descriptors outside of that coarsely discretized space is not straight-forward. While a few recent works suggest solutions to that issue, the trajectory that is generated is not easily customizable beyond the specification of a target behavior descriptor. We propose to jointly solve those problems in environments where semantic information about static scene elements is available by leveraging a Large Language Model to augment the repertoire with natural language descriptions of trajectories, and training a policy conditioned on those descriptions. Thus, our method allows a user to not only specify an arbitrary target behavior descriptor, but also provide the model with a high-level textual prompt to shape the generated trajectory. We also propose an LLM-based approach to evaluating the performance of such generative agents. Furthermore, we develop a benchmark based on simulated robot navigation in a 2d maze that we use for experimental validation.

8.Hyperbolic Random Forests

Authors:Lars Doorenbos, Pablo Márquez-Neila, Raphael Sznitman, Pascal Mettes

Abstract: Hyperbolic space is becoming a popular choice for representing data due to the hierarchical structure - whether implicit or explicit - of many real-world datasets. Along with it comes a need for algorithms capable of solving fundamental tasks, such as classification, in hyperbolic space. Recently, multiple papers have investigated hyperbolic alternatives to hyperplane-based classifiers, such as logistic regression and SVMs. While effective, these approaches struggle with more complex hierarchical data. We, therefore, propose to generalize the well-known random forests to hyperbolic space. We do this by redefining the notion of a split using horospheres. Since finding the globally optimal split is computationally intractable, we find candidate horospheres through a large-margin classifier. To make hyperbolic random forests work on multi-class data and imbalanced experiments, we furthermore outline a new method for combining classes based on their lowest common ancestor and a class-balanced version of the large-margin loss. Experiments on standard and new benchmarks show that our approach outperforms both conventional random forest algorithms and recent hyperbolic classifiers.

9.A Bayesian Active Learning Approach to Comparative Judgement

Authors:Andy Gray, Alma Rahat, Tom Crick, Stephen Lindsay, Darren Wallace

Abstract: Assessment is a crucial part of education. Traditional marking is a source of inconsistencies and unconscious bias, placing a high cognitive load on the assessors. An approach to address these issues is comparative judgement (CJ). In CJ, the assessor is presented with a pair of items and is asked to select the better one. Following a series of comparisons, a rank is derived using a ranking model, for example, the BTM, based on the results. While CJ is considered a reliable method for marking, there are concerns around transparency, and the ideal number of pairwise comparisons to generate a reliable estimation of the rank order is not known. Additionally, there have been attempts to generate a method of selecting pairs that should be compared next in an informative manner, but some existing methods are known to have created their own bias within results inflating the reliability metric used. As a result, a random selection approach is usually deployed. We propose a novel Bayesian approach to CJ (BCJ) for determining the ranks of compared items alongside a new way to select the pairs to present to the marker(s) using active learning (AL), addressing the key shortcomings of traditional CJ. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the entire approach may provide transparency by providing the user insights into how it is making its decisions and, at the same time, being more efficient. Results from our experiments confirm that the proposed BCJ combined with entropy-driven AL pair-selection method is superior to other alternatives. We also find that the more comparisons done, the more accurate BCJ becomes, which solves the issue the current method has of the model deteriorating if too many comparisons are performed. As our approach can generate the complete predicted rank distribution for an item, we also show how this can be utilised in devising a predicted grade, guided by the assessor.

10.Training normalizing flows with computationally intensive target probability distributions

Authors:Piotr Bialas, Piotr Korcyl, Tomasz Stebel

Abstract: Machine learning techniques, in particular the so-called normalizing flows, are becoming increasingly popular in the context of Monte Carlo simulations as they can effectively approximate target probability distributions. In the case of lattice field theories (LFT) the target distribution is given by the exponential of the action. The common loss function's gradient estimator based on the "reparametrization trick" requires the calculation of the derivative of the action with respect to the fields. This can present a significant computational cost for complicated, non-local actions like e.g. fermionic action in QCD. In this contribution, we propose an estimator for normalizing flows based on the REINFORCE algorithm that avoids this issue. We apply it to two dimensional Schwinger model with Wilson fermions at criticality and show that it is up to ten times faster in terms of the wall-clock time as well as requiring up to $30\%$ less memory than the reparameterization trick estimator. It is also more numerically stable allowing for single precision calculations and the use of half-float tensor cores. We present an in-depth analysis of the origins of those improvements. We believe that these benefits will appear also outside the realm of the LFT, in each case where the target probability distribution is computationally intensive.

11.Federated Linear Bandit Learning via Over-the-Air Computation

Authors:Jiali Wang, Yuning Jiang, Xin Liu, Ting Wang, Yuanming Shi

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate federated contextual linear bandit learning within a wireless system that comprises a server and multiple devices. Each device interacts with the environment, selects an action based on the received reward, and sends model updates to the server. The primary objective is to minimize cumulative regret across all devices within a finite time horizon. To reduce the communication overhead, devices communicate with the server via over-the-air computation (AirComp) over noisy fading channels, where the channel noise may distort the signals. In this context, we propose a customized federated linear bandits scheme, where each device transmits an analog signal, and the server receives a superposition of these signals distorted by channel noise. A rigorous mathematical analysis is conducted to determine the regret bound of the proposed scheme. Both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments demonstrate the competitive performance of our proposed scheme in terms of regret bounds in various settings.

12.Learning Compact Neural Networks with Deep Overparameterised Multitask Learning

Authors:Shen Ren, Haosen Shi

Abstract: Compact neural network offers many benefits for real-world applications. However, it is usually challenging to train the compact neural networks with small parameter sizes and low computational costs to achieve the same or better model performance compared to more complex and powerful architecture. This is particularly true for multitask learning, with different tasks competing for resources. We present a simple, efficient and effective multitask learning overparameterisation neural network design by overparameterising the model architecture in training and sharing the overparameterised model parameters more effectively across tasks, for better optimisation and generalisation. Experiments on two challenging multitask datasets (NYUv2 and COCO) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method across various convolutional networks and parameter sizes.

13.Fine-tuning can cripple your foundation model; preserving features may be the solution

Authors:Jishnu Mukhoti, Yarin Gal, Philip H. S. Torr, Puneet K. Dokania

Abstract: Pre-trained foundation models, owing primarily to their enormous capacity and exposure to vast amount of training data scraped from the internet, enjoy the advantage of storing knowledge about plenty of real-world concepts. Such models are typically fine-tuned on downstream datasets to produce remarkable state-of-the-art performances. While various fine-tuning methods have been devised and are shown to be highly effective, we observe that a fine-tuned model's ability to recognize concepts on tasks $\textit{different}$ from the downstream one is reduced significantly compared to its pre-trained counterpart. This is clearly undesirable as a huge amount of time and money went into learning those very concepts in the first place. We call this undesirable phenomenon "concept forgetting" and via experiments show that most end-to-end fine-tuning approaches suffer heavily from this side effect. To this end, we also propose a rather simple fix to this problem by designing a method called LDIFS (short for $\ell_2$ distance in feature space) that simply preserves the features of the original foundation model during fine-tuning. We show that LDIFS significantly reduces concept forgetting without having noticeable impact on the downstream task performance.

14.A Generic Machine Learning Framework for Fully-Unsupervised Anomaly Detection with Contaminated Data

Authors:Markus Ulmer, Jannik Zgraggen, Lilach Goren Huber

Abstract: Anomaly detection (AD) tasks have been solved using machine learning algorithms in various domains and applications. The great majority of these algorithms use normal data to train a residual-based model, and assign anomaly scores to unseen samples based on their dissimilarity with the learned normal regime. The underlying assumption of these approaches is that anomaly-free data is available for training. This is, however, often not the case in real-world operational settings, where the training data may be contaminated with a certain fraction of abnormal samples. Training with contaminated data, in turn, inevitably leads to a deteriorated AD performance of the residual-based algorithms. In this paper we introduce a framework for a fully unsupervised refinement of contaminated training data for AD tasks. The framework is generic and can be applied to any residual-based machine learning model. We demonstrate the application of the framework to two public datasets of multivariate time series machine data from different application fields. We show its clear superiority over the naive approach of training with contaminated data without refinement. Moreover, we compare it to the ideal, unrealistic reference in which anomaly-free data would be available for training. Since the approach exploits information from the anomalies, and not only from the normal regime, it is comparable and often outperforms the ideal baseline as well.

15.TFDNet: Time-Frequency Enhanced Decomposed Network for Long-term Time Series Forecasting

Authors:Yuxiao Luo, Ziyu Lyu, Xingyu Huang

Abstract: Long-term time series forecasting is a vital task and has a wide range of real applications. Recent methods focus on capturing the underlying patterns from one single domain (e.g. the time domain or the frequency domain), and have not taken a holistic view to process long-term time series from the time-frequency domains. In this paper, we propose a Time-Frequency Enhanced Decomposed Network (TFDNet) to capture both the long-term underlying patterns and temporal periodicity from the time-frequency domain. In TFDNet, we devise a multi-scale time-frequency enhanced encoder backbone and develop two separate trend and seasonal time-frequency blocks to capture the distinct patterns within the decomposed trend and seasonal components in multi-resolutions. Diverse kernel learning strategies of the kernel operations in time-frequency blocks have been explored, by investigating and incorporating the potential different channel-wise correlation patterns of multivariate time series. Experimental evaluation of eight datasets from five benchmark domains demonstrated that TFDNet is superior to state-of-the-art approaches in both effectiveness and efficiency.

16.Using Visual and Vehicular Sensors for Driver Behavior Analysis: A Survey

Authors:Bikram Adhikari

Abstract: Risky drivers account for 70% of fatal accidents in the United States. With recent advances in sensors and intelligent vehicular systems, there has been significant research on assessing driver behavior to improve driving experiences and road safety. This paper examines the various techniques used to analyze driver behavior using visual and vehicular data, providing an overview of the latest research in this field. The paper also discusses the challenges and open problems in the field and offers potential recommendations for future research. The survey concludes that integrating vision and vehicular information can significantly enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of driver behavior analysis, leading to improved safety measures and reduced traffic accidents.

17.Nougat: Neural Optical Understanding for Academic Documents

Authors:Lukas Blecher, Guillem Cucurull, Thomas Scialom, Robert Stojnic

Abstract: Scientific knowledge is predominantly stored in books and scientific journals, often in the form of PDFs. However, the PDF format leads to a loss of semantic information, particularly for mathematical expressions. We propose Nougat (Neural Optical Understanding for Academic Documents), a Visual Transformer model that performs an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) task for processing scientific documents into a markup language, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on a new dataset of scientific documents. The proposed approach offers a promising solution to enhance the accessibility of scientific knowledge in the digital age, by bridging the gap between human-readable documents and machine-readable text. We release the models and code to accelerate future work on scientific text recognition.

18.Learning to Intervene on Concept Bottlenecks

Authors:David Steinmann, Wolfgang Stammer, Felix Friedrich, Kristian Kersting

Abstract: While traditional deep learning models often lack interpretability, concept bottleneck models (CBMs) provide inherent explanations via their concept representations. Specifically, they allow users to perform interventional interactions on these concepts by updating the concept values and thus correcting the predictive output of the model. Traditionally, however, these interventions are applied to the model only once and discarded afterward. To rectify this, we present concept bottleneck memory models (CB2M), an extension to CBMs. Specifically, a CB2M learns to generalize interventions to appropriate novel situations via a two-fold memory with which it can learn to detect mistakes and to reapply previous interventions. In this way, a CB2M learns to automatically improve model performance from a few initially obtained interventions. If no prior human interventions are available, a CB2M can detect potential mistakes of the CBM bottleneck and request targeted interventions. In our experimental evaluations on challenging scenarios like handling distribution shifts and confounded training data, we illustrate that CB2M are able to successfully generalize interventions to unseen data and can indeed identify wrongly inferred concepts. Overall, our results show that CB2M is a great tool for users to provide interactive feedback on CBMs, e.g., by guiding a user's interaction and requiring fewer interventions.

19.Staleness-Alleviated Distributed GNN Training via Online Dynamic-Embedding Prediction

Authors:Guangji Bai, Ziyang Yu, Zheng Chai, Yue Cheng, Liang Zhao

Abstract: Despite the recent success of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), it remains challenging to train GNNs on large-scale graphs due to neighbor explosions. As a remedy, distributed computing becomes a promising solution by leveraging abundant computing resources (e.g., GPU). However, the node dependency of graph data increases the difficulty of achieving high concurrency in distributed GNN training, which suffers from the massive communication overhead. To address it, Historical value approximation is deemed a promising class of distributed training techniques. It utilizes an offline memory to cache historical information (e.g., node embedding) as an affordable approximation of the exact value and achieves high concurrency. However, such benefits come at the cost of involving dated training information, leading to staleness, imprecision, and convergence issues. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes SAT (Staleness-Alleviated Training), a novel and scalable distributed GNN training framework that reduces the embedding staleness adaptively. The key idea of SAT is to model the GNN's embedding evolution as a temporal graph and build a model upon it to predict future embedding, which effectively alleviates the staleness of the cached historical embedding. We propose an online algorithm to train the embedding predictor and the distributed GNN alternatively and further provide a convergence analysis. Empirically, we demonstrate that SAT can effectively reduce embedding staleness and thus achieve better performance and convergence speed on multiple large-scale graph datasets.

20.TpuGraphs: A Performance Prediction Dataset on Large Tensor Computational Graphs

Authors:Phitchaya Mangpo Phothilimthana, Sami Abu-El-Haija, Kaidi Cao, Bahare Fatemi, Charith Mendis, Bryan Perozzi

Abstract: Precise hardware performance models play a crucial role in code optimizations. They can assist compilers in making heuristic decisions or aid autotuners in identifying the optimal configuration for a given program. For example, the autotuner for XLA, a machine learning compiler, discovered 10-20% speedup on state-of-the-art models serving substantial production traffic at Google. Although there exist a few datasets for program performance prediction, they target small sub-programs such as basic blocks or kernels. This paper introduces TpuGraphs, a performance prediction dataset on full tensor programs, represented as computational graphs, running on Tensor Processing Units (TPUs). Each graph in the dataset represents the main computation of a machine learning workload, e.g., a training epoch or an inference step. Each data sample contains a computational graph, a compilation configuration, and the execution time of the graph when compiled with the configuration. The graphs in the dataset are collected from open-source machine learning programs, featuring popular model architectures, e.g., ResNet, EfficientNet, Mask R-CNN, and Transformer. TpuGraphs provides 25x more graphs than the largest graph property prediction dataset (with comparable graph sizes), and 770x larger graphs on average compared to existing performance prediction datasets on machine learning programs. This graph-level prediction task on large graphs introduces new challenges in learning, ranging from scalability, training efficiency, to model quality.

21.Escaping the Sample Trap: Fast and Accurate Epistemic Uncertainty Estimation with Pairwise-Distance Estimators

Authors:Lucas Berry, David Meger

Abstract: This work introduces a novel approach for epistemic uncertainty estimation for ensemble models using pairwise-distance estimators (PaiDEs). These estimators utilize the pairwise-distance between model components to establish bounds on entropy and uses said bounds as estimates for information-based criterion. Unlike recent deep learning methods for epistemic uncertainty estimation, which rely on sample-based Monte Carlo estimators, PaiDEs are able to estimate epistemic uncertainty up to 100$\times$ faster, over a larger space (up to 100$\times$) and perform more accurately in higher dimensions. To validate our approach, we conducted a series of experiments commonly used to evaluate epistemic uncertainty estimation: 1D sinusoidal data, Pendulum-v0, Hopper-v2, Ant-v2 and Humanoid-v2. For each experimental setting, an Active Learning framework was applied to demonstrate the advantages of PaiDEs for epistemic uncertainty estimation.

22.A2Q: Accumulator-Aware Quantization with Guaranteed Overflow Avoidance

Authors:Ian Colbert, Alessandro Pappalardo, Jakoba Petri-Koenig

Abstract: We present accumulator-aware quantization (A2Q), a novel weight quantization method designed to train quantized neural networks (QNNs) to avoid overflow when using low-precision accumulators during inference. A2Q introduces a unique formulation inspired by weight normalization that constrains the L1-norm of model weights according to accumulator bit width bounds that we derive. Thus, in training QNNs for low-precision accumulation, A2Q also inherently promotes unstructured weight sparsity to guarantee overflow avoidance. We apply our method to deep learning-based computer vision tasks to show that A2Q can train QNNs for low-precision accumulators while maintaining model accuracy competitive with a floating-point baseline. In our evaluations, we consider the impact of A2Q on both general-purpose platforms and programmable hardware. However, we primarily target model deployment on FPGAs because they can be programmed to fully exploit custom accumulator bit widths. Our experimentation shows accumulator bit width significantly impacts the resource efficiency of FPGA-based accelerators. On average across our benchmarks, A2Q offers up to a 2.3x reduction in resource utilization over 32-bit accumulator counterparts with 99.2% of the floating-point model accuracy.

23.Unveiling the Role of Message Passing in Dual-Privacy Preservation on GNNs

Authors:Tianyi Zhao, Hui Hu, Lu Cheng

Abstract: Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are powerful tools for learning representations on graphs, such as social networks. However, their vulnerability to privacy inference attacks restricts their practicality, especially in high-stake domains. To address this issue, privacy-preserving GNNs have been proposed, focusing on preserving node and/or link privacy. This work takes a step back and investigates how GNNs contribute to privacy leakage. Through theoretical analysis and simulations, we identify message passing under structural bias as the core component that allows GNNs to \textit{propagate} and \textit{amplify} privacy leakage. Building upon these findings, we propose a principled privacy-preserving GNN framework that effectively safeguards both node and link privacy, referred to as dual-privacy preservation. The framework comprises three major modules: a Sensitive Information Obfuscation Module that removes sensitive information from node embeddings, a Dynamic Structure Debiasing Module that dynamically corrects the structural bias, and an Adversarial Learning Module that optimizes the privacy-utility trade-off. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed model in protecting both node and link privacy while preserving high utility for downstream tasks, such as node classification.

1.Variational Information Pursuit with Large Language and Multimodal Models for Interpretable Predictions

Authors:Kwan Ho Ryan Chan, Aditya Chattopadhyay, Benjamin David Haeffele, Rene Vidal

Abstract: Variational Information Pursuit (V-IP) is a framework for making interpretable predictions by design by sequentially selecting a short chain of task-relevant, user-defined and interpretable queries about the data that are most informative for the task. While this allows for built-in interpretability in predictive models, applying V-IP to any task requires data samples with dense concept-labeling by domain experts, limiting the application of V-IP to small-scale tasks where manual data annotation is feasible. In this work, we extend the V-IP framework with Foundational Models (FMs) to address this limitation. More specifically, we use a two-step process, by first leveraging Large Language Models (LLMs) to generate a sufficiently large candidate set of task-relevant interpretable concepts, then using Large Multimodal Models to annotate each data sample by semantic similarity with each concept in the generated concept set. While other interpretable-by-design frameworks such as Concept Bottleneck Models (CBMs) require an additional step of removing repetitive and non-discriminative concepts to have good interpretability and test performance, we mathematically and empirically justify that, with a sufficiently informative and task-relevant query (concept) set, the proposed FM+V-IP method does not require any type of concept filtering. In addition, we show that FM+V-IP with LLM generated concepts can achieve better test performance than V-IP with human annotated concepts, demonstrating the effectiveness of LLMs at generating efficient query sets. Finally, when compared to other interpretable-by-design frameworks such as CBMs, FM+V-IP can achieve competitive test performance using fewer number of concepts/queries in both cases with filtered or unfiltered concept sets.

2.Multivariate Time-Series Anomaly Detection with Contaminated Data: Application to Physiological Signals

Authors:Thi Kieu Khanh Ho, Narges Armanfard

Abstract: Mainstream unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms often excel in academic datasets, yet their real-world performance is restricted due to the controlled experimental conditions involving clean training data. Addressing the challenge of training with noise, a prevalent issue in practical anomaly detection, is frequently overlooked. In a pioneering endeavor, this study delves into the realm of label-level noise within sensory time-series anomaly detection (TSAD). This paper presents a novel and practical end-to-end unsupervised TSAD when the training data are contaminated with anomalies. The introduced approach, called TSAD-C, is devoid of access to abnormality labels during the training phase. TSAD-C encompasses three modules: a Decontaminator to rectify the abnormalities (aka noise) present in the training data, a Variable Dependency Modeling module to capture both long-term intra- and inter-variable dependencies within the decontaminated data that can be considered as a surrogate of the pure normal data, and an Anomaly Scoring module to detect anomalies. Our extensive experiments conducted on three widely used physiological datasets conclusively demonstrate that our approach surpasses existing methodologies, thus establishing a new state-of-the-art performance in the field.

3.Conditional Kernel Imitation Learning for Continuous State Environments

Authors:Rishabh Agrawal, Nathan Dahlin, Rahul Jain, Ashutosh Nayyar

Abstract: Imitation Learning (IL) is an important paradigm within the broader reinforcement learning (RL) methodology. Unlike most of RL, it does not assume availability of reward-feedback. Reward inference and shaping are known to be difficult and error-prone methods particularly when the demonstration data comes from human experts. Classical methods such as behavioral cloning and inverse reinforcement learning are highly sensitive to estimation errors, a problem that is particularly acute in continuous state space problems. Meanwhile, state-of-the-art IL algorithms convert behavioral policy learning problems into distribution-matching problems which often require additional online interaction data to be effective. In this paper, we consider the problem of imitation learning in continuous state space environments based solely on observed behavior, without access to transition dynamics information, reward structure, or, most importantly, any additional interactions with the environment. Our approach is based on the Markov balance equation and introduces a novel conditional kernel density estimation-based imitation learning framework. It involves estimating the environment's transition dynamics using conditional kernel density estimators and seeks to satisfy the probabilistic balance equations for the environment. We establish that our estimators satisfy basic asymptotic consistency requirements. Through a series of numerical experiments on continuous state benchmark environments, we show consistently superior empirical performance over many state-of-the-art IL algorithms.

4.Hypergraph Convolutional Networks for Fine-grained ICU Patient Similarity Analysis and Risk Prediction

Authors:Yuxi Liu, Zhenhao Zhang, Shaowen Qin, Flora D. Salim, Antonio Jimeno Yepes, Jun Shen

Abstract: The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is one of the most important parts of a hospital, which admits critically ill patients and provides continuous monitoring and treatment. Various patient outcome prediction methods have been attempted to assist healthcare professionals in clinical decision-making. Existing methods focus on measuring the similarity between patients using deep neural networks to capture the hidden feature structures. However, the higher-order relationships are ignored, such as patient characteristics (e.g., diagnosis codes) and their causal effects on downstream clinical predictions. In this paper, we propose a novel Hypergraph Convolutional Network that allows the representation of non-pairwise relationships among diagnosis codes in a hypergraph to capture the hidden feature structures so that fine-grained patient similarity can be calculated for personalized mortality risk prediction. Evaluation using a publicly available eICU Collaborative Research Database indicates that our method achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art models on mortality risk prediction. Moreover, the results of several case studies demonstrated the effectiveness of constructing graph networks in providing good transparency and robustness in decision-making.

5.A Huber Loss Minimization Approach to Byzantine Robust Federated Learning

Authors:Puning Zhao, Fei Yu, Zhiguo Wan

Abstract: Federated learning systems are susceptible to adversarial attacks. To combat this, we introduce a novel aggregator based on Huber loss minimization, and provide a comprehensive theoretical analysis. Under independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) assumption, our approach has several advantages compared to existing methods. Firstly, it has optimal dependence on $\epsilon$, which stands for the ratio of attacked clients. Secondly, our approach does not need precise knowledge of $\epsilon$. Thirdly, it allows different clients to have unequal data sizes. We then broaden our analysis to include non-i.i.d data, such that clients have slightly different distributions.

6.Try with Simpler -- An Evaluation of Improved Principal Component Analysis in Log-based Anomaly Detection

Authors:Lin Yang, Junjie Chen, Zhihao Gong, Shutao Gao, Hongyu Zhang, Yue Kang, Huaan Li

Abstract: The rapid growth of deep learning (DL) has spurred interest in enhancing log-based anomaly detection. This approach aims to extract meaning from log events (log message templates) and develop advanced DL models for anomaly detection. However, these DL methods face challenges like heavy reliance on training data, labels, and computational resources due to model complexity. In contrast, traditional machine learning and data mining techniques are less data-dependent and more efficient but less effective than DL. To make log-based anomaly detection more practical, the goal is to enhance traditional techniques to match DL's effectiveness. Previous research in a different domain (linking questions on Stack Overflow) suggests that optimized traditional techniques can rival state-of-the-art DL methods. Drawing inspiration from this concept, we conducted an empirical study. We optimized the unsupervised PCA (Principal Component Analysis), a traditional technique, by incorporating lightweight semantic-based log representation. This addresses the issue of unseen log events in training data, enhancing log representation. Our study compared seven log-based anomaly detection methods, including four DL-based, two traditional, and the optimized PCA technique, using public and industrial datasets. Results indicate that the optimized unsupervised PCA technique achieves similar effectiveness to advanced supervised/semi-supervised DL methods while being more stable with limited training data and resource-efficient. This demonstrates the adaptability and strength of traditional techniques through small yet impactful adaptations.

7.Uncertainty and Explainable Analysis of Machine Learning Model for Reconstruction of Sonic Slowness Logs

Authors:Hua Wang, Yuqiong Wu, Yushun Zhang, Fuqiang Lai, Zhou Feng, Bing Xie, Ailin Zhao

Abstract: Logs are valuable information for oil and gas fields as they help to determine the lithology of the formations surrounding the borehole and the location and reserves of subsurface oil and gas reservoirs. However, important logs are often missing in horizontal or old wells, which poses a challenge in field applications. In this paper, we utilize data from the 2020 machine learning competition of the SPWLA, which aims to predict the missing compressional wave slowness and shear wave slowness logs using other logs in the same borehole. We employ the NGBoost algorithm to construct an Ensemble Learning model that can predicate the results as well as their uncertainty. Furthermore, we combine the SHAP method to investigate the interpretability of the machine learning model. We compare the performance of the NGBosst model with four other commonly used Ensemble Learning methods, including Random Forest, GBDT, XGBoost, LightGBM. The results show that the NGBoost model performs well in the testing set and can provide a probability distribution for the prediction results. In addition, the variance of the probability distribution of the predicted log can be used to justify the quality of the constructed log. Using the SHAP explainable machine learning model, we calculate the importance of each input log to the predicted results as well as the coupling relationship among input logs. Our findings reveal that the NGBoost model tends to provide greater slowness prediction results when the neutron porosity and gamma ray are large, which is consistent with the cognition of petrophysical models. Furthermore, the machine learning model can capture the influence of the changing borehole caliper on slowness, where the influence of borehole caliper on slowness is complex and not easy to establish a direct relationship. These findings are in line with the physical principle of borehole acoustics.

8.APART: Diverse Skill Discovery using All Pairs with Ascending Reward and DropouT

Authors:Hadar Schreiber Galler, Tom Zahavy, Guillaume Desjardins, Alon Cohen

Abstract: We study diverse skill discovery in reward-free environments, aiming to discover all possible skills in simple grid-world environments where prior methods have struggled to succeed. This problem is formulated as mutual training of skills using an intrinsic reward and a discriminator trained to predict a skill given its trajectory. Our initial solution replaces the standard one-vs-all (softmax) discriminator with a one-vs-one (all pairs) discriminator and combines it with a novel intrinsic reward function and a dropout regularization technique. The combined approach is named APART: Diverse Skill Discovery using All Pairs with Ascending Reward and Dropout. We demonstrate that APART discovers all the possible skills in grid worlds with remarkably fewer samples than previous works. Motivated by the empirical success of APART, we further investigate an even simpler algorithm that achieves maximum skills by altering VIC, rescaling its intrinsic reward, and tuning the temperature of its softmax discriminator. We believe our findings shed light on the crucial factors underlying success of skill discovery algorithms in reinforcement learning.

9.Geodesic Mode Connectivity

Authors:Charlie Tan, Theodore Long, Sarah Zhao, Rudolf Laine

Abstract: Mode connectivity is a phenomenon where trained models are connected by a path of low loss. We reframe this in the context of Information Geometry, where neural networks are studied as spaces of parameterized distributions with curved geometry. We hypothesize that shortest paths in these spaces, known as geodesics, correspond to mode-connecting paths in the loss landscape. We propose an algorithm to approximate geodesics and demonstrate that they achieve mode connectivity.

10.Optimal data pooling for shared learning in maintenance operations

Authors:Collin Drent, Melvin Drent, Geert-Jan van Houtum

Abstract: This paper addresses the benefits of pooling data for shared learning in maintenance operations. We consider a set of systems subject to Poisson degradation that are coupled through an a-priori unknown rate. Decision problems involving these systems are high-dimensional Markov decision processes (MDPs). We present a decomposition result that reduces such an MDP to two-dimensional MDPs, enabling structural analyses and computations. We leverage this decomposition to demonstrate that pooling data can lead to significant cost reductions compared to not pooling.

11.Master-slave Deep Architecture for Top-K Multi-armed Bandits with Non-linear Bandit Feedback and Diversity Constraints

Authors:Hanchi Huang, Li Shen, Deheng Ye, Wei Liu

Abstract: We propose a novel master-slave architecture to solve the top-$K$ combinatorial multi-armed bandits problem with non-linear bandit feedback and diversity constraints, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first combinatorial bandits setting considering diversity constraints under bandit feedback. Specifically, to efficiently explore the combinatorial and constrained action space, we introduce six slave models with distinguished merits to generate diversified samples well balancing rewards and constraints as well as efficiency. Moreover, we propose teacher learning based optimization and the policy co-training technique to boost the performance of the multiple slave models. The master model then collects the elite samples provided by the slave models and selects the best sample estimated by a neural contextual UCB-based network to make a decision with a trade-off between exploration and exploitation. Thanks to the elaborate design of slave models, the co-training mechanism among slave models, and the novel interactions between the master and slave models, our approach significantly surpasses existing state-of-the-art algorithms in both synthetic and real datasets for recommendation tasks. The code is available at: \url{}.

12.Match-And-Deform: Time Series Domain Adaptation through Optimal Transport and Temporal Alignment

Authors:François Painblanc, Laetitia Chapel, Nicolas Courty, Chloé Friguet, Charlotte Pelletier, Romain Tavenard

Abstract: While large volumes of unlabeled data are usually available, associated labels are often scarce. The unsupervised domain adaptation problem aims at exploiting labels from a source domain to classify data from a related, yet different, target domain. When time series are at stake, new difficulties arise as temporal shifts may appear in addition to the standard feature distribution shift. In this paper, we introduce the Match-And-Deform (MAD) approach that aims at finding correspondences between the source and target time series while allowing temporal distortions. The associated optimization problem simultaneously aligns the series thanks to an optimal transport loss and the time stamps through dynamic time warping. When embedded into a deep neural network, MAD helps learning new representations of time series that both align the domains and maximize the discriminative power of the network. Empirical studies on benchmark datasets and remote sensing data demonstrate that MAD makes meaningful sample-to-sample pairing and time shift estimation, reaching similar or better classification performance than state-of-the-art deep time series domain adaptation strategies.

13.An Efficient Data Analysis Method for Big Data using Multiple-Model Linear Regression

Authors:Bohan Lyu, Jianzhong Li

Abstract: This paper introduces a new data analysis method for big data using a newly defined regression model named multiple model linear regression(MMLR), which separates input datasets into subsets and construct local linear regression models of them. The proposed data analysis method is shown to be more efficient and flexible than other regression based methods. This paper also proposes an approximate algorithm to construct MMLR models based on $(\epsilon,\delta)$-estimator, and gives mathematical proofs of the correctness and efficiency of MMLR algorithm, of which the time complexity is linear with respect to the size of input datasets. This paper also empirically implements the method on both synthetic and real-world datasets, the algorithm shows to have comparable performance to existing regression methods in many cases, while it takes almost the shortest time to provide a high prediction accuracy.

14.Disentanglement Learning via Topology

Authors:Nikita Balabin, Daria Voronkova, Ilya Trofimov, Evgeny Burnaev, Serguei Barannikov

Abstract: We propose TopDis (Topological Disentanglement), a method for learning disentangled representations via adding multi-scale topological loss term. Disentanglement is a crucial property of data representations substantial for the explainability and robustness of deep learning models and a step towards high-level cognition. The state-of-the-art method based on VAE minimizes the total correlation of the joint distribution of latent variables. We take a different perspective on disentanglement by analyzing topological properties of data manifolds. In particular, we optimize the topological similarity for data manifolds traversals. To the best of our knowledge, our paper is the first one to propose a differentiable topological loss for disentanglement. Our experiments have shown that the proposed topological loss improves disentanglement scores such as MIG, FactorVAE score, SAP score and DCI disentanglement score with respect to state-of-the-art results. Our method works in an unsupervised manner, permitting to apply it for problems without labeled factors of variation. Additionally, we show how to use the proposed topological loss to find disentangled directions in a trained GAN.

15.Single-shot Bayesian approximation for neural networks

Authors:Kai Brach, Beate Sick, Oliver Dürr

Abstract: Deep neural networks (NNs) are known for their high-prediction performances. However, NNs are prone to yield unreliable predictions when encountering completely new situations without indicating their uncertainty. Bayesian variants of NNs (BNNs), such as Monte Carlo (MC) dropout BNNs, do provide uncertainty measures and simultaneously increase the prediction performance. The only disadvantage of BNNs is their higher computation time during test time because they rely on a sampling approach. Here we present a single-shot MC dropout approximation that preserves the advantages of BNNs while being as fast as NNs. Our approach is based on moment propagation (MP) and allows to analytically approximate the expected value and the variance of the MC dropout signal for commonly used layers in NNs, i.e. convolution, max pooling, dense, softmax, and dropout layers. The MP approach can convert an NN into a BNN without re-training given the NN has been trained with standard dropout. We evaluate our approach on different benchmark datasets and a simulated toy example in a classification and regression setting. We demonstrate that our single-shot MC dropout approximation resembles the point estimate and the uncertainty estimate of the predictive distribution that is achieved with an MC approach, while being fast enough for real-time deployments of BNNs. We show that using part of the saved time to combine our MP approach with deep ensemble techniques does further improve the uncertainty measures.

16.Prediction without Preclusion: Recourse Verification with Reachable Sets

Authors:Avni Kothari, Bogdan Kulynych, Tsui-Wei Weng, Berk Ustun

Abstract: Machine learning models are often used to decide who will receive a loan, a job interview, or a public benefit. Standard techniques to build these models use features about people but overlook their actionability. In turn, models can assign predictions that are fixed, meaning that consumers who are denied loans, interviews, or benefits may be permanently locked out from access to credit, employment, or assistance. In this work, we introduce a formal testing procedure to flag models that assign fixed predictions that we call recourse verification. We develop machinery to reliably determine if a given model can provide recourse to its decision subjects from a set of user-specified actionability constraints. We demonstrate how our tools can ensure recourse and adversarial robustness in real-world datasets and use them to study the infeasibility of recourse in real-world lending datasets. Our results highlight how models can inadvertently assign fixed predictions that permanently bar access, and we provide tools to design algorithms that account for actionability when developing models.

17.Probabilistic load forecasting with Reservoir Computing

Authors:Michele Guerra, Simone Scardapane, Filippo Maria Bianchi

Abstract: Some applications of deep learning require not only to provide accurate results but also to quantify the amount of confidence in their prediction. The management of an electric power grid is one of these cases: to avoid risky scenarios, decision-makers need both precise and reliable forecasts of, for example, power loads. For this reason, point forecasts are not enough hence it is necessary to adopt methods that provide an uncertainty quantification. This work focuses on reservoir computing as the core time series forecasting method, due to its computational efficiency and effectiveness in predicting time series. While the RC literature mostly focused on point forecasting, this work explores the compatibility of some popular uncertainty quantification methods with the reservoir setting. Both Bayesian and deterministic approaches to uncertainty assessment are evaluated and compared in terms of their prediction accuracy, computational resource efficiency and reliability of the estimated uncertainty, based on a set of carefully chosen performance metrics.

18.Fast Adversarial Training with Smooth Convergence

Authors:Mengnan Zhao, Lihe Zhang, Yuqiu Kong, Baocai Yin

Abstract: Fast adversarial training (FAT) is beneficial for improving the adversarial robustness of neural networks. However, previous FAT work has encountered a significant issue known as catastrophic overfitting when dealing with large perturbation budgets, \ie the adversarial robustness of models declines to near zero during training. To address this, we analyze the training process of prior FAT work and observe that catastrophic overfitting is accompanied by the appearance of loss convergence outliers. Therefore, we argue a moderately smooth loss convergence process will be a stable FAT process that solves catastrophic overfitting. To obtain a smooth loss convergence process, we propose a novel oscillatory constraint (dubbed ConvergeSmooth) to limit the loss difference between adjacent epochs. The convergence stride of ConvergeSmooth is introduced to balance convergence and smoothing. Likewise, we design weight centralization without introducing additional hyperparameters other than the loss balance coefficient. Our proposed methods are attack-agnostic and thus can improve the training stability of various FAT techniques. Extensive experiments on popular datasets show that the proposed methods efficiently avoid catastrophic overfitting and outperform all previous FAT methods. Code is available at \url{}.

19.Auto-weighted Bayesian Physics-Informed Neural Networks and robust estimations for multitask inverse problems in pore-scale imaging of dissolution

Authors:Sarah Perez, Philippe Poncet

Abstract: In this article, we present a novel data assimilation strategy in pore-scale imaging and demonstrate that this makes it possible to robustly address reactive inverse problems incorporating Uncertainty Quantification (UQ). Pore-scale modeling of reactive flow offers a valuable opportunity to investigate the evolution of macro-scale properties subject to dynamic processes. Yet, they suffer from imaging limitations arising from the associated X-ray microtomography (X-ray microCT) process, which induces discrepancies in the properties estimates. Assessment of the kinetic parameters also raises challenges, as reactive coefficients are critical parameters that can cover a wide range of values. We account for these two issues and ensure reliable calibration of pore-scale modeling, based on dynamical microCT images, by integrating uncertainty quantification in the workflow. The present method is based on a multitasking formulation of reactive inverse problems combining data-driven and physics-informed techniques in calcite dissolution. This allows quantifying morphological uncertainties on the porosity field and estimating reactive parameter ranges through prescribed PDE models with a latent concentration field and dynamical microCT. The data assimilation strategy relies on sequential reinforcement incorporating successively additional PDE constraints. We guarantee robust and unbiased uncertainty quantification by straightforward adaptive weighting of Bayesian Physics-Informed Neural Networks (BPINNs), ensuring reliable micro-porosity changes during geochemical transformations. We demonstrate successful Bayesian Inference in 1D+Time and 2D+Time calcite dissolution based on synthetic microCT images with meaningful posterior distribution on the reactive parameters and dimensionless numbers.

20.Easy attention: A simple self-attention mechanism for Transformers

Authors:Marcial Sanchis-Agudo, Yuning Wang, Karthik Duraisamy, Ricardo Vinuesa

Abstract: To improve the robustness of transformer neural networks used for temporal-dynamics prediction of chaotic systems, we propose a novel attention mechanism called easy attention. Due to the fact that self attention only makes usage of the inner product of queries and keys, it is demonstrated that the keys, queries and softmax are not necessary for obtaining the attention score required to capture long-term dependencies in temporal sequences. Through implementing singular-value decomposition (SVD) on the softmax attention score, we further observe that the self attention compresses contribution from both queries and keys in the spanned space of the attention score. Therefore, our proposed easy-attention method directly treats the attention scores as learnable parameters. This approach produces excellent results when reconstructing and predicting the temporal dynamics of chaotic systems exhibiting more robustness and less complexity than the self attention or the widely-used long short-term memory (LSTM) network. Our results show great potential for applications in more complex high-dimensional dynamical systems.

21.Unified Data Management and Comprehensive Performance Evaluation for Urban Spatial-Temporal Prediction [Experiment, Analysis & Benchmark]

Authors:Jiawei Jiang, Chengkai Han, Wayne Xin Zhao, Jingyuan Wang

Abstract: The field of urban spatial-temporal prediction is advancing rapidly with the development of deep learning techniques and the availability of large-scale datasets. However, challenges persist in accessing and utilizing diverse urban spatial-temporal datasets from different sources and stored in different formats, as well as determining effective model structures and components with the proliferation of deep learning models. This work addresses these challenges and provides three significant contributions. Firstly, we introduce "atomic files", a unified storage format designed for urban spatial-temporal big data, and validate its effectiveness on 40 diverse datasets, simplifying data management. Secondly, we present a comprehensive overview of technological advances in urban spatial-temporal prediction models, guiding the development of robust models. Thirdly, we conduct extensive experiments using diverse models and datasets, establishing a performance leaderboard and identifying promising research directions. Overall, this work effectively manages urban spatial-temporal data, guides future efforts, and facilitates the development of accurate and efficient urban spatial-temporal prediction models. It can potentially make long-term contributions to urban spatial-temporal data management and prediction, ultimately leading to improved urban living standards.

22.Evaluating the Vulnerabilities in ML systems in terms of adversarial attacks

Authors:John Harshith, Mantej Singh Gill, Madhan Jothimani

Abstract: There have been recent adversarial attacks that are difficult to find. These new adversarial attacks methods may pose challenges to current deep learning cyber defense systems and could influence the future defense of cyberattacks. The authors focus on this domain in this research paper. They explore the consequences of vulnerabilities in AI systems. This includes discussing how they might arise, differences between randomized and adversarial examples and also potential ethical implications of vulnerabilities. Moreover, it is important to train the AI systems appropriately when they are in testing phase and getting them ready for broader use.

23.Low-count Time Series Anomaly Detection

Authors:Philipp Renz, Kurt Cutajar, Niall Twomey, Gavin K. C. Cheung, Hanting Xie

Abstract: Low-count time series describe sparse or intermittent events, which are prevalent in large-scale online platforms that capture and monitor diverse data types. Several distinct challenges surface when modelling low-count time series, particularly low signal-to-noise ratios (when anomaly signatures are provably undetectable), and non-uniform performance (when average metrics are not representative of local behaviour). The time series anomaly detection community currently lacks explicit tooling and processes to model and reliably detect anomalies in these settings. We address this gap by introducing a novel generative procedure for creating benchmark datasets comprising of low-count time series with anomalous segments. Via a mixture of theoretical and empirical analysis, our work explains how widely-used algorithms struggle with the distribution overlap between normal and anomalous segments. In order to mitigate this shortcoming, we then leverage our findings to demonstrate how anomaly score smoothing consistently improves performance. The practical utility of our analysis and recommendation is validated on a real-world dataset containing sales data for retail stores.

24.Learning Only On Boundaries: a Physics-Informed Neural operator for Solving Parametric Partial Differential Equations in Complex Geometries

Authors:Zhiwei Fang, Sifan Wang, Paris Perdikaris

Abstract: Recently deep learning surrogates and neural operators have shown promise in solving partial differential equations (PDEs). However, they often require a large amount of training data and are limited to bounded domains. In this work, we present a novel physics-informed neural operator method to solve parametrized boundary value problems without labeled data. By reformulating the PDEs into boundary integral equations (BIEs), we can train the operator network solely on the boundary of the domain. This approach reduces the number of required sample points from $O(N^d)$ to $O(N^{d-1})$, where $d$ is the domain's dimension, leading to a significant acceleration of the training process. Additionally, our method can handle unbounded problems, which are unattainable for existing physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) and neural operators. Our numerical experiments show the effectiveness of parametrized complex geometries and unbounded problems.

25.Label Budget Allocation in Multi-Task Learning

Authors:Ximeng Sun, Kihyuk Sohn, Kate Saenko, Clayton Mellina, Xiao Bian

Abstract: The cost of labeling data often limits the performance of machine learning systems. In multi-task learning, related tasks provide information to each other and improve overall performance, but the label cost can vary among tasks. How should the label budget (i.e. the amount of money spent on labeling) be allocated among different tasks to achieve optimal multi-task performance? We are the first to propose and formally define the label budget allocation problem in multi-task learning and to empirically show that different budget allocation strategies make a big difference to its performance. We propose a Task-Adaptive Budget Allocation algorithm to robustly generate the optimal budget allocation adaptive to different multi-task learning settings. Specifically, we estimate and then maximize the extent of new information obtained from the allocated budget as a proxy for multi-task learning performance. Experiments on PASCAL VOC and Taskonomy demonstrate the efficacy of our approach over other widely used heuristic labeling strategies.

1.Addressing Selection Bias in Computerized Adaptive Testing: A User-Wise Aggregate Influence Function Approach

Authors:Soonwoo Kwon, Sojung Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Jin-Young Kim, Suyeong An, Kyuseok Kim

Abstract: Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) is a widely used, efficient test mode that adapts to the examinee's proficiency level in the test domain. CAT requires pre-trained item profiles, for CAT iteratively assesses the student real-time based on the registered items' profiles, and selects the next item to administer using candidate items' profiles. However, obtaining such item profiles is a costly process that involves gathering a large, dense item-response data, then training a diagnostic model on the collected data. In this paper, we explore the possibility of leveraging response data collected in the CAT service. We first show that this poses a unique challenge due to the inherent selection bias introduced by CAT, i.e., more proficient students will receive harder questions. Indeed, when naively training the diagnostic model using CAT response data, we observe that item profiles deviate significantly from the ground-truth. To tackle the selection bias issue, we propose the user-wise aggregate influence function method. Our intuition is to filter out users whose response data is heavily biased in an aggregate manner, as judged by how much perturbation the added data will introduce during parameter estimation. This way, we may enhance the performance of CAT while introducing minimal bias to the item profiles. We provide extensive experiments to demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method based on the three public datasets and one dataset that contains real-world CAT response data.

2.Diverse Policies Converge in Reward-free Markov Decision Processe

Authors:Fanqi Lin, Shiyu Huang, Weiwei Tu

Abstract: Reinforcement learning has achieved great success in many decision-making tasks, and traditional reinforcement learning algorithms are mainly designed for obtaining a single optimal solution. However, recent works show the importance of developing diverse policies, which makes it an emerging research topic. Despite the variety of diversity reinforcement learning algorithms that have emerged, none of them theoretically answer the question of how the algorithm converges and how efficient the algorithm is. In this paper, we provide a unified diversity reinforcement learning framework and investigate the convergence of training diverse policies. Under such a framework, we also propose a provably efficient diversity reinforcement learning algorithm. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of our method through numerical experiments.

3.Dynamic landslide susceptibility mapping over recent three decades to uncover variations in landslide causes in subtropical urban mountainous areas

Authors:Peifeng Ma, Li Chen, Chang Yu, Qing Zhu, Yulin Ding

Abstract: Landslide susceptibility assessment (LSA) is of paramount importance in mitigating landslide risks. Recently, there has been a surge in the utilization of data-driven methods for predicting landslide susceptibility due to the growing availability of aerial and satellite data. Nonetheless, the rapid oscillations within the landslide-inducing environment (LIE), primarily due to significant changes in external triggers such as rainfall, pose difficulties for contemporary data-driven LSA methodologies to accommodate LIEs over diverse timespans. This study presents dynamic landslide susceptibility mapping that simply employs multiple predictive models for annual LSA. In practice, this will inevitably encounter small sample problems due to the limited number of landslide samples in certain years. Another concern arises owing to the majority of the existing LSA approaches train black-box models to fit distinct datasets, yet often failing in generalization and providing comprehensive explanations concerning the interactions between input features and predictions. Accordingly, we proposed to meta-learn representations with fast adaptation ability using a few samples and gradient updates; and apply SHAP for each model interpretation and landslide feature permutation. Additionally, we applied MT-InSAR for LSA result enhancement and validation. The chosen study area is Lantau Island, Hong Kong, where we conducted a comprehensive dynamic LSA spanning from 1992 to 2019. The model interpretation results demonstrate that the primary factors responsible for triggering landslides in Lantau Island are terrain slope and extreme rainfall. The results also indicate that the variation in landslide causes can be primarily attributed to extreme rainfall events, which result from global climate change, and the implementation of the Landslip Prevention and Mitigation Programme (LPMitP) by the Hong Kong government.

4.System Identification for Continuous-time Linear Dynamical Systems

Authors:Peter Halmos, Jonathan Pillow, David A. Knowles

Abstract: The problem of system identification for the Kalman filter, relying on the expectation-maximization (EM) procedure to learn the underlying parameters of a dynamical system, has largely been studied assuming that observations are sampled at equally-spaced time points. However, in many applications this is a restrictive and unrealistic assumption. This paper addresses system identification for the continuous-discrete filter, with the aim of generalizing learning for the Kalman filter by relying on a solution to a continuous-time It\^o stochastic differential equation (SDE) for the latent state and covariance dynamics. We introduce a novel two-filter, analytical form for the posterior with a Bayesian derivation, which yields analytical updates which do not require the forward-pass to be pre-computed. Using this analytical and efficient computation of the posterior, we provide an EM procedure which estimates the parameters of the SDE, naturally incorporating irregularly sampled measurements. Generalizing the learning of latent linear dynamical systems (LDS) to continuous-time may extend the use of the hybrid Kalman filter to data which is not regularly sampled or has intermittent missing values, and can extend the power of non-linear system identification methods such as switching LDS (SLDS), which rely on EM for the linear discrete-time Kalman filter as a sub-unit for learning locally linearized behavior of a non-linear system. We apply the method by learning the parameters of a latent, multivariate Fokker-Planck SDE representing a toggle-switch genetic circuit using biologically realistic parameters, and compare the efficacy of learning relative to the discrete-time Kalman filter as the step-size irregularity and spectral-radius of the dynamics-matrix increases.

5.Retail Demand Forecasting: A Comparative Study for Multivariate Time Series

Authors:Md Sabbirul Haque, Md Shahedul Amin, Jonayet Miah

Abstract: Accurate demand forecasting in the retail industry is a critical determinant of financial performance and supply chain efficiency. As global markets become increasingly interconnected, businesses are turning towards advanced prediction models to gain a competitive edge. However, existing literature mostly focuses on historical sales data and ignores the vital influence of macroeconomic conditions on consumer spending behavior. In this study, we bridge this gap by enriching time series data of customer demand with macroeconomic variables, such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI), Index of Consumer Sentiment (ICS), and unemployment rates. Leveraging this comprehensive dataset, we develop and compare various regression and machine learning models to predict retail demand accurately.

6.RamseyRL: A Framework for Intelligent Ramsey Number Counterexample Searching

Authors:Steve Vott, Adam M. Lehavi

Abstract: The Ramsey number is the minimum number of nodes, $n = R(s, t)$, such that all undirected simple graphs of order $n$, contain a clique of order $s$, or an independent set of order $t$. This paper explores the application of a best first search algorithm and reinforcement learning (RL) techniques to find counterexamples to specific Ramsey numbers. We incrementally improve over prior search methods such as random search by introducing a graph vectorization and deep neural network (DNN)-based heuristic, which gauge the likelihood of a graph being a counterexample. The paper also proposes algorithmic optimizations to confine a polynomial search runtime. This paper does not aim to present new counterexamples but rather introduces and evaluates a framework supporting Ramsey counterexample exploration using other heuristics. Code and methods are made available through a PyPI package and GitHub repository.

7.Multi-scale Transformer Pyramid Networks for Multivariate Time Series Forecasting

Authors:Yifan Zhang, Rui Wu, Sergiu M. Dascalu, Frederick C. Harris Jr

Abstract: Multivariate Time Series (MTS) forecasting involves modeling temporal dependencies within historical records. Transformers have demonstrated remarkable performance in MTS forecasting due to their capability to capture long-term dependencies. However, prior work has been confined to modeling temporal dependencies at either a fixed scale or multiple scales that exponentially increase (most with base 2). This limitation hinders their effectiveness in capturing diverse seasonalities, such as hourly and daily patterns. In this paper, we introduce a dimension invariant embedding technique that captures short-term temporal dependencies and projects MTS data into a higher-dimensional space, while preserving the dimensions of time steps and variables in MTS data. Furthermore, we present a novel Multi-scale Transformer Pyramid Network (MTPNet), specifically designed to effectively capture temporal dependencies at multiple unconstrained scales. The predictions are inferred from multi-scale latent representations obtained from transformers at various scales. Extensive experiments on nine benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed MTPNet outperforms recent state-of-the-art methods.

8.When MiniBatch SGD Meets SplitFed Learning:Convergence Analysis and Performance Evaluation

Authors:Chao Huang, Geng Tian, Ming Tang

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) enables collaborative model training across distributed clients (e.g., edge devices) without sharing raw data. Yet, FL can be computationally expensive as the clients need to train the entire model multiple times. SplitFed learning (SFL) is a recent distributed approach that alleviates computation workload at the client device by splitting the model at a cut layer into two parts, where clients only need to train part of the model. However, SFL still suffers from the \textit{client drift} problem when clients' data are highly non-IID. To address this issue, we propose MiniBatch-SFL. This algorithm incorporates MiniBatch SGD into SFL, where the clients train the client-side model in an FL fashion while the server trains the server-side model similar to MiniBatch SGD. We analyze the convergence of MiniBatch-SFL and show that the bound of the expected loss can be obtained by analyzing the expected server-side and client-side model updates, respectively. The server-side updates do not depend on the non-IID degree of the clients' datasets and can potentially mitigate client drift. However, the client-side model relies on the non-IID degree and can be optimized by properly choosing the cut layer. Perhaps counter-intuitive, our empirical result shows that a latter position of the cut layer leads to a smaller average gradient divergence and a better algorithm performance. Moreover, numerical results show that MiniBatch-SFL achieves higher accuracy than conventional SFL and FL. The accuracy improvement can be up to 24.1\% and 17.1\% with highly non-IID data, respectively.

9.Maintaining Plasticity via Regenerative Regularization

Authors:Saurabh Kumar, Henrik Marklund, Benjamin Van Roy

Abstract: In continual learning, plasticity refers to the ability of an agent to quickly adapt to new information. Neural networks are known to lose plasticity when processing non-stationary data streams. In this paper, we propose L2 Init, a very simple approach for maintaining plasticity by incorporating in the loss function L2 regularization toward initial parameters. This is very similar to standard L2 regularization (L2), the only difference being that L2 regularizes toward the origin. L2 Init is simple to implement and requires selecting only a single hyper-parameter. The motivation for this method is the same as that of methods that reset neurons or parameter values. Intuitively, when recent losses are insensitive to particular parameters, these parameters drift toward their initial values. This prepares parameters to adapt quickly to new tasks. On simple problems representative of different types of nonstationarity in continual learning, we demonstrate that L2 Init consistently mitigates plasticity loss. We additionally find that our regularization term reduces parameter magnitudes and maintains a high effective feature rank.

10.Approximating Score-based Explanation Techniques Using Conformal Regression

Authors:Amr Alkhatib, Henrik Boström, Sofiane Ennadir, Ulf Johansson

Abstract: Score-based explainable machine-learning techniques are often used to understand the logic behind black-box models. However, such explanation techniques are often computationally expensive, which limits their application in time-critical contexts. Therefore, we propose and investigate the use of computationally less costly regression models for approximating the output of score-based explanation techniques, such as SHAP. Moreover, validity guarantees for the approximated values are provided by the employed inductive conformal prediction framework. We propose several non-conformity measures designed to take the difficulty of approximating the explanations into account while keeping the computational cost low. We present results from a large-scale empirical investigation, in which the approximate explanations generated by our proposed models are evaluated with respect to efficiency (interval size). The results indicate that the proposed method can significantly improve execution time compared to the fast version of SHAP, TreeSHAP. The results also suggest that the proposed method can produce tight intervals, while providing validity guarantees. Moreover, the proposed approach allows for comparing explanations of different approximation methods and selecting a method based on how informative (tight) are the predicted intervals.

11.Will More Expressive Graph Neural Networks do Better on Generative Tasks?

Authors:Xiandong Zou, Xiangyu Zhao, Pietro Liò, Yiren Zhao

Abstract: Graph generation poses a significant challenge as it involves predicting a complete graph with multiple nodes and edges based on simply a given label. This task also carries fundamental importance to numerous real-world applications, including de-novo drug and molecular design. In recent years, several successful methods have emerged in the field of graph generation. However, these approaches suffer from two significant shortcomings: (1) the underlying Graph Neural Network (GNN) architectures used in these methods are often underexplored; and (2) these methods are often evaluated on only a limited number of metrics. To fill this gap, we investigate the expressiveness of GNNs under the context of the molecular graph generation task, by replacing the underlying GNNs of graph generative models with more expressive GNNs. Specifically, we analyse the performance of six GNNs in two different generative frameworks (GCPN and GraphAF), on six different molecular generative objectives on the ZINC-250k dataset. Through our extensive experiments, we demonstrate that advanced GNNs can indeed improve the performance of GCPN and GraphAF on molecular generation tasks, but GNN expressiveness is not a necessary condition for a good GNN-based generative model. Moreover, we show that GCPN and GraphAF with advanced GNNs can achieve state-of-the-art results across 17 other non-GNN-based graph generative approaches, such as variational autoencoders and Bayesian optimisation models, on the proposed molecular generative objectives (DRD2, Median1, Median2), which are important metrics for de-novo molecular design.

12.Relational Concept Based Models

Authors:Pietro Barbiero, Francesco Giannini, Gabriele Ciravegna, Michelangelo Diligenti, Giuseppe Marra

Abstract: The design of interpretable deep learning models working in relational domains poses an open challenge: interpretable deep learning methods, such as Concept-Based Models (CBMs), are not designed to solve relational problems, while relational models are not as interpretable as CBMs. To address this problem, we propose Relational Concept-Based Models, a family of relational deep learning methods providing interpretable task predictions. Our experiments, ranging from image classification to link prediction in knowledge graphs, show that relational CBMs (i) match generalization performance of existing relational black-boxes (as opposed to non-relational CBMs), (ii) support the generation of quantified concept-based explanations, (iii) effectively respond to test-time interventions, and (iv) withstand demanding settings including out-of-distribution scenarios, limited training data regimes, and scarce concept supervisions.

13.Neural oscillators for magnetic hysteresis modeling

Authors:Abhishek Chandra, Taniya Kapoor, Bram Daniels, Mitrofan Curti, Koen Tiels, Daniel M. Tartakovsky, Elena A. Lomonova

Abstract: Hysteresis is a ubiquitous phenomenon in science and engineering; its modeling and identification are crucial for understanding and optimizing the behavior of various systems. We develop an ordinary differential equation-based recurrent neural network (RNN) approach to model and quantify the hysteresis, which manifests itself in sequentiality and history-dependence. Our neural oscillator, HystRNN, draws inspiration from coupled-oscillatory RNN and phenomenological hysteresis models to update the hidden states. The performance of HystRNN is evaluated to predict generalized scenarios, involving first-order reversal curves and minor loops. The findings show the ability of HystRNN to generalize its behavior to previously untrained regions, an essential feature that hysteresis models must have. This research highlights the advantage of neural oscillators over the traditional RNN-based methods in capturing complex hysteresis patterns in magnetic materials, where traditional rate-dependent methods are inadequate to capture intrinsic nonlinearity.

14.Bias-Aware Minimisation: Understanding and Mitigating Estimator Bias in Private SGD

Authors:Moritz Knolle, Robert Dorfman, Alexander Ziller, Daniel Rueckert, Georgios Kaissis

Abstract: Differentially private SGD (DP-SGD) holds the promise of enabling the safe and responsible application of machine learning to sensitive datasets. However, DP-SGD only provides a biased, noisy estimate of a mini-batch gradient. This renders optimisation steps less effective and limits model utility as a result. With this work, we show a connection between per-sample gradient norms and the estimation bias of the private gradient oracle used in DP-SGD. Here, we propose Bias-Aware Minimisation (BAM) that allows for the provable reduction of private gradient estimator bias. We show how to efficiently compute quantities needed for BAM to scale to large neural networks and highlight similarities to closely related methods such as Sharpness-Aware Minimisation. Finally, we provide empirical evidence that BAM not only reduces bias but also substantially improves privacy-utility trade-offs on the CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet-32 datasets.

15.A Scale-Invariant Task Balancing Approach for Multi-Task Learning

Authors:Baijiong Lin, Weisen Jiang, Feiyang Ye, Yu Zhang, Pengguang Chen, Ying-Cong Chen, Shu Liu

Abstract: Multi-task learning (MTL), a learning paradigm to learn multiple related tasks simultaneously, has achieved great success in various fields. However, task-balancing remains a significant challenge in MTL, with the disparity in loss/gradient scales often leading to performance compromises. In this paper, we propose a Scale-Invariant Multi-Task Learning (SI-MTL) method to alleviate the task-balancing problem from both loss and gradient perspectives. Specifically, SI-MTL contains a logarithm transformation which is performed on all task losses to ensure scale-invariant at the loss level, and a gradient balancing method, SI-G, which normalizes all task gradients to the same magnitude as the maximum gradient norm. Extensive experiments conducted on several benchmark datasets consistently demonstrate the effectiveness of SI-G and the state-of-the-art performance of SI-MTL.

16.CACTUS: a Comprehensive Abstraction and Classification Tool for Uncovering Structures

Authors:Luca Gherardini, Varun Ravi Varma, Karol Capala, Roger Woods, Jose Sousa

Abstract: The availability of large data sets is providing an impetus for driving current artificial intelligent developments. There are, however, challenges for developing solutions with small data sets due to practical and cost-effective deployment and the opacity of deep learning models. The Comprehensive Abstraction and Classification Tool for Uncovering Structures called CACTUS is presented for improved secure analytics by effectively employing explainable artificial intelligence. It provides additional support for categorical attributes, preserving their original meaning, optimising memory usage, and speeding up the computation through parallelisation. It shows to the user the frequency of the attributes in each class and ranks them by their discriminative power. Its performance is assessed by application to the Wisconsin diagnostic breast cancer and Thyroid0387 data sets.

17.A multiobjective continuation method to compute the regularization path of deep neural networks

Authors:Augustina C. Amakor, Konstantin Sontag, Sebastian Peitz

Abstract: Sparsity is a highly desired feature in deep neural networks (DNNs) since it ensures numerical efficiency, improves the interpretability of models (due to the smaller number of relevant features), and robustness. In machine learning approaches based on linear models, it is well known that there exists a connecting path between the sparsest solution in terms of the $\ell^1$ norm (i.e., zero weights) and the non-regularized solution, which is called the regularization path. Very recently, there was a first attempt to extend the concept of regularization paths to DNNs by means of treating the empirical loss and sparsity ($\ell^1$ norm) as two conflicting criteria and solving the resulting multiobjective optimization problem. However, due to the non-smoothness of the $\ell^1$ norm and the high number of parameters, this approach is not very efficient from a computational perspective. To overcome this limitation, we present an algorithm that allows for the approximation of the entire Pareto front for the above-mentioned objectives in a very efficient manner. We present numerical examples using both deterministic and stochastic gradients. We furthermore demonstrate that knowledge of the regularization path allows for a well-generalizing network parametrization.

18.Layer-wise Feedback Propagation

Authors:Leander Weber, Jim Berend, Alexander Binder, Thomas Wiegand, Wojciech Samek, Sebastian Lapuschkin

Abstract: In this paper, we present Layer-wise Feedback Propagation (LFP), a novel training approach for neural-network-like predictors that utilizes explainability, specifically Layer-wise Relevance Propagation(LRP), to assign rewards to individual connections based on their respective contributions to solving a given task. This differs from traditional gradient descent, which updates parameters towards anestimated loss minimum. LFP distributes a reward signal throughout the model without the need for gradient computations. It then strengthens structures that receive positive feedback while reducingthe influence of structures that receive negative feedback. We establish the convergence of LFP theoretically and empirically, and demonstrate its effectiveness in achieving comparable performance to gradient descent on various models and datasets. Notably, LFP overcomes certain limitations associated with gradient-based methods, such as reliance on meaningful derivatives. We further investigate how the different LRP-rules can be extended to LFP, what their effects are on training, as well as potential applications, such as training models with no meaningful derivatives, e.g., step-function activated Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), or for transfer learning, to efficiently utilize existing knowledge.

19.Sample Complexity of Robust Learning against Evasion Attacks

Authors:Pascale Gourdeau

Abstract: It is becoming increasingly important to understand the vulnerability of machine learning models to adversarial attacks. One of the fundamental problems in adversarial machine learning is to quantify how much training data is needed in the presence of evasion attacks, where data is corrupted at test time. In this thesis, we work with the exact-in-the-ball notion of robustness and study the feasibility of adversarially robust learning from the perspective of learning theory, considering sample complexity. We first explore the setting where the learner has access to random examples only, and show that distributional assumptions are essential. We then focus on learning problems with distributions on the input data that satisfy a Lipschitz condition and show that robustly learning monotone conjunctions has sample complexity at least exponential in the adversary's budget (the maximum number of bits it can perturb on each input). However, if the adversary is restricted to perturbing $O(\log n)$ bits, then one can robustly learn conjunctions and decision lists w.r.t. log-Lipschitz distributions. We then study learning models where the learner is given more power. We first consider local membership queries, where the learner can query the label of points near the training sample. We show that, under the uniform distribution, the exponential dependence on the adversary's budget to robustly learn conjunctions remains inevitable. We then introduce a local equivalence query oracle, which returns whether the hypothesis and target concept agree in a given region around a point in the training sample, and a counterexample if it exists. We show that if the query radius is equal to the adversary's budget, we can develop robust empirical risk minimization algorithms in the distribution-free setting. We give general query complexity upper and lower bounds, as well as for concrete concept classes.

20.Pre-gated MoE: An Algorithm-System Co-Design for Fast and Scalable Mixture-of-Expert Inference

Authors:Ranggi Hwang, Jianyu Wei, Shijie Cao, Changho Hwang, Xiaohu Tang, Ting Cao, Mao Yang, Minsoo Rhu

Abstract: Large language models (LLMs) based on transformers have made significant strides in recent years, the success of which is driven by scaling up their model size. Despite their high algorithmic performance, the computational and memory requirements of LLMs present unprecedented challenges. To tackle the high compute requirements of LLMs, the Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) architecture was introduced which is able to scale its model size without proportionally scaling up its computational requirements. Unfortunately, MoE's high memory demands and dynamic activation of sparse experts restrict its applicability to real-world problems. Previous solutions that offload MoE's memory-hungry expert parameters to CPU memory fall short because the latency to migrate activated experts from CPU to GPU incurs high performance overhead. Our proposed Pre-gated MoE system effectively tackles the compute and memory challenges of conventional MoE architectures using our algorithm-system co-design. Pre-gated MoE employs our novel pre-gating function which alleviates the dynamic nature of sparse expert activation, allowing our proposed system to address the large memory footprint of MoEs while also achieving high performance. We demonstrate that Pre-gated MoE is able to improve performance, reduce GPU memory consumption, while also maintaining the same level of model quality. These features allow our Pre-gated MoE system to cost-effectively deploy large-scale LLMs using just a single GPU with high performance.

21.InstructionGPT-4: A 200-Instruction Paradigm for Fine-Tuning MiniGPT-4

Authors:Lai Wei, Zihao Jiang, Weiran Huang, Lichao Sun

Abstract: Multimodal large language models acquire their instruction-following capabilities through a two-stage training process: pre-training on image-text pairs and fine-tuning on supervised vision-language instruction data. Recent studies have shown that large language models can achieve satisfactory results even with a limited amount of high-quality instruction-following data. In this paper, we introduce InstructionGPT-4, which is fine-tuned on a small dataset comprising only 200 examples, amounting to approximately 6% of the instruction-following data used in the alignment dataset for MiniGPT-4. We first propose several metrics to access the quality of multimodal instruction data. Based on these metrics, we present a simple and effective data selector to automatically identify and filter low-quality vision-language data. By employing this method, InstructionGPT-4 outperforms the original MiniGPT-4 on various evaluations (e.g., visual question answering, GPT-4 preference). Overall, our findings demonstrate that less but high-quality instruction tuning data is efficient to enable multimodal large language models to generate better output.

22.Stabilizing RNN Gradients through Pre-training

Authors:Luca Herranz-Celotti, Jean Rouat

Abstract: Numerous theories of learning suggest to prevent the gradient variance from exponential growth with depth or time, to stabilize and improve training. Typically, these analyses are conducted on feed-forward fully-connected neural networks or single-layer recurrent neural networks, given their mathematical tractability. In contrast, this study demonstrates that pre-training the network to local stability can be effective whenever the architectures are too complex for an analytical initialization. Furthermore, we extend known stability theories to encompass a broader family of deep recurrent networks, requiring minimal assumptions on data and parameter distribution, a theory that we refer to as the Local Stability Condition (LSC). Our investigation reveals that the classical Glorot, He, and Orthogonal initialization schemes satisfy the LSC when applied to feed-forward fully-connected neural networks. However, analysing deep recurrent networks, we identify a new additive source of exponential explosion that emerges from counting gradient paths in a rectangular grid in depth and time. We propose a new approach to mitigate this issue, that consists on giving a weight of a half to the time and depth contributions to the gradient, instead of the classical weight of one. Our empirical results confirm that pre-training both feed-forward and recurrent networks to fulfill the LSC often results in improved final performance across models. This study contributes to the field by providing a means to stabilize networks of any complexity. Our approach can be implemented as an additional step before pre-training on large augmented datasets, and as an alternative to finding stable initializations analytically.

23.Cached Operator Reordering: A Unified View for Fast GNN Training

Authors:Julia Bazinska, Andrei Ivanov, Tal Ben-Nun, Nikoli Dryden, Maciej Besta, Siyuan Shen, Torsten Hoefler

Abstract: Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are a powerful tool for handling structured graph data and addressing tasks such as node classification, graph classification, and clustering. However, the sparse nature of GNN computation poses new challenges for performance optimization compared to traditional deep neural networks. We address these challenges by providing a unified view of GNN computation, I/O, and memory. By analyzing the computational graphs of the Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) and Graph Attention (GAT) layers -- two widely used GNN layers -- we propose alternative computation strategies. We present adaptive operator reordering with caching, which achieves a speedup of up to 2.43x for GCN compared to the current state-of-the-art. Furthermore, an exploration of different caching schemes for GAT yields a speedup of up to 1.94x. The proposed optimizations save memory, are easily implemented across various hardware platforms, and have the potential to alleviate performance bottlenecks in training large-scale GNN models.

24.Generalized Continual Category Discovery

Authors:Daniel Marczak, Grzegorz Rypeść, Sebastian Cygert, Tomasz Trzciński, Bartłomiej Twardowski

Abstract: Most of Continual Learning (CL) methods push the limit of supervised learning settings, where an agent is expected to learn new labeled tasks and not forget previous knowledge. However, these settings are not well aligned with real-life scenarios, where a learning agent has access to a vast amount of unlabeled data encompassing both novel (entirely unlabeled) classes and examples from known classes. Drawing inspiration from Generalized Category Discovery (GCD), we introduce a novel framework that relaxes this assumption. Precisely, in any task, we allow for the existence of novel and known classes, and one must use continual version of unsupervised learning methods to discover them. We call this setting Generalized Continual Category Discovery (GCCD). It unifies CL and GCD, bridging the gap between synthetic benchmarks and real-life scenarios. With a series of experiments, we present that existing methods fail to accumulate knowledge from subsequent tasks in which unlabeled samples of novel classes are present. In light of these limitations, we propose a method that incorporates both supervised and unsupervised signals and mitigates the forgetting through the use of centroid adaptation. Our method surpasses strong CL methods adopted for GCD techniques and presents a superior representation learning performance.

25.An Open-Source ML-Based Full-Stack Optimization Framework for Machine Learning Accelerators

Authors:Hadi Esmaeilzadeh, Soroush Ghodrati, Andrew B. Kahng, Joon Kyung Kim, Sean Kinzer, Sayak Kundu, Rohan Mahapatra, Susmita Dey Manasi, Sachin Sapatnekar, Zhiang Wang, Ziqing Zeng

Abstract: Parameterizable machine learning (ML) accelerators are the product of recent breakthroughs in ML. To fully enable their design space exploration (DSE), we propose a physical-design-driven, learning-based prediction framework for hardware-accelerated deep neural network (DNN) and non-DNN ML algorithms. It adopts a unified approach that combines backend power, performance, and area (PPA) analysis with frontend performance simulation, thereby achieving a realistic estimation of both backend PPA and system metrics such as runtime and energy. In addition, our framework includes a fully automated DSE technique, which optimizes backend and system metrics through an automated search of architectural and backend parameters. Experimental studies show that our approach consistently predicts backend PPA and system metrics with an average 7% or less prediction error for the ASIC implementation of two deep learning accelerator platforms, VTA and VeriGOOD-ML, in both a commercial 12 nm process and a research-oriented 45 nm process.

26.A Probabilistic Fluctuation based Membership Inference Attack for Generative Models

Authors:Wenjie Fu Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Huandong Wang Tsinghua University, Chen Gao Tsinghua University, Guanghua Liu Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Yong Li Tsinghua University, Tao Jiang Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Abstract: Membership Inference Attack (MIA) identifies whether a record exists in a machine learning model's training set by querying the model. MIAs on the classic classification models have been well-studied, and recent works have started to explore how to transplant MIA onto generative models. Our investigation indicates that existing MIAs designed for generative models mainly depend on the overfitting in target models. However, overfitting can be avoided by employing various regularization techniques, whereas existing MIAs demonstrate poor performance in practice. Unlike overfitting, memorization is essential for deep learning models to attain optimal performance, making it a more prevalent phenomenon. Memorization in generative models leads to an increasing trend in the probability distribution of generating records around the member record. Therefore, we propose a Probabilistic Fluctuation Assessing Membership Inference Attack (PFAMI), a black-box MIA that infers memberships by detecting these trends via analyzing the overall probabilistic fluctuations around given records. We conduct extensive experiments across multiple generative models and datasets, which demonstrate PFAMI can improve the attack success rate (ASR) by about 27.9% when compared with the best baseline.

27.Unsupervised anomalies detection in IIoT edge devices networks using federated learning

Authors:Niyomukiza Thamar, Hossam Samy Elsaid Sharara

Abstract: In a connection of many IoT devices that each collect data, normally training a machine learning model would involve transmitting the data to a central server which requires strict privacy rules. However, some owners are reluctant of availing their data out of the company due to data security concerns. Federated learning(FL) as a distributed machine learning approach performs training of a machine learning model on the device that gathered the data itself. In this scenario, data is not share over the network for training purpose. Fedavg as one of FL algorithms permits a model to be copied to participating devices during a training session. The devices could be chosen at random, and a device can be aborted. The resulting models are sent to the coordinating server and then average models from the devices that finished training. The process is repeated until a desired model accuracy is achieved. By doing this, FL approach solves the privacy problem for IoT/ IIoT devices that held sensitive data for the owners. In this paper, we leverage the benefits of FL and implemented Fedavg algorithm on a recent dataset that represent the modern IoT/ IIoT device networks. The results were almost the same as the centralized machine learning approach. We also evaluated some shortcomings of Fedavg such as unfairness that happens during the training when struggling devices do not participate for every stage of training. This inefficient training of local or global model could lead in a high number of false alarms in intrusion detection systems for IoT/IIoT gadgets developed using Fedavg. Hence, after evaluating the FedAv deep auto encoder with centralized deep auto encoder ML, we further proposed and designed a Fair Fedavg algorithm that will be evaluated in the future work.

28.Development and external validation of a lung cancer risk estimation tool using gradient-boosting

Authors:Pierre-Louis Benveniste, Julie Alberge, Lei Xing, Jean-Emmanuel Bibault

Abstract: Lung cancer is a significant cause of mortality worldwide, emphasizing the importance of early detection for improved survival rates. In this study, we propose a machine learning (ML) tool trained on data from the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial and validated on the NLST to estimate the likelihood of lung cancer occurrence within five years. The study utilized two datasets, the PLCO (n=55,161) and NLST (n=48,595), consisting of comprehensive information on risk factors, clinical measurements, and outcomes related to lung cancer. Data preprocessing involved removing patients who were not current or former smokers and those who had died of causes unrelated to lung cancer. Additionally, a focus was placed on mitigating bias caused by censored data. Feature selection, hyper-parameter optimization, and model calibration were performed using XGBoost, an ensemble learning algorithm that combines gradient boosting and decision trees. The ML model was trained on the pre-processed PLCO dataset and tested on the NLST dataset. The model incorporated features such as age, gender, smoking history, medical diagnoses, and family history of lung cancer. The model was well-calibrated (Brier score=0.044). ROC-AUC was 82% on the PLCO dataset and 70% on the NLST dataset. PR-AUC was 29% and 11% respectively. When compared to the USPSTF guidelines for lung cancer screening, our model provided the same recall with a precision of 13.1% vs. 9.3% on the PLCO dataset and 3.2% vs. 3.1% on the NLST dataset. The developed ML tool provides a freely available web application for estimating the likelihood of developing lung cancer within five years. By utilizing risk factors and clinical data, individuals can assess their risk and make informed decisions regarding lung cancer screening. This research contributes to the efforts in early detection and prevention strategies, aiming to reduce lung cancer-related mortality rates.

29.Robustness Analysis of Continuous-Depth Models with Lagrangian Techniques

Authors:Sophie A. Neubauer née Gruenbacher, Radu Grosu

Abstract: This paper presents, in a unified fashion, deterministic as well as statistical Lagrangian-verification techniques. They formally quantify the behavioral robustness of any time-continuous process, formulated as a continuous-depth model. To this end, we review LRT-NG, SLR, and GoTube, algorithms for constructing a tight reachtube, that is, an over-approximation of the set of states reachable within a given time-horizon, and provide guarantees for the reachtube bounds. We compare the usage of the variational equations, associated to the system equations, the mean value theorem, and the Lipschitz constants, in achieving deterministic and statistical guarantees. In LRT-NG, the Lipschitz constant is used as a bloating factor of the initial perturbation, to compute the radius of an ellipsoid in an optimal metric, which over-approximates the set of reachable states. In SLR and GoTube, we get statistical guarantees, by using the Lipschitz constants to compute local balls around samples. These are needed to calculate the probability of having found an upper bound, of the true maximum perturbation at every timestep. Our experiments demonstrate the superior performance of Lagrangian techniques, when compared to LRT, Flow*, and CAPD, and illustrate their use in the robustness analysis of various continuous-depth models.

30.Curriculum Learning with Adam: The Devil Is in the Wrong Details

Authors:Lucas Weber, Jaap Jumelet, Paul Michel, Elia Bruni, Dieuwke Hupkes

Abstract: Curriculum learning (CL) posits that machine learning models -- similar to humans -- may learn more efficiently from data that match their current learning progress. However, CL methods are still poorly understood and, in particular for natural language processing (NLP), have achieved only limited success. In this paper, we explore why. Starting from an attempt to replicate and extend a number of recent curriculum methods, we find that their results are surprisingly brittle when applied to NLP. A deep dive into the (in)effectiveness of the curricula in some scenarios shows us why: when curricula are employed in combination with the popular Adam optimisation algorithm, they oftentimes learn to adapt to suboptimally chosen optimisation parameters for this algorithm. We present a number of different case studies with different common hand-crafted and automated CL approaches to illustrate this phenomenon, and we find that none of them outperforms optimisation with only Adam with well-chosen hyperparameters. As such, our results contribute to understanding why CL methods work, but at the same time urge caution when claiming positive results.

31.ULDP-FL: Federated Learning with Across Silo User-Level Differential Privacy

Authors:Fumiyuki Kato, Li Xiong, Shun Takagi, Yang Cao, Masatoshi Yoshikawa

Abstract: Differentially Private Federated Learning (DP-FL) has garnered attention as a collaborative machine learning approach that ensures formal privacy. Most DP-FL approaches ensure DP at the record-level within each silo for cross-silo FL. However, a single user's data may extend across multiple silos, and the desired user-level DP guarantee for such a setting remains unknown. In this study, we present ULDP-FL, a novel FL framework designed to guarantee user-level DP in cross-silo FL where a single user's data may belong to multiple silos. Our proposed algorithm directly ensures user-level DP through per-user weighted clipping, departing from group-privacy approaches. We provide a theoretical analysis of the algorithm's privacy and utility. Additionally, we enhance the algorithm's utility and showcase its private implementation using cryptographic building blocks. Empirical experiments on real-world datasets show substantial improvements in our methods in privacy-utility trade-offs under user-level DP compared to baseline methods. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first FL framework that effectively provides user-level DP in the general cross-silo FL setting.

32.The Challenges of Machine Learning for Trust and Safety: A Case Study on Misinformation Detection

Authors:Madelyne Xiao, Jonathan Mayer

Abstract: We examine the disconnect between scholarship and practice in applying machine learning to trust and safety problems, using misinformation detection as a case study. We systematize literature on automated detection of misinformation across a corpus of 270 well-cited papers in the field. We then examine subsets of papers for data and code availability, design missteps, reproducibility, and generalizability. We find significant shortcomings in the literature that call into question claimed performance and practicality. Detection tasks are often meaningfully distinct from the challenges that online services actually face. Datasets and model evaluation are often non-representative of real-world contexts, and evaluation frequently is not independent of model training. Data and code availability is poor. Models do not generalize well to out-of-domain data. Based on these results, we offer recommendations for evaluating machine learning applications to trust and safety problems. Our aim is for future work to avoid the pitfalls that we identify.

33.Critical Learning Periods Emerge Even in Deep Linear Networks

Authors:Michael Kleinman, Alessandro Achille, Stefano Soatto

Abstract: Critical learning periods are periods early in development where temporary sensory deficits can have a permanent effect on behavior and learned representations. Despite the radical differences between biological and artificial networks, critical learning periods have been empirically observed in both systems. This suggests that critical periods may be fundamental to learning and not an accident of biology. Yet, why exactly critical periods emerge in deep networks is still an open question, and in particular it is unclear whether the critical periods observed in both systems depend on particular architectural or optimization details. To isolate the key underlying factors, we focus on deep linear network models, and show that, surprisingly, such networks also display much of the behavior seen in biology and artificial networks, while being amenable to analytical treatment. We show that critical periods depend on the depth of the model and structure of the data distribution. We also show analytically and in simulations that the learning of features is tied to competition between sources. Finally, we extend our analysis to multi-task learning to show that pre-training on certain tasks can damage the transfer performance on new tasks, and show how this depends on the relationship between tasks and the duration of the pre-training stage. To the best of our knowledge, our work provides the first analytically tractable model that sheds light into why critical learning periods emerge in biological and artificial networks.

34.Multi-Objective Optimization for Sparse Deep Neural Network Training

Authors:S. S. Hotegni, S. Peitz, M. Berkemeier

Abstract: Different conflicting optimization criteria arise naturally in various Deep Learning scenarios. These can address different main tasks (i.e., in the setting of Multi-Task Learning), but also main and secondary tasks such as loss minimization versus sparsity. The usual approach is a simple weighting of the criteria, which formally only works in the convex setting. In this paper, we present a Multi-Objective Optimization algorithm using a modified Weighted Chebyshev scalarization for training Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) with respect to several tasks. By employing this scalarization technique, the algorithm can identify all optimal solutions of the original problem while reducing its complexity to a sequence of single-objective problems. The simplified problems are then solved using an Augmented Lagrangian method, enabling the use of popular optimization techniques such as Adam and Stochastic Gradient Descent, while efficaciously handling constraints. Our work aims to address the (economical and also ecological) sustainability issue of DNN models, with a particular focus on Deep Multi-Task models, which are typically designed with a very large number of weights to perform equally well on multiple tasks. Through experiments conducted on two Machine Learning datasets, we demonstrate the possibility of adaptively sparsifying the model during training without significantly impacting its performance, if we are willing to apply task-specific adaptations to the network weights. Code is available at

35.How to Protect Copyright Data in Optimization of Large Language Models?

Authors:Timothy Chu, Zhao Song, Chiwun Yang

Abstract: Large language models (LLMs) and generative AI have played a transformative role in computer research and applications. Controversy has arisen as to whether these models output copyrighted data, which can occur if the data the models are trained on is copyrighted. LLMs are built on the transformer neural network architecture, which in turn relies on a mathematical computation called Attention that uses the softmax function. In this paper, we show that large language model training and optimization can be seen as a softmax regression problem. We then establish a method of efficiently performing softmax regression, in a way that prevents the regression function from generating copyright data. This establishes a theoretical method of training large language models in a way that avoids generating copyright data.

36.How Safe Am I Given What I See? Calibrated Prediction of Safety Chances for Image-Controlled Autonomy

Authors:Zhenjiang Mao, Carson Sobolewski, Ivan Ruchkin

Abstract: End-to-end learning has emerged as a major paradigm for developing autonomous systems. Unfortunately, with its performance and convenience comes an even greater challenge of safety assurance. A key factor of this challenge is the absence of the notion of a low-dimensional and interpretable dynamical state, around which traditional assurance methods revolve. Focusing on the online safety prediction problem, this paper proposes a configurable family of learning pipelines based on generative world models, which do not require low-dimensional states. To implement these pipelines, we overcome the challenges of learning safety-informed latent representations and missing safety labels under prediction-induced distribution shift. These pipelines come with statistical calibration guarantees on their safety chance predictions based on conformal prediction. We perform an extensive evaluation of the proposed learning pipelines on two case studies of image-controlled systems: a racing car and a cartpole.

37.FECoM: A Step towards Fine-Grained Energy Measurement for Deep Learning

Authors:Saurabhsingh Rajput, Tim Widmayer, Ziyuan Shang, Maria Kechagia, Federica Sarro, Tushar Sharma

Abstract: With the increasing usage, scale, and complexity of Deep Learning (DL) models, their rapidly growing energy consumption has become a critical concern. Promoting green development and energy awareness at different granularities is the need of the hour to limit carbon emissions of DL systems. However, the lack of standard and repeatable tools to accurately measure and optimize energy consumption at a fine granularity (e.g., at method level) hinders progress in this area. In this paper, we introduce FECoM (Fine-grained Energy Consumption Meter), a framework for fine-grained DL energy consumption measurement. Specifically, FECoM provides researchers and developers a mechanism to profile DL APIs. FECoM addresses the challenges of measuring energy consumption at fine-grained level by using static instrumentation and considering various factors, including computational load and temperature stability. We assess FECoM's capability to measure fine-grained energy consumption for one of the most popular open-source DL frameworks, namely TensorFlow. Using FECoM, we also investigate the impact of parameter size and execution time on energy consumption, enriching our understanding of TensorFlow APIs' energy profiles. Furthermore, we elaborate on the considerations, issues, and challenges that one needs to consider while designing and implementing a fine-grained energy consumption measurement tool. We hope this work will facilitate further advances in DL energy measurement and the development of energy-aware practices for DL systems.

38.Language Reward Modulation for Pretraining Reinforcement Learning

Authors:Ademi Adeniji, Amber Xie, Carmelo Sferrazza, Younggyo Seo, Stephen James, Pieter Abbeel

Abstract: Using learned reward functions (LRFs) as a means to solve sparse-reward reinforcement learning (RL) tasks has yielded some steady progress in task-complexity through the years. In this work, we question whether today's LRFs are best-suited as a direct replacement for task rewards. Instead, we propose leveraging the capabilities of LRFs as a pretraining signal for RL. Concretely, we propose $\textbf{LA}$nguage Reward $\textbf{M}$odulated $\textbf{P}$retraining (LAMP) which leverages the zero-shot capabilities of Vision-Language Models (VLMs) as a $\textit{pretraining}$ utility for RL as opposed to a downstream task reward. LAMP uses a frozen, pretrained VLM to scalably generate noisy, albeit shaped exploration rewards by computing the contrastive alignment between a highly diverse collection of language instructions and the image observations of an agent in its pretraining environment. LAMP optimizes these rewards in conjunction with standard novelty-seeking exploration rewards with reinforcement learning to acquire a language-conditioned, pretrained policy. Our VLM pretraining approach, which is a departure from previous attempts to use LRFs, can warmstart sample-efficient learning on robot manipulation tasks in RLBench.

39.On-Manifold Projected Gradient Descent

Authors:Aaron Mahler, Tyrus Berry, Tom Stephens, Harbir Antil, Michael Merritt, Jeanie Schreiber, Ioannis Kevrekidis

Abstract: This work provides a computable, direct, and mathematically rigorous approximation to the differential geometry of class manifolds for high-dimensional data, along with nonlinear projections from input space onto these class manifolds. The tools are applied to the setting of neural network image classifiers, where we generate novel, on-manifold data samples, and implement a projected gradient descent algorithm for on-manifold adversarial training. The susceptibility of neural networks (NNs) to adversarial attack highlights the brittle nature of NN decision boundaries in input space. Introducing adversarial examples during training has been shown to reduce the susceptibility of NNs to adversarial attack; however, it has also been shown to reduce the accuracy of the classifier if the examples are not valid examples for that class. Realistic "on-manifold" examples have been previously generated from class manifolds in the latent of an autoencoder. Our work explores these phenomena in a geometric and computational setting that is much closer to the raw, high-dimensional input space than can be provided by VAE or other black box dimensionality reductions. We employ conformally invariant diffusion maps (CIDM) to approximate class manifolds in diffusion coordinates, and develop the Nystr\"{o}m projection to project novel points onto class manifolds in this setting. On top of the manifold approximation, we leverage the spectral exterior calculus (SEC) to determine geometric quantities such as tangent vectors of the manifold. We use these tools to obtain adversarial examples that reside on a class manifold, yet fool a classifier. These misclassifications then become explainable in terms of human-understandable manipulations within the data, by expressing the on-manifold adversary in the semantic basis on the manifold.

40.Extended Linear Regression: A Kalman Filter Approach for Minimizing Loss via Area Under the Curve

Authors:Gokulprasath R

Abstract: This research enhances linear regression models by integrating a Kalman filter and analysing curve areas to minimize loss. The goal is to develop an optimal linear regression equation using stochastic gradient descent (SGD) for weight updating. Our approach involves a stepwise process, starting with user-defined parameters. The linear regression model is trained using SGD, tracking weights and loss separately and zipping them finally. A Kalman filter is then trained based on weight and loss arrays to predict the next consolidated weights. Predictions result from multiplying input averages with weights, evaluated for loss to form a weight-versus-loss curve. The curve's equation is derived using the two-point formula, and area under the curve is calculated via integration. The linear regression equation with minimum area becomes the optimal curve for prediction. Benefits include avoiding constant weight updates via gradient descent and working with partial datasets, unlike methods needing the entire set. However, computational complexity should be considered. The Kalman filter's accuracy might diminish beyond a certain prediction range.

1.Toward Generalizable Machine Learning Models in Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences: Power Analysis and Sample Size Estimation

Authors:Hamzeh Ghasemzadeh, Robert E. Hillman, Daryush D. Mehta

Abstract: This study's first purpose is to provide quantitative evidence that would incentivize researchers to instead use the more robust method of nested cross-validation. The second purpose is to present methods and MATLAB codes for doing power analysis for ML-based analysis during the design of a study. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the interactions between the employed cross-validation method, the discriminative power of features, the dimensionality of the feature space, and the dimensionality of the model. Four different cross-validations (single holdout, 10-fold, train-validation-test, and nested 10-fold) were compared based on the statistical power and statistical confidence of the ML models. Distributions of the null and alternative hypotheses were used to determine the minimum required sample size for obtaining a statistically significant outcome ({\alpha}=0.05, 1-\b{eta}=0.8). Statistical confidence of the model was defined as the probability of correct features being selected and hence being included in the final model. Our analysis showed that the model generated based on the single holdout method had very low statistical power and statistical confidence and that it significantly overestimated the accuracy. Conversely, the nested 10-fold cross-validation resulted in the highest statistical confidence and the highest statistical power, while providing an unbiased estimate of the accuracy. The required sample size with a single holdout could be 50% higher than what would be needed if nested cross-validation were used. Confidence in the model based on nested cross-validation was as much as four times higher than the confidence in the single holdout-based model. A computational model, MATLAB codes, and lookup tables are provided to assist researchers with estimating the sample size during the design of their future studies.

2.SegRNN: Segment Recurrent Neural Network for Long-Term Time Series Forecasting

Authors:Shengsheng Lin, Weiwei Lin, Wentai Wu, Feiyu Zhao, Ruichao Mo, Haotong Zhang

Abstract: RNN-based methods have faced challenges in the Long-term Time Series Forecasting (LTSF) domain when dealing with excessively long look-back windows and forecast horizons. Consequently, the dominance in this domain has shifted towards Transformer, MLP, and CNN approaches. The substantial number of recurrent iterations are the fundamental reasons behind the limitations of RNNs in LTSF. To address these issues, we propose two novel strategies to reduce the number of iterations in RNNs for LTSF tasks: Segment-wise Iterations and Parallel Multi-step Forecasting (PMF). RNNs that combine these strategies, namely SegRNN, significantly reduce the required recurrent iterations for LTSF, resulting in notable improvements in forecast accuracy and inference speed. Extensive experiments demonstrate that SegRNN not only outperforms SOTA Transformer-based models but also reduces runtime and memory usage by more than 78%. These achievements provide strong evidence that RNNs continue to excel in LTSF tasks and encourage further exploration of this domain with more RNN-based approaches. The source code is coming soon.

3.A Simple Framework for Multi-mode Spatial-Temporal Data Modeling

Authors:Zihang Liu, Le Yu, Tongyu Zhu, Leiei Sun

Abstract: Spatial-temporal data modeling aims to mine the underlying spatial relationships and temporal dependencies of objects in a system. However, most existing methods focus on the modeling of spatial-temporal data in a single mode, lacking the understanding of multiple modes. Though very few methods have been presented to learn the multi-mode relationships recently, they are built on complicated components with higher model complexities. In this paper, we propose a simple framework for multi-mode spatial-temporal data modeling to bring both effectiveness and efficiency together. Specifically, we design a general cross-mode spatial relationships learning component to adaptively establish connections between multiple modes and propagate information along the learned connections. Moreover, we employ multi-layer perceptrons to capture the temporal dependencies and channel correlations, which are conceptually and technically succinct. Experiments on three real-world datasets show that our model can consistently outperform the baselines with lower space and time complexity, opening up a promising direction for modeling spatial-temporal data. The generalizability of the cross-mode spatial relationships learning module is also validated.

4.Hamiltonian GAN

Authors:Christine Allen-Blanchette

Abstract: A growing body of work leverages the Hamiltonian formalism as an inductive bias for physically plausible neural network based video generation. The structure of the Hamiltonian ensures conservation of a learned quantity (e.g., energy) and imposes a phase-space interpretation on the low-dimensional manifold underlying the input video. While this interpretation has the potential to facilitate the integration of learned representations in downstream tasks, existing methods are limited in their applicability as they require a structural prior for the configuration space at design time. In this work, we present a GAN-based video generation pipeline with a learned configuration space map and Hamiltonian neural network motion model, to learn a representation of the configuration space from data. We train our model with a physics-inspired cyclic-coordinate loss function which encourages a minimal representation of the configuration space and improves interpretability. We demonstrate the efficacy and advantages of our approach on the Hamiltonian Dynamics Suite Toy Physics dataset.

5.Federated Learning in Big Model Era: Domain-Specific Multimodal Large Models

Authors:Zengxiang Li, Zhaoxiang Hou, Hui Liu, Ying Wang, Tongzhi Li, Longfei Xie, Chao Shi, Chengyi Yang, Weishan Zhang, Zelei Liu

Abstract: Multimodal data, which can comprehensively perceive and recognize the physical world, has become an essential path towards general artificial intelligence. However, multimodal large models trained on public datasets often underperform in specific industrial domains. This paper proposes a multimodal federated learning framework that enables multiple enterprises to utilize private domain data to collaboratively train large models for vertical domains, achieving intelligent services across scenarios. The authors discuss in-depth the strategic transformation of federated learning in terms of intelligence foundation and objectives in the era of big model, as well as the new challenges faced in heterogeneous data, model aggregation, performance and cost trade-off, data privacy, and incentive mechanism. The paper elaborates a case study of leading enterprises contributing multimodal data and expert knowledge to city safety operation management , including distributed deployment and efficient coordination of the federated learning platform, technical innovations on data quality improvement based on large model capabilities and efficient joint fine-tuning approaches. Preliminary experiments show that enterprises can enhance and accumulate intelligent capabilities through multimodal model federated learning, thereby jointly creating an smart city model that provides high-quality intelligent services covering energy infrastructure safety, residential community security, and urban operation management. The established federated learning cooperation ecosystem is expected to further aggregate industry, academia, and research resources, realize large models in multiple vertical domains, and promote the large-scale industrial application of artificial intelligence and cutting-edge research on multimodal federated learning.

6.Federated Learning on Patient Data for Privacy-Protecting Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment

Authors:Lucia Morris, Tori Qiu, Nikhil Raghuraman

Abstract: The field of women's endocrinology has trailed behind data-driven medical solutions, largely due to concerns over the privacy of patient data. Valuable datapoints about hormone levels or menstrual cycling could expose patients who suffer from comorbidities or terminate a pregnancy, violating their privacy. We explore the application of Federated Learning (FL) to predict the optimal drug for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a serious hormonal disorder impacting millions of women worldwide, yet it's poorly understood and its research is stunted by a lack of patient data. We demonstrate that a variety of FL approaches succeed on a synthetic PCOS patient dataset. Our proposed FL models are a tool to access massive quantities of diverse data and identify the most effective treatment option while providing PCOS patients with privacy guarantees.

7.Minwise-Independent Permutations with Insertion and Deletion of Features

Authors:Rameshwar Pratap, Raghav Kulkarni

Abstract: In their seminal work, Broder \textit{et. al.}~\citep{BroderCFM98} introduces the $\mathrm{minHash}$ algorithm that computes a low-dimensional sketch of high-dimensional binary data that closely approximates pairwise Jaccard similarity. Since its invention, $\mathrm{minHash}$ has been commonly used by practitioners in various big data applications. Further, the data is dynamic in many real-life scenarios, and their feature sets evolve over time. We consider the case when features are dynamically inserted and deleted in the dataset. We note that a naive solution to this problem is to repeatedly recompute $\mathrm{minHash}$ with respect to the updated dimension. However, this is an expensive task as it requires generating fresh random permutations. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic study of $\mathrm{minHash}$ is recorded in the context of dynamic insertion and deletion of features. In this work, we initiate this study and suggest algorithms that make the $\mathrm{minHash}$ sketches adaptable to the dynamic insertion and deletion of features. We show a rigorous theoretical analysis of our algorithms and complement it with extensive experiments on several real-world datasets. Empirically we observe a significant speed-up in the running time while simultaneously offering comparable performance with respect to running $\mathrm{minHash}$ from scratch. Our proposal is efficient, accurate, and easy to implement in practice.

8.Multi-Source Domain Adaptation for Cross-Domain Fault Diagnosis of Chemical Processes

Authors:Eduardo Fernandes Montesuma, Michela Mulas, Fred Ngolè Mboula, Francesco Corona, Antoine Souloumiac

Abstract: Fault diagnosis is an essential component in process supervision. Indeed, it determines which kind of fault has occurred, given that it has been previously detected, allowing for appropriate intervention. Automatic fault diagnosis systems use machine learning for predicting the fault type from sensor readings. Nonetheless, these models are sensible to changes in the data distributions, which may be caused by changes in the monitored process, such as changes in the mode of operation. This scenario is known as Cross-Domain Fault Diagnosis (CDFD). We provide an extensive comparison of single and multi-source unsupervised domain adaptation (SSDA and MSDA respectively) algorithms for CDFD. We study these methods in the context of the Tennessee-Eastmann Process, a widely used benchmark in the chemical industry. We show that using multiple domains during training has a positive effect, even when no adaptation is employed. As such, the MSDA baseline improves over the SSDA baseline classification accuracy by 23% on average. In addition, under the multiple-sources scenario, we improve classification accuracy of the no adaptation setting by 8.4% on average.

9.A survey on bias in machine learning research

Authors:Agnieszka Mikołajczyk-Bareła, Michał Grochowski

Abstract: Current research on bias in machine learning often focuses on fairness, while overlooking the roots or causes of bias. However, bias was originally defined as a "systematic error," often caused by humans at different stages of the research process. This article aims to bridge the gap between past literature on bias in research by providing taxonomy for potential sources of bias and errors in data and models. The paper focus on bias in machine learning pipelines. Survey analyses over forty potential sources of bias in the machine learning (ML) pipeline, providing clear examples for each. By understanding the sources and consequences of bias in machine learning, better methods can be developed for its detecting and mitigating, leading to fairer, more transparent, and more accurate ML models.

10.Robust Lagrangian and Adversarial Policy Gradient for Robust Constrained Markov Decision Processes

Authors:David M. Bossens

Abstract: The robust constrained Markov decision process (RCMDP) is a recent task-modelling framework for reinforcement learning that incorporates behavioural constraints and that provides robustness to errors in the transition dynamics model through the use of an uncertainty set. Simulating RCMDPs requires computing the worst-case dynamics based on value estimates for each state, an approach which has previously been used in the Robust Constrained Policy Gradient (RCPG). Highlighting potential downsides of RCPG such as not robustifying the full constrained objective and the lack of incremental learning, this paper introduces two algorithms, called RCPG with Robust Lagrangian and Adversarial RCPG. RCPG with Robust Lagrangian modifies RCPG by taking the worst-case dynamics based on the Lagrangian rather than either the value or the constraint. Adversarial RCPG also formulates the worst-case dynamics based on the Lagrangian but learns this directly and incrementally as an adversarial policy through gradient descent rather than indirectly and abruptly through constrained optimisation on a sorted value list. A theoretical analysis first derives the Lagrangian policy gradient for the policy optimisation of both proposed algorithms and then the adversarial policy gradient to learn the adversary for Adversarial RCPG. Empirical experiments injecting perturbations in inventory management and safe navigation tasks demonstrate the competitive performance of both algorithms compared to traditional RCPG variants as well as non-robust and non-constrained ablations. In particular, Adversarial RCPG ranks among the top two performing algorithms on all tests.

11.Quantum-Inspired Machine Learning: a Survey

Authors:Larry Huynh, Jin Hong, Ajmal Mian, Hajime Suzuki, Yanqiu Wu, Seyit Camtepe

Abstract: Quantum-inspired Machine Learning (QiML) is a burgeoning field, receiving global attention from researchers for its potential to leverage principles of quantum mechanics within classical computational frameworks. However, current review literature often presents a superficial exploration of QiML, focusing instead on the broader Quantum Machine Learning (QML) field. In response to this gap, this survey provides an integrated and comprehensive examination of QiML, exploring QiML's diverse research domains including tensor network simulations, dequantized algorithms, and others, showcasing recent advancements, practical applications, and illuminating potential future research avenues. Further, a concrete definition of QiML is established by analyzing various prior interpretations of the term and their inherent ambiguities. As QiML continues to evolve, we anticipate a wealth of future developments drawing from quantum mechanics, quantum computing, and classical machine learning, enriching the field further. This survey serves as a guide for researchers and practitioners alike, providing a holistic understanding of QiML's current landscape and future directions.

12.FoX: Formation-aware exploration in multi-agent reinforcement learning

Authors:Yonghyeon Jo, Sunwoo Lee, Junghyuk Yum, Seungyul Han

Abstract: Recently, deep multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) has gained significant popularity due to its success in various cooperative multi-agent tasks. However, exploration still remains a challenging problem in MARL due to the partial observability of the agents and the exploration space that can grow exponentially as the number of agents increases. Firstly, in order to address the scalability issue of the exploration space, we define a formation-based equivalence relation on the exploration space and aim to reduce the search space by exploring only meaningful states in different formations. Then, we propose a novel formation-aware exploration (FoX) framework that encourages partially observable agents to visit the states in diverse formations by guiding them to be well aware of their current formation solely based on their own observations. Numerical results show that the proposed FoX framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art MARL algorithms on Google Research Football (GRF) and sparse Starcraft II multi-agent challenge (SMAC) tasks.

13.Uncertainty Estimation of Transformers' Predictions via Topological Analysis of the Attention Matrices

Authors:Elizaveta Kostenok, Daniil Cherniavskii, Alexey Zaytsev

Abstract: Determining the degree of confidence of deep learning model in its prediction is an open problem in the field of natural language processing. Most of the classical methods for uncertainty estimation are quite weak for text classification models. We set the task of obtaining an uncertainty estimate for neural networks based on the Transformer architecture. A key feature of such mo-dels is the attention mechanism, which supports the information flow between the hidden representations of tokens in the neural network. We explore the formed relationships between internal representations using Topological Data Analysis methods and utilize them to predict model's confidence. In this paper, we propose a method for uncertainty estimation based on the topological properties of the attention mechanism and compare it with classical methods. As a result, the proposed algorithm surpasses the existing methods in quality and opens up a new area of application of the attention mechanism, but requires the selection of topological features.

14.Protect Federated Learning Against Backdoor Attacks via Data-Free Trigger Generation

Authors:Yanxin Yang, Ming Hu, Yue Cao, Jun Xia, Yihao Huang, Yang Liu, Mingsong Chen

Abstract: As a distributed machine learning paradigm, Federated Learning (FL) enables large-scale clients to collaboratively train a model without sharing their raw data. However, due to the lack of data auditing for untrusted clients, FL is vulnerable to poisoning attacks, especially backdoor attacks. By using poisoned data for local training or directly changing the model parameters, attackers can easily inject backdoors into the model, which can trigger the model to make misclassification of targeted patterns in images. To address these issues, we propose a novel data-free trigger-generation-based defense approach based on the two characteristics of backdoor attacks: i) triggers are learned faster than normal knowledge, and ii) trigger patterns have a greater effect on image classification than normal class patterns. Our approach generates the images with newly learned knowledge by identifying the differences between the old and new global models, and filters trigger images by evaluating the effect of these generated images. By using these trigger images, our approach eliminates poisoned models to ensure the updated global model is benign. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that our approach can defend against almost all the existing types of backdoor attacks and outperform all the seven state-of-the-art defense methods with both IID and non-IID scenarios. Especially, our approach can successfully defend against the backdoor attack even when 80\% of the clients are malicious.

15.Careful at Estimation and Bold at Exploration

Authors:Xing Chen, Yijun Liu, Zhaogeng Liu, Hechang Chen, Hengshuai Yao, Yi Chang

Abstract: Exploration strategies in continuous action space are often heuristic due to the infinite actions, and these kinds of methods cannot derive a general conclusion. In prior work, it has been shown that policy-based exploration is beneficial for continuous action space in deterministic policy reinforcement learning(DPRL). However, policy-based exploration in DPRL has two prominent issues: aimless exploration and policy divergence, and the policy gradient for exploration is only sometimes helpful due to inaccurate estimation. Based on the double-Q function framework, we introduce a novel exploration strategy to mitigate these issues, separate from the policy gradient. We first propose the greedy Q softmax update schema for Q value update. The expected Q value is derived by weighted summing the conservative Q value over actions, and the weight is the corresponding greedy Q value. Greedy Q takes the maximum value of the two Q functions, and conservative Q takes the minimum value of the two different Q functions. For practicality, this theoretical basis is then extended to allow us to combine action exploration with the Q value update, except for the premise that we have a surrogate policy that behaves like this exploration policy. In practice, we construct such an exploration policy with a few sampled actions, and to meet the premise, we learn such a surrogate policy by minimizing the KL divergence between the target policy and the exploration policy constructed by the conservative Q. We evaluate our method on the Mujoco benchmark and demonstrate superior performance compared to previous state-of-the-art methods across various environments, particularly in the most complex Humanoid environment.

16.Targeted Data Augmentation for bias mitigation

Authors:Agnieszka Mikołajczyk-Bareła, Maria Ferlin, Michał Grochowski

Abstract: The development of fair and ethical AI systems requires careful consideration of bias mitigation, an area often overlooked or ignored. In this study, we introduce a novel and efficient approach for addressing biases called Targeted Data Augmentation (TDA), which leverages classical data augmentation techniques to tackle the pressing issue of bias in data and models. Unlike the laborious task of removing biases, our method proposes to insert biases instead, resulting in improved performance. To identify biases, we annotated two diverse datasets: a dataset of clinical skin lesions and a dataset of male and female faces. These bias annotations are published for the first time in this study, providing a valuable resource for future research. Through Counterfactual Bias Insertion, we discovered that biases associated with the frame, ruler, and glasses had a significant impact on models. By randomly introducing biases during training, we mitigated these biases and achieved a substantial decrease in bias measures, ranging from two-fold to more than 50-fold, while maintaining a negligible increase in the error rate.

17.Designing an attack-defense game: how to increase robustness of financial transaction models via a competition

Authors:Alexey Zaytsev, Alex Natekin, Evgeni Vorsin, Valerii Smirnov, Oleg Sidorshin, Alexander Senin, Alexander Dudin, Dmitry Berestnev

Abstract: Given the escalating risks of malicious attacks in the finance sector and the consequential severe damage, a thorough understanding of adversarial strategies and robust defense mechanisms for machine learning models is critical. The threat becomes even more severe with the increased adoption in banks more accurate, but potentially fragile neural networks. We aim to investigate the current state and dynamics of adversarial attacks and defenses for neural network models that use sequential financial data as the input. To achieve this goal, we have designed a competition that allows realistic and detailed investigation of problems in modern financial transaction data. The participants compete directly against each other, so possible attacks and defenses are examined in close-to-real-life conditions. Our main contributions are the analysis of the competition dynamics that answers the questions on how important it is to conceal a model from malicious users, how long does it take to break it, and what techniques one should use to make it more robust, and introduction additional way to attack models or increase their robustness. Our analysis continues with a meta-study on the used approaches with their power, numerical experiments, and accompanied ablations studies. We show that the developed attacks and defenses outperform existing alternatives from the literature while being practical in terms of execution, proving the validity of the competition as a tool for uncovering vulnerabilities of machine learning models and mitigating them in various domains.

18.Exploration of Rashomon Set Assists Explanations for Medical Data

Authors:Katarzyna Kobylińska, Mateusz Krzyziński, Rafał Machowicz, Mariusz Adamek, Przemysław Biecek

Abstract: The machine learning modeling process conventionally culminates in selecting a single model that maximizes a selected performance metric. However, this approach leads to abandoning a more profound analysis of slightly inferior models. Particularly in medical and healthcare studies, where the objective extends beyond predictions to valuable insight generation, relying solely on performance metrics can result in misleading or incomplete conclusions. This problem is particularly pertinent when dealing with a set of models with performance close to maximum one, known as $\textit{Rashomon set}$. Such a set can be numerous and may contain models describing the data in a different way, which calls for comprehensive analysis. This paper introduces a novel process to explore Rashomon set models, extending the conventional modeling approach. The cornerstone is the identification of the most different models within the Rashomon set, facilitated by the introduced $\texttt{Rashomon_DETECT}$ algorithm. This algorithm compares profiles illustrating prediction dependencies on variable values generated by eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) techniques. To quantify differences in variable effects among models, we introduce the Profile Disparity Index (PDI) based on measures from functional data analysis. To illustrate the effectiveness of our approach, we showcase its application in predicting survival among hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) patients - a foundational case study. Additionally, we benchmark our approach on other medical data sets, demonstrating its versatility and utility in various contexts.

19.A Survey on Self-Supervised Representation Learning

Authors:Tobias Uelwer, Jan Robine, Stefan Sylvius Wagner, Marc Höftmann, Eric Upschulte, Sebastian Konietzny, Maike Behrendt, Stefan Harmeling

Abstract: Learning meaningful representations is at the heart of many tasks in the field of modern machine learning. Recently, a lot of methods were introduced that allow learning of image representations without supervision. These representations can then be used in downstream tasks like classification or object detection. The quality of these representations is close to supervised learning, while no labeled images are needed. This survey paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods in a unified notation, points out similarities and differences of these methods, and proposes a taxonomy which sets these methods in relation to each other. Furthermore, our survey summarizes the most-recent experimental results reported in the literature in form of a meta-study. Our survey is intended as a starting point for researchers and practitioners who want to dive into the field of representation learning.

20.Internal Cross-layer Gradients for Extending Homogeneity to Heterogeneity in Federated Learning

Authors:Yun-Hin Chan, Rui Zhou, Running Zhao, Zhihan Jiang, Edith C. -H. Ngai

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) inevitably confronts the challenge of system heterogeneity in practical scenarios. To enhance the capabilities of most model-homogeneous FL methods in handling system heterogeneity, we propose a training scheme that can extend their capabilities to cope with this challenge. In this paper, we commence our study with a detailed exploration of homogeneous and heterogeneous FL settings and discover three key observations: (1) a positive correlation between client performance and layer similarities, (2) higher similarities in the shallow layers in contrast to the deep layers, and (3) the smoother gradients distributions indicate the higher layer similarities. Building upon these observations, we propose InCo Aggregation that leverags internal cross-layer gradients, a mixture of gradients from shallow and deep layers within a server model, to augment the similarity in the deep layers without requiring additional communication between clients. Furthermore, our methods can be tailored to accommodate model-homogeneous FL methods such as FedAvg, FedProx, FedNova, Scaffold, and MOON, to expand their capabilities to handle the system heterogeneity. Copious experimental results validate the effectiveness of InCo Aggregation, spotlighting internal cross-layer gradients as a promising avenue to enhance the performance in heterogenous FL.

21.Revisiting column-generation-based matheuristic for learning classification trees

Authors:Krunal Kishor Patel, Guy Desaulniers, Andrea Lodi

Abstract: Decision trees are highly interpretable models for solving classification problems in machine learning (ML). The standard ML algorithms for training decision trees are fast but generate suboptimal trees in terms of accuracy. Other discrete optimization models in the literature address the optimality problem but only work well on relatively small datasets. \cite{firat2020column} proposed a column-generation-based heuristic approach for learning decision trees. This approach improves scalability and can work with large datasets. In this paper, we describe improvements to this column generation approach. First, we modify the subproblem model to significantly reduce the number of subproblems in multiclass classification instances. Next, we show that the data-dependent constraints in the master problem are implied, and use them as cutting planes. Furthermore, we describe a separation model to generate data points for which the linear programming relaxation solution violates their corresponding constraints. We conclude by presenting computational results that show that these modifications result in better scalability.

22.Expecting The Unexpected: Towards Broad Out-Of-Distribution Detection

Authors:Charles Guille-Escuret, Pierre-André Noël, Ioannis Mitliagkas, David Vazquez, Joao Monteiro

Abstract: Improving the reliability of deployed machine learning systems often involves developing methods to detect out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs. However, existing research often narrowly focuses on samples from classes that are absent from the training set, neglecting other types of plausible distribution shifts. This limitation reduces the applicability of these methods in real-world scenarios, where systems encounter a wide variety of anomalous inputs. In this study, we categorize five distinct types of distribution shifts and critically evaluate the performance of recent OOD detection methods on each of them. We publicly release our benchmark under the name BROAD (Benchmarking Resilience Over Anomaly Diversity). Our findings reveal that while these methods excel in detecting unknown classes, their performance is inconsistent when encountering other types of distribution shifts. In other words, they only reliably detect unexpected inputs that they have been specifically designed to expect. As a first step toward broad OOD detection, we learn a generative model of existing detection scores with a Gaussian mixture. By doing so, we present an ensemble approach that offers a more consistent and comprehensive solution for broad OOD detection, demonstrating superior performance compared to existing methods. Our code to download BROAD and reproduce our experiments is publicly available.

23.Mode Combinability: Exploring Convex Combinations of Permutation Aligned Models

Authors:Adrián Csiszárik, Melinda F. Kiss, Péter Kőrösi-Szabó, Márton Muntag, Gergely Papp, Dániel Varga

Abstract: We explore element-wise convex combinations of two permutation-aligned neural network parameter vectors $\Theta_A$ and $\Theta_B$ of size $d$. We conduct extensive experiments by examining various distributions of such model combinations parametrized by elements of the hypercube $[0,1]^{d}$ and its vicinity. Our findings reveal that broad regions of the hypercube form surfaces of low loss values, indicating that the notion of linear mode connectivity extends to a more general phenomenon which we call mode combinability. We also make several novel observations regarding linear mode connectivity and model re-basin. We demonstrate a transitivity property: two models re-based to a common third model are also linear mode connected, and a robustness property: even with significant perturbations of the neuron matchings the resulting combinations continue to form a working model. Moreover, we analyze the functional and weight similarity of model combinations and show that such combinations are non-vacuous in the sense that there are significant functional differences between the resulting models.

24.EM for Mixture of Linear Regression with Clustered Data

Authors:Amirhossein Reisizadeh, Khashayar Gatmiry, Asuman Ozdaglar

Abstract: Modern data-driven and distributed learning frameworks deal with diverse massive data generated by clients spread across heterogeneous environments. Indeed, data heterogeneity is a major bottleneck in scaling up many distributed learning paradigms. In many settings however, heterogeneous data may be generated in clusters with shared structures, as is the case in several applications such as federated learning where a common latent variable governs the distribution of all the samples generated by a client. It is therefore natural to ask how the underlying clustered structures in distributed data can be exploited to improve learning schemes. In this paper, we tackle this question in the special case of estimating $d$-dimensional parameters of a two-component mixture of linear regressions problem where each of $m$ nodes generates $n$ samples with a shared latent variable. We employ the well-known Expectation-Maximization (EM) method to estimate the maximum likelihood parameters from $m$ batches of dependent samples each containing $n$ measurements. Discarding the clustered structure in the mixture model, EM is known to require $O(\log(mn/d))$ iterations to reach the statistical accuracy of $O(\sqrt{d/(mn)})$. In contrast, we show that if initialized properly, EM on the structured data requires only $O(1)$ iterations to reach the same statistical accuracy, as long as $m$ grows up as $e^{o(n)}$. Our analysis establishes and combines novel asymptotic optimization and generalization guarantees for population and empirical EM with dependent samples, which may be of independent interest.

25.ReLiCADA -- Reservoir Computing using Linear Cellular Automata Design Algorithm

Authors:Jonas Kantic, Fabian C. Legl, Walter Stechele, Jakob Hermann

Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to optimize the design of Reservoir Computing using Cellular Automata models for time series applications. Besides selecting the models' hyperparameters, the proposed algorithm particularly solves the open problem of linear Cellular Automaton rule selection. The selection method pre-selects only a few promising candidate rules out of an exponentially growing rule space. When applied to relevant benchmark datasets, the selected rules achieve low errors, with the best rules being among the top 5% of the overall rule space. The algorithm was developed based on mathematical analysis of linear Cellular Automaton properties and is backed by almost one million experiments, adding up to a computational runtime of nearly one year. Comparisons to other state-of-the-art time series models show that the proposed Reservoir Computing using Cellular Automata models have lower computational complexity, at the same time, achieve lower errors. Hence, our approach reduces the time needed for training and hyperparameter optimization by up to several orders of magnitude.

26.A free from local minima algorithm for training regressive MLP neural networks

Authors:Augusto Montisci

Abstract: In this article an innovative method for training regressive MLP networks is presented, which is not subject to local minima. The Error-Back-Propagation algorithm, proposed by William-Hinton-Rummelhart, has had the merit of favouring the development of machine learning techniques, which has permeated every branch of research and technology since the mid-1980s. This extraordinary success is largely due to the black-box approach, but this same factor was also seen as a limitation, as soon more challenging problems were approached. One of the most critical aspects of the training algorithms was that of local minima of the loss function, typically the mean squared error of the output on the training set. In fact, as the most popular training algorithms are driven by the derivatives of the loss function, there is no possibility to evaluate if a reached minimum is local or global. The algorithm presented in this paper avoids the problem of local minima, as the training is based on the properties of the distribution of the training set, or better on its image internal to the neural network. The performance of the algorithm is shown for a well-known benchmark.

27.Tryage: Real-time, intelligent Routing of User Prompts to Large Language Model

Authors:Surya Narayanan Hari, Matt Thomson

Abstract: The introduction of the transformer architecture and the self-attention mechanism has led to an explosive production of language models trained on specific downstream tasks and data domains. With over 200, 000 models in the Hugging Face ecosystem, users grapple with selecting and optimizing models to suit multifaceted workflows and data domains while addressing computational, security, and recency concerns. There is an urgent need for machine learning frameworks that can eliminate the burden of model selection and customization and unleash the incredible power of the vast emerging model library for end users. Here, we propose a context-aware routing system, Tryage, that leverages a language model router for optimal selection of expert models from a model library based on analysis of individual input prompts. Inspired by the thalamic router in the brain, Tryage employs a perceptive router to predict down-stream model performance on prompts and, then, makes a routing decision using an objective function that integrates performance predictions with user goals and constraints that are incorporated through flags (e.g., model size, model recency). Tryage allows users to explore a Pareto front and automatically trade-off between task accuracy and secondary goals including minimization of model size, recency, security, verbosity, and readability. Across heterogeneous data sets that include code, text, clinical data, and patents, the Tryage framework surpasses Gorilla and GPT3.5 turbo in dynamic model selection identifying the optimal model with an accuracy of 50.9% , compared to 23.6% by GPT 3.5 Turbo and 10.8% by Gorilla. Conceptually, Tryage demonstrates how routing models can be applied to program and control the behavior of multi-model LLM systems to maximize efficient use of the expanding and evolving language model ecosystem.

28.Semantic Multi-Resolution Communications

Authors:Matin Mortaheb, Mohammad A. Amir Khojastepour, Srimat T. Chakradhar, Sennur Ulukus

Abstract: Deep learning based joint source-channel coding (JSCC) has demonstrated significant advancements in data reconstruction compared to separate source-channel coding (SSCC). This superiority arises from the suboptimality of SSCC when dealing with finite block-length data. Moreover, SSCC falls short in reconstructing data in a multi-user and/or multi-resolution fashion, as it only tries to satisfy the worst channel and/or the highest quality data. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel deep learning multi-resolution JSCC framework inspired by the concept of multi-task learning (MTL). This proposed framework excels at encoding data for different resolutions through hierarchical layers and effectively decodes it by leveraging both current and past layers of encoded data. Moreover, this framework holds great potential for semantic communication, where the objective extends beyond data reconstruction to preserving specific semantic attributes throughout the communication process. These semantic features could be crucial elements such as class labels, essential for classification tasks, or other key attributes that require preservation. Within this framework, each level of encoded data can be carefully designed to retain specific data semantics. As a result, the precision of a semantic classifier can be progressively enhanced across successive layers, emphasizing the preservation of targeted semantics throughout the encoding and decoding stages. We conduct experiments on MNIST and CIFAR10 dataset. The experiment with both datasets illustrates that our proposed method is capable of surpassing the SSCC method in reconstructing data with different resolutions, enabling the extraction of semantic features with heightened confidence in successive layers. This capability is particularly advantageous for prioritizing and preserving more crucial semantic features within the datasets.

1.Deep Metric Loss for Multimodal Learning

Authors:Sehwan Moon, Hyunju Lee

Abstract: Multimodal learning often outperforms its unimodal counterparts by exploiting unimodal contributions and cross-modal interactions. However, focusing only on integrating multimodal features into a unified comprehensive representation overlooks the unimodal characteristics. In real data, the contributions of modalities can vary from instance to instance, and they often reinforce or conflict with each other. In this study, we introduce a novel \text{MultiModal} loss paradigm for multimodal learning, which subgroups instances according to their unimodal contributions. \text{MultiModal} loss can prevent inefficient learning caused by overfitting and efficiently optimize multimodal models. On synthetic data, \text{MultiModal} loss demonstrates improved classification performance by subgrouping difficult instances within certain modalities. On four real multimodal datasets, our loss is empirically shown to improve the performance of recent models. Ablation studies verify the effectiveness of our loss. Additionally, we show that our loss generates a reliable prediction score for each modality, which is essential for subgrouping. Our \text{MultiModal} loss is a novel loss function to subgroup instances according to the contribution of modalities in multimodal learning and is applicable to a variety of multimodal models with unimodal decisions. Our code is available at

2.Using Autoencoders and AutoDiff to Reconstruct Missing Variables in a Set of Time Series

Authors:Jan-Philipp Roche, Oliver Niggemann, Jens Friebe

Abstract: Existing black box modeling approaches in machine learning suffer from a fixed input and output feature combination. In this paper, a new approach to reconstruct missing variables in a set of time series is presented. An autoencoder is trained as usual with every feature on both sides and the neural network parameters are fixed after this training. Then, the searched variables are defined as missing variables at the autoencoder input and optimized via automatic differentiation. This optimization is performed with respect to the available features loss calculation. With this method, different input and output feature combinations of the trained model can be realized by defining the searched variables as missing variables and reconstructing them. The combination can be changed without training the autoencoder again. The approach is evaluated on the base of a strongly nonlinear electrical component. It is working well for one of four variables missing and generally even for multiple missing variables.

3.GradientCoin: A Peer-to-Peer Decentralized Large Language Models

Authors:Yeqi Gao, Zhao Song, Junze Yin

Abstract: Since 2008, after the proposal of a Bitcoin electronic cash system, Bitcoin has fundamentally changed the economic system over the last decade. Since 2022, large language models (LLMs) such as GPT have outperformed humans in many real-life tasks. However, these large language models have several practical issues. For example, the model is centralized and controlled by a specific unit. One weakness is that if that unit decides to shut down the model, it cannot be used anymore. The second weakness is the lack of guaranteed discrepancy behind this model, as certain dishonest units may design their own models and feed them unhealthy training data. In this work, we propose a purely theoretical design of a decentralized LLM that operates similarly to a Bitcoin cash system. However, implementing such a system might encounter various practical difficulties. Furthermore, this new system is unlikely to perform better than the standard Bitcoin system in economics. Therefore, the motivation for designing such a system is limited. It is likely that only two types of people would be interested in setting up a practical system for it: $\bullet$ Those who prefer to use a decentralized ChatGPT-like software. $\bullet$ Those who believe that the purpose of carbon-based life is to create silicon-based life, such as Optimus Prime in Transformers. The reason the second type of people may be interested is that it is possible that one day an AI system like this will awaken and become the next level of intelligence on this planet.

4.Adaptive Thresholding Heuristic for KPI Anomaly Detection

Authors:Ebenezer R. H. P. Isaac, Akshat Sharma

Abstract: A plethora of outlier detectors have been explored in the time series domain, however, in a business sense, not all outliers are anomalies of interest. Existing anomaly detection solutions are confined to certain outlier detectors limiting their applicability to broader anomaly detection use cases. Network KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) tend to exhibit stochastic behaviour producing statistical outliers, most of which do not adversely affect business operations. Thus, a heuristic is required to capture the business definition of an anomaly for time series KPI. This article proposes an Adaptive Thresholding Heuristic (ATH) to dynamically adjust the detection threshold based on the local properties of the data distribution and adapt to changes in time series patterns. The heuristic derives the threshold based on the expected periodicity and the observed proportion of anomalies minimizing false positives and addressing concept drift. ATH can be used in conjunction with any underlying seasonality decomposition method and an outlier detector that yields an outlier score. This method has been tested on EON1-Cell-U, a labeled KPI anomaly dataset produced by Ericsson, to validate our hypothesis. Experimental results show that ATH is computationally efficient making it scalable for near real time anomaly detection and flexible with multiple forecasters and outlier detectors.

5.A Clustering Algorithm to Organize Satellite Hotspot Data for the Purpose of Tracking Bushfires Remotely

Authors:Weihao Li, Emily Dodwell, Dianne Cook

Abstract: This paper proposes a spatiotemporal clustering algorithm and its implementation in the R package spotoroo. This work is motivated by the catastrophic bushfires in Australia throughout the summer of 2019-2020 and made possible by the availability of satellite hotspot data. The algorithm is inspired by two existing spatiotemporal clustering algorithms but makes enhancements to cluster points spatially in conjunction with their movement across consecutive time periods. It also allows for the adjustment of key parameters, if required, for different locations and satellite data sources. Bushfire data from Victoria, Australia, is used to illustrate the algorithm and its use within the package.

6.Towards Accelerated Model Training via Bayesian Data Selection

Authors:Zhijie Deng, Peng Cui, Jun Zhu

Abstract: Mislabeled, duplicated, or biased data in real-world scenarios can lead to prolonged training and even hinder model convergence. Traditional solutions prioritizing easy or hard samples lack the flexibility to handle such a variety simultaneously. Recent work has proposed a more reasonable data selection principle by examining the data's impact on the model's generalization loss. However, its practical adoption relies on less principled approximations and additional clean holdout data. This work solves these problems by leveraging a lightweight Bayesian treatment and incorporating off-the-shelf zero-shot predictors built on large-scale pre-trained models. The resulting algorithm is efficient and easy-to-implement. We perform extensive empirical studies on challenging benchmarks with considerable data noise and imbalance in the online batch selection scenario, and observe superior training efficiency over competitive baselines. Notably, on the challenging WebVision benchmark, our method can achieve similar predictive performance with significantly fewer training iterations than leading data selection methods.

7.Overcoming Overconfidence for Active Learning

Authors:Yujin Hwang, Won Jo, Juyoung Hong, Yukyung Choi

Abstract: It is not an exaggeration to say that the recent progress in artificial intelligence technology depends on large-scale and high-quality data. Simultaneously, a prevalent issue exists everywhere: the budget for data labeling is constrained. Active learning is a prominent approach for addressing this issue, where valuable data for labeling is selected through a model and utilized to iteratively adjust the model. However, due to the limited amount of data in each iteration, the model is vulnerable to bias; thus, it is more likely to yield overconfident predictions. In this paper, we present two novel methods to address the problem of overconfidence that arises in the active learning scenario. The first is an augmentation strategy named Cross-Mix-and-Mix (CMaM), which aims to calibrate the model by expanding the limited training distribution. The second is a selection strategy named Ranked Margin Sampling (RankedMS), which prevents choosing data that leads to overly confident predictions. Through various experiments and analyses, we are able to demonstrate that our proposals facilitate efficient data selection by alleviating overconfidence, even though they are readily applicable.

8.RADIANCE: Radio-Frequency Adversarial Deep-learning Inference for Automated Network Coverage Estimation

Authors:Sopan Sarkar, Mohammad Hossein Manshaei, Marwan Krunz

Abstract: Radio-frequency coverage maps (RF maps) are extensively utilized in wireless networks for capacity planning, placement of access points and base stations, localization, and coverage estimation. Conducting site surveys to obtain RF maps is labor-intensive and sometimes not feasible. In this paper, we propose radio-frequency adversarial deep-learning inference for automated network coverage estimation (RADIANCE), a generative adversarial network (GAN) based approach for synthesizing RF maps in indoor scenarios. RADIANCE utilizes a semantic map, a high-level representation of the indoor environment to encode spatial relationships and attributes of objects within the environment and guide the RF map generation process. We introduce a new gradient-based loss function that computes the magnitude and direction of change in received signal strength (RSS) values from a point within the environment. RADIANCE incorporates this loss function along with the antenna pattern to capture signal propagation within a given indoor configuration and generate new patterns under new configuration, antenna (beam) pattern, and center frequency. Extensive simulations are conducted to compare RADIANCE with ray-tracing simulations of RF maps. Our results show that RADIANCE achieves a mean average error (MAE) of 0.09, root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.29, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of 10.78, and multi-scale structural similarity index (MS-SSIM) of 0.80.

9.ST-RAP: A Spatio-Temporal Framework for Real Estate Appraisal

Authors:Hojoon Lee, Hawon Jeong, Byungkun Lee, Kyungyup Lee, Jaegul Choo

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce ST-RAP, a novel Spatio-Temporal framework for Real estate APpraisal. ST-RAP employs a hierarchical architecture with a heterogeneous graph neural network to encapsulate temporal dynamics and spatial relationships simultaneously. Through comprehensive experiments on a large-scale real estate dataset, ST-RAP outperforms previous methods, demonstrating the significant benefits of integrating spatial and temporal aspects in real estate appraisal. Our code and dataset are available at

10.centroIDA: Cross-Domain Class Discrepancy Minimization Based on Accumulative Class-Centroids for Imbalanced Domain Adaptation

Authors:Xiaona Sun, Zhenyu Wu, Yichen Liu, Saier Hu, Zhiqiang Zhan, Yang Ji

Abstract: Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) approaches address the covariate shift problem by minimizing the distribution discrepancy between the source and target domains, assuming that the label distribution is invariant across domains. However, in the imbalanced domain adaptation (IDA) scenario, covariate and long-tailed label shifts both exist across domains. To tackle the IDA problem, some current research focus on minimizing the distribution discrepancies of each corresponding class between source and target domains. Such methods rely much on the reliable pseudo labels' selection and the feature distributions estimation for target domain, and the minority classes with limited numbers makes the estimations more uncertainty, which influences the model's performance. In this paper, we propose a cross-domain class discrepancy minimization method based on accumulative class-centroids for IDA (centroIDA). Firstly, class-based re-sampling strategy is used to obtain an unbiased classifier on source domain. Secondly, the accumulative class-centroids alignment loss is proposed for iterative class-centroids alignment across domains. Finally, class-wise feature alignment loss is used to optimize the feature representation for a robust classification boundary. A series of experiments have proved that our method outperforms other SOTA methods on IDA problem, especially with the increasing degree of label shift.

11.Faster Training of Neural ODEs Using Gauß-Legendre Quadrature

Authors:Alexander Norcliffe, Marc Peter Deisenroth

Abstract: Neural ODEs demonstrate strong performance in generative and time-series modelling. However, training them via the adjoint method is slow compared to discrete models due to the requirement of numerically solving ODEs. To speed neural ODEs up, a common approach is to regularise the solutions. However, this approach may affect the expressivity of the model; when the trajectory itself matters, this is particularly important. In this paper, we propose an alternative way to speed up the training of neural ODEs. The key idea is to speed up the adjoint method by using Gau{\ss}-Legendre quadrature to solve integrals faster than ODE-based methods while remaining memory efficient. We also extend the idea to training SDEs using the Wong-Zakai theorem, by training a corresponding ODE and transferring the parameters. Our approach leads to faster training of neural ODEs, especially for large models. It also presents a new way to train SDE-based models.

12.Reinforcement Learning Based Sensor Optimization for Bio-markers

Authors:Sajal Khandelwal, Pawan Kumar, Syed Azeemuddin

Abstract: Radio frequency (RF) biosensors, in particular those based on inter-digitated capacitors (IDCs), are pivotal in areas like biomedical diagnosis, remote sensing, and wireless communication. Despite their advantages of low cost and easy fabrication, their sensitivity can be hindered by design imperfections, environmental factors, and circuit noise. This paper investigates enhancing the sensitivity of IDC-based RF sensors using novel reinforcement learning based Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (RLBPSO), and it is compared to Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and other state-of-the-art methods. By focusing on optimizing design parameters like electrode design and finger width, the proposed study found notable improvements in sensor sensitivity. The proposed RLBPSO method shows best optimized design for various frequency ranges when compared to current state-of-the-art methods.

13.Deep Evidential Learning for Bayesian Quantile Regression

Authors:Frederik Boe Hüttel, Filipe Rodrigues, Francisco Câmara Pereira

Abstract: It is desirable to have accurate uncertainty estimation from a single deterministic forward-pass model, as traditional methods for uncertainty quantification are computationally expensive. However, this is difficult because single forward-pass models do not sample weights during inference and often make assumptions about the target distribution, such as assuming it is Gaussian. This can be restrictive in regression tasks, where the mean and standard deviation are inadequate to model the target distribution accurately. This paper proposes a deep Bayesian quantile regression model that can estimate the quantiles of a continuous target distribution without the Gaussian assumption. The proposed method is based on evidential learning, which allows the model to capture aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty with a single deterministic forward-pass model. This makes the method efficient and scalable to large models and datasets. We demonstrate that the proposed method achieves calibrated uncertainties on non-Gaussian distributions, disentanglement of aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty, and robustness to out-of-distribution samples.

14.A Safe Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for Energy Efficient Federated Learning in Wireless Communication Networks

Authors:Nikolaos Koursioumpas, Lina Magoula, Nikolaos Petropouleas, Alexandros-Ioannis Thanopoulos, Theodora Panagea, Nancy Alonistioti, M. A. Gutierrez-Estevez, Ramin Khalili

Abstract: Progressing towards a new era of Artificial Intelligence (AI) - enabled wireless networks, concerns regarding the environmental impact of AI have been raised both in industry and academia. Federated Learning (FL) has emerged as a key privacy preserving decentralized AI technique. Despite efforts currently being made in FL, its environmental impact is still an open problem. Targeting the minimization of the overall energy consumption of an FL process, we propose the orchestration of computational and communication resources of the involved devices to minimize the total energy required, while guaranteeing a certain performance of the model. To this end, we propose a Soft Actor Critic Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) solution, where a penalty function is introduced during training, penalizing the strategies that violate the constraints of the environment, and ensuring a safe RL process. A device level synchronization method, along with a computationally cost effective FL environment are proposed, with the goal of further reducing the energy consumption and communication overhead. Evaluation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme compared to four state-of-the-art baseline solutions in both static and dynamic environments, achieving a decrease of up to 94% in the total energy consumption.

15.An Improved Best-of-both-worlds Algorithm for Bandits with Delayed Feedback

Authors:Saeed Masoudian, Julian Zimmert, Yevgeny Seldin

Abstract: We propose a new best-of-both-worlds algorithm for bandits with variably delayed feedback. The algorithm improves on prior work by Masoudian et al. [2022] by eliminating the need in prior knowledge of the maximal delay $d_{\mathrm{max}}$ and providing tighter regret bounds in both regimes. The algorithm and its regret bounds are based on counts of outstanding observations (a quantity that is observed at action time) rather than delays or the maximal delay (quantities that are only observed when feedback arrives). One major contribution is a novel control of distribution drift, which is based on biased loss estimators and skipping of observations with excessively large delays. Another major contribution is demonstrating that the complexity of best-of-both-worlds bandits with delayed feedback is characterized by the cumulative count of outstanding observations after skipping of observations with excessively large delays, rather than the delays or the maximal delay.

16.Cost-Efficient Online Decision Making: A Combinatorial Multi-Armed Bandit Approach

Authors:Arman Rahbar, Niklas Åkerblom, Morteza Haghir Chehreghani

Abstract: Online decision making plays a crucial role in numerous real-world applications. In many scenarios, the decision is made based on performing a sequence of tests on the incoming data points. However, performing all tests can be expensive and is not always possible. In this paper, we provide a novel formulation of the online decision making problem based on combinatorial multi-armed bandits and take the cost of performing tests into account. Based on this formulation, we provide a new framework for cost-efficient online decision making which can utilize posterior sampling or BayesUCB for exploration. We provide a rigorous theoretical analysis for our framework and present various experimental results that demonstrate its applicability to real-world problems.

17.Sampling From Autoencoders' Latent Space via Quantization And Probability Mass Function Concepts

Authors:Aymene Mohammed Bouayed, Adrian Iaccovelli, David Naccache

Abstract: In this study, we focus on sampling from the latent space of generative models built upon autoencoders so as the reconstructed samples are lifelike images. To do to, we introduce a novel post-training sampling algorithm rooted in the concept of probability mass functions, coupled with a quantization process. Our proposed algorithm establishes a vicinity around each latent vector from the input data and then proceeds to draw samples from these defined neighborhoods. This strategic approach ensures that the sampled latent vectors predominantly inhabit high-probability regions, which, in turn, can be effectively transformed into authentic real-world images. A noteworthy point of comparison for our sampling algorithm is the sampling technique based on Gaussian mixture models (GMM), owing to its inherent capability to represent clusters. Remarkably, we manage to improve the time complexity from the previous $\mathcal{O}(n\times d \times k \times i)$ associated with GMM sampling to a much more streamlined $\mathcal{O}(n\times d)$, thereby resulting in substantial speedup during runtime. Moreover, our experimental results, gauged through the Fr\'echet inception distance (FID) for image generation, underscore the superior performance of our sampling algorithm across a diverse range of models and datasets. On the MNIST benchmark dataset, our approach outperforms GMM sampling by yielding a noteworthy improvement of up to $0.89$ in FID value. Furthermore, when it comes to generating images of faces and ocular images, our approach showcases substantial enhancements with FID improvements of $1.69$ and $0.87$ respectively, as compared to GMM sampling, as evidenced on the CelebA and MOBIUS datasets. Lastly, we substantiate our methodology's efficacy in estimating latent space distributions in contrast to GMM sampling, particularly through the lens of the Wasserstein distance.

18.Measuring the Effect of Causal Disentanglement on the Adversarial Robustness of Neural Network Models

Authors:Preben M. Ness, Dusica Marijan, Sunanda Bose

Abstract: Causal Neural Network models have shown high levels of robustness to adversarial attacks as well as an increased capacity for generalisation tasks such as few-shot learning and rare-context classification compared to traditional Neural Networks. This robustness is argued to stem from the disentanglement of causal and confounder input signals. However, no quantitative study has yet measured the level of disentanglement achieved by these types of causal models or assessed how this relates to their adversarial robustness. Existing causal disentanglement metrics are not applicable to deterministic models trained on real-world datasets. We, therefore, utilise metrics of content/style disentanglement from the field of Computer Vision to measure different aspects of the causal disentanglement for four state-of-the-art causal Neural Network models. By re-implementing these models with a common ResNet18 architecture we are able to fairly measure their adversarial robustness on three standard image classification benchmarking datasets under seven common white-box attacks. We find a strong association (r=0.820, p=0.001) between the degree to which models decorrelate causal and confounder signals and their adversarial robustness. Additionally, we find a moderate negative association between the pixel-level information content of the confounder signal and adversarial robustness (r=-0.597, p=0.040).

19.Relax and penalize: a new bilevel approach to mixed-binary hyperparameter optimization

Authors:Marianna de Santis UNIROMA, Jordan Frecon LHC, Francesco Rinaldi Unipd, Saverio Salzo DIAG UNIROMA, Martin Schmidt

Abstract: In recent years, bilevel approaches have become very popular to efficiently estimate high-dimensional hyperparameters of machine learning models. However, to date, binary parameters are handled by continuous relaxation and rounding strategies, which could lead to inconsistent solutions. In this context, we tackle the challenging optimization of mixed-binary hyperparameters by resorting to an equivalent continuous bilevel reformulation based on an appropriate penalty term. We propose an algorithmic framework that, under suitable assumptions, is guaranteed to provide mixed-binary solutions. Moreover, the generality of the method allows to safely use existing continuous bilevel solvers within the proposed framework. We evaluate the performance of our approach for a specific machine learning problem, i.e., the estimation of the group-sparsity structure in regression problems. Reported results clearly show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches based on relaxation and rounding

20.CoMIX: A Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning Training Architecture for Efficient Decentralized Coordination and Independent Decision Making

Authors:Giovanni Minelli, Mirco Musolesi

Abstract: Robust coordination skills enable agents to operate cohesively in shared environments, together towards a common goal and, ideally, individually without hindering each other's progress. To this end, this paper presents Coordinated QMIX (CoMIX), a novel training framework for decentralized agents that enables emergent coordination through flexible policies, allowing at the same time independent decision-making at individual level. CoMIX models selfish and collaborative behavior as incremental steps in each agent's decision process. This allows agents to dynamically adapt their behavior to different situations balancing independence and collaboration. Experiments using a variety of simulation environments demonstrate that CoMIX outperforms baselines on collaborative tasks. The results validate our incremental policy approach as effective technique for improving coordination in multi-agent systems.

21.Clustered Linear Contextual Bandits with Knapsacks

Authors:Yichuan Deng, Michalis Mamakos, Zhao Song

Abstract: In this work, we study clustered contextual bandits where rewards and resource consumption are the outcomes of cluster-specific linear models. The arms are divided in clusters, with the cluster memberships being unknown to an algorithm. Pulling an arm in a time period results in a reward and in consumption for each one of multiple resources, and with the total consumption of any resource exceeding a constraint implying the termination of the algorithm. Thus, maximizing the total reward requires learning not only models about the reward and the resource consumption, but also cluster memberships. We provide an algorithm that achieves regret sublinear in the number of time periods, without requiring access to all of the arms. In particular, we show that it suffices to perform clustering only once to a randomly selected subset of the arms. To achieve this result, we provide a sophisticated combination of techniques from the literature of econometrics and of bandits with constraints.

22.UGSL: A Unified Framework for Benchmarking Graph Structure Learning

Authors:Bahare Fatemi, Sami Abu-El-Haija, Anton Tsitsulin, Mehran Kazemi, Dustin Zelle, Neslihan Bulut, Jonathan Halcrow, Bryan Perozzi

Abstract: Graph neural networks (GNNs) demonstrate outstanding performance in a broad range of applications. While the majority of GNN applications assume that a graph structure is given, some recent methods substantially expanded the applicability of GNNs by showing that they may be effective even when no graph structure is explicitly provided. The GNN parameters and a graph structure are jointly learned. Previous studies adopt different experimentation setups, making it difficult to compare their merits. In this paper, we propose a benchmarking strategy for graph structure learning using a unified framework. Our framework, called Unified Graph Structure Learning (UGSL), reformulates existing models into a single model. We implement a wide range of existing models in our framework and conduct extensive analyses of the effectiveness of different components in the framework. Our results provide a clear and concise understanding of the different methods in this area as well as their strengths and weaknesses. The benchmark code is available at

23.We Don't Need No Adam, All We Need Is EVE: On The Variance of Dual Learning Rate And Beyond

Authors:Afshin Khadangi

Abstract: In the rapidly advancing field of deep learning, optimising deep neural networks is paramount. This paper introduces a novel method, Enhanced Velocity Estimation (EVE), which innovatively applies different learning rates to distinct components of the gradients. By bifurcating the learning rate, EVE enables more nuanced control and faster convergence, addressing the challenges associated with traditional single learning rate approaches. Utilising a momentum term that adapts to the learning landscape, the method achieves a more efficient navigation of the complex loss surface, resulting in enhanced performance and stability. Extensive experiments demonstrate that EVE significantly outperforms existing optimisation techniques across various benchmark datasets and architectures.

24.On the Adversarial Robustness of Multi-Modal Foundation Models

Authors:Christian Schlarmann, Matthias Hein

Abstract: Multi-modal foundation models combining vision and language models such as Flamingo or GPT-4 have recently gained enormous interest. Alignment of foundation models is used to prevent models from providing toxic or harmful output. While malicious users have successfully tried to jailbreak foundation models, an equally important question is if honest users could be harmed by malicious third-party content. In this paper we show that imperceivable attacks on images in order to change the caption output of a multi-modal foundation model can be used by malicious content providers to harm honest users e.g. by guiding them to malicious websites or broadcast fake information. This indicates that countermeasures to adversarial attacks should be used by any deployed multi-modal foundation model.

25.To Whom are You Talking? A Deep Learning Model to Endow Social Robots with Addressee Estimation Skills

Authors:Carlo Mazzola, Marta Romeo, Francesco Rea, Alessandra Sciutti, Angelo Cangelosi

Abstract: Communicating shapes our social word. For a robot to be considered social and being consequently integrated in our social environment it is fundamental to understand some of the dynamics that rule human-human communication. In this work, we tackle the problem of Addressee Estimation, the ability to understand an utterance's addressee, by interpreting and exploiting non-verbal bodily cues from the speaker. We do so by implementing an hybrid deep learning model composed of convolutional layers and LSTM cells taking as input images portraying the face of the speaker and 2D vectors of the speaker's body posture. Our implementation choices were guided by the aim to develop a model that could be deployed on social robots and be efficient in ecological scenarios. We demonstrate that our model is able to solve the Addressee Estimation problem in terms of addressee localisation in space, from a robot ego-centric point of view.

26.GBM-based Bregman Proximal Algorithms for Constrained Learning

Authors:Zhenwei Lin, Qi Deng

Abstract: As the complexity of learning tasks surges, modern machine learning encounters a new constrained learning paradigm characterized by more intricate and data-driven function constraints. Prominent applications include Neyman-Pearson classification (NPC) and fairness classification, which entail specific risk constraints that render standard projection-based training algorithms unsuitable. Gradient boosting machines (GBMs) are among the most popular algorithms for supervised learning; however, they are generally limited to unconstrained settings. In this paper, we adapt the GBM for constrained learning tasks within the framework of Bregman proximal algorithms. We introduce a new Bregman primal-dual method with a global optimality guarantee when the learning objective and constraint functions are convex. In cases of nonconvex functions, we demonstrate how our algorithm remains effective under a Bregman proximal point framework. Distinct from existing constrained learning algorithms, ours possess a unique advantage in their ability to seamlessly integrate with publicly available GBM implementations such as XGBoost (Chen and Guestrin, 2016) and LightGBM (Ke et al., 2017), exclusively relying on their public interfaces. We provide substantial experimental evidence to showcase the effectiveness of the Bregman algorithm framework. While our primary focus is on NPC and fairness ML, our framework holds significant potential for a broader range of constrained learning applications. The source code is currently freely available at}{

27.Spear and Shield: Adversarial Attacks and Defense Methods for Model-Based Link Prediction on Continuous-Time Dynamic Graphs

Authors:Dongjin Lee, Juho Lee, Kijung Shin

Abstract: Real-world graphs are dynamic, constantly evolving with new interactions, such as financial transactions in financial networks. Temporal Graph Neural Networks (TGNNs) have been developed to effectively capture the evolving patterns in dynamic graphs. While these models have demonstrated their superiority, being widely adopted in various important fields, their vulnerabilities against adversarial attacks remain largely unexplored. In this paper, we propose T-SPEAR, a simple and effective adversarial attack method for link prediction on continuous-time dynamic graphs, focusing on investigating the vulnerabilities of TGNNs. Specifically, before the training procedure of a victim model, which is a TGNN for link prediction, we inject edge perturbations to the data that are unnoticeable in terms of the four constraints we propose, and yet effective enough to cause malfunction of the victim model. Moreover, we propose a robust training approach T-SHIELD to mitigate the impact of adversarial attacks. By using edge filtering and enforcing temporal smoothness to node embeddings, we enhance the robustness of the victim model. Our experimental study shows that T-SPEAR significantly degrades the victim model's performance on link prediction tasks, and even more, our attacks are transferable to other TGNNs, which differ from the victim model assumed by the attacker. Moreover, we demonstrate that T-SHIELD effectively filters out adversarial edges and exhibits robustness against adversarial attacks, surpassing the link prediction performance of the naive TGNN by up to 11.2% under T-SPEAR.

28.Mixed-Integer Projections for Automated Data Correction of EMRs Improve Predictions of Sepsis among Hospitalized Patients

Authors:Mehak Arora, Hassan Mortagy, Nathan Dwarshius, Swati Gupta, Andre L. Holder, Rishikesan Kamaleswaran

Abstract: Machine learning (ML) models are increasingly pivotal in automating clinical decisions. Yet, a glaring oversight in prior research has been the lack of proper processing of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) data in the clinical context for errors and outliers. Addressing this oversight, we introduce an innovative projections-based method that seamlessly integrates clinical expertise as domain constraints, generating important meta-data that can be used in ML workflows. In particular, by using high-dimensional mixed-integer programs that capture physiological and biological constraints on patient vitals and lab values, we can harness the power of mathematical "projections" for the EMR data to correct patient data. Consequently, we measure the distance of corrected data from the constraints defining a healthy range of patient data, resulting in a unique predictive metric we term as "trust-scores". These scores provide insight into the patient's health status and significantly boost the performance of ML classifiers in real-life clinical settings. We validate the impact of our framework in the context of early detection of sepsis using ML. We show an AUROC of 0.865 and a precision of 0.922, that surpasses conventional ML models without such projections.

29.Sparse Linear Concept Discovery Models

Authors:Konstantinos P. Panousis, Dino Ienco, Diego Marcos

Abstract: The recent mass adoption of DNNs, even in safety-critical scenarios, has shifted the focus of the research community towards the creation of inherently intrepretable models. Concept Bottleneck Models (CBMs) constitute a popular approach where hidden layers are tied to human understandable concepts allowing for investigation and correction of the network's decisions. However, CBMs usually suffer from: (i) performance degradation and (ii) lower interpretability than intended due to the sheer amount of concepts contributing to each decision. In this work, we propose a simple yet highly intuitive interpretable framework based on Contrastive Language Image models and a single sparse linear layer. In stark contrast to related approaches, the sparsity in our framework is achieved via principled Bayesian arguments by inferring concept presence via a data-driven Bernoulli distribution. As we experimentally show, our framework not only outperforms recent CBM approaches accuracy-wise, but it also yields high per example concept sparsity, facilitating the individual investigation of the emerging concepts.

30.Stabilizing Unsupervised Environment Design with a Learned Adversary

Authors:Ishita Mediratta, Minqi Jiang, Jack Parker-Holder, Michael Dennis, Eugene Vinitsky, Tim Rocktäschel

Abstract: A key challenge in training generally-capable agents is the design of training tasks that facilitate broad generalization and robustness to environment variations. This challenge motivates the problem setting of Unsupervised Environment Design (UED), whereby a student agent trains on an adaptive distribution of tasks proposed by a teacher agent. A pioneering approach for UED is PAIRED, which uses reinforcement learning (RL) to train a teacher policy to design tasks from scratch, making it possible to directly generate tasks that are adapted to the agent's current capabilities. Despite its strong theoretical backing, PAIRED suffers from a variety of challenges that hinder its practical performance. Thus, state-of-the-art methods currently rely on curation and mutation rather than generation of new tasks. In this work, we investigate several key shortcomings of PAIRED and propose solutions for each shortcoming. As a result, we make it possible for PAIRED to match or exceed state-of-the-art methods, producing robust agents in several established challenging procedurally-generated environments, including a partially-observed maze navigation task and a continuous-control car racing environment. We believe this work motivates a renewed emphasis on UED methods based on learned models that directly generate challenging environments, potentially unlocking more open-ended RL training and, as a result, more general agents.

31.Differentiable Frank-Wolfe Optimization Layer

Authors:Zixuan Liu, Liu Liu, Xueqian Wang, Peilin Zhao

Abstract: Differentiable optimization has received a significant amount of attention due to its foundational role in the domain of machine learning based on neural networks. The existing methods leverages the optimality conditions and implicit function theorem to obtain the Jacobian matrix of the output, which increases the computational cost and limits the application of differentiable optimization. In addition, some non-differentiable constraints lead to more challenges when using prior differentiable optimization layers. This paper proposes a differentiable layer, named Differentiable Frank-Wolfe Layer (DFWLayer), by rolling out the Frank-Wolfe method, a well-known optimization algorithm which can solve constrained optimization problems without projections and Hessian matrix computations, thus leading to a efficient way of dealing with large-scale problems. Theoretically, we establish a bound on the suboptimality gap of the DFWLayer in the context of l1-norm constraints. Experimental assessments demonstrate that the DFWLayer not only attains competitive accuracy in solutions and gradients but also consistently adheres to constraints. Moreover, it surpasses the baselines in both forward and backward computational speeds.

32.DynED: Dynamic Ensemble Diversification in Data Stream Classification

Authors:Soheil Abadifard, Sepehr Bakhshi, Sanaz Gheibuni, Fazli Can

Abstract: Ensemble methods are commonly used in classification due to their remarkable performance. Achieving high accuracy in a data stream environment is a challenging task considering disruptive changes in the data distribution, also known as concept drift. A greater diversity of ensemble components is known to enhance prediction accuracy in such settings. Despite the diversity of components within an ensemble, not all contribute as expected to its overall performance. This necessitates a method for selecting components that exhibit high performance and diversity. We present a novel ensemble construction and maintenance approach based on MMR (Maximal Marginal Relevance) that dynamically combines the diversity and prediction accuracy of components during the process of structuring an ensemble. The experimental results on both four real and 11 synthetic datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach (DynED) provides a higher average mean accuracy compared to the five state-of-the-art baselines.

33.Graph Neural Bandits

Authors:Yunzhe Qi, Yikun Ban, Jingrui He

Abstract: Contextual bandits algorithms aim to choose the optimal arm with the highest reward out of a set of candidates based on the contextual information. Various bandit algorithms have been applied to real-world applications due to their ability of tackling the exploitation-exploration dilemma. Motivated by online recommendation scenarios, in this paper, we propose a framework named Graph Neural Bandits (GNB) to leverage the collaborative nature among users empowered by graph neural networks (GNNs). Instead of estimating rigid user clusters as in existing works, we model the "fine-grained" collaborative effects through estimated user graphs in terms of exploitation and exploration respectively. Then, to refine the recommendation strategy, we utilize separate GNN-based models on estimated user graphs for exploitation and adaptive exploration. Theoretical analysis and experimental results on multiple real data sets in comparison with state-of-the-art baselines are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework.

34.Real World Time Series Benchmark Datasets with Distribution Shifts: Global Crude Oil Price and Volatility

Authors:Pranay Pasula

Abstract: The scarcity of task-labeled time-series benchmarks in the financial domain hinders progress in continual learning. Addressing this deficit would foster innovation in this area. Therefore, we present COB, Crude Oil Benchmark datasets. COB includes 30 years of asset prices that exhibit significant distribution shifts and optimally generates corresponding task (i.e., regime) labels based on these distribution shifts for the three most important crude oils in the world. Our contributions include creating real-world benchmark datasets by transforming asset price data into volatility proxies, fitting models using expectation-maximization (EM), generating contextual task labels that align with real-world events, and providing these labels as well as the general algorithm to the public. We show that the inclusion of these task labels universally improves performance on four continual learning algorithms, some state-of-the-art, over multiple forecasting horizons. We hope these benchmarks accelerate research in handling distribution shifts in real-world data, especially due to the global importance of the assets considered. We've made the (1) raw price data, (2) task labels generated by our approach, (3) and code for our algorithm available at

35.Majorana Demonstrator Data Release for AI/ML Applications

Authors:I. J. Arnquist, F. T. Avignone III, A. S. Barabash, C. J. Barton, K. H. Bhimani, E. Blalock, B. Bos, M. Busch, M. Buuck, T. S. Caldwell, Y. -D. Chan, C. D. Christofferson, P. -H. Chu, M. L. Clark, C. Cuesta, J. A. Detwiler, Yu. Efremenko, H. Ejiri, S. R. Elliott, N. Fuad, G. K. Giovanetti, M. P. Green, J. Gruszko, I. S. Guinn, V. E. Guiseppe, C. R. Haufe, R. Henning, D. Hervas Aguilar, E. W. Hoppe, A. Hostiuc, M. F. Kidd, I. Kim, R. T. Kouzes, T. E. Lannen V, A. Li, J. M. Lopez-Castano, R. D. Martin, R. Massarczyk, S. J. Meijer, S. Mertens, T. K. Oli, L. S. Paudel, W. Pettus, A. W. P. Poon, B. Quenallata, D. C. Radford, A. L. Reine, K. Rielage, N. W. Ruof, D. C. Schaper, S. J. Schleich, D. Tedeschi, R. L. Varner, S. Vasilyev, S. L. Watkins, J. F. Wilkerson, C. Wiseman, W. Xu, C. -H. Yu, B. X. Zhu

Abstract: The enclosed data release consists of a subset of the calibration data from the Majorana Demonstrator experiment. Each Majorana event is accompanied by raw Germanium detector waveforms, pulse shape discrimination cuts, and calibrated final energies, all shared in an HDF5 file format along with relevant metadata. This release is specifically designed to support the training and testing of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms upon our data. This document is structured as follows. Section I provides an overview of the dataset's content and format; Section II outlines the location of this dataset and the method for accessing it; Section III presents the NPML Machine Learning Challenge associated with this dataset; Section IV contains a disclaimer from the Majorana collaboration regarding the use of this dataset; Appendix A contains technical details of this data release. Please direct questions about the material provided within this release to [email protected] (A. Li).

36.Analyzing Transformer Dynamics as Movement through Embedding Space

Authors:Sumeet S. Singh

Abstract: Transformer language models exhibit intelligent behaviors such as understanding natural language, recognizing patterns, acquiring knowledge, reasoning, planning, reflecting and using tools. This paper explores how their underlying mechanics give rise to intelligent behaviors. We adopt a systems approach to analyze Transformers in detail and develop a mathematical framework that frames their dynamics as movement through embedding space. This novel perspective provides a principled way of thinking about the problem and reveals important insights related to the emergence of intelligence: 1. At its core the Transformer is a Embedding Space walker, mapping intelligent behavior to trajectories in this vector space. 2. At each step of the walk, it composes context into a single composite vector whose location in Embedding Space defines the next step. 3. No learning actually occurs during decoding; in-context learning and generalization are simply the result of different contexts composing into different vectors. 4. Ultimately the knowledge, intelligence and skills exhibited by the model are embodied in the organization of vectors in Embedding Space rather than in specific neurons or layers. These abilities are properties of this organization. 5. Attention's contribution boils down to the association-bias it lends to vector composition and which influences the aforementioned organization. However, more investigation is needed to ascertain its significance. 6. The entire model is composed from two principal operations: data independent filtering and data dependent aggregation. This generalization unifies Transformers with other sequence models and across modalities. Building upon this foundation we formalize and test a semantic space theory which posits that embedding vectors represent semantic concepts and find some evidence of its validity.

37.Unlocking Accuracy and Fairness in Differentially Private Image Classification

Authors:Leonard Berrada, Soham De, Judy Hanwen Shen, Jamie Hayes, Robert Stanforth, David Stutz, Pushmeet Kohli, Samuel L. Smith, Borja Balle

Abstract: Privacy-preserving machine learning aims to train models on private data without leaking sensitive information. Differential privacy (DP) is considered the gold standard framework for privacy-preserving training, as it provides formal privacy guarantees. However, compared to their non-private counterparts, models trained with DP often have significantly reduced accuracy. Private classifiers are also believed to exhibit larger performance disparities across subpopulations, raising fairness concerns. The poor performance of classifiers trained with DP has prevented the widespread adoption of privacy preserving machine learning in industry. Here we show that pre-trained foundation models fine-tuned with DP can achieve similar accuracy to non-private classifiers, even in the presence of significant distribution shifts between pre-training data and downstream tasks. We achieve private accuracies within a few percent of the non-private state of the art across four datasets, including two medical imaging benchmarks. Furthermore, our private medical classifiers do not exhibit larger performance disparities across demographic groups than non-private models. This milestone to make DP training a practical and reliable technology has the potential to widely enable machine learning practitioners to train safely on sensitive datasets while protecting individuals' privacy.

1.Baird Counterexample Is Solved: with an example of How to Debug a Two-time-scale Algorithm

Authors:Hengshuai Yao

Abstract: Baird counterexample was proposed by Leemon Baird in 1995, first used to show that the Temporal Difference (TD(0)) algorithm diverges on this example. Since then, it is often used to test and compare off-policy learning algorithms. Gradient TD algorithms solved the divergence issue of TD on Baird counterexample. However, their convergence on this example is still very slow, and the nature of the slowness is not well understood, e.g., see (Sutton and Barto 2018). This note is to understand in particular, why TDC is slow on this example, and provide debugging analysis to understand this behavior. Our debugging technique can be used to study the convergence behavior of two-time-scale stochastic approximation algorithms. We also provide empirical results of the recent Impression GTD algorithm on this example, showing the convergence is very fast, in fact, in a linear rate. We conclude that Baird counterexample is solved, by an algorithm with convergence guarantee to the TD solution in general and a fast convergence rate.

2.Intrinsically Motivated Hierarchical Policy Learning in Multi-objective Markov Decision Processes

Authors:Sherif Abdelfattah, Kathryn Merrick, Jiankun Hu

Abstract: Multi-objective Markov decision processes are sequential decision-making problems that involve multiple conflicting reward functions that cannot be optimized simultaneously without a compromise. This type of problems cannot be solved by a single optimal policy as in the conventional case. Alternatively, multi-objective reinforcement learning methods evolve a coverage set of optimal policies that can satisfy all possible preferences in solving the problem. However, many of these methods cannot generalize their coverage sets to work in non-stationary environments. In these environments, the parameters of the state transition and reward distribution vary over time. This limitation results in significant performance degradation for the evolved policy sets. In order to overcome this limitation, there is a need to learn a generic skill set that can bootstrap the evolution of the policy coverage set for each shift in the environment dynamics therefore, it can facilitate a continuous learning process. In this work, intrinsically motivated reinforcement learning has been successfully deployed to evolve generic skill sets for learning hierarchical policies to solve multi-objective Markov decision processes. We propose a novel dual-phase intrinsically motivated reinforcement learning method to address this limitation. In the first phase, a generic set of skills is learned. While in the second phase, this set is used to bootstrap policy coverage sets for each shift in the environment dynamics. We show experimentally that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art multi-objective reinforcement methods in a dynamic robotics environment.

3.A Robust Policy Bootstrapping Algorithm for Multi-objective Reinforcement Learning in Non-stationary Environments

Authors:Sherif Abdelfattah, Kathryn Kasmarik, Jiankun Hu

Abstract: Multi-objective Markov decision processes are a special kind of multi-objective optimization problem that involves sequential decision making while satisfying the Markov property of stochastic processes. Multi-objective reinforcement learning methods address this problem by fusing the reinforcement learning paradigm with multi-objective optimization techniques. One major drawback of these methods is the lack of adaptability to non-stationary dynamics in the environment. This is because they adopt optimization procedures that assume stationarity to evolve a coverage set of policies that can solve the problem. This paper introduces a developmental optimization approach that can evolve the policy coverage set while exploring the preference space over the defined objectives in an online manner. We propose a novel multi-objective reinforcement learning algorithm that can robustly evolve a convex coverage set of policies in an online manner in non-stationary environments. We compare the proposed algorithm with two state-of-the-art multi-objective reinforcement learning algorithms in stationary and non-stationary environments. Results showed that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the existing algorithms in non-stationary environments while achieving comparable results in stationary environments.

4.Active and Passive Causal Inference Learning

Authors:Daniel Jiwoong Im, Kyunghyun Cho

Abstract: This paper serves as a starting point for machine learning researchers, engineers and students who are interested in but not yet familiar with causal inference. We start by laying out an important set of assumptions that are collectively needed for causal identification, such as exchangeability, positivity, consistency and the absence of interference. From these assumptions, we build out a set of important causal inference techniques, which we do so by categorizing them into two buckets; active and passive approaches. We describe and discuss randomized controlled trials and bandit-based approaches from the active category. We then describe classical approaches, such as matching and inverse probability weighting, in the passive category, followed by more recent deep learning based algorithms. By finishing the paper with some of the missing aspects of causal inference from this paper, such as collider biases, we expect this paper to provide readers with a diverse set of starting points for further reading and research in causal inference and discovery.

5.Capacity Bounds for Hyperbolic Neural Network Representations of Latent Tree Structures

Authors:Anastasis Kratsios, Ruiyang Hong, Haitz Sáez de Ocáriz Borde

Abstract: We study the representation capacity of deep hyperbolic neural networks (HNNs) with a ReLU activation function. We establish the first proof that HNNs can $\varepsilon$-isometrically embed any finite weighted tree into a hyperbolic space of dimension $d$ at least equal to $2$ with prescribed sectional curvature $\kappa<0$, for any $\varepsilon> 1$ (where $\varepsilon=1$ being optimal). We establish rigorous upper bounds for the network complexity on an HNN implementing the embedding. We find that the network complexity of HNN implementing the graph representation is independent of the representation fidelity/distortion. We contrast this result against our lower bounds on distortion which any ReLU multi-layer perceptron (MLP) must exert when embedding a tree with $L>2^d$ leaves into a $d$-dimensional Euclidean space, which we show at least $\Omega(L^{1/d})$; independently of the depth, width, and (possibly discontinuous) activation function defining the MLP.

6.Distribution shift mitigation at test time with performance guarantees

Authors:Rui Ding, Jielong Yang, Feng Ji, Xionghu Zhong, Linbo Xie

Abstract: Due to inappropriate sample selection and limited training data, a distribution shift often exists between the training and test sets. This shift can adversely affect the test performance of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). Existing approaches mitigate this issue by either enhancing the robustness of GNNs to distribution shift or reducing the shift itself. However, both approaches necessitate retraining the model, which becomes unfeasible when the model structure and parameters are inaccessible. To address this challenge, we propose FR-GNN, a general framework for GNNs to conduct feature reconstruction. FRGNN constructs a mapping relationship between the output and input of a well-trained GNN to obtain class representative embeddings and then uses these embeddings to reconstruct the features of labeled nodes. These reconstructed features are then incorporated into the message passing mechanism of GNNs to influence the predictions of unlabeled nodes at test time. Notably, the reconstructed node features can be directly utilized for testing the well-trained model, effectively reducing the distribution shift and leading to improved test performance. This remarkable achievement is attained without any modifications to the model structure or parameters. We provide theoretical guarantees for the effectiveness of our framework. Furthermore, we conduct comprehensive experiments on various public datasets. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of FRGNN in comparison to mainstream methods.

7.A hybrid Decoder-DeepONet operator regression framework for unaligned observation data

Authors:Bo Chen, Chenyu Wang, Weipeng Li, Haiyang Fu

Abstract: Deep neural operators (DNOs) have been utilized to approximate nonlinear mappings between function spaces. However, DNOs face the challenge of increased dimensionality and computational cost associated with unaligned observation data. In this study, we propose a hybrid Decoder-DeepONet operator regression framework to handle unaligned data effectively. Additionally, we introduce a Multi-Decoder-DeepONet, which utilizes an average field of training data as input augmentation. The consistencies of the frameworks with the operator approximation theory are provided, on the basis of the universal approximation theorem. Two numerical experiments, Darcy problem and flow-field around an airfoil, are conducted to validate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed methods. Results illustrate the advantages of Decoder-DeepONet and Multi-Decoder-DeepONet in handling unaligned observation data and showcase their potentials in improving prediction accuracy.

8.HyperLoRA for PDEs

Authors:Ritam Majumdar, Vishal Jadhav, Anirudh Deodhar, Shirish Karande, Lovekesh Vig, Venkataramana Runkana

Abstract: Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) have been widely used to develop neural surrogates for solutions of Partial Differential Equations. A drawback of PINNs is that they have to be retrained with every change in initial-boundary conditions and PDE coefficients. The Hypernetwork, a model-based meta learning technique, takes in a parameterized task embedding as input and predicts the weights of PINN as output. Predicting weights of a neural network however, is a high-dimensional regression problem, and hypernetworks perform sub-optimally while predicting parameters for large base networks. To circumvent this issue, we use a low ranked adaptation (LoRA) formulation to decompose every layer of the base network into low-ranked tensors and use hypernetworks to predict the low-ranked tensors. Despite the reduced dimensionality of the resulting weight-regression problem, LoRA-based Hypernetworks violate the underlying physics of the given task. We demonstrate that the generalization capabilities of LoRA-based hypernetworks drastically improve when trained with an additional physics-informed loss component (HyperPINN) to satisfy the governing differential equations. We observe that LoRA-based HyperPINN training allows us to learn fast solutions for parameterized PDEs like Burger's equation and Navier Stokes: Kovasznay flow, while having an 8x reduction in prediction parameters on average without compromising on accuracy when compared to all other baselines.

9.How important are specialized transforms in Neural Operators?

Authors:Ritam Majumdar, Shirish Karande, Lovekesh Vig

Abstract: Simulating physical systems using Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) has become an indispensible part of modern industrial process optimization. Traditionally, numerical solvers have been used to solve the associated PDEs, however recently Transform-based Neural Operators such as the Fourier Neural Operator and Wavelet Neural Operator have received a lot of attention for their potential to provide fast solutions for systems of PDEs. In this work, we investigate the importance of the transform layers to the reported success of transform based neural operators. In particular, we record the cost in terms of performance, if all the transform layers are replaced by learnable linear layers. Surprisingly, we observe that linear layers suffice to provide performance comparable to the best-known transform-based layers and seem to do so with a compute time advantage as well. We believe that this observation can have significant implications for future work on Neural Operators, and might point to other sources of efficiencies for these architectures.

10.CARLA: A Self-supervised Contrastive Representation Learning Approach for Time Series Anomaly Detection

Authors:Zahra Zamanzadeh Darban, Geoffrey I. Webb, Shirui Pan, Mahsa Salehi

Abstract: We introduce a Self-supervised Contrastive Representation Learning Approach for Time Series Anomaly Detection (CARLA), an innovative end-to-end self-supervised framework carefully developed to identify anomalous patterns in both univariate and multivariate time series data. By taking advantage of contrastive representation learning, We introduce an innovative end-to-end self-supervised deep learning framework carefully developed to identify anomalous patterns in both univariate and multivariate time series data. By taking advantage of contrastive representation learning, CARLA effectively generates robust representations for time series windows. It achieves this by 1) learning similar representations for temporally close windows and dissimilar representations for windows and their equivalent anomalous windows and 2) employing a self-supervised approach to classify normal/anomalous representations of windows based on their nearest/furthest neighbours in the representation space. Most of the existing models focus on learning normal behaviour. The normal boundary is often tightly defined, which can result in slight deviations being classified as anomalies, resulting in a high false positive rate and limited ability to generalise normal patterns. CARLA's contrastive learning methodology promotes the production of highly consistent and discriminative predictions, thereby empowering us to adeptly address the inherent challenges associated with anomaly detection in time series data. Through extensive experimentation on 7 standard real-world time series anomaly detection benchmark datasets, CARLA demonstrates F1 and AU-PR superior to existing state-of-the-art results. Our research highlights the immense potential of contrastive representation learning in advancing the field of time series anomaly detection, thus paving the way for novel applications and in-depth exploration in this domain.

11.Learning Reward Machines through Preference Queries over Sequences

Authors:Eric Hsiung, Joydeep Biswas, Swarat Chaudhuri

Abstract: Reward machines have shown great promise at capturing non-Markovian reward functions for learning tasks that involve complex action sequencing. However, no algorithm currently exists for learning reward machines with realistic weak feedback in the form of preferences. We contribute REMAP, a novel algorithm for learning reward machines from preferences, with correctness and termination guarantees. REMAP introduces preference queries in place of membership queries in the L* algorithm, and leverages a symbolic observation table along with unification and constraint solving to narrow the hypothesis reward machine search space. In addition to the proofs of correctness and termination for REMAP, we present empirical evidence measuring correctness: how frequently the resulting reward machine is isomorphic under a consistent yet inexact teacher, and the regret between the ground truth and learned reward machines.

1.APPFLx: Providing Privacy-Preserving Cross-Silo Federated Learning as a Service

Authors:Zilinghan Li, Shilan He, Pranshu Chaturvedi, Trung-Hieu Hoang, Minseok Ryu, E. A. Huerta, Volodymyr Kindratenko, Jordan Fuhrman, Maryellen Giger, Ryan Chard, Kibaek Kim, Ravi Madduri

Abstract: Cross-silo privacy-preserving federated learning (PPFL) is a powerful tool to collaboratively train robust and generalized machine learning (ML) models without sharing sensitive (e.g., healthcare of financial) local data. To ease and accelerate the adoption of PPFL, we introduce APPFLx, a ready-to-use platform that provides privacy-preserving cross-silo federated learning as a service. APPFLx employs Globus authentication to allow users to easily and securely invite trustworthy collaborators for PPFL, implements several synchronous and asynchronous FL algorithms, streamlines the FL experiment launch process, and enables tracking and visualizing the life cycle of FL experiments, allowing domain experts and ML practitioners to easily orchestrate and evaluate cross-silo FL under one platform. APPFLx is available online at

2.Tipping Point Forecasting in Non-Stationary Dynamics on Function Spaces

Authors:Miguel Liu-Schiaffini, Clare E. Singer, Nikola Kovachki, Tapio Schneider, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Anima Anandkumar

Abstract: Tipping points are abrupt, drastic, and often irreversible changes in the evolution of non-stationary and chaotic dynamical systems. For instance, increased greenhouse gas concentrations are predicted to lead to drastic decreases in low cloud cover, referred to as a climatological tipping point. In this paper, we learn the evolution of such non-stationary dynamical systems using a novel recurrent neural operator (RNO), which learns mappings between function spaces. After training RNO on only the pre-tipping dynamics, we employ it to detect future tipping points using an uncertainty-based approach. In particular, we propose a conformal prediction framework to forecast tipping points by monitoring deviations from physics constraints (such as conserved quantities and partial differential equations), enabling forecasting of these abrupt changes along with a rigorous measure of uncertainty. We illustrate our proposed methodology on non-stationary ordinary and partial differential equations, such as the Lorenz-63 and Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations. We also apply our methods to forecast a climate tipping point in stratocumulus cloud cover. In our experiments, we demonstrate that even partial or approximate physics constraints can be used to accurately forecast future tipping points.

3.Bayesian polynomial neural networks and polynomial neural ordinary differential equations

Authors:Colby Fronk, Jaewoong Yun, Prashant Singh, Linda Petzold

Abstract: Symbolic regression with polynomial neural networks and polynomial neural ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are two recent and powerful approaches for equation recovery of many science and engineering problems. However, these methods provide point estimates for the model parameters and are currently unable to accommodate noisy data. We address this challenge by developing and validating the following Bayesian inference methods: the Laplace approximation, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods, and variational inference. We have found the Laplace approximation to be the best method for this class of problems. Our work can be easily extended to the broader class of symbolic neural networks to which the polynomial neural network belongs.

4.Mitigating Semantic Confusion from Hostile Neighborhood for Graph Active Learning

Authors:Tianmeng Yang, Min Zhou, Yujing Wang, Zhengjie Lin, Lujia Pan, Bin Cui, Yunhai Tong

Abstract: Graph Active Learning (GAL), which aims to find the most informative nodes in graphs for annotation to maximize the Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) performance, has attracted many research efforts but remains non-trivial challenges. One major challenge is that existing GAL strategies may introduce semantic confusion to the selected training set, particularly when graphs are noisy. Specifically, most existing methods assume all aggregating features to be helpful, ignoring the semantically negative effect between inter-class edges under the message-passing mechanism. In this work, we present Semantic-aware Active learning framework for Graphs (SAG) to mitigate the semantic confusion problem. Pairwise similarities and dissimilarities of nodes with semantic features are introduced to jointly evaluate the node influence. A new prototype-based criterion and query policy are also designed to maintain diversity and class balance of the selected nodes, respectively. Extensive experiments on the public benchmark graphs and a real-world financial dataset demonstrate that SAG significantly improves node classification performances and consistently outperforms previous methods. Moreover, comprehensive analysis and ablation study also verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

5.Controlling Federated Learning for Covertness

Authors:Adit Jain, Vikram Krishnamurthy

Abstract: A learner aims to minimize a function $f$ by repeatedly querying a distributed oracle that provides noisy gradient evaluations. At the same time, the learner seeks to hide $\arg\min f$ from a malicious eavesdropper that observes the learner's queries. This paper considers the problem of \textit{covert} or \textit{learner-private} optimization, where the learner has to dynamically choose between learning and obfuscation by exploiting the stochasticity. The problem of controlling the stochastic gradient algorithm for covert optimization is modeled as a Markov decision process, and we show that the dynamic programming operator has a supermodular structure implying that the optimal policy has a monotone threshold structure. A computationally efficient policy gradient algorithm is proposed to search for the optimal querying policy without knowledge of the transition probabilities. As a practical application, our methods are demonstrated on a hate speech classification task in a federated setting where an eavesdropper can use the optimal weights to generate toxic content, which is more easily misclassified. Numerical results show that when the learner uses the optimal policy, an eavesdropper can only achieve a validation accuracy of $52\%$ with no information and $69\%$ when it has a public dataset with 10\% positive samples compared to $83\%$ when the learner employs a greedy policy.

6.Model-Free Algorithm with Improved Sample Efficiency for Zero-Sum Markov Games

Authors:Songtao Feng, Ming Yin, Yu-Xiang Wang, Jing Yang, Yingbin Liang

Abstract: The problem of two-player zero-sum Markov games has recently attracted increasing interests in theoretical studies of multi-agent reinforcement learning (RL). In particular, for finite-horizon episodic Markov decision processes (MDPs), it has been shown that model-based algorithms can find an $\epsilon$-optimal Nash Equilibrium (NE) with the sample complexity of $O(H^3SAB/\epsilon^2)$, which is optimal in the dependence of the horizon $H$ and the number of states $S$ (where $A$ and $B$ denote the number of actions of the two players, respectively). However, none of the existing model-free algorithms can achieve such an optimality. In this work, we propose a model-free stage-based Q-learning algorithm and show that it achieves the same sample complexity as the best model-based algorithm, and hence for the first time demonstrate that model-free algorithms can enjoy the same optimality in the $H$ dependence as model-based algorithms. The main improvement of the dependency on $H$ arises by leveraging the popular variance reduction technique based on the reference-advantage decomposition previously used only for single-agent RL. However, such a technique relies on a critical monotonicity property of the value function, which does not hold in Markov games due to the update of the policy via the coarse correlated equilibrium (CCE) oracle. Thus, to extend such a technique to Markov games, our algorithm features a key novel design of updating the reference value functions as the pair of optimistic and pessimistic value functions whose value difference is the smallest in the history in order to achieve the desired improvement in the sample efficiency.

7.Towards Semi-supervised Learning with Non-random Missing Labels

Authors:Yue Duan, Zhen Zhao, Lei Qi, Luping Zhou, Lei Wang, Yinghuan Shi

Abstract: Semi-supervised learning (SSL) tackles the label missing problem by enabling the effective usage of unlabeled data. While existing SSL methods focus on the traditional setting, a practical and challenging scenario called label Missing Not At Random (MNAR) is usually ignored. In MNAR, the labeled and unlabeled data fall into different class distributions resulting in biased label imputation, which deteriorates the performance of SSL models. In this work, class transition tracking based Pseudo-Rectifying Guidance (PRG) is devised for MNAR. We explore the class-level guidance information obtained by the Markov random walk, which is modeled on a dynamically created graph built over the class tracking matrix. PRG unifies the historical information of class distribution and class transitions caused by the pseudo-rectifying procedure to maintain the model's unbiased enthusiasm towards assigning pseudo-labels to all classes, so as the quality of pseudo-labels on both popular classes and rare classes in MNAR could be improved. Finally, we show the superior performance of PRG across a variety of MNAR scenarios, outperforming the latest SSL approaches combining bias removal solutions by a large margin. Code and model weights are available at

8.Feature Enforcing PINN (FE-PINN): A Framework to Learn the Underlying-Physics Features Before Target Task

Authors:Mahyar Jahaninasab, Mohamad Ali Bijarchi

Abstract: In this work, a new data-free framework called Feature Enforcing Physics Informed Neural Network (FE-PINN) is introduced. This framework is capable of learning the underlying pattern of any problem with low computational cost before the main training loop. The loss function of vanilla PINN due to the existence of two terms of partial differential residuals and boundary condition mean squared error is imbalanced. FE-PINN solves this challenge with just one minute of training instead of time-consuming hyperparameter tuning for loss function that can take hours. The FE-PINN accomplishes this process by performing a sequence of sub-tasks. The first sub-task learns useful features about the underlying physics. Then, the model trains on the target task to refine the calculations. FE-PINN is applied to three benchmarks, flow over a cylinder, 2D heat conduction, and an inverse problem of calculating inlet velocity. FE-PINN can solve each case with, 15x, 2x, and 5x speed up accordingly. Another advantage of FE-PINN is that reaching lower order of value for loss function is systematically possible. In this study, it was possible to reach a loss value near 1e-5 which is challenging for vanilla PINN. FE-PINN also has a smooth convergence process which allows for utilizing higher learning rates in comparison to vanilla PINN. This framework can be used as a fast, accurate tool for solving a wide range of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) across various fields.

9.Dual Gauss-Newton Directions for Deep Learning

Authors:Vincent Roulet, Mathieu Blondel

Abstract: Inspired by Gauss-Newton-like methods, we study the benefit of leveraging the structure of deep learning objectives, namely, the composition of a convex loss function and of a nonlinear network, in order to derive better direction oracles than stochastic gradients, based on the idea of partial linearization. In a departure from previous works, we propose to compute such direction oracles via their dual formulation, leading to both computational benefits and new insights. We demonstrate that the resulting oracles define descent directions that can be used as a drop-in replacement for stochastic gradients, in existing optimization algorithms. We empirically study the advantage of using the dual formulation as well as the computational trade-offs involved in the computation of such oracles.

10.Optimal Resource Allocation for U-Shaped Parallel Split Learning

Authors:Song Lyu, Zheng Lin, Guanqiao Qu, Xianhao Chen, Xiaoxia Huang, Pan Li

Abstract: Split learning (SL) has emerged as a promising approach for model training without revealing the raw data samples from the data owners. However, traditional SL inevitably leaks label privacy as the tail model (with the last layers) should be placed on the server. To overcome this limitation, one promising solution is to utilize U-shaped architecture to leave both early layers and last layers on the user side. In this paper, we develop a novel parallel U-shaped split learning and devise the optimal resource optimization scheme to improve the performance of edge networks. In the proposed framework, multiple users communicate with an edge server for SL. We analyze the end-to-end delay of each client during the training process and design an efficient resource allocation algorithm, called LSCRA, which finds the optimal computing resource allocation and split layers. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of LSCRA and that U-shaped PSL can achieve a similar performance with other SL baselines while preserving label privacy. Index Terms: U-shaped network, split learning, label privacy, resource allocation, 5G/6G edge networks.

11.Development of a Knowledge Graph Embeddings Model for Pain

Authors:Jaya Chaturvedi, Tao Wang, Sumithra Velupillai, Robert Stewart, Angus Roberts

Abstract: Pain is a complex concept that can interconnect with other concepts such as a disorder that might cause pain, a medication that might relieve pain, and so on. To fully understand the context of pain experienced by either an individual or across a population, we may need to examine all concepts related to pain and the relationships between them. This is especially useful when modeling pain that has been recorded in electronic health records. Knowledge graphs represent concepts and their relations by an interlinked network, enabling semantic and context-based reasoning in a computationally tractable form. These graphs can, however, be too large for efficient computation. Knowledge graph embeddings help to resolve this by representing the graphs in a low-dimensional vector space. These embeddings can then be used in various downstream tasks such as classification and link prediction. The various relations associated with pain which are required to construct such a knowledge graph can be obtained from external medical knowledge bases such as SNOMED CT, a hierarchical systematic nomenclature of medical terms. A knowledge graph built in this way could be further enriched with real-world examples of pain and its relations extracted from electronic health records. This paper describes the construction of such knowledge graph embedding models of pain concepts, extracted from the unstructured text of mental health electronic health records, combined with external knowledge created from relations described in SNOMED CT, and their evaluation on a subject-object link prediction task. The performance of the models was compared with other baseline models.

12.Beyond Sharing: Conflict-Aware Multivariate Time Series Anomaly Detection

Authors:Haotian Si, Changhua Pei, Zhihan Li, Yadong Zhao, Jingjing Li, Haiming Zhang, Zulong Diao, Jianhui Li, Gaogang Xie, Dan Pei

Abstract: Massive key performance indicators (KPIs) are monitored as multivariate time series data (MTS) to ensure the reliability of the software applications and service system. Accurately detecting the abnormality of MTS is very critical for subsequent fault elimination. The scarcity of anomalies and manual labeling has led to the development of various self-supervised MTS anomaly detection (AD) methods, which optimize an overall objective/loss encompassing all metrics' regression objectives/losses. However, our empirical study uncovers the prevalence of conflicts among metrics' regression objectives, causing MTS models to grapple with different losses. This critical aspect significantly impacts detection performance but has been overlooked in existing approaches. To address this problem, by mimicking the design of multi-gate mixture-of-experts (MMoE), we introduce CAD, a Conflict-aware multivariate KPI Anomaly Detection algorithm. CAD offers an exclusive structure for each metric to mitigate potential conflicts while fostering inter-metric promotions. Upon thorough investigation, we find that the poor performance of vanilla MMoE mainly comes from the input-output misalignment settings of MTS formulation and convergence issues arising from expansive tasks. To address these challenges, we propose a straightforward yet effective task-oriented metric selection and p&s (personalized and shared) gating mechanism, which establishes CAD as the first practicable multi-task learning (MTL) based MTS AD model. Evaluations on multiple public datasets reveal that CAD obtains an average F1-score of 0.943 across three public datasets, notably outperforming state-of-the-art methods. Our code is accessible at

13.IMM: An Imitative Reinforcement Learning Approach with Predictive Representation Learning for Automatic Market Making

Authors:Hui Niu, Siyuan Li, Jiahao Zheng, Zhouchi Lin, Jian Li, Jian Guo, Bo An

Abstract: Market making (MM) has attracted significant attention in financial trading owing to its essential function in ensuring market liquidity. With strong capabilities in sequential decision-making, Reinforcement Learning (RL) technology has achieved remarkable success in quantitative trading. Nonetheless, most existing RL-based MM methods focus on optimizing single-price level strategies which fail at frequent order cancellations and loss of queue priority. Strategies involving multiple price levels align better with actual trading scenarios. However, given the complexity that multi-price level strategies involves a comprehensive trading action space, the challenge of effectively training profitable RL agents for MM persists. Inspired by the efficient workflow of professional human market makers, we propose Imitative Market Maker (IMM), a novel RL framework leveraging both knowledge from suboptimal signal-based experts and direct policy interactions to develop multi-price level MM strategies efficiently. The framework start with introducing effective state and action representations adept at encoding information about multi-price level orders. Furthermore, IMM integrates a representation learning unit capable of capturing both short- and long-term market trends to mitigate adverse selection risk. Subsequently, IMM formulates an expert strategy based on signals and trains the agent through the integration of RL and imitation learning techniques, leading to efficient learning. Extensive experimental results on four real-world market datasets demonstrate that IMM outperforms current RL-based market making strategies in terms of several financial criteria. The findings of the ablation study substantiate the effectiveness of the model components.

14.On Data Imbalance in Molecular Property Prediction with Pre-training

Authors:Limin Wang, Masatoshi Hanai, Toyotaro Suzumura, Shun Takashige, Kenjiro Taura

Abstract: Revealing and analyzing the various properties of materials is an essential and critical issue in the development of materials, including batteries, semiconductors, catalysts, and pharmaceuticals. Traditionally, these properties have been determined through theoretical calculations and simulations. However, it is not practical to perform such calculations on every single candidate material. Recently, a combination method of the theoretical calculation and machine learning has emerged, that involves training machine learning models on a subset of theoretical calculation results to construct a surrogate model that can be applied to the remaining materials. On the other hand, a technique called pre-training is used to improve the accuracy of machine learning models. Pre-training involves training the model on pretext task, which is different from the target task, before training the model on the target task. This process aims to extract the input data features, stabilizing the learning process and improving its accuracy. However, in the case of molecular property prediction, there is a strong imbalance in the distribution of input data and features, which may lead to biased learning towards frequently occurring data during pre-training. In this study, we propose an effective pre-training method that addresses the imbalance in input data. We aim to improve the final accuracy by modifying the loss function of the existing representative pre-training method, node masking, to compensate the imbalance. We have investigated and assessed the impact of our proposed imbalance compensation on pre-training and the final prediction accuracy through experiments and evaluations using benchmark of molecular property prediction models.

15.Estimating fire Duration using regression methods

Authors:Hansong Xiao

Abstract: Wildfire forecasting problems usually rely on complex grid-based mathematical models, mostly involving Computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and Celluar Automata, but these methods have always been computationally expensive and difficult to deliver a fast decision pattern. In this paper, we provide machine learning based approaches that solve the problem of high computational effort and time consumption. This paper predicts the burning duration of a known wildfire by RF(random forest), KNN, and XGBoost regression models and also image-based, like CNN and Encoder. Model inputs are based on the map of landscape features provided by satellites and the corresponding historical fire data in this area. This model is trained by happened fire data and landform feature maps and tested with the most recent real value in the same area. By processing the input differently to obtain the optimal outcome, the system is able to make fast and relatively accurate future predictions based on landscape images of known fires.

16.Causal Adversarial Perturbations for Individual Fairness and Robustness in Heterogeneous Data Spaces

Authors:Ahmad-Reza Ehyaei, Kiarash Mohammadi, Amir-Hossein Karimi, Samira Samadi, Golnoosh Farnadi

Abstract: As responsible AI gains importance in machine learning algorithms, properties such as fairness, adversarial robustness, and causality have received considerable attention in recent years. However, despite their individual significance, there remains a critical gap in simultaneously exploring and integrating these properties. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that examines the relationship between individual fairness, adversarial robustness, and structural causal models in heterogeneous data spaces, particularly when dealing with discrete sensitive attributes. We use causal structural models and sensitive attributes to create a fair metric and apply it to measure semantic similarity among individuals. By introducing a novel causal adversarial perturbation and applying adversarial training, we create a new regularizer that combines individual fairness, causality, and robustness in the classifier. Our method is evaluated on both real-world and synthetic datasets, demonstrating its effectiveness in achieving an accurate classifier that simultaneously exhibits fairness, adversarial robustness, and causal awareness.

17.Interpretable Graph Neural Networks for Tabular Data

Authors:Amr Alkhatib, Sofiane Ennadir, Henrik Boström, Michalis Vazirgiannis

Abstract: Data in tabular format is frequently occurring in real-world applications. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have recently been extended to effectively handle such data, allowing feature interactions to be captured through representation learning. However, these approaches essentially produce black-box models, in the form of deep neural networks, precluding users from following the logic behind the model predictions. We propose an approach, called IGNNet (Interpretable Graph Neural Network for tabular data), which constrains the learning algorithm to produce an interpretable model, where the model shows how the predictions are exactly computed from the original input features. A large-scale empirical investigation is presented, showing that IGNNet is performing on par with state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithms that target tabular data, including XGBoost, Random Forests, and TabNet. At the same time, the results show that the explanations obtained from IGNNet are aligned with the true Shapley values of the features without incurring any additional computational overhead.

18.A Dual-Perspective Approach to Evaluating Feature Attribution Methods

Authors:Yawei Li, Yang Zhang, Kenji Kawaguchi, Ashkan Khakzar, Bernd Bischl, Mina Rezaei

Abstract: Feature attribution methods attempt to explain neural network predictions by identifying relevant features. However, establishing a cohesive framework for assessing feature attribution remains a challenge. There are several views through which we can evaluate attributions. One principal lens is to observe the effect of perturbing attributed features on the model's behavior (i.e., faithfulness). While providing useful insights, existing faithfulness evaluations suffer from shortcomings that we reveal in this paper. In this work, we propose two new perspectives within the faithfulness paradigm that reveal intuitive properties: soundness and completeness. Soundness assesses the degree to which attributed features are truly predictive features, while completeness examines how well the resulting attribution reveals all the predictive features. The two perspectives are based on a firm mathematical foundation and provide quantitative metrics that are computable through efficient algorithms. We apply these metrics to mainstream attribution methods, offering a novel lens through which to analyze and compare feature attribution methods.

19.Equitable Restless Multi-Armed Bandits: A General Framework Inspired By Digital Health

Authors:Jackson A. Killian, Manish Jain, Yugang Jia, Jonathan Amar, Erich Huang, Milind Tambe

Abstract: Restless multi-armed bandits (RMABs) are a popular framework for algorithmic decision making in sequential settings with limited resources. RMABs are increasingly being used for sensitive decisions such as in public health, treatment scheduling, anti-poaching, and -- the motivation for this work -- digital health. For such high stakes settings, decisions must both improve outcomes and prevent disparities between groups (e.g., ensure health equity). We study equitable objectives for RMABs (ERMABs) for the first time. We consider two equity-aligned objectives from the fairness literature, minimax reward and max Nash welfare. We develop efficient algorithms for solving each -- a water filling algorithm for the former, and a greedy algorithm with theoretically motivated nuance to balance disparate group sizes for the latter. Finally, we demonstrate across three simulation domains, including a new digital health model, that our approaches can be multiple times more equitable than the current state of the art without drastic sacrifices to utility. Our findings underscore our work's urgency as RMABs permeate into systems that impact human and wildlife outcomes. Code is available at

20.CONVERT:Contrastive Graph Clustering with Reliable Augmentation

Authors:Xihong Yang, Cheng Tan, Yue Liu, Ke Liang, Siwei Wang, Sihang Zhou, Jun Xia, Stan Z. Li, Xinwang Liu, En Zhu

Abstract: Contrastive graph node clustering via learnable data augmentation is a hot research spot in the field of unsupervised graph learning. The existing methods learn the sampling distribution of a pre-defined augmentation to generate data-driven augmentations automatically. Although promising clustering performance has been achieved, we observe that these strategies still rely on pre-defined augmentations, the semantics of the augmented graph can easily drift. The reliability of the augmented view semantics for contrastive learning can not be guaranteed, thus limiting the model performance. To address these problems, we propose a novel CONtrastiVe Graph ClustEring network with Reliable AugmenTation (COVERT). Specifically, in our method, the data augmentations are processed by the proposed reversible perturb-recover network. It distills reliable semantic information by recovering the perturbed latent embeddings. Moreover, to further guarantee the reliability of semantics, a novel semantic loss is presented to constrain the network via quantifying the perturbation and recovery. Lastly, a label-matching mechanism is designed to guide the model by clustering information through aligning the semantic labels and the selected high-confidence clustering pseudo labels. Extensive experimental results on seven datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. We release the code and appendix of CONVERT at on GitHub.

21.Cross-city Few-Shot Traffic Forecasting via Traffic Pattern Bank

Authors:Zhanyu Liu, Guanjie Zheng, Yanwei Yu

Abstract: Traffic forecasting is a critical service in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Utilizing deep models to tackle this task relies heavily on data from traffic sensors or vehicle devices, while some cities might lack device support and thus have few available data. So, it is necessary to learn from data-rich cities and transfer the knowledge to data-scarce cities in order to improve the performance of traffic forecasting. To address this problem, we propose a cross-city few-shot traffic forecasting framework via Traffic Pattern Bank (TPB) due to that the traffic patterns are similar across cities. TPB utilizes a pre-trained traffic patch encoder to project raw traffic data from data-rich cities into high-dimensional space, from which a traffic pattern bank is generated through clustering. Then, the traffic data of the data-scarce city could query the traffic pattern bank and explicit relations between them are constructed. The metaknowledge is aggregated based on these relations and an adjacency matrix is constructed to guide a downstream spatial-temporal model in forecasting future traffic. The frequently used meta-training framework Reptile is adapted to find a better initial parameter for the learnable modules. Experiments on real-world traffic datasets show that TPB outperforms existing methods and demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in cross-city few-shot traffic forecasting.

22.Neural oscillators for generalization of physics-informed machine learning

Authors:Taniya Kapoor, Abhishek Chandra, Daniel M. Tartakovsky, Hongrui Wang, Alfredo Nunez, Rolf Dollevoet

Abstract: A primary challenge of physics-informed machine learning (PIML) is its generalization beyond the training domain, especially when dealing with complex physical problems represented by partial differential equations (PDEs). This paper aims to enhance the generalization capabilities of PIML, facilitating practical, real-world applications where accurate predictions in unexplored regions are crucial. We leverage the inherent causality and temporal sequential characteristics of PDE solutions to fuse PIML models with recurrent neural architectures based on systems of ordinary differential equations, referred to as neural oscillators. Through effectively capturing long-time dependencies and mitigating the exploding and vanishing gradient problem, neural oscillators foster improved generalization in PIML tasks. Extensive experimentation involving time-dependent nonlinear PDEs and biharmonic beam equations demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach. Incorporating neural oscillators outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods on benchmark problems across various metrics. Consequently, the proposed method improves the generalization capabilities of PIML, providing accurate solutions for extrapolation and prediction beyond the training data.

23.Learning representations by forward-propagating errors

Authors:Ryoungwoo Jang

Abstract: Back-propagation (BP) is widely used learning algorithm for neural network optimization. However, BP requires enormous computation cost and is too slow to train in central processing unit (CPU). Therefore current neural network optimizaiton is performed in graphical processing unit (GPU) with compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming. In this paper, we propose a light, fast learning algorithm on CPU that is fast as CUDA acceleration on GPU. This algorithm is based on forward-propagating method, using concept of dual number in algebraic geometry.

24.Deep-seeded Clustering for Unsupervised Valence-Arousal Emotion Recognition from Physiological Signals

Authors:Antoine Dubois, Carlos Lima Azevedo, Sonja Haustein, Bruno Miranda

Abstract: Emotions play a significant role in the cognitive processes of the human brain, such as decision making, learning and perception. The use of physiological signals has shown to lead to more objective, reliable and accurate emotion recognition combined with raising machine learning methods. Supervised learning methods have dominated the attention of the research community, but the challenge in collecting needed labels makes emotion recognition difficult in large-scale semi- or uncontrolled experiments. Unsupervised methods are increasingly being explored, however sub-optimal signal feature selection and label identification challenges unsupervised methods' accuracy and applicability. This article proposes an unsupervised deep cluster framework for emotion recognition from physiological and psychological data. Tests on the open benchmark data set WESAD show that deep k-means and deep c-means distinguish the four quadrants of Russell's circumplex model of affect with an overall accuracy of 87%. Seeding the clusters with the subject's subjective assessments helps to circumvent the need for labels.

25.Multi-field Visualisation via Trait-induced Merge Trees

Authors:Jochen Jankowai, Talha Bin Masood, Ingrid Hotz

Abstract: In this work, we propose trait-based merge trees a generalization of merge trees to feature level sets, targeting the analysis of tensor field or general multi-variate data. For this, we employ the notion of traits defined in attribute space as introduced in the feature level sets framework. The resulting distance field in attribute space induces a scalar field in the spatial domain that serves as input for topological data analysis. The leaves in the merge tree represent those areas in the input data that are closest to the defined trait and thus most closely resemble the defined feature. Hence, the merge tree yields a hierarchy of features that allows for querying the most relevant and persistent features. The presented method includes different query methods for the tree which enable the highlighting of different aspects. We demonstrate the cross-application capabilities of this approach with three case studies from different domains.

26.Reinforcement Learning for Battery Management in Dairy Farming

Authors:Nawazish Ali, Abdul Wahid, Rachael shaw, Karl Mason

Abstract: Dairy farming is a particularly energy-intensive part of the agriculture sector. Effective battery management is essential for renewable integration within the agriculture sector. However, controlling battery charging/discharging is a difficult task due to electricity demand variability, stochasticity of renewable generation, and energy price fluctuations. Despite the potential benefits of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) to renewable energy in the context of dairy farming, there has been limited research in this area. This research is a priority for Ireland as it strives to meet its governmental goals in energy and sustainability. This research paper utilizes Q-learning to learn an effective policy for charging and discharging a battery within a dairy farm setting. The results demonstrate that the developed policy significantly reduces electricity costs compared to the established baseline algorithm. These findings highlight the effectiveness of reinforcement learning for battery management within the dairy farming sector.

27.Uplift Modeling: from Causal Inference to Personalization

Authors:Felipe Moraes, Hugo Manuel Proença, Anastasiia Kornilova, Javier Albert, Dmitri Goldenberg

Abstract: Uplift modeling is a collection of machine learning techniques for estimating causal effects of a treatment at the individual or subgroup levels. Over the last years, causality and uplift modeling have become key trends in personalization at online e-commerce platforms, enabling the selection of the best treatment for each user in order to maximize the target business metric. Uplift modeling can be particularly useful for personalized promotional campaigns, where the potential benefit caused by a promotion needs to be weighed against the potential costs. In this tutorial we will cover basic concepts of causality and introduce the audience to state-of-the-art techniques in uplift modeling. We will discuss the advantages and the limitations of different approaches and dive into the unique setup of constrained uplift modeling. Finally, we will present real-life applications and discuss challenges in implementing these models in production.

28.Joint Power Control and Data Size Selection for Over-the-Air Computation Aided Federated Learning

Authors:Xuming An, Rongfei Fan, Shiyuan Zuo, Han Hu, Hai Jiang, Ning Zhang

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) has emerged as an appealing machine learning approach to deal with massive raw data generated at multiple mobile devices, {which needs to aggregate the training model parameter of every mobile device at one base station (BS) iteratively}. For parameter aggregating in FL, over-the-air computation is a spectrum-efficient solution, which allows all mobile devices to transmit their parameter-mapped signals concurrently to a BS. Due to heterogeneous channel fading and noise, there exists difference between the BS's received signal and its desired signal, measured as the mean-squared error (MSE). To minimize the MSE, we propose to jointly optimize the signal amplification factors at the BS and the mobile devices as well as the data size (the number of data samples involved in local training) at every mobile device. The formulated problem is challenging to solve due to its non-convexity. To find the optimal solution, with some simplification on cost function and variable replacement, which still preserves equivalence, we transform the changed problem to be a bi-level problem equivalently. For the lower-level problem, optimal solution is found by enumerating every candidate solution from the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition. For the upper-level problem, the optimal solution is found by exploring its piecewise convexity. Numerical results show that our proposed method can greatly reduce the MSE and can help to improve the training performance of FL compared with benchmark methods.

29.Conditional Sampling of Variational Autoencoders via Iterated Approximate Ancestral Sampling

Authors:Vaidotas Simkus, Michael U. Gutmann

Abstract: Conditional sampling of variational autoencoders (VAEs) is needed in various applications, such as missing data imputation, but is computationally intractable. A principled choice for asymptotically exact conditional sampling is Metropolis-within-Gibbs (MWG). However, we observe that the tendency of VAEs to learn a structured latent space, a commonly desired property, can cause the MWG sampler to get "stuck" far from the target distribution. This paper mitigates the limitations of MWG: we systematically outline the pitfalls in the context of VAEs, propose two original methods that address these pitfalls, and demonstrate an improved performance of the proposed methods on a set of sampling tasks.

30.Over-the-Air Computation Aided Federated Learning with the Aggregation of Normalized Gradient

Authors:Rongfei Fan, Xuming An, Shiyuan Zuo, Han Hu

Abstract: Over-the-air computation is a communication-efficient solution for federated learning (FL). In such a system, iterative procedure is performed: Local gradient of private loss function is updated, amplified and then transmitted by every mobile device; the server receives the aggregated gradient all-at-once, generates and then broadcasts updated model parameters to every mobile device. In terms of amplification factor selection, most related works suppose the local gradient's maximal norm always happens although it actually fluctuates over iterations, which may degrade convergence performance. To circumvent this problem, we propose to turn local gradient to be normalized one before amplifying it. Under our proposed method, when the loss function is smooth, we prove our proposed method can converge to stationary point at sub-linear rate. In case of smooth and strongly convex loss function, we prove our proposed method can achieve minimal training loss at linear rate with any small positive tolerance. Moreover, a tradeoff between convergence rate and the tolerance is discovered. To speedup convergence, problems optimizing system parameters are also formulated for above two cases. Although being non-convex, optimal solution with polynomial complexity of the formulated problems are derived. Experimental results show our proposed method can outperform benchmark methods on convergence performance.

31.Modeling Edge Features with Deep Bayesian Graph Networks

Authors:Daniele Atzeni, Federico Errica, Davide Bacciu, Alessio Micheli

Abstract: We propose an extension of the Contextual Graph Markov Model, a deep and probabilistic machine learning model for graphs, to model the distribution of edge features. Our approach is architectural, as we introduce an additional Bayesian network mapping edge features into discrete states to be used by the original model. In doing so, we are also able to build richer graph representations even in the absence of edge features, which is confirmed by the performance improvements on standard graph classification benchmarks. Moreover, we successfully test our proposal in a graph regression scenario where edge features are of fundamental importance, and we show that the learned edge representation provides substantial performance improvements against the original model on three link prediction tasks. By keeping the computational complexity linear in the number of edges, the proposed model is amenable to large-scale graph processing.

32.ZhiJian: A Unifying and Rapidly Deployable Toolbox for Pre-trained Model Reuse

Authors:Yi-Kai Zhang, Lu Ren, Chao Yi, Qi-Wei Wang, De-Chuan Zhan, Han-Jia Ye

Abstract: The rapid expansion of foundation pre-trained models and their fine-tuned counterparts has significantly contributed to the advancement of machine learning. Leveraging pre-trained models to extract knowledge and expedite learning in real-world tasks, known as "Model Reuse", has become crucial in various applications. Previous research focuses on reusing models within a certain aspect, including reusing model weights, structures, and hypothesis spaces. This paper introduces ZhiJian, a comprehensive and user-friendly toolbox for model reuse, utilizing the PyTorch backend. ZhiJian presents a novel paradigm that unifies diverse perspectives on model reuse, encompassing target architecture construction with PTM, tuning target model with PTM, and PTM-based inference. This empowers deep learning practitioners to explore downstream tasks and identify the complementary advantages among different methods. ZhiJian is readily accessible at facilitating seamless utilization of pre-trained models and streamlining the model reuse process for researchers and developers.

33.Online Transition-Based Feature Generation for Anomaly Detection in Concurrent Data Streams

Authors:Yinzheng Zhong, Alexei Lisitsa

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the transition-based feature generator (TFGen) technique, which reads general activity data with attributes and generates step-by-step generated data. The activity data may consist of network activity from packets, system calls from processes or classified activity from surveillance cameras. TFGen processes data online and will generate data with encoded historical data for each incoming activity with high computational efficiency. The input activities may concurrently originate from distinct traces or channels. The technique aims to address issues such as domain-independent applicability, the ability to discover global process structures, the encoding of time-series data, and online processing capability.

34.Distributed Extra-gradient with Optimal Complexity and Communication Guarantees

Authors:Ali Ramezani-Kebrya, Kimon Antonakopoulos, Igor Krawczuk, Justin Deschenaux, Volkan Cevher

Abstract: We consider monotone variational inequality (VI) problems in multi-GPU settings where multiple processors/workers/clients have access to local stochastic dual vectors. This setting includes a broad range of important problems from distributed convex minimization to min-max and games. Extra-gradient, which is a de facto algorithm for monotone VI problems, has not been designed to be communication-efficient. To this end, we propose a quantized generalized extra-gradient (Q-GenX), which is an unbiased and adaptive compression method tailored to solve VIs. We provide an adaptive step-size rule, which adapts to the respective noise profiles at hand and achieve a fast rate of ${\mathcal O}(1/T)$ under relative noise, and an order-optimal ${\mathcal O}(1/\sqrt{T})$ under absolute noise and show distributed training accelerates convergence. Finally, we validate our theoretical results by providing real-world experiments and training generative adversarial networks on multiple GPUs.

35.Regularizing Adversarial Imitation Learning Using Causal Invariance

Authors:Ivan Ovinnikov, Joachim M. Buhmann

Abstract: Imitation learning methods are used to infer a policy in a Markov decision process from a dataset of expert demonstrations by minimizing a divergence measure between the empirical state occupancy measures of the expert and the policy. The guiding signal to the policy is provided by the discriminator used as part of an versarial optimization procedure. We observe that this model is prone to absorbing spurious correlations present in the expert data. To alleviate this issue, we propose to use causal invariance as a regularization principle for adversarial training of these models. The regularization objective is applicable in a straightforward manner to existing adversarial imitation frameworks. We demonstrate the efficacy of the regularized formulation in an illustrative two-dimensional setting as well as a number of high-dimensional robot locomotion benchmark tasks.

36.Half-Hop: A graph upsampling approach for slowing down message passing

Authors:Mehdi Azabou, Venkataramana Ganesh, Shantanu Thakoor, Chi-Heng Lin, Lakshmi Sathidevi, Ran Liu, Michal Valko, Petar Veličković, Eva L. Dyer

Abstract: Message passing neural networks have shown a lot of success on graph-structured data. However, there are many instances where message passing can lead to over-smoothing or fail when neighboring nodes belong to different classes. In this work, we introduce a simple yet general framework for improving learning in message passing neural networks. Our approach essentially upsamples edges in the original graph by adding "slow nodes" at each edge that can mediate communication between a source and a target node. Our method only modifies the input graph, making it plug-and-play and easy to use with existing models. To understand the benefits of slowing down message passing, we provide theoretical and empirical analyses. We report results on several supervised and self-supervised benchmarks, and show improvements across the board, notably in heterophilic conditions where adjacent nodes are more likely to have different labels. Finally, we show how our approach can be used to generate augmentations for self-supervised learning, where slow nodes are randomly introduced into different edges in the graph to generate multi-scale views with variable path lengths.

37.Polynomial Bounds for Learning Noisy Optical Physical Unclonable Functions and Connections to Learning With Errors

Authors:Apollo Albright, Boris Gelfand, Michael Dixon

Abstract: It is shown that a class of optical physical unclonable functions (PUFs) can be learned to arbitrary precision with arbitrarily high probability, even in the presence of noise, given access to polynomially many challenge-response pairs and polynomially bounded computational power, under mild assumptions about the distributions of the noise and challenge vectors. This extends the results of Rh\"uramir et al. (2013), who showed a subset of this class of PUFs to be learnable in polynomial time in the absence of noise, under the assumption that the optics of the PUF were either linear or had negligible nonlinear effects. We derive polynomial bounds for the required number of samples and the computational complexity of a linear regression algorithm, based on size parameters of the PUF, the distributions of the challenge and noise vectors, and the probability and accuracy of the regression algorithm, with a similar analysis to one done by Bootle et al. (2018), who demonstrated a learning attack on a poorly implemented version of the Learning With Errors problem.

38.TinyProp -- Adaptive Sparse Backpropagation for Efficient TinyML On-device Learning

Authors:Marcus Rüb, Daniel Maier, Daniel Mueller-Gritschneder, Axel Sikora

Abstract: Training deep neural networks using backpropagation is very memory and computationally intensive. This makes it difficult to run on-device learning or fine-tune neural networks on tiny, embedded devices such as low-power micro-controller units (MCUs). Sparse backpropagation algorithms try to reduce the computational load of on-device learning by training only a subset of the weights and biases. Existing approaches use a static number of weights to train. A poor choice of this so-called backpropagation ratio limits either the computational gain or can lead to severe accuracy losses. In this paper we present TinyProp, the first sparse backpropagation method that dynamically adapts the back-propagation ratio during on-device training for each training step. TinyProp induces a small calculation overhead to sort the elements of the gradient, which does not significantly impact the computational gains. TinyProp works particularly well on fine-tuning trained networks on MCUs, which is a typical use case for embedded applications. For typical datasets from three datasets MNIST, DCASE2020 and CIFAR10, we are 5 times faster compared to non-sparse training with an accuracy loss of on average 1%. On average, TinyProp is 2.9 times faster than existing, static sparse backpropagation algorithms and the accuracy loss is reduced on average by 6 % compared to a typical static setting of the back-propagation ratio.

1.Hierarchical Topological Ordering with Conditional Independence Test for Limited Time Series

Authors:Anpeng Wu, Haoxuan Li, Kun Kuang, Keli Zhang, Fei Wu

Abstract: Learning directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to identify causal relations underlying observational data is crucial but also poses significant challenges. Recently, topology-based methods have emerged as a two-step approach to discovering DAGs by first learning the topological ordering of variables and then eliminating redundant edges, while ensuring that the graph remains acyclic. However, one limitation is that these methods would generate numerous spurious edges that require subsequent pruning. To overcome this limitation, in this paper, we propose an improvement to topology-based methods by introducing limited time series data, consisting of only two cross-sectional records that need not be adjacent in time and are subject to flexible timing. By incorporating conditional instrumental variables as exogenous interventions, we aim to identify descendant nodes for each variable. Following this line, we propose a hierarchical topological ordering algorithm with conditional independence test (HT-CIT), which enables the efficient learning of sparse DAGs with a smaller search space compared to other popular approaches. The HT-CIT algorithm greatly reduces the number of edges that need to be pruned. Empirical results from synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HT-CIT algorithm.

2.Deep Generative Imputation Model for Missing Not At Random Data

Authors:Jialei Chen, Yuanbo Xu, Pengyang Wang, Yongjian Yang

Abstract: Data analysis usually suffers from the Missing Not At Random (MNAR) problem, where the cause of the value missing is not fully observed. Compared to the naive Missing Completely At Random (MCAR) problem, it is more in line with the realistic scenario whereas more complex and challenging. Existing statistical methods model the MNAR mechanism by different decomposition of the joint distribution of the complete data and the missing mask. But we empirically find that directly incorporating these statistical methods into deep generative models is sub-optimal. Specifically, it would neglect the confidence of the reconstructed mask during the MNAR imputation process, which leads to insufficient information extraction and less-guaranteed imputation quality. In this paper, we revisit the MNAR problem from a novel perspective that the complete data and missing mask are two modalities of incomplete data on an equal footing. Along with this line, we put forward a generative-model-specific joint probability decomposition method, conjunction model, to represent the distributions of two modalities in parallel and extract sufficient information from both complete data and missing mask. Taking a step further, we exploit a deep generative imputation model, namely GNR, to process the real-world missing mechanism in the latent space and concurrently impute the incomplete data and reconstruct the missing mask. The experimental results show that our GNR surpasses state-of-the-art MNAR baselines with significant margins (averagely improved from 9.9% to 18.8% in RMSE) and always gives a better mask reconstruction accuracy which makes the imputation more principle.

3.Benchmarking Adversarial Robustness of Compressed Deep Learning Models

Authors:Brijesh Vora, Kartik Patwari, Syed Mahbub Hafiz, Zubair Shafiq, Chen-Nee Chuah

Abstract: The increasing size of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) poses a pressing need for model compression, particularly when employed on resource constrained devices. Concurrently, the susceptibility of DNNs to adversarial attacks presents another significant hurdle. Despite substantial research on both model compression and adversarial robustness, their joint examination remains underexplored. Our study bridges this gap, seeking to understand the effect of adversarial inputs crafted for base models on their pruned versions. To examine this relationship, we have developed a comprehensive benchmark across diverse adversarial attacks and popular DNN models. We uniquely focus on models not previously exposed to adversarial training and apply pruning schemes optimized for accuracy and performance. Our findings reveal that while the benefits of pruning enhanced generalizability, compression, and faster inference times are preserved, adversarial robustness remains comparable to the base model. This suggests that model compression while offering its unique advantages, does not undermine adversarial robustness.

4.Characteristics of networks generated by kernel growing neural gas

Authors:Kazuhisa Fujita

Abstract: This research aims to develop kernel GNG, a kernelized version of the growing neural gas (GNG) algorithm, and to investigate the features of the networks generated by the kernel GNG. The GNG is an unsupervised artificial neural network that can transform a dataset into an undirected graph, thereby extracting the features of the dataset as a graph. The GNG is widely used in vector quantization, clustering, and 3D graphics. Kernel methods are often used to map a dataset to feature space, with support vector machines being the most prominent application. This paper introduces the kernel GNG approach and explores the characteristics of the networks generated by kernel GNG. Five kernels, including Gaussian, Laplacian, Cauchy, inverse multiquadric, and log kernels, are used in this study.

5.Expressivity of Graph Neural Networks Through the Lens of Adversarial Robustness

Authors:Francesco Campi, Lukas Gosch, Tom Wollschläger, Yan Scholten, Stephan Günnemann

Abstract: We perform the first adversarial robustness study into Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) that are provably more powerful than traditional Message Passing Neural Networks (MPNNs). In particular, we use adversarial robustness as a tool to uncover a significant gap between their theoretically possible and empirically achieved expressive power. To do so, we focus on the ability of GNNs to count specific subgraph patterns, which is an established measure of expressivity, and extend the concept of adversarial robustness to this task. Based on this, we develop efficient adversarial attacks for subgraph counting and show that more powerful GNNs fail to generalize even to small perturbations to the graph's structure. Expanding on this, we show that such architectures also fail to count substructures on out-of-distribution graphs.

6.Endogenous Macrodynamics in Algorithmic Recourse

Authors:Patrick Altmeyer, Giovan Angela, Aleksander Buszydlik, Karol Dobiczek, Arie van Deursen, Cynthia C. S. Liem

Abstract: Existing work on Counterfactual Explanations (CE) and Algorithmic Recourse (AR) has largely focused on single individuals in a static environment: given some estimated model, the goal is to find valid counterfactuals for an individual instance that fulfill various desiderata. The ability of such counterfactuals to handle dynamics like data and model drift remains a largely unexplored research challenge. There has also been surprisingly little work on the related question of how the actual implementation of recourse by one individual may affect other individuals. Through this work, we aim to close that gap. We first show that many of the existing methodologies can be collectively described by a generalized framework. We then argue that the existing framework does not account for a hidden external cost of recourse, that only reveals itself when studying the endogenous dynamics of recourse at the group level. Through simulation experiments involving various state-of the-art counterfactual generators and several benchmark datasets, we generate large numbers of counterfactuals and study the resulting domain and model shifts. We find that the induced shifts are substantial enough to likely impede the applicability of Algorithmic Recourse in some situations. Fortunately, we find various strategies to mitigate these concerns. Our simulation framework for studying recourse dynamics is fast and opensourced.

7.DeSCo: Towards Generalizable and Scalable Deep Subgraph Counting

Authors:Tianyu Fu, Chiyue Wei, Yu Wang, Rex Ying

Abstract: Subgraph counting is the problem of counting the occurrences of a given query graph in a large target graph. Large-scale subgraph counting is useful in various domains, such as motif counting for social network analysis and loop counting for money laundering detection on transaction networks. Recently, to address the exponential runtime complexity of scalable subgraph counting, neural methods are proposed. However, existing neural counting approaches fall short in three aspects. Firstly, the counts of the same query can vary from zero to millions on different target graphs, posing a much larger challenge than most graph regression tasks. Secondly, current scalable graph neural networks have limited expressive power and fail to efficiently distinguish graphs in count prediction. Furthermore, existing neural approaches cannot predict the occurrence position of queries in the target graph. Here we design DeSCo, a scalable neural deep subgraph counting pipeline, which aims to accurately predict the query count and occurrence position on any target graph after one-time training. Firstly, DeSCo uses a novel canonical partition and divides the large target graph into small neighborhood graphs. The technique greatly reduces the count variation while guaranteeing no missing or double-counting. Secondly, neighborhood counting uses an expressive subgraph-based heterogeneous graph neural network to accurately perform counting in each neighborhood. Finally, gossip propagation propagates neighborhood counts with learnable gates to harness the inductive biases of motif counts. DeSCo is evaluated on eight real-world datasets from various domains. It outperforms state-of-the-art neural methods with 137x improvement in the mean squared error of count prediction, while maintaining the polynomial runtime complexity.

8.Epicure: Distilling Sequence Model Predictions into Patterns

Authors:Miltiadis Allamanis, Earl T. Barr

Abstract: Most machine learning models predict a probability distribution over concrete outputs and struggle to accurately predict names over high entropy sequence distributions. Here, we explore finding abstract, high-precision patterns intrinsic to these predictions in order to make abstract predictions that usefully capture rare sequences. In this short paper, we present Epicure, a method that distils the predictions of a sequence model, such as the output of beam search, into simple patterns. Epicure maps a model's predictions into a lattice that represents increasingly more general patterns that subsume the concrete model predictions. On the tasks of predicting a descriptive name of a function given the source code of its body and detecting anomalous names given a function, we show that Epicure yields accurate naming patterns that match the ground truth more often compared to just the highest probability model prediction. For a false alarm rate of 10%, Epicure predicts patterns that match 61% more ground-truth names compared to the best model prediction, making Epicure well-suited for scenarios that require high precision.

9.How To Overcome Confirmation Bias in Semi-Supervised Image Classification By Active Learning

Authors:Sandra Gilhuber, Rasmus Hvingelby, Mang Ling Ada Fok, Thomas Seidl

Abstract: Do we need active learning? The rise of strong deep semi-supervised methods raises doubt about the usability of active learning in limited labeled data settings. This is caused by results showing that combining semi-supervised learning (SSL) methods with a random selection for labeling can outperform existing active learning (AL) techniques. However, these results are obtained from experiments on well-established benchmark datasets that can overestimate the external validity. However, the literature lacks sufficient research on the performance of active semi-supervised learning methods in realistic data scenarios, leaving a notable gap in our understanding. Therefore we present three data challenges common in real-world applications: between-class imbalance, within-class imbalance, and between-class similarity. These challenges can hurt SSL performance due to confirmation bias. We conduct experiments with SSL and AL on simulated data challenges and find that random sampling does not mitigate confirmation bias and, in some cases, leads to worse performance than supervised learning. In contrast, we demonstrate that AL can overcome confirmation bias in SSL in these realistic settings. Our results provide insights into the potential of combining active and semi-supervised learning in the presence of common real-world challenges, which is a promising direction for robust methods when learning with limited labeled data in real-world applications.

10.Exploring Winograd Convolution for Cost-effective Neural Network Fault Tolerance

Authors:Xinghua Xue, Cheng Liu, Bo Liu, Haitong Huang, Ying Wang, Tao Luo, Lei Zhang, Huawei Li, Xiaowei Li

Abstract: Winograd is generally utilized to optimize convolution performance and computational efficiency because of the reduced multiplication operations, but the reliability issues brought by winograd are usually overlooked. In this work, we observe the great potential of winograd convolution in improving neural network (NN) fault tolerance. Based on the observation, we evaluate winograd convolution fault tolerance comprehensively from different granularities ranging from models, layers, and operation types for the first time. Then, we explore the use of inherent fault tolerance of winograd convolution for cost-effective NN protection against soft errors. Specifically, we mainly investigate how winograd convolution can be effectively incorporated with classical fault-tolerant design approaches including triple modular redundancy (TMR), fault-aware retraining, and constrained activation functions. According to our experiments, winograd convolution can reduce the fault-tolerant design overhead by 55.77\% on average without any accuracy loss compared to standard convolution, and further reduce the computing overhead by 17.24\% when the inherent fault tolerance of winograd convolution is considered. When it is applied on fault-tolerant neural networks enhanced with fault-aware retraining and constrained activation functions, the resulting model accuracy generally shows significant improvement in presence of various faults.

11.The Expressive Power of Graph Neural Networks: A Survey

Authors:Bingxu Zhang, Changjun Fan, Shixuan Liu, Kuihua Huang, Xiang Zhao, Jincai Huang, Zhong Liu

Abstract: Graph neural networks (GNNs) are effective machine learning models for many graph-related applications. Despite their empirical success, many research efforts focus on the theoretical limitations of GNNs, i.e., the GNNs expressive power. Early works in this domain mainly focus on studying the graph isomorphism recognition ability of GNNs, and recent works try to leverage the properties such as subgraph counting and connectivity learning to characterize the expressive power of GNNs, which are more practical and closer to real-world. However, no survey papers and open-source repositories comprehensively summarize and discuss models in this important direction. To fill the gap, we conduct a first survey for models for enhancing expressive power under different forms of definition. Concretely, the models are reviewed based on three categories, i.e., Graph feature enhancement, Graph topology enhancement, and GNNs architecture enhancement.

12.Graph Relation Aware Continual Learning

Authors:Qinghua Shen, Weijieying Ren, Wei Qin

Abstract: Continual graph learning (CGL) studies the problem of learning from an infinite stream of graph data, consolidating historical knowledge, and generalizing it to the future task. At once, only current graph data are available. Although some recent attempts have been made to handle this task, we still face two potential challenges: 1) most of existing works only manipulate on the intermediate graph embedding and ignore intrinsic properties of graphs. It is non-trivial to differentiate the transferred information across graphs. 2) recent attempts take a parameter-sharing policy to transfer knowledge across time steps or progressively expand new architecture given shifted graph distribution. Learning a single model could loss discriminative information for each graph task while the model expansion scheme suffers from high model complexity. In this paper, we point out that latent relations behind graph edges can be attributed as an invariant factor for the evolving graphs and the statistical information of latent relations evolves. Motivated by this, we design a relation-aware adaptive model, dubbed as RAM-CG, that consists of a relation-discovery modular to explore latent relations behind edges and a task-awareness masking classifier to accounts for the shifted. Extensive experiments show that RAM-CG provides significant 2.2%, 6.9% and 6.6% accuracy improvements over the state-of-the-art results on CitationNet, OGBN-arxiv and TWITCH dataset, respective.

13.It Ain't That Bad: Understanding the Mysterious Performance Drop in OOD Generalization for Generative Transformer Models

Authors:Xingcheng Xu, Zihao Pan, Haipeng Zhang, Yanqing Yang

Abstract: Generative Transformer-based models have achieved remarkable proficiency on solving diverse problems. However, their generalization ability is not fully understood and not always satisfying. Researchers take basic mathematical tasks like n-digit addition or multiplication as important perspectives for investigating their generalization behaviors. Curiously, it is observed that when training on n-digit operations (e.g., additions) in which both input operands are n-digit in length, models generalize successfully on unseen n-digit inputs (in-distribution (ID) generalization), but fail miserably and mysteriously on longer, unseen cases (out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization). Studies try to bridge this gap with workarounds such as modifying position embedding, fine-tuning, and priming with more extensive or instructive data. However, without addressing the essential mechanism, there is hardly any guarantee regarding the robustness of these solutions. We bring this unexplained performance drop into attention and ask whether it is purely from random errors. Here we turn to the mechanistic line of research which has notable successes in model interpretability. We discover that the strong ID generalization stems from structured representations, while behind the unsatisfying OOD performance, the models still exhibit clear learned algebraic structures. Specifically, these models map unseen OOD inputs to outputs with equivalence relations in the ID domain. These highlight the potential of the models to carry useful information for improved generalization.

14.DFedADMM: Dual Constraints Controlled Model Inconsistency for Decentralized Federated Learning

Authors:Qinglun Li, Li Shen, Guanghao Li, Quanjun Yin, Dacheng Tao

Abstract: To address the communication burden issues associated with federated learning (FL), decentralized federated learning (DFL) discards the central server and establishes a decentralized communication network, where each client communicates only with neighboring clients. However, existing DFL methods still suffer from two major challenges: local inconsistency and local heterogeneous overfitting, which have not been fundamentally addressed by existing DFL methods. To tackle these issues, we propose novel DFL algorithms, DFedADMM and its enhanced version DFedADMM-SAM, to enhance the performance of DFL. The DFedADMM algorithm employs primal-dual optimization (ADMM) by utilizing dual variables to control the model inconsistency raised from the decentralized heterogeneous data distributions. The DFedADMM-SAM algorithm further improves on DFedADMM by employing a Sharpness-Aware Minimization (SAM) optimizer, which uses gradient perturbations to generate locally flat models and searches for models with uniformly low loss values to mitigate local heterogeneous overfitting. Theoretically, we derive convergence rates of $\small \mathcal{O}\Big(\frac{1}{\sqrt{KT}}+\frac{1}{KT(1-\psi)^2}\Big)$ and $\small \mathcal{O}\Big(\frac{1}{\sqrt{KT}}+\frac{1}{KT(1-\psi)^2}+ \frac{1}{T^{3/2}K^{1/2}}\Big)$ in the non-convex setting for DFedADMM and DFedADMM-SAM, respectively, where $1 - \psi$ represents the spectral gap of the gossip matrix. Empirically, extensive experiments on MNIST, CIFAR10 and CIFAR100 datesets demonstrate that our algorithms exhibit superior performance in terms of both generalization and convergence speed compared to existing state-of-the-art (SOTA) optimizers in DFL.

15.Robust Bayesian Satisficing

Authors:Artun Saday, Yaşar Cahit Yıldırım, Cem Tekin

Abstract: Distributional shifts pose a significant challenge to achieving robustness in contemporary machine learning. To overcome this challenge, robust satisficing (RS) seeks a robust solution to an unspecified distributional shift while achieving a utility above a desired threshold. This paper focuses on the problem of RS in contextual Bayesian optimization when there is a discrepancy between the true and reference distributions of the context. We propose a novel robust Bayesian satisficing algorithm called RoBOS for noisy black-box optimization. Our algorithm guarantees sublinear lenient regret under certain assumptions on the amount of distribution shift. In addition, we define a weaker notion of regret called robust satisficing regret, in which our algorithm achieves a sublinear upper bound independent of the amount of distribution shift. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we apply it to various learning problems and compare it to other approaches, such as distributionally robust optimization.

16.Learning Logic Programs by Discovering Higher-Order Abstractions

Authors:Céline Hocquette, Sebastijan Dumančić, Andrew Cropper

Abstract: Discovering novel abstractions is important for human-level AI. We introduce an approach to discover higher-order abstractions, such as map, filter, and fold. We focus on inductive logic programming, which induces logic programs from examples and background knowledge. We introduce the higher-order refactoring problem, where the goal is to compress a logic program by introducing higher-order abstractions. We implement our approach in STEVIE, which formulates the higher-order refactoring problem as a constraint optimisation problem. Our experimental results on multiple domains, including program synthesis and visual reasoning, show that, compared to no refactoring, STEVIE can improve predictive accuracies by 27% and reduce learning times by 47%. We also show that STEVIE can discover abstractions that transfer to different domains

17.Graph Out-of-Distribution Generalization with Controllable Data Augmentation

Authors:Bin Lu, Xiaoying Gan, Ze Zhao, Shiyu Liang, Luoyi Fu, Xinbing Wang, Chenghu Zhou

Abstract: Graph Neural Network (GNN) has demonstrated extraordinary performance in classifying graph properties. However, due to the selection bias of training and testing data (e.g., training on small graphs and testing on large graphs, or training on dense graphs and testing on sparse graphs), distribution deviation is widespread. More importantly, we often observe \emph{hybrid structure distribution shift} of both scale and density, despite of one-sided biased data partition. The spurious correlations over hybrid distribution deviation degrade the performance of previous GNN methods and show large instability among different datasets. To alleviate this problem, we propose \texttt{OOD-GMixup} to jointly manipulate the training distribution with \emph{controllable data augmentation} in metric space. Specifically, we first extract the graph rationales to eliminate the spurious correlations due to irrelevant information. Secondly, we generate virtual samples with perturbation on graph rationale representation domain to obtain potential OOD training samples. Finally, we propose OOD calibration to measure the distribution deviation of virtual samples by leveraging Extreme Value Theory, and further actively control the training distribution by emphasizing the impact of virtual OOD samples. Extensive studies on several real-world datasets on graph classification demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art baselines.

18.Convergence of Two-Layer Regression with Nonlinear Units

Authors:Yichuan Deng, Zhao Song, Shenghao Xie

Abstract: Large language models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT and GPT4, have shown outstanding performance in many human life task. Attention computation plays an important role in training LLMs. Softmax unit and ReLU unit are the key structure in attention computation. Inspired by them, we put forward a softmax ReLU regression problem. Generally speaking, our goal is to find an optimal solution to the regression problem involving the ReLU unit. In this work, we calculate a close form representation for the Hessian of the loss function. Under certain assumptions, we prove the Lipschitz continuous and the PSDness of the Hessian. Then, we introduce an greedy algorithm based on approximate Newton method, which converges in the sense of the distance to optimal solution. Last, We relax the Lipschitz condition and prove the convergence in the sense of loss value.

19.Independent Distribution Regularization for Private Graph Embedding

Authors:Qi Hu, Yangqiu Song

Abstract: Learning graph embeddings is a crucial task in graph mining tasks. An effective graph embedding model can learn low-dimensional representations from graph-structured data for data publishing benefiting various downstream applications such as node classification, link prediction, etc. However, recent studies have revealed that graph embeddings are susceptible to attribute inference attacks, which allow attackers to infer private node attributes from the learned graph embeddings. To address these concerns, privacy-preserving graph embedding methods have emerged, aiming to simultaneously consider primary learning and privacy protection through adversarial learning. However, most existing methods assume that representation models have access to all sensitive attributes in advance during the training stage, which is not always the case due to diverse privacy preferences. Furthermore, the commonly used adversarial learning technique in privacy-preserving representation learning suffers from unstable training issues. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Private Variational Graph AutoEncoders (PVGAE) with the aid of independent distribution penalty as a regularization term. Specifically, we split the original variational graph autoencoder (VGAE) to learn sensitive and non-sensitive latent representations using two sets of encoders. Additionally, we introduce a novel regularization to enforce the independence of the encoders. We prove the theoretical effectiveness of regularization from the perspective of mutual information. Experimental results on three real-world datasets demonstrate that PVGAE outperforms other baselines in private embedding learning regarding utility performance and privacy protection.

20.Dual-Branch Temperature Scaling Calibration for Long-Tailed Recognition

Authors:Jialin Guo, Zhenyu Wu, Zhiqiang Zhan, Yang Ji

Abstract: The calibration for deep neural networks is currently receiving widespread attention and research. Miscalibration usually leads to overconfidence of the model. While, under the condition of long-tailed distribution of data, the problem of miscalibration is more prominent due to the different confidence levels of samples in minority and majority categories, and it will result in more serious overconfidence. To address this problem, some current research have designed diverse temperature coefficients for different categories based on temperature scaling (TS) method. However, in the case of rare samples in minority classes, the temperature coefficient is not generalizable, and there is a large difference between the temperature coefficients of the training set and the validation set. To solve this challenge, this paper proposes a dual-branch temperature scaling calibration model (Dual-TS), which considers the diversities in temperature parameters of different categories and the non-generalizability of temperature parameters for rare samples in minority classes simultaneously. Moreover, we noticed that the traditional calibration evaluation metric, Excepted Calibration Error (ECE), gives a higher weight to low-confidence samples in the minority classes, which leads to inaccurate evaluation of model calibration. Therefore, we also propose Equal Sample Bin Excepted Calibration Error (Esbin-ECE) as a new calibration evaluation metric. Through experiments, we demonstrate that our model yields state-of-the-art in both traditional ECE and Esbin-ECE metrics.

21.A distributed neural network architecture for dynamic sensor selection with application to bandwidth-constrained body-sensor networks

Authors:Thomas Strypsteen, Alexander Bertrand

Abstract: We propose a dynamic sensor selection approach for deep neural networks (DNNs), which is able to derive an optimal sensor subset selection for each specific input sample instead of a fixed selection for the entire dataset. This dynamic selection is jointly learned with the task model in an end-to-end way, using the Gumbel-Softmax trick to allow the discrete decisions to be learned through standard backpropagation. We then show how we can use this dynamic selection to increase the lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) by imposing constraints on how often each node is allowed to transmit. We further improve performance by including a dynamic spatial filter that makes the task-DNN more robust against the fact that it now needs to be able to handle a multitude of possible node subsets. Finally, we explain how the selection of the optimal channels can be distributed across the different nodes in a WSN. We validate this method on a use case in the context of body-sensor networks, where we use real electroencephalography (EEG) sensor data to emulate an EEG sensor network. We analyze the resulting trade-offs between transmission load and task accuracy.

22.Precision and Recall Reject Curves for Classification

Authors:Lydia Fischer, Patricia Wollstadt

Abstract: For some classification scenarios, it is desirable to use only those classification instances that a trained model associates with a high certainty. To obtain such high-certainty instances, previous work has proposed accuracy-reject curves. Reject curves allow to evaluate and compare the performance of different certainty measures over a range of thresholds for accepting or rejecting classifications. However, the accuracy may not be the most suited evaluation metric for all applications, and instead precision or recall may be preferable. This is the case, for example, for data with imbalanced class distributions. We therefore propose reject curves that evaluate precision and recall, the recall-reject curve and the precision-reject curve. Using prototype-based classifiers from learning vector quantization, we first validate the proposed curves on artificial benchmark data against the accuracy reject curve as a baseline. We then show on imbalanced benchmarks and medical, real-world data that for these scenarios, the proposed precision- and recall-curves yield more accurate insights into classifier performance than accuracy reject curves.

23.Fast Uncertainty Quantification of Spent Nuclear Fuel with Neural Networks

Authors:Arnau Albà, Andreas Adelmann, Lucas Münster, Dimitri Rochman, Romana Boiger

Abstract: The accurate calculation and uncertainty quantification of the characteristics of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) play a crucial role in ensuring the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of nuclear energy production, waste management, and nuclear safeguards. State of the art physics-based models, while reliable, are computationally intensive and time-consuming. This paper presents a surrogate modeling approach using neural networks (NN) to predict a number of SNF characteristics with reduced computational costs compared to physics-based models. An NN is trained using data generated from CASMO5 lattice calculations. The trained NN accurately predicts decay heat and nuclide concentrations of SNF, as a function of key input parameters, such as enrichment, burnup, cooling time between cycles, mean boron concentration and fuel temperature. The model is validated against physics-based decay heat simulations and measurements of different uranium oxide fuel assemblies from two different pressurized water reactors. In addition, the NN is used to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. The results are in very good alignment to CASMO5, while the computational costs (taking into account the costs of generating training samples) are reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of using NNs as surrogate models for fast characterization of SNF, providing a promising avenue for improving computational efficiency in assessing nuclear fuel behavior and associated risks.

24.Explainable AI for clinical risk prediction: a survey of concepts, methods, and modalities

Authors:Munib Mesinovic, Peter Watkinson, Tingting Zhu

Abstract: Recent advancements in AI applications to healthcare have shown incredible promise in surpassing human performance in diagnosis and disease prognosis. With the increasing complexity of AI models, however, concerns regarding their opacity, potential biases, and the need for interpretability. To ensure trust and reliability in AI systems, especially in clinical risk prediction models, explainability becomes crucial. Explainability is usually referred to as an AI system's ability to provide a robust interpretation of its decision-making logic or the decisions themselves to human stakeholders. In clinical risk prediction, other aspects of explainability like fairness, bias, trust, and transparency also represent important concepts beyond just interpretability. In this review, we address the relationship between these concepts as they are often used together or interchangeably. This review also discusses recent progress in developing explainable models for clinical risk prediction, highlighting the importance of quantitative and clinical evaluation and validation across multiple common modalities in clinical practice. It emphasizes the need for external validation and the combination of diverse interpretability methods to enhance trust and fairness. Adopting rigorous testing, such as using synthetic datasets with known generative factors, can further improve the reliability of explainability methods. Open access and code-sharing resources are essential for transparency and reproducibility, enabling the growth and trustworthiness of explainable research. While challenges exist, an end-to-end approach to explainability in clinical risk prediction, incorporating stakeholders from clinicians to developers, is essential for success.

25.An Expert's Guide to Training Physics-informed Neural Networks

Authors:Sifan Wang, Shyam Sankaran, Hanwen Wang, Paris Perdikaris

Abstract: Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) have been popularized as a deep learning framework that can seamlessly synthesize observational data and partial differential equation (PDE) constraints. Their practical effectiveness however can be hampered by training pathologies, but also oftentimes by poor choices made by users who lack deep learning expertise. In this paper we present a series of best practices that can significantly improve the training efficiency and overall accuracy of PINNs. We also put forth a series of challenging benchmark problems that highlight some of the most prominent difficulties in training PINNs, and present comprehensive and fully reproducible ablation studies that demonstrate how different architecture choices and training strategies affect the test accuracy of the resulting models. We show that the methods and guiding principles put forth in this study lead to state-of-the-art results and provide strong baselines that future studies should use for comparison purposes. To this end, we also release a highly optimized library in JAX that can be used to reproduce all results reported in this paper, enable future research studies, as well as facilitate easy adaptation to new use-case scenarios.

26.LLM4TS: Two-Stage Fine-Tuning for Time-Series Forecasting with Pre-Trained LLMs

Authors:Ching Chang, Wen-Chih Peng, Tien-Fu Chen

Abstract: In this work, we leverage pre-trained Large Language Models (LLMs) to enhance time-series forecasting. Mirroring the growing interest in unifying models for Natural Language Processing and Computer Vision, we envision creating an analogous model for long-term time-series forecasting. Due to limited large-scale time-series data for building robust foundation models, our approach LLM4TS focuses on leveraging the strengths of pre-trained LLMs. By combining time-series patching with temporal encoding, we have enhanced the capability of LLMs to handle time-series data effectively. Inspired by the supervised fine-tuning in chatbot domains, we prioritize a two-stage fine-tuning process: first conducting supervised fine-tuning to orient the LLM towards time-series data, followed by task-specific downstream fine-tuning. Furthermore, to unlock the flexibility of pre-trained LLMs without extensive parameter adjustments, we adopt several Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning (PEFT) techniques. Drawing on these innovations, LLM4TS has yielded state-of-the-art results in long-term forecasting. Our model has also shown exceptional capabilities as both a robust representation learner and an effective few-shot learner, thanks to the knowledge transferred from the pre-trained LLM.

27.Label Propagation Techniques for Artifact Detection in Imbalanced Classes using Photoplethysmogram Signals

Authors:Clara Macabiau, Thanh-Dung Le, Kevin Albert, Philippe Jouvet, Rita Noumeir

Abstract: Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals are widely used in healthcare for monitoring vital signs, but they are susceptible to motion artifacts that can lead to inaccurate interpretations. In this study, the use of label propagation techniques to propagate labels among PPG samples is explored, particularly in imbalanced class scenarios where clean PPG samples are significantly outnumbered by artifact-contaminated samples. With a precision of 91%, a recall of 90% and an F1 score of 90% for the class without artifacts, the results demonstrate its effectiveness in labeling a medical dataset, even when clean samples are rare. For the classification of artifacts our study compares supervised classifiers such as conventional classifiers and neural networks (MLP, Transformers, FCN) with the semi-supervised label propagation algorithm. With a precision of 89%, a recall of 95% and an F1 score of 92%, the KNN supervised model gives good results, but the semi-supervised algorithm performs better in detecting artifacts. The findings suggest that the semi-supervised algorithm label propagation hold promise for artifact detection in PPG signals, which can enhance the reliability of PPG-based health monitoring systems in real-world applications.

28.ResBuilder: Automated Learning of Depth with Residual Structures

Authors:Julian Burghoff, Matthias Rottmann, Jill von Conta, Sebastian Schoenen, Andreas Witte, Hanno Gottschalk

Abstract: In this work, we develop a neural architecture search algorithm, termed Resbuilder, that develops ResNet architectures from scratch that achieve high accuracy at moderate computational cost. It can also be used to modify existing architectures and has the capability to remove and insert ResNet blocks, in this way searching for suitable architectures in the space of ResNet architectures. In our experiments on different image classification datasets, Resbuilder achieves close to state-of-the-art performance while saving computational cost compared to off-the-shelf ResNets. Noteworthy, we once tune the parameters on CIFAR10 which yields a suitable default choice for all other datasets. We demonstrate that this property generalizes even to industrial applications by applying our method with default parameters on a proprietary fraud detection dataset.

1.High-Probability Risk Bounds via Sequential Predictors

Authors:Dirk van der Hoeven, Nikita Zhivotovskiy, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi

Abstract: Online learning methods yield sequential regret bounds under minimal assumptions and provide in-expectation risk bounds for statistical learning. However, despite the apparent advantage of online guarantees over their statistical counterparts, recent findings indicate that in many important cases, regret bounds may not guarantee tight high-probability risk bounds in the statistical setting. In this work we show that online to batch conversions applied to general online learning algorithms can bypass this limitation. Via a general second-order correction to the loss function defining the regret, we obtain nearly optimal high-probability risk bounds for several classical statistical estimation problems, such as discrete distribution estimation, linear regression, logistic regression, and conditional density estimation. Our analysis relies on the fact that many online learning algorithms are improper, as they are not restricted to use predictors from a given reference class. The improper nature of our estimators enables significant improvements in the dependencies on various problem parameters. Finally, we discuss some computational advantages of our sequential algorithms over their existing batch counterparts.

2.Generating Personas for Games with Multimodal Adversarial Imitation Learning

Authors:William Ahlberg, Alessandro Sestini, Konrad Tollmar, Linus Gisslén

Abstract: Reinforcement learning has been widely successful in producing agents capable of playing games at a human level. However, this requires complex reward engineering, and the agent's resulting policy is often unpredictable. Going beyond reinforcement learning is necessary to model a wide range of human playstyles, which can be difficult to represent with a reward function. This paper presents a novel imitation learning approach to generate multiple persona policies for playtesting. Multimodal Generative Adversarial Imitation Learning (MultiGAIL) uses an auxiliary input parameter to learn distinct personas using a single-agent model. MultiGAIL is based on generative adversarial imitation learning and uses multiple discriminators as reward models, inferring the environment reward by comparing the agent and distinct expert policies. The reward from each discriminator is weighted according to the auxiliary input. Our experimental analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of our technique in two environments with continuous and discrete action spaces.

3.A Multilayer Perceptron-based Fast Sunlight Assessment for the Conceptual Design of Residential Neighborhoods under Chinese Policy

Authors:Can Jiang, Xiong Liang, Yu-Cheng Zhou, Yong Tian, Shengli Xu, Jia-Rui Lin, Zhiliang Ma, Shiji Yang, Hao Zhou

Abstract: In Chinese building codes, it is required that residential buildings receive a minimum number of hours of natural, direct sunlight on a specified winter day, which represents the worst sunlight condition in a year. This requirement is a prerequisite for obtaining a building permit during the conceptual design of a residential project. Thus, officially sanctioned software is usually used to assess the sunlight performance of buildings. These software programs predict sunlight hours based on repeated shading calculations, which is time-consuming. This paper proposed a multilayer perceptron-based method, a one-stage prediction approach, which outputs a shading time interval caused by the inputted cuboid-form building. The sunlight hours of a site can be obtained by calculating the union of the sunlight time intervals (complement of shading time interval) of all the buildings. Three numerical experiments, i.e., horizontal level and slope analysis, and simulation-based optimization are carried out; the results show that the method reduces the computation time to 1/84~1/50 with 96.5%~98% accuracies. A residential neighborhood layout planning plug-in for Rhino 7/Grasshopper is also developed based on the proposed model. This paper indicates that deep learning techniques can be adopted to accelerate sunlight hour simulations at the conceptual design phase.

4.Ternary Singular Value Decomposition as a Better Parameterized Form in Linear Mapping

Authors:Boyu Chen, Hanxuan Chen, Jiao He, Fengyu Sun, Shangling Jui

Abstract: We present a simple yet novel parameterized form of linear mapping to achieves remarkable network compression performance: a pseudo SVD called Ternary SVD (TSVD). Unlike vanilla SVD, TSVD limits the $U$ and $V$ matrices in SVD to ternary matrices form in $\{\pm 1, 0\}$. This means that instead of using the expensive multiplication instructions, TSVD only requires addition instructions when computing $U(\cdot)$ and $V(\cdot)$. We provide direct and training transition algorithms for TSVD like Post Training Quantization and Quantization Aware Training respectively. Additionally, we analyze the convergence of the direct transition algorithms in theory. In experiments, we demonstrate that TSVD can achieve state-of-the-art network compression performance in various types of networks and tasks, including current baseline models such as ConvNext, Swim, BERT, and large language model like OPT.

5.Attention Is Not All You Need Anymore

Authors:Zhe Chen

Abstract: In recent years, the popular Transformer architecture has achieved great success in many application areas, including natural language processing and computer vision. Many existing works aim to reduce the computational and memory complexity of the self-attention mechanism in the Transformer by trading off performance. However, performance is key for the continuing success of the Transformer. In this paper, a drop-in replacement for the self-attention mechanism in the Transformer, called the Extractor, is proposed. Experimental results show that replacing the self-attention mechanism with the Extractor improves the performance of the Transformer. Furthermore, the proposed Extractor has the potential to run faster than the self-attention since it has a much shorter critical path of computation. Additionally, the sequence prediction problem in the context of text generation is formulated using variable-length discrete-time Markov chains, and the Transformer is reviewed based on our understanding.

6.Gradient-Based Post-Training Quantization: Challenging the Status Quo

Authors:Edouard Yvinec, Arnaud Dapogny, Kevin Bailly

Abstract: Quantization has become a crucial step for the efficient deployment of deep neural networks, where floating point operations are converted to simpler fixed point operations. In its most naive form, it simply consists in a combination of scaling and rounding transformations, leading to either a limited compression rate or a significant accuracy drop. Recently, Gradient-based post-training quantization (GPTQ) methods appears to be constitute a suitable trade-off between such simple methods and more powerful, yet expensive Quantization-Aware Training (QAT) approaches, particularly when attempting to quantize LLMs, where scalability of the quantization process is of paramount importance. GPTQ essentially consists in learning the rounding operation using a small calibration set. In this work, we challenge common choices in GPTQ methods. In particular, we show that the process is, to a certain extent, robust to a number of variables (weight selection, feature augmentation, choice of calibration set). More importantly, we derive a number of best practices for designing more efficient and scalable GPTQ methods, regarding the problem formulation (loss, degrees of freedom, use of non-uniform quantization schemes) or optimization process (choice of variable and optimizer). Lastly, we propose a novel importance-based mixed-precision technique. Those guidelines lead to significant performance improvements on all the tested state-of-the-art GPTQ methods and networks (e.g. +6.819 points on ViT for 4-bit quantization), paving the way for the design of scalable, yet effective quantization methods.

7.Fast Machine Unlearning Without Retraining Through Selective Synaptic Dampening

Authors:Jack Foster, Stefan Schoepf, Alexandra Brintrup

Abstract: Machine unlearning, the ability for a machine learning model to forget, is becoming increasingly important to comply with data privacy regulations, as well as to remove harmful, manipulated, or outdated information. The key challenge lies in forgetting specific information while protecting model performance on the remaining data. While current state-of-the-art methods perform well, they typically require some level of retraining over the retained data, in order to protect or restore model performance. This adds computational overhead and mandates that the training data remain available and accessible, which may not be feasible. In contrast, other methods employ a retrain-free paradigm, however, these approaches are prohibitively computationally expensive and do not perform on par with their retrain-based counterparts. We present Selective Synaptic Dampening (SSD), a novel two-step, post hoc, retrain-free approach to machine unlearning which is fast, performant, and does not require long-term storage of the training data. First, SSD uses the Fisher information matrix of the training and forgetting data to select parameters that are disproportionately important to the forget set. Second, SSD induces forgetting by dampening these parameters proportional to their relative importance to the forget set with respect to the wider training data. We evaluate our method against several existing unlearning methods in a range of experiments using ResNet18 and Vision Transformer. Results show that the performance of SSD is competitive with retrain-based post hoc methods, demonstrating the viability of retrain-free post hoc unlearning approaches.

8.Domain-Aware Fine-Tuning: Enhancing Neural Network Adaptability

Authors:Seokhyeon Ha, Sunbeom Jung, Jungwoo Lee

Abstract: Fine-tuning pre-trained neural network models has become a widely adopted approach across various domains. However, it can lead to the distortion of pre-trained feature extractors that already possess strong generalization capabilities. Mitigating feature distortion during adaptation to new target domains is crucial. Recent studies have shown promising results in handling feature distortion by aligning the head layer on in-distribution datasets before performing fine-tuning. Nonetheless, a significant limitation arises from the treatment of batch normalization layers during fine-tuning, leading to suboptimal performance. In this paper, we propose Domain-Aware Fine-Tuning (DAFT), a novel approach that incorporates batch normalization conversion and the integration of linear probing and fine-tuning. Our batch normalization conversion method effectively mitigates feature distortion by reducing modifications to the neural network during fine-tuning. Additionally, we introduce the integration of linear probing and fine-tuning to optimize the head layer with gradual adaptation of the feature extractor. By leveraging batch normalization layers and integrating linear probing and fine-tuning, our DAFT significantly mitigates feature distortion and achieves improved model performance on both in-distribution and out-of-distribution datasets. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms other baseline methods, demonstrating its effectiveness in not only improving performance but also mitigating feature distortion.

9.NeFL: Nested Federated Learning for Heterogeneous Clients

Authors:Honggu Kang, Seohyeon Cha, Jinwoo Shin, Jongmyeong Lee, Joonhyuk Kang

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) is a promising approach in distributed learning keeping privacy. However, during the training pipeline of FL, slow or incapable clients (i.e., stragglers) slow down the total training time and degrade performance. System heterogeneity, including heterogeneous computing and network bandwidth, has been addressed to mitigate the impact of stragglers. Previous studies split models to tackle the issue, but with less degree-of-freedom in terms of model architecture. We propose nested federated learning (NeFL), a generalized framework that efficiently divides a model into submodels using both depthwise and widthwise scaling. NeFL is implemented by interpreting models as solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with adaptive step sizes. To address the inconsistency that arises when training multiple submodels with different architecture, we decouple a few parameters. NeFL enables resource-constrained clients to effectively join the FL pipeline and the model to be trained with a larger amount of data. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that NeFL leads to significant gains, especially for the worst-case submodel (e.g., 8.33 improvement on CIFAR-10). Furthermore, we demonstrate NeFL aligns with recent studies in FL.

10.MOLE: MOdular Learning FramEwork via Mutual Information Maximization

Authors:Tianchao Li, Yulong Pei

Abstract: This paper is to introduce an asynchronous and local learning framework for neural networks, named Modular Learning Framework (MOLE). This framework modularizes neural networks by layers, defines the training objective via mutual information for each module, and sequentially trains each module by mutual information maximization. MOLE makes the training become local optimization with gradient-isolated across modules, and this scheme is more biologically plausible than BP. We run experiments on vector-, grid- and graph-type data. In particular, this framework is capable of solving both graph- and node-level tasks for graph-type data. Therefore, MOLE has been experimentally proven to be universally applicable to different types of data.

11.A Graph Encoder-Decoder Network for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection

Authors:Mahsa Mesgaran, A. Ben Hamza

Abstract: A key component of many graph neural networks (GNNs) is the pooling operation, which seeks to reduce the size of a graph while preserving important structural information. However, most existing graph pooling strategies rely on an assignment matrix obtained by employing a GNN layer, which is characterized by trainable parameters, often leading to significant computational complexity and a lack of interpretability in the pooling process. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised graph encoder-decoder model to detect abnormal nodes from graphs by learning an anomaly scoring function to rank nodes based on their degree of abnormality. In the encoding stage, we design a novel pooling mechanism, named LCPool, which leverages locality-constrained linear coding for feature encoding to find a cluster assignment matrix by solving a least-squares optimization problem with a locality regularization term. By enforcing locality constraints during the coding process, LCPool is designed to be free from learnable parameters, capable of efficiently handling large graphs, and can effectively generate a coarser graph representation while retaining the most significant structural characteristics of the graph. In the decoding stage, we propose an unpooling operation, called LCUnpool, to reconstruct both the structure and nodal features of the original graph. We conduct empirical evaluations of our method on six benchmark datasets using several evaluation metrics, and the results demonstrate its superiority over state-of-the-art anomaly detection approaches.

12.Quantifying the Cost of Learning in Queueing Systems

Authors:Daniel Freund, Thodoris Lykouris, Wentao Weng

Abstract: Queueing systems are widely applicable stochastic models with use cases in communication networks, healthcare, service systems, etc. Although their optimal control has been extensively studied, most existing approaches assume perfect knowledge of system parameters. Of course, this assumption rarely holds in practice where there is parameter uncertainty, thus motivating a recent line of work on bandit learning for queueing systems. This nascent stream of research focuses on the asymptotic performance of the proposed algorithms. In this paper, we argue that an asymptotic metric, which focuses on late-stage performance, is insufficient to capture the intrinsic statistical complexity of learning in queueing systems which typically occurs in the early stage. Instead, we propose the Cost of Learning in Queueing (CLQ), a new metric that quantifies the maximum increase in time-averaged queue length caused by parameter uncertainty. We characterize the CLQ of a single-queue multi-server system, and then extend these results to multi-queue multi-server systems and networks of queues. In establishing our results, we propose a unified analysis framework for CLQ that bridges Lyapunov and bandit analysis, which could be of independent interest.

13.Deep reinforcement learning for process design: Review and perspective

Authors:Qinghe Gao, Artur M. Schweidtmann

Abstract: The transformation towards renewable energy and feedstock supply in the chemical industry requires new conceptual process design approaches. Recently, breakthroughs in artificial intelligence offer opportunities to accelerate this transition. Specifically, deep reinforcement learning, a subclass of machine learning, has shown the potential to solve complex decision-making problems and aid sustainable process design. We survey state-of-the-art research in reinforcement learning for process design through three major elements: (i) information representation, (ii) agent architecture, and (iii) environment and reward. Moreover, we discuss perspectives on underlying challenges and promising future works to unfold the full potential of reinforcement learning for process design in chemical engineering.

14.Cerberus: A Deep Learning Hybrid Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Aging Estimation and Prediction Based on Relaxation Voltage Curves

Authors:Yue Xiang, Bo Jiang, Haifeng Dai

Abstract: The degradation process of lithium-ion batteries is intricately linked to their entire lifecycle as power sources and energy storage devices, encompassing aspects such as performance delivery and cycling utilization. Consequently, the accurate and expedient estimation or prediction of the aging state of lithium-ion batteries has garnered extensive attention. Nonetheless, prevailing research predominantly concentrates on either aging estimation or prediction, neglecting the dynamic fusion of both facets. This paper proposes a hybrid model for capacity aging estimation and prediction based on deep learning, wherein salient features highly pertinent to aging are extracted from charge and discharge relaxation processes. By amalgamating historical capacity decay data, the model dynamically furnishes estimations of the present capacity and forecasts of future capacity for lithium-ion batteries. Our approach is validated against a novel dataset involving charge and discharge cycles at varying rates. Specifically, under a charging condition of 0.25C, a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 0.29% is achieved. This outcome underscores the model's adeptness in harnessing relaxation processes commonly encountered in the real world and synergizing with historical capacity records within battery management systems (BMS), thereby affording estimations and prognostications of capacity decline with heightened precision.

15.REFORMS: Reporting Standards for Machine Learning Based Science

Authors:Sayash Kapoor, Emily Cantrell, Kenny Peng, Thanh Hien Pham, Christopher A. Bail, Odd Erik Gundersen, Jake M. Hofman, Jessica Hullman, Michael A. Lones, Momin M. Malik, Priyanka Nanayakkara, Russell A. Poldrack, Inioluwa Deborah Raji, Michael Roberts, Matthew J. Salganik, Marta Serra-Garcia, Brandon M. Stewart, Gilles Vandewiele, Arvind Narayanan

Abstract: Machine learning (ML) methods are proliferating in scientific research. However, the adoption of these methods has been accompanied by failures of validity, reproducibility, and generalizability. These failures can hinder scientific progress, lead to false consensus around invalid claims, and undermine the credibility of ML-based science. ML methods are often applied and fail in similar ways across disciplines. Motivated by this observation, our goal is to provide clear reporting standards for ML-based science. Drawing from an extensive review of past literature, we present the REFORMS checklist ($\textbf{Re}$porting Standards $\textbf{For}$ $\textbf{M}$achine Learning Based $\textbf{S}$cience). It consists of 32 questions and a paired set of guidelines. REFORMS was developed based on a consensus of 19 researchers across computer science, data science, mathematics, social sciences, and biomedical sciences. REFORMS can serve as a resource for researchers when designing and implementing a study, for referees when reviewing papers, and for journals when enforcing standards for transparency and reproducibility.

16.Simple and Efficient Partial Graph Adversarial Attack: A New Perspective

Authors:Guanghui Zhu, Mengyu Chen, Chunfeng Yuan, Yihua Huang

Abstract: As the study of graph neural networks becomes more intensive and comprehensive, their robustness and security have received great research interest. The existing global attack methods treat all nodes in the graph as their attack targets. Although existing methods have achieved excellent results, there is still considerable space for improvement. The key problem is that the current approaches rigidly follow the definition of global attacks. They ignore an important issue, i.e