arXiv daily: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena

arXiv daily: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

1.Magnetic reconnection-driven turbulence and turbulent reconnection acceleration

Authors:Shiming Liang Xiangtan Univ., Jianfu Zhang Xiangtan Univ., Nana Gao Xiangtan Univ., Huaping Xiao Xiangtan Univ.

Abstract: This paper employs an MHD-PIC method to perform numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection-driven turbulence and turbulent reconnection acceleration of particles. Focusing on the dynamics of the magnetic reconnection, the properties of self-driven turbulence, and the behavior of particle acceleration, we find that: (1) when reaching a statistically steady state of the self-driven turbulence, the magnetic energy is almost released by 50\%, while the kinetic energy of the fluid increases by no more than 15\%. (2) the properties of reconnection-driven turbulence are more complex than the traditional turbulence driven by an external force. (3) the strong magnetic field tends to enhance the turbulent reconnection efficiency to accelerate particles more efficiently, resulting in a hard spectral energy distribution. Our study provides a particular perspective on understanding turbulence properties and turbulent reconnection-accelerated particles.

2.A stacked search for spatial coincidences between IceCube neutrinos and radio pulsars

Authors:Vibhavasu Pasumarti, Shantanu Desai

Abstract: We carry out a stacked search for spatial coincidences between all known radio pulsars and TeV neutrinos from the IceCube 10 year (2008-2018) point source catalog as a followup to our previous work on looking for coincidences with individual pulsars. We consider three different weighting schemes to stack the contribution from individual pulsars. We do not find a statistically significant excess using this method. We report the 95% c.l. differential neutrino flux limit as a function of neutrino energy. We have also made our analysis codes publicly available.

3.Impact of quasi-periodic and steep-spectrum timing noise on the measurement of pulsar timing parameters

Authors:Michael J. Keith, Iuliana C. Niţu

Abstract: Timing noise in pulsars is often modelled with a Fourier-basis Gaussian process that follows a power law with periodic boundary conditions on the observation time, $T_\mathrm{span}$. However the actual noise processes can extend well below $1/T_\mathrm{span}$, and many pulsars are known to exhibit quasi-periodic timing noise. In this paper we investigate several adaptions that try to account for these differences between the observed behaviour and the simple power-law model. Firstly, we propose to include an additional term that models the quasi-periodic spin-down variations known to be present in many pulsars. Secondly, we show that a Fourier basis of $1/2T_\mathrm{span}$ can be more suited for estimating long term timing parameters such as the spin frequency second derivative (F2), and is required when the exponent of the power spectrum is greater than ~4. We also implement a Bayesian version of the generalised least squares `Cholesky' method which has different limitations at low frequency, but find that there is little advantage over Fourier-basis methods. We apply our quasi-periodic spin down model to a sample of pulsars with known spin-down variations and show that this improves parameter estimation of F2 and proper motion for the most pathological cases, but in general the results are consistent with a power-law model. The models are all made available through the run_enterprise software package.

4.Mass-loss and composition of wind ejecta in type I X-ray bursts

Authors:Yago Herrera, Glòria Sala, Jordi José

Abstract: X-Ray bursts (XRB) are powerful thermonuclear events on the surface of accreting neutron stars (NS), where nucleosynthesis of intermediate-mass elements occurs. Their predicted and observed luminosities sometimes exceed Eddington's value, thus some of the material may escape by means of a stellar wind. This work seeks to determine the mass-loss and chemical composition of the material ejected through radiation-driven winds and its significance for Galactic abundances. It also reports on the evolution of pysical quantities during the wind phase that could help constrain the mass-radius relation in neutron stars. A non-relativistic radiative wind model was implemented and linked, through a new technique, to a series of XRB hydrodynamic simulations, that include over 300 isotopes. This allows us to construct a quasi-stationary time evolution of the wind during the XRB. The simulations resulted in the first realistic quantification of mass-loss for each isotope synthesized in the XRB. The total mass ejected by the wind was about $6\times10^{19}g$, the average ejected mass per unit time represents 2.6% of the accretion rate, with 0.1% of the envelope mass ejected per burst and ~90% of the ejecta composed by $^{60}$Ni, $^{64}$Zn, $^{68}$Ge and $^{58}$Ni. The ejected material also contained a small fraction ($10^{-4}-10^{-5}$) of some light p-nuclei, but not enough to account for their Galactic abundances. Additionally, the observable magnitudes during the wind phase showed remarkable correlations, some of which involve wind parameters like energy and mass outflows, that are determined by the conditions at the base of the wind envelope. These correlations could be used to link observable magnitudes to the physics of the innermost parts of the envelope, close to its interface with the NS crust. This is a promising result regarding the issue of NS radii determination.

5.High energy cosmic rays and gamma rays from star clusters: the case of Cygnus OB2

Authors:Pasquale Blasi GSSI, Giovanni Morlino INAF

Abstract: We investigate the acceleration of cosmic rays at the termination shock that results from the interaction of the collective wind of star clusters with the surrounding interstellar medium. The solution of the transport equation of accelerated particles in the wind-excavated cavity, including energy losses due to CR interactions with neutral gas in the bubble, shows several interesting properties that are discussed in detail. The issue of the maximum energy of the accelerated particles is discussed with special care, because of its implications for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. Gamma ray emission is produced in the cavity due to inelastic pp scattering, while accelerated particles are advected downstream of the termination shock and diffuse at the same time. Both the spectrum and the morphology of such emission are discussed, with a comparison of our results with the observations of gamma ray emission from the Cygnus OB2 region.

6.A search for inter-cluster filaments with LOFAR and eROSITA

Authors:D. N. Hoang, M. Brüggen, T. W. Shimwell, A. Botteon, S. P. O'Sullivan, T. Pasini, X. Zhang, A. Bonafede, A. Liu, T. Liu, G. Brunetti, E. Bulbul, G. Di Gennaro, H. J. A. Röttgering, T. Vernstrom, R. J. van Weeren

Abstract: Cosmological simulations predict the presence of warm hot thermal gas in the cosmic filaments that connect galaxy clusters. This gas is thought to constitute an important part of the missing baryons in the Universe. In addition to the thermal gas, cosmic filaments could contain a population of relativistic particles and magnetic fields. A detection of magnetic fields in filaments can constrain early magnetogenesis in the cosmos. So far, the resulting diffuse synchrotron emission has only been indirectly detected. We present our search for thermal and non-thermal diffuse emission from inter-cluster regions of 106 paired galaxy clusters by stacking the $0.6-2.3$~keV X-ray and 144~MHz radio data obtained with the eROSITA telescope on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory and LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), respectively. The stacked data do not show the presence of X-ray and radio diffuse emission in the inter-cluster regions. This could be due to the sensitivity of the data sets and/or the limited number of cluster pairs used in this study. Assuming a constant radio emissivity in the filaments, we find that the mean radio emissivity is not higher than $1.2\times10^{-44}\,{\rm erg \, s^{-1} \, cm^{-3} \, Hz^{-1}}$. Under equipartition conditions, our upper limit on the mean emissivity translates to an upper limit of $\sim75\,{\rm nG}$ for the mean magnetic field strength in the filaments, depending on the spectral index and the minimum energy cutoff. We discuss the constraint for the magnetic field strength in the context of the models for the formation of magnetic fields in cosmic filaments.

1.Multiband gravitational wave observations of stellar binary black holes at the low to middle and high frequencies

Authors:Yuetong Zhao, Youjun Lu, Changshuo Yan, Zhiwei Chen, Wei-Tou Ni

Abstract: The ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories discover a population of merging stellar binary black holes (BBHs), which are promising targets for multiband observations by the low-, middle-, and high-frequency GW detectors. In this paper, we investigate the multiband GW detections of BBHs and demonstrate the advantages of such observations in improving the localization and parameter estimates of the sources. We generate mock samples of BBHs by considering different formation models as well as the merger rate density constrained by the current observations (GWTC-3). We specifically consider the astrodynamical middle-frequency interferometer GW observatory (AMIGO) in the middle-frequency band and estimate that it may detect $21$-$91$ BBHs with signal-to-noise ratio $\varrho\geq8$ in a $4$-yr observation period. The multiband observations by the low-frequency detectors [Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and Taiji] and AMIGO may detect $5$-$33$ BBHs with $\varrho_{\rm LT}\geq5$ and $\varrho_{\rm AMI}\geq5$, which can evolve to the high-frequency band within $4$ yr and can be detected by the Cosmic Explorer (CE) and Einstein Telescope (ET). The joint observations of LISA-Taiji-AMIGO-ET-CE may localize the majority of the detectable BBHs in sky areas of $7\times10^{-7}$ to $2\times10^{-3}$ deg$^2$, which is improved by a factor of $\sim120$, $\sim2.4\times10^{5}$, $\sim1.8\times10^{4}$, or $\sim1.2\times10^{4}$, comparing with those by only adopting CE-ET, AMIGO, LISA-Taiji, or LISA-Taiji-AMIGO. These joint observations can also lead to an improvement of the measurement precision of the chirp mass (symmetric mass ratio) by a factor of $\sim5.5\times10^{4}$ ($33$), $\sim16$ ($8$), $\sim120$ ($90$), or $\sim5$ ($5$), comparing with those by CE-ET, AMIGO, LISA-Taiji, or LISA-Taiji-AMIGO.

2.Searching for DM induced neutrino signals in dSphs using 10 years of IceCube public data

Authors:Xue-Kang Guo, Yi-Fei Lü, Yong-Bo Huang, Rong-Lan Li, Ben-Yang Zhu, Yun-Feng Liang

Abstract: This study searches for neutrino signals from 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) using 10 years of publicly available muon-track data of the IceCube neutrino observatory. We apply an unbinned likelihood analysis on each of these dSphs to derive the significance the putative neutrino emission. To further enhance our sensitivity, we also stack all dSphs together to perform a joint analysis. However, no significant neutrino emission signal was detected in either the single-source or stacking analysis. Based on these null results, we derive constraints on the annihilation cross section of dark matter particles. Compared to the existing literature, our constraints via the channel $\chi\chi\rightarrow\mu^+\mu^-$ are comparable to the ones from the VERITAS observations of dSphs.

3.X-ray polarimetry and spectroscopy of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary GX 9+9: an in-depth study with IXPE and NuSTAR

Authors:F. Ursini, R. Farinelli, A. Gnarini, J. Poutanen, S. Bianchi, F. Capitanio, A. Di Marco, S. Fabiani, F. La Monaca, C. Malacaria, G. Matt, R. Mikušincová, M. Cocchi, P. Kaaret, J. J. E. Kajava, M. Pilia, W. Zhang, I. Agudo, L. A. Antonelli, M. Bachetti, L. Baldini, W. H. Baumgartner, R. Bellazzini, S. D. Bongiorno, R. Bonino, A. Brez, N. Bucciantini, S. Castellano, E. Cavazzuti, C. -T. Chen, S. Ciprini, E. Costa, A. De Rosa, E. Del Monte, L. Di Gesu, N. Di Lalla, I. Donnarumma, V. Doroshenko, M. Dovčiak, S. R. Ehlert, T. Enoto, Y. Evangelista, R. Ferrazzoli, J. A. Garcia, S. Gunji, K. Hayashida, J. Heyl, W. Iwakiri, S. G. Jorstad, V. Karas, F. Kislat, T. Kitaguchi, J. J. Kolodziejczak, H. Krawczynski, L. Latronico, I. Liodakis, S. Maldera, A. Manfreda, F. Marin, A. Marinucci, A. P. Marscher, H. L. Marshall, F. Massaro, I. Mitsuishi, T. Mizuno, F. Muleri, M. Negro, C. -Y. Ng, S. L. O'Dell, N. Omodei, C. Oppedisano, A. Papitto, G. G. Pavlov, A. L. Peirson, M. Perri, M. Pesce-Rollins, P. -O. Petrucci, M. Pilia, A. Possenti, S. Puccetti, B. D. Ramsey, J. Rankin, A. Ratheesh, O. J. Roberts, R. W. Romani, C. Sgrò, P. Slane, P. Soffitta, G. Spandre, D. A. Swartz, T. Tamagawa, F. Tavecchio, R. Taverna, Y. Tawara, A. F. Tennant, N. E. Thomas, F. Tombesi, A. Trois, S. S. Tsygankov, R. Turolla, J. Vink, M. C. Weisskopf, K. Wu, F. Xie, S. Zane

Abstract: We report on a comprehensive analysis of simultaneous X-ray polarimetric and spectral data of the bright atoll source GX 9+9 with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) and NuSTAR. The source is significantly polarized in the 4--8 keV band, with a degree of $2.2\% \pm 0.5\%$ (uncertainty at the 68% confidence level). The NuSTAR broad-band spectrum clearly shows an iron line, and is well described by a model including thermal disk emission, a Comptonized component, and reflection. From a spectro-polarimetric fit, we obtain an upper limit to the polarization degree of the disk of 4% (at 99% confidence level), while the contribution of Comptonized and reflected radiation cannot be conclusively separated. However, the polarization is consistent with resulting from a combination of Comptonization in a boundary or spreading layer, plus reflection off the disc, which gives a significant contribution in any realistic scenario.

4.Asteroseismology using quadrupolar f-modes revisited: breaking of universal relationships in the slow hadron-quark conversion scenario

Authors:Ignacio F. Ranea-Sandoval, Mauro Mariani, Marcos O. Celi, M. Camila Rodríguez, Lucas Tonetto

Abstract: In this work, we consider polar perturbations and we calculate the frequency and damping time of the quadrupolar fundamental f -mode of compact objects, constructed using a wide range of model-independent hybrid equations of state that include quark matter. We give special attention to the impact of the hadron-quark conversion speed that, in the slow case, gives rise to a branch of slow stable hybrid stars. Moreover, we study the validity of universal relationships proposed in the literature and find out that none of them remains valid when slow stable hybrid stars are taken into account. This fact could constrain the applicability of asteroseismology methods with fundamental modes designed to estimate the properties of pulsating compact objects. We hope that this result could be tested with the start up of the third-generation gravitational wave observatories, which might shed some light on the f -mode emission from compact objects.

5.RRAT J1913+1330: an extremely variable and puzzling pulsar

Authors:S. B. Zhang, J. J. Geng, J. S. Wang, X. Yang, J. Kaczmarek, Z. F. Tang, S. Johnston, G. Hobbs, R. Manchester, X. F. Wu, P. Jiang, Y. F. Huang, Y. C. Zou, Z. G. Dai, B. Zhang, D. Li, Y. P. Yang, S. Dai, C. M. Chang, Z. C. Pan, J. G. Lu, J. J. Wei, Y. Li, Q. W. Wu, L. Qian, P. Wang, S. Q. Wang, Y. Feng, L. Staveley-Smith

Abstract: Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs) are neutron stars that emit sporadic radio bursts. We detected 1955 single pulses from RRAT J1913+1330 using the 19-beam receiver of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST). These pulses were detected in 19 distinct clusters, with 49.4% of them occurring sequentially with a waiting time of one rotation period. The energy distribution of these individual pulses exhibited a wide range, spanning three orders of magnitude, reminiscent of repeating fast radio bursts (FRBs). Furthermore, we observed abrupt variations in pulse profile, width, peak flux, and fluence between adjacent sequential pulses. These findings suggest that this RRAT could be interpreted as pulsars with extreme pulse-to-pulse modulation. The presence of sequential pulse trains during active phases, along with significant pulse variations in profile, fluence, flux, and width, should be intrinsic to a subset of RRATs. Our results indicate that J1913+1330 represents a peculiar source that shares certain properties with populations of nulling pulsars, giant pulses, and FRBs from different perspectives. The dramatic pulse-to-pulse variation observed in J1913+1330 could be attributed to unstable pair creation above the polar cap region and the variation of the site where streaming pairs emit coherently. Exploring a larger sample of RRATs exhibiting similar properties to J1913+1330 has the potential to significantly advance our understanding of pulsars, RRATs, and FRBs.

6.Revisiting Lorentz invariance violation from GRB 221009A

Authors:Hao Li, Bo-Qiang Ma

Abstract: As a potential consequence of Lorentz invariance violation~(LIV), threshold anomalies open a window to study LIV. Recently the Large High Altitude Air Shower~(LHAASO) observatory reported that more than 5000 photons from GRB 221009A have been observed with energies above 500~GeV and up to $18~\text{TeV}$. In the literature, it is suggested that this observation may have tension with the standard model result because extragalactic background light~(EBL) can prevent photons around 18~TeV photons from reaching the earth and that LIV induced threshold anomalies might be able to explain the observation. In this work we further study this proposal with more detailed numerical calculation for different LIV scales and redshifts of the sources. We find that GRB 221009A is a rather unique opportunity to search LIV, and a LIV scale $E_\text{LIV} \lesssim E_\text{Planck}\approx 1.22\times 10^{19}~\text{GeV}$ is feasible to the observation of GRB 221009A on 9 October, 2022.

1.Geometrical envelopes of fast radio bursts

Authors:Guillaume Voisin LUTH

Abstract: Aims. Assuming fast radio bursts (FRBs) are produced by matter travelling ultra-relativistically in a localised region of a smooth bundle of streamlines, we study the constraints applied by geometry to the morphology and polarisation of the burst in time and frequency independently of the intrinsic radiative process. Methods. We express the problem only in terms of the local properties of direction and curvature of a streamline. This allows us to cast the general results to any desired geometry. We illustrate by applying this framework to two geometries inspired by pulsar and magnetar magnetospheres, namely the dipolar polar-cap region and a magnetic dipole with an additional toroidal component. Results. Geometry constrains bursts to occur within an envelope in the frequency vs. time plane (dynamic spectrum). This envelope notably characterises spectral occupancy and frequency drifts (both burst-to-burst and within an individual burst). We illustrate how one can simulate bursts by specifying some basic properties of an intrinsic emission process. In particular we show that the typical properties of one-off bursts can be produced in polar-cap geometry by a star with spin period > 1s, while bursts from repeating sources are better accounted for with an additional strong toroidal component and a sub-second spin period. Conclusions. We propose that a relationship between burst morphologies and the properties of the source, such as its spin period and magnetospheric properties, can be established at least qualitatively based on geometrical considerations. Our results favour models where repeaters are younger and faster magnetars with highly twisted magnetospheres.

2.NuSTAR investigation of X-ray variability and hard X-ray spectral properties in IGR J16320-4751 and IGR J16479-4514

Authors:Varun, Gayathri Raman

Abstract: We present the results obtained from a comprehensive timing and spectral study of two high-mass X-ray binary sources using NuSTAR observations. These two sources, IGR J16320-4751 and IGR J16479-4514, were discovered by INTEGRAL and have been characterized for the first time in the hard X-ray band (beyond 10~keV) in this work. In these sources, we observe the occurrence of intense X-ray flares, with average luminosities exceeding 10$^{36}$~erg~s$^{-1}$. Our analysis reveals that these flares can be described consistently in the quasi-spherical accretion regime. The orbital phase of the first flare in NuSTAR observation of IGR J16479-4514 matches with the orbital phases of previous flares ($\phi=0.35$) in this source detected by other telescopes. We conclude that this flare occurs as a result of the periastron passage of the neutron star, rather than due to the presence of a corotating interaction region (CIR). Furthermore, from the energy-resolved pulse profile analysis of IGR J16320-4751, we find that the pulse fraction is lower in hard X-rays compared to soft X-rays. We present the hard X-ray spectral parameters of these two sources using several standard spectral model components. We do not detect a cyclotron absorption feature in either target. We provide estimates of the surface magnetic field strength of NS in IGR J16320-4751 using two indirect methods. Lastly, we observe spectral hardening during flaring segments compared to the off-flaring segments which indicates that comptonization is more effective during the flaring segments.

3.Search for the Galactic accelerators of Cosmic-Rays up to the Knee with the Pevatron Test Statistic

Authors:E. O. Angüner, G. Spengler, E. Amato, S. Casanova

Abstract: The Pevatron Test Statistic (PTS) is applied to data from $\gamma$-ray observatories to test for the origin of Cosmic Rays (CRs) at energies around the knee of the CR spectrum. Several sources are analyzed within hadronic emission models. Previously derived results for RX J1713.7$-$3946, Vela Jr., and HESS J1745$-$290 are confirmed to demonstrate the concept, reliability, and advantages of the PTS. It is excluded with a significance more than $5\sigma$ that the sources RX J1713.7$-$3946 and Vela Jr. are Pevatrons, while strong indications exceeding $4\sigma$ are found for excluding HESS J1745$-$290 as a Pevatron. The importance to resolve source confusion with high angular resolution observations for Pevatrons searches is demonstrated using PTS for the region containing the SNR G106.3+2.7 and the Boomerang nebula. No statistically significant conclusion with respect to Pevatron associations could be drawn from this region, for the diffuse $\gamma$-ray emission around the Galactic Center, and the unidentified $\gamma$-ray sources LHAASO J2108$+$5157, HESS J1702$-$420A and MGRO J1908$+$06. Assuming the entire $\gamma$-ray emission from MGRO J1908+06 and the tail region of SNR G106.3+2.7 is hadronic, a statistical indication exceeding $3\sigma$ is found for the underlying proton spectrum to extend beyond 350$-$400 TeV as a power-law. This result can indicate that these sources are proton and helium Pevatrons, in which the accelerated particles contribute to the knee of proton and helium spectra observed at Earth.

4.BlackHoleCam -- Testing general relativity with pulsars orbiting Sagittarius A*

Authors:Ralph P. Eatough, Gregory Desvignes, Kuo Liu, Robert S. Wharton, Aristedis Noutsos, Pablo Torne, Ramesh Karuppusamy, Lijing Shao, Michael Kramer, Heino Falcke, Luciano Rezzolla

Abstract: BlackHoleCam is a project funded by a European Research Council Synergy Grant to build a complete astrophysical description of nearby supermassive black holes by using a combination of radio imaging, pulsar observations, stellar astrometry and general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic models. BlackHoleCam scientists are active partners of the Event Horizon Telescope Consortium. In this talk I will discuss the use of pulsars orbiting Sagittarius A* for tests of General Relativity, the current difficulties in detecting such sources, recent results from the Galactic Centre magnetar PSR J1745-2900 and how BlackHoleCam aims to search for undiscovered pulsars in the Galactic Centre.

5.The Radio Parallax of the Crab Pulsar: A First VLBI Measurement Calibrated with Giant Pulses

Authors:Rebecca Lin, Marten H. van Kerkwijk, Franz Kirsten, Ue-Li Pen, Adam T. Deller

Abstract: We use four observations with the European VLBI network to measure the first precise radio parallax of the Crab Pulsar. We found two in-beam extragalactic sources just outside the Crab Nebula, with one bright enough to use as a background reference source in our data. We use the Crab Pulsar's giant pulses to determine fringe and bandpass calibration solutions, which greatly improved the sensitivity and reliability of our images and allowed us to determine precise positional offsets between the pulsar and the background source. From those offsets, we determine a parallax of $\pi=0.53\pm0.06\rm{\;mas}$ and proper motion of $(\mu_{\alpha},\mu_{\delta})=(-11.34\pm0.06,2.65\pm0.14)\rm{\;mas\;yr^{-1}}$, yielding a distance of $d=1.90^{+0.22}_{-0.18}\rm{\;kpc}$ and transverse velocity of $v_{\perp}=104^{+13}_{-11}\rm{\;km\;s^{-1}}$. These results are consistent with the Gaia 3 measurements, and open up the possibility of far more accurate astrometry with further VLBI observations.

1.Tormund's return: Hints of quasi-periodic eruption features from a recent optical tidal disruption event

Authors:E. Quintin, N. A. Webb, S. Guillot, G. Miniutti, E. S. Kammoun, M. Giustini, R. Arcodia, G. Soucail, N. Clerc, R. Amato, C. B. Markwardt

Abstract: Quasi-periodic eruptions (QPEs) are repeating thermal X-ray bursts associated with accreting massive black holes, the precise underlying physical mechanisms of which are still unclear. We present a new candidate QPE source, AT 2019vcb (nicknamed Tormund by the ZTF collaboration), which was found during an archival search for QPEs in the XMM-Newton archive. It was first discovered in 2019 as an optical tidal disruption event (TDE) at $z=0.088$, and its X-ray follow-up exhibited QPE-like properties. Our goals are to verify its robustness as QPE candidate and to investigate its properties to improve our understanding of QPEs. We performed a detailed study of the X-ray spectral behaviour of this source over the course of the XMM-Newton archival observation. We also report on recent Swift and NICER follow-up observations to constrain the source's current activity and overall lifetime, as well as an optical spectral follow-up. The first two Swift detections and the first half of the 30 ks XMM-Newton exposure of Tormund displayed a decaying thermal emission typical of an X-ray TDE. However, the second half of the exposure showed a dramatic rise in temperature (from 53 to 114 eV) and 0.2-2 keV luminosity (from $3.2\times10^{42}$ to $1.2\times10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$). The late-time NICER follow-up indicates that the source is still X-ray bright more than three years after the initial optical TDE. Although only a rise phase was observed, Tormund's strong similarities with a known QPE source (eRO-QPE1) and the impossibility to simultaneously account for all observational features with alternative interpretations allow us to classify Tormund as a candidate QPE. If confirmed as a QPE, it would further strengthen the observational link between TDEs and QPEs. It is also the first QPE candidate for which an associated optical TDE was directly observed, constraining the formation time of QPEs.

2.A matched-filter approach to radio variability and transients: searching for orphan afterglows in the VAST Pilot Survey

Authors:James K. Leung, Tara Murphy, Emil Lenc, Philip G. Edwards, Giancarlo Ghirlanda, David L. Kaplan, Andrew O'Brien, Ziteng Wang

Abstract: Radio transient searches using traditional variability metrics struggle to recover sources whose evolution timescale is significantly longer than the survey cadence. Motivated by the recent observations of slowly evolving radio afterglows at gigahertz frequency, we present the results of a search for radio variables and transients using an alternative matched-filter approach. We designed our matched-filter to recover sources with radio light curves that have a high-significance fit to power-law and smoothly broken power-law functions; light curves following these functions are characteristic of synchrotron transients, including "orphan" gamma-ray burst afterglows, which were the primary targets of our search. Applying this matched-filter approach to data from Variables and Slow Transients Pilot Survey conducted using the Australian SKA Pathfinder, we produced five candidates in our search. Subsequent Australia Telescope Compact Array observations and analysis revealed that: one is likely a synchrotron transient; one is likely a flaring active galactic nucleus, exhibiting a flat-to-steep spectral transition over $4\,$months; one is associated with a starburst galaxy, with the radio emission originating from either star formation or an underlying slowly-evolving transient; and the remaining two are likely extrinsic variables caused by interstellar scintillation. The synchrotron transient, VAST J175036.1$-$181454, has a multi-frequency light curve, peak spectral luminosity and volumetric rate that is consistent with both an off-axis afterglow and an off-axis tidal disruption event; interpreted as an off-axis afterglow would imply an average inverse beaming factor $\langle f^{-1}_{\text{b}} \rangle = 860^{+1980}_{-710}$, or equivalently, an average jet opening angle of $\langle \theta_{\textrm{j}} \rangle = 3^{+4}_{-1}\,$deg.

3.The complex spectral behavior of the newly discovered neutron star X-ray binary Swift J1858.6-0814

Authors:Aditya S. Mondal, B. Raychaudhuri, Gulab C Dewangan

Abstract: We report on the \nustar{} observation of the newly discovered neutron star X-ray binary Swift~J1858.6-0814 taken on 23rd March 2019. The light curve of the source exhibits several large flares during some time intervals of this observation. The source is softer in the high-intensity interval where the large flaring activity mainly occurs. We perform time-resolved spectroscopy on the source by extracting spectra for two different intensity intervals. The source was observed with a $3-79 \kev{}$ luminosity of $\sim 9.68\times 10^{36}$ ergs/s and $\sim 4.78\times 10^{36}$ ergs/s for high and low-intensity interval, respectively assuming a distance of $15$ kpc. We find a large value of the absorbing column density ($\rm{N_{H}}\sim 1.1\times 10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$), and it appears to be uncorrelated with the observed flux of the source. Each spectrum shows evidence of Fe K$\alpha$ emission in the $5-7$\kev{} energy band, an absorption edge around $\sim 7-8$\kev{}, and a broad Compton hump above $15$\kev{}, indicating the presence of a reflection spectrum. The observed features are well explained by the contribution of a relativistic reflection model and a partially covering absorption model. From the best-fit spectral model, we found an inner disc radius to be $4.87_{-0.96}^{+1.63}\;R_{ISCO}$ (for the high-intensity interval) and $5.68_{-2.78}^{+9.54}\;R_{ISCO}$ (for the low-intensity interval), indicating a significant disc truncation. The inclination is found to be $\leq 53^{0}$ for high-intensity interval and ${25^0}_{-6}^{+8}$ for low-intensity interval. We further place an upper limit on this source's magnetic field strength considering the disc is truncated at the magnetospheric radius.

4.The Signature of Refreshed Shocks in the of Afterglow of GRB030329

Authors:Michael J. Moss, Robert Mochkovitch, Frédéric Daigne, Paz Beniamini, Sylvain Guiriec

Abstract: GRB030329 displays one clear and, possibly, multiple less intense fast-rising ($\Delta t / t \sim 0.3$) jumps in its optical afterglow light curve. The decay rate of the optical light curve remains the same before and after the photon flux jumps. This may be the signature of energy injection into the forward and reverse shocked material at the front of the jet. In this study, we model the Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) ejecta as a series of shells of material. We follow the dynamical evolution of the ejecta as it interacts with itself (i.e., internal shocks) and with the circumburst medium (i.e., external forward and reverse shocks), and we calculate the emission from each shock event assuming synchrotron emission. We confirm the viability of the model proposed by \citet{2003Natur.426..138G} in which the jumps in the optical afterglow light curve of GRB030329 are produced via refreshed shocks. The refreshed shocks may be the signatures of the collisions between earlier ejected material with an average Lorentz factor $\bar{\Gamma}\gtrsim 100$ and later ejected material with $\bar{\Gamma} \sim 10$ once the early material has decelerated due to interaction with the circumburst medium. We show that even if the late material is ejected with a spread of Lorentz factors, internal shocks naturally produce a narrow distribution of Lorentz factors ($\Delta\Gamma/\Gamma\lesssim0.1$), which is a necessary condition to produce the observed quick rise times of the jumps. These results imply a phase of internal shocks at some point in the dynamical evolution of the ejecta, which requires a low magnetization in the outflow.

5.A NICER View on the 2020 Magnetar-Like Outburst of PSR J1846-0258

Authors:Chin-Ping Hu, Lucien Kuiper, Alice K. Harding, George Younes, Harsha Blumer, Wynn C. G. Ho, Teruaki Enoto, Cristobal M. Espinoza, Keith Gendreau

Abstract: We report on our monitoring of the strong-field magnetar-like pulsar PSR J1846-0258 with the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) and the timing and spectral evolution during its outburst in August 2020. Phase-coherent timing solutions were maintained from March 2017 through November 2021, including a coherent solution throughout the outburst. We detected a large spin-up glitch of magnitude \Delta\nu/\nu = 3 X 10^{-6} at the start of the outburst and observed an increase in pulsed flux that reached a factor of more than 10 times the quiescent level, a behavior similar to that of the 2006 outburst. Our monitoring observations in June and July 2020 indicate that the flux was rising prior to the SWIFT announcement of the outburst on August 1, 2020. We also observed several sharp rises in the pulsed flux following the outburst and the flux reached quiescent level by November 2020. The pulse profile was observed to change shape during the outburst, returning to the pre-outburst shape by 2021. Spectral analysis of the pulsed emission of NICER data shows that the flux increases result entirely from a new black body component that gradually fades away while the power-law remains nearly constant at its quiescent level throughout the outburst. Joint spectral analysis of NICER and simultaneous NuSTAR data confirms this picture. We discuss the interpretation of the magnetar-like outburst and origin of the transient thermal component in the context of both a pulsar-like and a magnetar-like model.

6.GW190425 and FRB20190425A: Challenges for Fast Radio Bursts as Multi-Messenger Sources from Binary Neutron Star Mergers

Authors:Mohit Bhardwaj, Antonella Palmese, Ignacio Magaña Hernandez, Virginia D'Emilio, Soichiro Morisaki

Abstract: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a newly discovered class of radio transients that emerge from cosmological sources and last for $\sim$ a few milliseconds. However, their origin remains a highly debated topic in astronomy. Recent studies have argued for a possible association between the binary neutron star (BNS) merger GW190425 and FRB20190425A at a confidence level of 2.8$\sigma$. The authors argue that the observations are consistent with a long-lived highly magnetized supramassive neutron star (SMNS) that formed after the BNS merger and was stable for approximately 2.5 hours before promptly collapsing into a black hole. In this study, we investigate the proposed association, carefully considering the constraint that the FRB signal must traverse the high-density merger ejecta without experiencing noticeable attenuation to enable its detection at 400 MHz. Furthermore, we find that if the FRB is indeed linked to the gravitational wave event, the GW data strongly support a highly off-axis configuration, with a probability of the BNS merger viewing angle $p(\theta_v$ $>$ 30$^{\circ}$) to be $\approx$ 99.99%. Our findings therefore strongly exclude an on-axis system, which we find on the other hand to be required in order for this FRB to be detectable. Hence, we conclude that GW190425 is not related to FRB20190425A. We also discuss implications of our results for future detections of coincident multi-messenger observations of FRBs from BNS remnants and GW events and argue that BNS merger remnants cannot account for the formation of > 1% of FRB sources

7.Hard X-ray emission from blazars associated with high-energy neutrinos

Authors:A. V. Plavin ASC Lebedev, R. A. Burenin IKI, HSE, Y. Y. Kovalev MPIfR, ASC Lebedev, MIPT, A. A. Lutovinov IKI, A. A. Starobinsky ITP, JINR, S. V. Troitsky INR, MSU, E. I. Zakharov IKI, HSE, INR

Abstract: Bright blazars were found to be prominent neutrino sources, and a number of IceCube events were associated with them. Evaluating high-energy photon emission of such blazars is crucial for better understanding of the processes and regions where neutrinos are produced. Here, we focus on hard X-ray emission observed by the SRG/ART-XC telescope, by the Swift/BAT imager, and by the INTEGRAL/IBIS telescope. Their energy range ~10 keV and above is well-suited for probing photons that potentially participate in neutrino production by interacting with ultrarelativistic protons. We find that neutrino-associated blazars tend to demonstrate remarkably strong X-ray emission compared to other VLBI blazars in the sky, chance coincidence probability is p=0.5%. Both neutrinos and hard X-rays are found to come from blazars at cosmological distances z ~ 1, and are boosted by relativistic beaming that makes it possible to detect them on Earth. Our results suggest that neutrinos are produced within compact blazar jets, with target X-ray photons emitted from accelerated jet regions.

8.The eROSITA Final Equatorial Depth Survey (eFEDS): Complex absorption and soft excesses in hard X-ray--selected active galactic nuclei

Authors:Sophia G. H. Waddell, Kirpal Nandra, Johannes Buchner, Qiaoya Wu, Yue Shen, Riccardo Arcodia, Andrea Merloni, Mara Salvato, Thomas Dauser, Thomas Boller, Teng Liu, Johan Comparat, Julien Wolf, Tom Dwelly, Claudio Ricci, Joel R. Brownstein, Marcella Brusa

Abstract: Context. The soft excess, a surplus of X-ray photons above 2 keV with respect to a power law, is a feature of debated physical origin found in the X-ray spectra of many type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN). The eROSITA instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission will provide an all-sky census of AGN suitable for spectral analysis. Aims. The primary goal of this work is to test a variety of models for the soft X-ray emission of AGN (thermal emission, non-thermal emission, ionised absorption, or neutral partial covering absorption) to help identify the physical origin of the soft X-ray spectral complexity. Differences between these models are examined in the context of this sample to understand the physical properties. Methods. We used Bayesian X-ray analysis to fit a sample of 200 AGN from the eFEDS hard X-ray--selected sample with a variety of phenomenological and physically motivated models. Model selection was performed using the Bayes factor to compare the applicability of each model. Results. We find that 29 sources have evidence for a soft excess at a confidence level >97.5%, all of which are better modelled by an additional soft power law than by thermal blackbody emission. We find 23 of these sources prefer a warm corona model, while six sources prefer relativistic blurred reflection. Additionally many sources show evidence for complex absorption, with 29 preferring a warm absorber and 25 a partial covering absorber. Sources with a soft excess show a significantly higher Eddington ratio than those with warm absorbers. We discuss the implication of these results for the physical processes in the central regions of AGN. Conclusions. Spectral fitting with Bayesian statistics is ideal for the identification of complex absorption and soft excesses in the X-ray spectra of AGN and can allow one to distinguish between different physical interpretations. (Abridged)

1.Free Energy of Anisotropic Strangeon Stars

Authors:Shichuan Chen, Yong Gao, Enping Zhou, Renxin Xu

Abstract: Can pulsar-like compact objects release further huge free energy besides the kinematic energy of rotation? This is actually relevant to the equation of states of cold supra-nuclear matter, which is still under hot debate. Enormous energy is surely needed to understand various observations, such as $\gamma-$ray bursts, fast radio bursts and soft $\gamma-$ray repeaters. The elastic/gravitational-free energy of solid strangeon star is revisited, with two approaches to calculate in general relativity. It is found that huge free energy (> $10^{46}$ erg) could be released via starquakes, given an extremely small anisotropy ($(p_{\rm t}-p_{\rm r})/p_{\rm r} \sim 10^{-4}$, with $p_{\rm t}$/$p_{\rm r}$ the tangential/radial pressures).

2.Inferring redshift and energy distributions of fast radio bursts from the first CHIME/FRB catalog

Authors:Li Tang, Hai-Nan Lin, Xin Li

Abstract: We reconstruct the extragalactic dispersion measure \ -- redshift relation (${\rm DM_E}-z$ relation) from well-localized fast radio bursts (FRBs) using Bayesian inference method. Then the ${\rm DM_E}-z$ relation is used to infer the redshift and energy of the first CHIME/FRB catalog. We find that the distributions of extragalactic dispersion measure and inferred redshift of the non-repeating CHIME/FRBs follow cut-off power law, but with a significant excess at the low-redshift range. We apply a set of criteria to exclude events which are susceptible to selection effect, but find that the excess at low redshift still exists in the remaining FRBs (which we call Gold sample). The cumulative distributions of fluence and energy for both the full sample and the Gold sample do not follow the simple power law, but they can be well fitted by the bent power law. The underlying physical implications remain to be further investigated.

3.Too small to fail: assessing the measurability of sub-solar mass compact object mergers

Authors:Noah E. Wolfe, Salvatore Vitale, Colm Talbot

Abstract: The detection of a sub-solar mass black hole could yield dramatic new insights into the nature of dark matter and early-Universe physics, as such objects lack a traditional astrophysical formation mechanism. Gravitational waves allow for the direct measurement of compact object masses during binary mergers, and we expect the gravitational-wave signal from a low-mass coalescence to remain within the LIGO frequency band for thousands of seconds. However, it is unclear whether one can confidently measure the properties of a sub-solar mass compact object and distinguish between a sub-solar mass black hole or other exotic objects. To this end, we perform Bayesian parameter estimation on simulated gravitational-wave signals from sub-solar mass black hole mergers to explore the measurability of their source properties. We find that the LIGO/Virgo detectors during the O4 observing run would be able to confidently identify sub-solar component masses at the threshold of detectability; these events would also be well-localized on the sky and may reveal some information on their binary spin geometry. Further, next-generation detectors such as Cosmic Explorer and the Einstein Telescope will allow for precision measurement of the properties of sub-solar mass mergers and tighter constraints on their compact-object nature.

1.Sources of primary cosmic rays

Authors:S. E. Pyatovsky

Abstract: In the paper, a comparative primary cosmic rays (PCR) comparative analysis by $E_0$ and the spectra of variable stars by periods is carried out in order to establish the causes of irregularities in the spectrum of PCR by $E_0$. The study was performed using the public database of the KASCADE-Grande experiment and GCVS and ZTF variable star catalogues. It has been suggested that the acceleration of PCR to high and super-high energies occurs not only on the shock waves of supernovae, but also in bursts of giants and super-giants. The relationship between the periods of variable stars and the maximum energy $E_0$ of the nuclei of PCRs generated by these types of stars is shown. Irregularities in the PCR spectrum by $E_0$ are associated with the transition from one dominant stars type to another as $E_0$ increases. The knee in the PCR spectrum at $E_0~=~3-5~PeV$ is associated with a decrease in the contribution of SRB variability stars and a further increase in the contribution of Mira variable stars to the PCR flux. The bump in the PCR spectrum with a maximum at $E_0~=~80~PeV$, established in the KASCADE-Grande experiment, is formed by giant stars and super-giants of the Mira and SRC variability.

2.Formation of population inversions in relativistic plasmas through nonresonant interactions with Alfvén waves

Authors:Killian Long, Asaf Pe'er

Abstract: We solve the full quasilinear kinetic equation governing nonresonant interactions of Alfv\'en waves with relativistic plasmas. This work was motivated by the need to determine the energy available for the synchrotron maser in the context of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs). This interaction can result in plasma heating and the formation of population inversions necessary for the maser. We find that population inversions containing $\sim 1-10\%$ of the distribution's energy form in the relativistic regime, providing an explanation for the formation of the inversion in the environment expected near FRBs.

3.Magnetic fields catalyze massive black hole formation and growth

Authors:Mitchell C. Begelman, Joseph Silk

Abstract: Large-scale magnetic fields in the nuclear regions of protogalaxies can trigger the formation and early growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) by direct collapse and boosted accretion. Turbulence associated with gravitational infall and star formation can drive the rms field strength toward equipartition with the mean gas kinetic energy; this field has a generic tendency to self-organize into large, coherent structures. If the poloidal component of the field (relative to the rotational axis of a star-forming disc) becomes organized on scales $\lesssim r$ and attains an energy of order a few percent of the turbulent energy in the disc, then dynamo effects are expected to generate magnetic torques capable of boosting the inflow speed and thickening the disk. The accretion flow can transport matter toward the center of mass at a rate adequate to create and grow a massive direct-collapse black hole (DCBH) seed and fuel the subsequent AGN at a high rate, without becoming gravitationally unstable. Fragmentation and star formation are thus suppressed and do not necessarily deplete the mass supply for the accretion flow, in contrast to prevailing models for growing and fueling SMBHs through disc accretion.

4.Relativistic binary-disc dynamics and OJ-287's flares: New parameter posteriors and future timing predictions

Authors:Lorenz Zwick, Lucio Mayer

Abstract: We revisit the precessing black hole binary model, a candidate to explain the bizarre quasi-periodic optical flares in OJ-287's light curve, from first principles. We deviate from existing work in three significant ways: 1) Including crucial aspects of relativistic dynamics related to the accretion disc's gravitational moments. 2) Adopting a model-agnostic prescription for the disc's density and scale height. 3) Using monte-carlo Markhov-chain methods to recover reliable system parameters and uncertainties. We showcase our model's predictive power by timing the 2019 great Eddington flare within 40 hr of the observed epoch, exclusively using data available prior to it. Additionally, we obtain a novel direct measurement of OJ-287's disc mass and quadrupole moment exclusively from the optical flare timings. Our improved methodology can uncover previously unstated correlations in the parameter posteriors and patterns in the flare timing uncertainties. In contrast to the established literature, we predict the 26th optical flare to occur on the 21st of August 2023 $\pm$ 32 days, shifted by almost a year with respect to the alleged "missing" flare of October 2022.

1.Type W and Type 15bn subgroups of hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae: pre-maximum diversity, post-maximum homogeneity?

Authors:Réka Könyves-Tóth, Bálint Seli

Abstract: In this study, we analyze the post-maximum spectra of a sample of 27 Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) in order to search for physical differences between the so-called Type W and Type 15bn sub-types. This paper is a continuation of \citet{ktr21} and \citet{ktr22}. In the former, it was revealed that not all SLSNe-I show the W-shaped absorption feature between 4000 and 5000 \AA\ in the pre-maximum spectra, and two new SLSN-subgroups were disclosed: Type W, where the W-shaped feature is present, and Type 15bn, where it is missing. In the latter, it was shown that the pre-maximum photosphere of Type W SLSNe-I tend to be hotter compared to Type 15bn objects, and they are different regarding their ion composition, their early light curves and their geometry as well. For completeness, post-maximum data are analyzed in this paper. It is concluded that in terms of photospheric temperature and velocity, Type W and Type 15bn SLSNe decrease to a similar value by the post-maximum phases, and their pseudo-nebular spectra are nearly uniform. Pseudo-equivalent width calculations show that the pEW of the wavelength range between 4166 and 5266 \AA\ evolve differently in case of the two sub-types, while the other parts of the spectra seem to evolve similarly. It was found that the host galaxies of the studied objects do not differ significantly in their star formation rate, morphology, stellar mass and absolute brightness. The main difference behind the bimodality of Type W and Type 15bn SLSNe-I therefore is in their pre-maximum evolution.

2.Magnetar Flare-Driven Bumpy Declining Light Curves in Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae

Authors:Xiao-Fei Dong, Liang-Duan Liu, He Gao, Sheng Yang

Abstract: Recent observations indicate that hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae often display bumpy declining light curves. However, the cause of these undulations remains unclear. In this paper, we have improved the magnetar model, which includes flare activities. We present a systematic analysis of a well-observed SLSNe-I sample with bumpy light curves in the late-phase. These SLSNe-I were identified from multiple transient surveys, such as the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) and the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). Our study provides a set of magnetar-powered model light curve fits for five SLSNe-I, which accurately reproduce observed light curves using reasonable physical parameters. By extracting essential characteristics of both explosions and central engines, these fits provide valuable insights into investigating their potential association with gamma ray burst engines. We found that the SLSN flares tend to be the dim and long extension of the GRB flares in the peak luminosity versus peak time plane. Conducting large-scale, high cadence surveys in the near future could enhance our comprehension of both SLSN undulation properties and their potential relationship with GRBs by modeling their light curve characteristics.

3.FRBs' Brownian Motion on Time-Energy Bivariate Space

Authors:Yong-Kun Zhang, Di Li, Yi Feng, Pei Wang, Chen-Hui Niu, Shi Dai, Ju-Mei Yao, Chao-Wei Tsai

Abstract: The origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs), the brightest cosmic explosion in radio bands, remains unknown. Magnetar-related mechanisms are currently favored. The searches for short-term periodicity that is naturally expected for such fast-spinning compact objects, however, have failed. We introduce here a novel method for a comprehensive analysis of active FRBs' behaviors in the time-energy domain. Using ``Pincus Index'' and ``Maximum Lyapunov Exponent'', we were able to quantify the stochasticity and chaos, respectively, of the bursting events and put FRBs in the context of common transient physical phenomena, such as pulsars, earthquakes, and solar flares. In the bivariate time-energy domain, repeated FRB bursts' behaviors deviate significantly (more random, less chaotic) from pulsars, earthquakes, and solar flares. FRB bursts wander in time-energy space stochastically, akin to Brownian motions. The high degree of stochasticity suggests complex and even multi-origins for FRBs.

4.Evolution of QPOs in GX 339-4 and EXO 1846-031 with Insight-HXMT and NICER

Authors:Zuobin Zhang, Honghui Liu, Divya Rawat, Cosimo Bambi, Ranjeev Misra, Pengju Wang, Long Ji, Shu Zhang, Shuangnan Zhang

Abstract: We conduct a spectral and timing analysis of GX 339-4 and EXO 1846-031 with the aim of studying the evolution of Type-C QPOs with spectral parameters. The high cadence data from Insight-HXMT and NICER allow us to track them. Type-C QPOs appear at the end of low-hard state and/or hard-intermediate state. The results reveal that the QPO frequency is closely related to the inner disk radius and mass accretion rate in the two sources. Such a correlation is nicely consistent with the dynamic frequency model.

5.Eighteen Years of Kilonova Discoveries with Swift

Authors:Eleonora Troja

Abstract: Swift has now completed 18 years of mission, during which it discovered thousands of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as well as new classes of high-energy transient phenomena. Its first breakthrough result was the localization of short duration GRBs, which enabled for redshift measurements and kilonova searches. Swift, in synergy with the Hubble Space Telescope and a wide array of ground-based telescopes, provided the first tantalizing evidence of a kilonova in the aftermath of a short GRB. In 2017, Swift observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 captured the early UV photons from the kilonova AT2017gfo, opening a new window into the physics of kilonovae. Since then, Swift has continued to expand the sample of known kilonovae, leading to the surprising discovery of a kilonova in a long duration GRB. This article will discuss recent advances in the study of kilonovae driven by the fundamental contribution of Swift.

6.Accretion onto a Supermassive Black Hole Binary Before Merger

Authors:Mark J. Avara, Julian H. Krolik, Manuela Campanelli, Scott C. Noble, Dennis Bowen, Taeho Ryu

Abstract: While supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) inspiral toward merger they may also accrete significant amounts of matter. To study the dynamics of such a system requires simultaneously describing the evolving spacetime and the dynamics of magnetized plasma. Here we present the first relativistic calculation simulating two equal-mass, non-spinning black holes as they inspiral from an initial separation of $20M$ ($G=c=1$) almost to merger, $\simeq 9M$, while accreting gas from a surrounding disk, where $M$ is the total binary mass. We find that the accretion rate $\dot M$ onto the black holes first decreases during this period and then reaches a plateau, dropping by only a factor of $\sim 3$ despite its rapid inspiral. An estimated bolometric light curve follows the same profile. The minidisks through which the accretion reaches the black holes are very non-standard. Reynolds, not Maxwell, stresses dominate, and they oscillate between two distinct structural states. In one part of the cycle, ``sloshing" streams transfer mass from one minidisk to the other through the L1 point at a rate $\sim 0.1\times$ the accretion rate, carrying kinetic energy at a rate that can be as large as the peak minidisk bolometric luminosity. We also discover that the minidisks have time-varying tilts with respect to the orbital plane similar in magnitude to the circumbinary disk's aspect ratio. The unsigned poloidal flux on the black hole event horizon is roughly constant at a dimensionless level $\phi\sim 2-3$, but doubles just before merger; if the black holes had significant spin, this flux could support jets whose power could approach the radiated luminosity. This simulation is the first to employ our multipatch infrastructure \pwmhd, decreasing computational expense per physical time to $\sim 3\%$ of similar runs using conventional single-grid methods.

7.One to many: comparing single gravitational-wave events to astrophysical populations

Authors:Matthew Mould, Davide Gerosa, Marco Dall'Amico, Michela Mapelli

Abstract: Gravitational-wave observations have revealed sources whose unusual properties challenge our understanding of compact-binary formation. Inferring the formation processes that are best able to reproduce such events may therefore yield key astrophysical insights. A common approach is to simulate a population of mergers and count the fraction of these synthetic events that lie within a chosen region in the measured parameters of a real event. Though appealing owing to its simplicity, this approach is flawed because it neglects the full posterior information, depends on a heuristically constructed confidence region, and fails for high signal-to-noise detections. We point out that the statistically consistent solution is to compute the posterior odds between two simulated populations, which crucially is a relative measure, and show how to include the effect of observational biases by conditioning on source detectability. Applying the approach to several gravitational-wave events and astrophysical populations, we assess the degree to which we can conclude model preference not just between distinct formation pathways but also between subpopulations within a given pathway.

8.Rapid X-ray variability of the gamma-ray binary LS I+61 303

Authors:J. Lopez-Miralles, Sara E. Motta, S. Migliari, F. Jaron

Abstract: The gamma-ray binary LS I+61 303 has been widely monitored at different wavelengths since its discovery more than sixty years ago. However, the nature of the compact object and the peculiar behavior of the system are still largely debated. Aimed at investigating the rapid X-ray variability of LS I+61 303, we have analysed all the archival RXTE/PCA data of the source, taken between 1996 and 2011. The timing analysis yields a periodicity of $P\sim 26.6\pm 0.3$ days, which is statistically compatible with several periodicities reported in the literature for LS I+61 303. Using this period, we performed a data phase-resolved analysis to produce a set of phase-bin-averaged energy spectra and power density spectra. These power density spectra are dominated by weak red noise below 0.1 Hz, and show no signal above this frequency. The amplitude of the red noise varies mildly with the phase, and shows a maximum that coincides with a dip of the X-ray flux and a softer photon index. Aside from low-frequency noise, this analysis does not provide any statistically significant periodic or quasi-periodic timing feature in the RXTE/PCA data of LS I+61 303.

9.Simultaneous and panchromatic observations of the Fast Radio Burst FRB 20180916B

Authors:M. Trudu, M. Pilia, L. Nicastro, C. Guidorzi, M. Orlandini, L. Zampieri, V. R. Marthi, F. Ambrosino, A. Possenti, M. Burgay, C. Casentini, I. Mereminskiy, V. Savchenko, E. Palazzi, F. Panessa, A. Ridolfi, F. Verrecchia, M. Anedda, G. Bernardi, M. Bachetti, R. Burenin, A. Burtovoi, P. Casella, M. Fiori, F. Frontera, V. Gajjar, A. Gardini, M. Ge, A. Guijarro-Román, A. Ghedina, I. Hermelo, S. Jia, C. Li, J. Liao, X. Li, F. Lu, A. Lutivinov, G. Naletto, P. Ochener, A. Papitto, M. Perri, C. Pittori, B. Safanov, A. Semena, I. Strakhov, M. Tavani, A. Ursi, S. L. Xiong, S. N. Zhang, S. Zheltoukhov

Abstract: Aims. Fast Radio Bursts are bright radio transients whose origin has not yet explained. The search for a multi-wavelength counterpart of those events can put a tight constrain on the emission mechanism and the progenitor source. Methods. We conducted a multi-wavelength observational campaign on FRB 20180916B between October 2020 and August 2021 during eight activity cycles of the source. Observations were led in the radio band by the SRT both at 336 MHz and 1547 MHz and the uGMRT at 400 MHz. Simultaneous observations have been conducted by the optical telescopes Asiago (Galileo and Copernico), CMO SAI MSU, CAHA 2.2m, RTT-150 and TNG, and X/Gamma-ray detectors on board the AGILE, Insight-HXMT, INTEGRAL and Swift satellites. Results. We present the detection of 14 new bursts detected with the SRT at 336 MHz and seven new bursts with the uGMRT from this source. We provide the deepest prompt upper limits in the optical band fro FRB 20180916B to date. In fact, the TNG/SiFAP2 observation simultaneous to a burst detection by uGMRT gives an upper limit E_optical / E_radio < 1.3 x 10^2. Another burst detected by the SRT at 336 MHz was also co-observed by Insight-HMXT. The non-detection in the X-rays yields an upper limit (1-30 keV band) of E_X-ray / E_radio in the range of (0.9-1.3) x 10^7, depending on which model is considered for the X-ray emission.

1.Charge-Sign Dependent Cosmic-Ray Modulation Observed with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station

Authors:O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, A. Bruno, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, G. A. de Nolfo, K. Ebisawa, A. W. Ficklin, H. Fuke, S. Gonzi, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kobayashi, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, S. Sugita, A. Sulaj, M. Takita, T. Tamura, T. Terasawa, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida, W. V. Zober

Abstract: We present the observation of a charge-sign dependent solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with the CALorimetric Electron Telescope onboard the International Space Station over 6 yr, corresponding to the positive polarity of the solar magnetic field. The observed variation of proton count rate is consistent with the neutron monitor count rate, validating our methods for determining the proton count rate. It is observed by the CALorimetric Electron Telescope that both GCR electron and proton count rates at the same average rigidity vary in anticorrelation with the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet, while the amplitude of the variation is significantly larger in the electron count rate than in the proton count rate. We show that this observed charge-sign dependence is reproduced by a numerical ``drift model'' of the GCR transport in the heliosphere. This is a clear signature of the drift effect on the long-term solar modulation observed with a single detector.

2.Constraining models for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with a novel combined analysis of arrival directions, spectrum, and composition data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory

Authors:The Pierre Auger Collaboration, A. Abdul Halim, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, I. Allekotte, K. Almeida Cheminant, A. Almela, R. Aloisio, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, J. Ammerman Yebra, G. A. Anastasi, L. Anchordoqui, B. Andrada, S. Andringa, C. Aramo, P. R. Araújo Ferreira, E. Arnone, J. C. Arteaga Velázquez, H. Asorey, P. Assis, G. Avila, E. Avocone, A. M. Badescu, A. Bakalova, A. Balaceanu, F. Barbato, A. Bartz Mocellin, J. A. Bellido, C. Berat, M. E. Bertaina, G. Bhatta, M. Bianciotto, P. L. Biermann, V. Binet, K. Bismark, T. Bister, J. Biteau, J. Blazek, C. Bleve, J. Blümer, M. Boháčová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, L. Bonneau Arbeletche, N. Borodai, J. Brack, P. G. Brichetto Orchera, F. L. Briechle, A. Bueno, S. Buitink, M. Buscemi, M. Büsken, A. Bwembya, K. S. Caballero-Mora, L. Caccianiga, I. Caracas, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, F. Catalani, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, M. Cerda, J. A. Chinellato, J. Chudoba, L. Chytka, R. W. Clay, A. C. Cobos Cerutti, R. Colalillo, A. Coleman, M. R. Coluccia, R. Conceição, A. Condorelli, G. Consolati, M. Conte, F. Convenga, D. Correia dos Santos, P. J. Costa, C. E. Covault, M. Cristinziani, C. S. Cruz Sanchez, S. Dasso, K. Daumiller, B. R. Dawson, R. M. de Almeida, J. de Jesús, S. J. de Jong, J. R. T. de Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, J. de Oliveira, D. de Oliveira Franco, F. de Palma, V. de Souza, E. De Vito, A. Del Popolo, O. Deligny, L. Deval, A. di Matteo, M. Dobre, C. Dobrigkeit, J. C. D'Olivo, L. M. Domingues Mendes, J. C. dos Anjos, R. C. dos Anjos, J. Ebr, F. Ellwanger, M. Emam, R. Engel, I. Epicoco, M. Erdmann, A. Etchegoyen, C. Evoli, H. Falcke, J. Farmer, G. Farrar, A. C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, F. Feldbusch, F. Fenu, A. Fernandes, B. Fick, J. M. Figueira, A. Filipčič, T. Fitoussi, B. Flaggs, T. Fodran, T. Fujii, A. Fuster, C. Galea, C. Galelli, B. García, C. Gaudu, H. Gemmeke, F. Gesualdi, A. Gherghel-Lascu, P. L. Ghia, U. Giaccari, M. Giammarchi, J. Glombitza, F. Gobbi, F. Gollan, G. Golup, M. Gómez Berisso, P. F. Gómez Vitale, J. P. Gongora, J. M. González, N. González, I. Goos, D. Góra, A. Gorgi, M. Gottowik, T. D. Grubb, F. Guarino, G. P. Guedes, E. Guido, S. Hahn, P. Hamal, M. R. Hampel, P. Hansen, D. Harari, V. M. Harvey, A. Haungs, T. Hebbeker, C. Hojvat, J. R. Hörandel, P. Horvath, M. Hrabovský, T. Huege, A. Insolia, P. G. Isar, P. Janecek, J. A. Johnsen, J. Jurysek, A. Kääpä, K. H. Kampert, B. Keilhauer, A. Khakurdikar, V. V. Kizakke Covilakam, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, F. Knapp, N. Kunka, B. L. Lago, N. Langner, M. A. Leigui de Oliveira, Y Lema-Capeans, V. Lenok, A. Letessier-Selvon, I. Lhenry-Yvon, D. Lo Presti, L. Lopes, L. Lu, Q. Luce, J. P. Lundquist, A. Machado Payeras, M. Majercakova, D. Mandat, B. C. Manning, P. Mantsch, S. Marafico, F. M. Mariani, A. G. Mariazzi, I. C. Mariş, G. Marsella, D. Martello, S. Martinelli, O. Martínez Bravo, M. A. Martins, M. Mastrodicasa, H. J. Mathes, J. Matthews, G. Matthiae, E. Mayotte, S. Mayotte, P. O. Mazur, G. Medina-Tanco, J. Meinert, D. Melo, A. Menshikov, C. Merx, S. Michal, M. I. Micheletti, L. Miramonti, S. Mollerach, F. Montanet, L. Morejon, C. Morello, A. L. Müller, K. Mulrey, R. Mussa, M. Muzio, W. M. Namasaka, A. Nasr-Esfahani, L. Nellen, G. Nicora, M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. Niechciol, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, V. Novotny, L. Nožka, A Nucita, L. A. Núñez, C. Oliveira, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, G. Parente, J. Pawlowsky, M. Pech, J. Pękala, R. Pelayo, L. A. S. Pereira, E. E. Pereira Martins, J. Perez Armand, C. Pérez Bertolli, L. Perrone, S. Petrera, C. Petrucci, T. Pierog, M. Pimenta, M. Platino, B. Pont, M. Pothast, M. Pourmohammad Shahvar, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, A. Puyleart, S. Querchfeld, J. Rautenberg, D. Ravignani, M. Reininghaus, J. Ridky, F. Riehn, M. Risse, V. Rizi, W. Rodrigues de Carvalho, E. Rodriguez, J. Rodriguez Rojo, M. J. Roncoroni, S. Rossoni, M. Roth, A. C. Rovero, P. Ruehl, A. Saftoiu, M. Saharan, F. Salamida, H. Salazar, G. Salina, J. D. Sanabria Gomez, F. Sánchez, E. M. Santos, E. Santos, F. Sarazin, R. Sarmento, R. Sato, P. Savina, C. M. Schäfer, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, M. Schimassek, M. Schimp, F. Schlüter, D. Schmidt, O. Scholten, H. Schoorlemmer, P. Schovánek, F. G. Schröder, J. Schulte, T. Schulz, S. J. Sciutto, M. Scornavacche, A. Segreto, S. Sehgal, S. U. Shivashankara, G. Sigl, G. Silli, O. Sima, F. Simon, R. Smau, R. Šmída, P. Sommers, J. F. Soriano, R. Squartini, M. Stadelmaier, D. Stanca, S. Stanič, J. Stasielak, P. Stassi, M. Straub, A. Streich, M. Suárez-Durán, T. Suomijärvi, A. D. Supanitsky, Z. Svozilikova, Z. Szadkowski, A. Tapia, C. Taricco, C. Timmermans, O. Tkachenko, P. Tobiska, C. J. Todero Peixoto, B. Tomé, Z. Torrès, A. Travaini, P. Travnicek, C. Trimarelli, M. Tueros, M. Unger, L. Vaclavek, M. Vacula, J. F. Valdés Galicia, L. Valore, E. Varela, A. Vásquez-Ramírez, D. Veberič, C. Ventura, I. D. Vergara Quispe, V. Verzi, J. Vicha, J. Vink, J. Vlastimil, S. Vorobiov, C. Watanabe, A. A. Watson, A. Weindl, L. Wiencke, H. Wilczyński, D. Wittkowski, B. Wundheiler, B. Yue, A. Yushkov, O. Zapparrata, E. Zas, D. Zavrtanik, M. Zavrtanik

Abstract: The combined fit of the measured energy spectrum and shower maximum depth distributions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is known to constrain the parameters of astrophysical models with homogeneous source distributions. Studies of the distribution of the cosmic-ray arrival directions show a better agreement with models in which a fraction of the flux is non-isotropic and associated with the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A or with catalogs such as that of starburst galaxies. Here, we present a novel combination of both analyses by a simultaneous fit of arrival directions, energy spectrum, and composition data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory. We find that a model containing a flux contribution from the starburst galaxy catalog of around 20% at 40 EeV with a magnetic field blurring of around $20^\circ$ for a rigidity of 10 EV provides a fair simultaneous description of all three observables. The starburst galaxy model is favored with a significance of $4.5\sigma$ (considering experimental systematic effects) compared to a reference model with only homogeneously distributed background sources. By investigating a scenario with Centaurus A as a single source in combination with the homogeneous background, we confirm that this region of the sky provides the dominant contribution to the observed anisotropy signal. Models containing a catalog of jetted active galactic nuclei whose flux scales with the $\gamma$-ray emission are, however, disfavored as they cannot adequately describe the measured arrival directions.

3.Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to TeV photon emission from the Large Magellanic Cloud

Authors:The Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium

Abstract: A deep survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud at ~0.1-100TeV photon energies with the Cherenkov Telescope Array is planned. We assess the detection prospects based on a model for the emission of the galaxy, comprising the four known TeV emitters, mock populations of sources, and interstellar emission on galactic scales. We also assess the detectability of 30 Doradus and SN 1987A, and the constraints that can be derived on the nature of dark matter. The survey will allow for fine spectral studies of N157B, N132D, LMC P3, and 30 Doradus C, and half a dozen other sources should be revealed, mainly pulsar-powered objects. The remnant from SN 1987A could be detected if it produces cosmic-ray nuclei with a flat power-law spectrum at high energies, or with a steeper index 2.3-2.4 pending a flux increase by a factor >3-4 over ~2015-2035. Large-scale interstellar emission remains mostly out of reach of the survey if its >10GeV spectrum has a soft photon index ~2.7, but degree-scale 0.1-10TeV pion-decay emission could be detected if the cosmic-ray spectrum hardens above >100GeV. The 30 Doradus star-forming region is detectable if acceleration efficiency is on the order of 1-10% of the mechanical luminosity and diffusion is suppressed by two orders of magnitude within <100pc. Finally, the survey could probe the canonical velocity-averaged cross section for self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles for cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White profiles.

4.A spectral-timing study of the inner flow geometry in MAXI J1535--571 with $Insight$-HXMT and NICER

Authors:Wei Yu, Qing-Cui Bu, He-Xin Liu, Yue Huang, Liang Zhang, Zi-Xu Yang, Jin-Lu Qu, Shu Zhang, Li-Ming Song, Shuang-Nan Zhang, Shu-Mei Jia, Xiang Ma, Lian Tao, Ming-Yu Ge, Qing-Zhong Liu, Jing-Zhi Yan, Xue-Lei Cao, Zhi Chang, Li Chen, Yong Chen, Yu-Peng Chen, Guo-Qiang Ding, Ju Guan, Jing Jin, Ling-Da Kong, Bing Li, Cheng-Kui Li, Ti-Pei Li, Xiao-Bo Li, Jin-Yuan Liao, Bai-Sheng Liu, Cong-Zhan Liu, Fang-Jun Lu, Rui-Can Ma, Jian-Yin Nie, Xiao-Qin Ren, Na Sai, Ying Tan, You-Li Tuo, Ling-Jun Wang, Peng-Ju Wang, Bai-Yang Wu, Guang-Cheng Xiao, Qian-Qing Yin, Yuan You, Juan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yue-Xin Zhang, Hai-Sheng Zhao, Shi-Jie Zheng, Deng-Ke Zhou

Abstract: We have performed a spectral-timing analysis on the black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1535--571 during its 2017 outburst, with the aim of exploring the evolution of the inner accretion flow geometry. X-ray reverberation lags are observed in the hard-intermediate state (HIMS) and soft-intermediate state (SIMS) of the outburst. During the HIMS, the characteristic frequency of the reverberation lags $\nu_0$ (the frequency at which the soft lag turns to zero in the lag-frequency spectra) increases when the spectrum softens. This reflects a reduction of the spatial distance between the corona and accretion disc, when assuming the measured time lags are associated with the light travel time. We also find a strong correlation between $\nu_0$ and type-C Quasi Periodic Oscillation (QPO) centroid frequency $\nu_{QPO}$, which can be well explained by the Lense-Thirring (L-T) precession model under a truncated disk geometry. Despite the degeneracy in the spectral modellings, our results suggest that the accretion disc is largely truncated in the low hard state (LHS), and moves inward as the spectrum softens. Combine the spectral modelling results with the $\nu_0$ - $\nu_{QPO}$ evolution, we are inclined to believe that this source probably have a truncated disk geometry in the hard state.

5.The FAST Galactic Plane Pulsar Snapshot Survey: IV. Timing results of 30 FAST-GPPS discovered pulsars

Authors:W. Q. Su, J. L. Han, P. F. Wang, J. P. Yuan, Chen Wang, D. J. Zhou, Tao Wang, Yi Yan, W. C. Jing, Z. L. Yang, N. N. Cai, Xue Chen, Jun Xu, Lang Xie, H. G. Wang, R. X. Xu, X. P. You

Abstract: Timing observations are crucial for determining the physical properties of newly discovered pulsars. Using the L-band 19-beam receiver of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), the FAST Galactic Plane Pulsar Snapshot (GPPS) survey has discovered many faint and weak pulsars, which are hardly detected using other radio telescopes in limited observation time. To obtain accurate position, spin parameters, dispersion measure, and to calculate derived parameters such as characteristic age and surface magnetic fields, we collect available FAST pulsar data obtained either through targeted following-up observations or coincidental survey observations with one of the 19 beams of the L-band 19-beam receiver. From these data we get the time of arrival (TOA) measurements for 30 newly discovered pulsars as well as 13 known pulsars. We demonstrate that TOA measurements from any beams of the L-band 19-beam receiver acquired through any FAST observation mode (e.g., the tracking mode or the snapshot mode) can be combined together for getting timing solutions. We update the ephemeris of 13 previously known pulsars and obtained the first phase-coherent timing results for 30 isolated pulsars discovered in the FAST GPPS survey. Notably, PSR J1904+0853 is an isolated millisecond pulsar, PSR J1906+0757 is a disrupted recycled pulsar, and PSR J1856+0211 is a long-period pulsar that can constrain pulsar death lines. Based on these timing solutions, all available FAST data can be added together to get the best pulse profiles.

6.Particle acceleration with Magnetic Reconnection in large scale RMHD simulations: I. Current sheet identification and characterization

Authors:Matteo Nurisso, Annalisa Celotti, Andrea Mignone, Gianluigi Bodo

Abstract: We present a new algorithm for the identification and physical characterization of current sheets and reconnection sites in 2D and 3D large scale relativisticmagnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. This has been implemented in the PLUTO code and tested in the cases of a single current sheet, a 2D jet and a 3D unstable plasma column. Its main features are: a) a computational cost which allows its use in large scale simulations; b) the capability to deal with complex 2D and 3D structures of the reconnection sites. In the performed simulations, we identify the computational cells that are part of a current sheet by a measure of the gradient of the magnetic field along different directions. Lagrangian particles, which follow the fluid, are used to sample plasma parameters before entering the reconnection sites that form during the evolution of the different configurations considered. Specifically, we track the distributions of the magnetization parameter $\sigma$ and the thermal to magnetic pressure ratio $\beta$ that - according to particle-in-cell simulation results - control the properties of particle acceleration in magnetic reconnection regions. Despite the initial conditions of the simulations were not chosen "ad hoc", the 3D simulation returns results suitable for efficient particle acceleration and realistic non-thermal particle distributions.

7.QCD, Gravitational Waves, and Pulsars

Authors:Partha Bagchi, Oindrila Ganguly, Biswanath Layek, Anjishnu Sarkar, Ajit M. Srivastava

Abstract: Investigations of the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) have revealed that exotic new phases, the so called {\it color superconducting phases}, may arise at very high baryon densities. It is speculated that these exotic phases may arise in the cores of neutron stars. Focus on neutrons stars has tremendously intensified in recent years with the direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) by LIGO/Virgo from BNS merger events which has allowed the possibility of directly probing the properties of the interior of a neutron star. A remarkable phenomenon manifested by rapidly rotating neutron stars is in their {\it avatar} as {\it Pulsars}. The accuracy of pulsar timing can reach the level of one part in 10$^{15}$, comparable to that of atomic clocks. This suggests that even a tiny deformation of the pulsar can leave its imprints on the pulses by inducing tiny perturbations in the entire moment of inertia (MI) tensor affecting the pulse timings, as well as the pulse profile (from wobbling induced by off-diagonal MI components). This may allow a new probe of various phase transitions occurring inside a pulsar core through induced density fluctuations affecting the MI tensor. Such perturbations also naturally induce a rapidly changing quadrupole moment of the star, thereby providing a new source of gravitational wave emission. Another remarkable possibility arises when we consider the effect of an external GW on neutron star. With the possibility of detecting any minute changes in its configuration through pulse observations, the neutron star has the potential of performing as a Weber detector of gravitational wave. This brief review will focus on these specific aspects of a pulsar. Specifically, the focus will be on the type of physics which can be probed by utilizing the effect of changes in the MI tensor of the pulsar on pulse properties.

8.The First LHAASO Catalog of Gamma-Ray Sources

Authors:Zhen Cao The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Aharonian The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. An The LHAASO Collaboration, Axikegu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. X. Bai The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. W. Bao The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Bastieri The LHAASO Collaboration, X. J. Bi The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. J. Bi The LHAASO Collaboration, J. T. Cai The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Cao The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Y. Cao The LHAASO Collaboration, Zhe Cao The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Chang The LHAASO Collaboration, J. F. Chang The LHAASO Collaboration, A. M. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, E. S. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Liang Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Lin Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Long Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, M. J. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, M. L. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. H. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, S. H. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, S. Z. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, T. L. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, N. Cheng The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. D. Cheng The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Y. Cui The LHAASO Collaboration, S. W. Cui The LHAASO Collaboration, X. H. Cui The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. D. Cui The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Z. Dai The LHAASO Collaboration, H. L. Dai The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. G. Dai The LHAASO Collaboration, Danzengluobu The LHAASO Collaboration, D. della Volpe The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Q. Dong The LHAASO Collaboration, K. K. Duan The LHAASO Collaboration, J. H. Fan The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Z. Fan The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Fang The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Fang The LHAASO Collaboration, C. F. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, S. H. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, X. T. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. L. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, S. Gabici The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, C. D. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Q. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, W. K. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, M. M. Ge The LHAASO Collaboration, L. S. Geng The LHAASO Collaboration, G. Giacinti The LHAASO Collaboration, G. H. Gong The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. B. Gou The LHAASO Collaboration, M. H. Gu The LHAASO Collaboration, F. L. Guo The LHAASO Collaboration, X. L. Guo The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Q. Guo The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Y. Guo The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. A. Han The LHAASO Collaboration, H. H. He The LHAASO Collaboration, H. N. He The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Y. He The LHAASO Collaboration, X. B. He The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. He The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Heller The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. K. Hor The LHAASO Collaboration, B. W. Hou The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Hou The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Hou The LHAASO Collaboration, H. B. Hu The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Hu The LHAASO Collaboration, S. C. Hu The LHAASO Collaboration, D. H. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, T. Q. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, W. J. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. T. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Y. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. C. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. L. Ji The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Y. Jia The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Jia The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Jiang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. W. Jiang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. J. Jiang The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Jin The LHAASO Collaboration, M. M. Kang The LHAASO Collaboration, T. Ke The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Kuleshov The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Kurinov The LHAASO Collaboration, B. B. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Cheng Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Cong Li The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, H. B. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, H. C. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Y. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Jian Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Jie Li The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, W. L. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, W. L. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, X. R. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Xin Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Z. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Zhe Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Zhuo Li The LHAASO Collaboration, E. W. Liang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. F. Liang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. J. Lin The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. D. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, J. L. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Y. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Y. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Y. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, S. M. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. N. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Lu The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Luo The LHAASO Collaboration, H. K. Lv The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Q. Ma The LHAASO Collaboration, L. L. Ma The LHAASO Collaboration, X. H. Ma The LHAASO Collaboration, J. R. Mao The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. Min The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Mitthumsiri The LHAASO Collaboration, H. J. Mu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. C. Nan The LHAASO Collaboration, A. Neronov The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. W. Ou The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Y. Pang The LHAASO Collaboration, P. Pattarakijwanich The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. Y. Pei The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Y. Qi The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Q. Qi The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Q. Qiao The LHAASO Collaboration, J. J. Qin The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Ruffolo The LHAASO Collaboration, A. Sáiz The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Semikoz The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Y. Shao The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Shao The LHAASO Collaboration, O. Shchegolev The LHAASO Collaboration, X. D. Sheng The LHAASO Collaboration, F. W. Shu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. C. Song The LHAASO Collaboration, Yu. V. Stenkin The LHAASO Collaboration, V. Stepanov The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Su The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. N. Sun The LHAASO Collaboration, X. N. Sun The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. B. Sun The LHAASO Collaboration, P. H. T. Tam The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. W. Tang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. B. Tang The LHAASO Collaboration, W. W. Tian The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, C. B. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, G. W. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. G. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. H. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, J. C. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, L. P. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Y. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, P. H. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. G. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Y. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. D. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. J. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. H. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. X. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Zhen Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Zheng Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, D. M. Wei The LHAASO Collaboration, J. J. Wei The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. J. Wei The LHAASO Collaboration, T. Wen The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Y. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. R. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, S. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, X. F. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. S. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, S. Q. Xi The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Xia The LHAASO Collaboration, J. J. Xia The LHAASO Collaboration, G. M. Xiang The LHAASO Collaboration, D. X. Xiao The LHAASO Collaboration, G. Xiao The LHAASO Collaboration, G. G. Xin The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. L. Xin The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Xing The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. Xiong The LHAASO Collaboration, D. L. Xu The LHAASO Collaboration, R. F. Xu The LHAASO Collaboration, R. X. Xu The LHAASO Collaboration, W. L. Xu The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Xue The LHAASO Collaboration, D. H. Yan The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Z. Yan The LHAASO Collaboration, T. Yan The LHAASO Collaboration, C. W. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, F. F. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. W. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Y. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, L. L. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, M. J. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Z. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. B. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. H. Yao The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. G. Yao The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. M. Ye The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Q. Yin The LHAASO Collaboration, N. Yin The LHAASO Collaboration, X. H. You The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. Y. You The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. H. Yu The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Yuan The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Yue The LHAASO Collaboration, H. D. Zeng The LHAASO Collaboration, T. X. Zeng The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Zeng The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Zha The LHAASO Collaboration, B. B. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. M. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Y. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, J. L. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, L. X. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, Li Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, P. F. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, P. P. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. B. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. R. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. S. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. P. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. F. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, Yi Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, Yong Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Z. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, S. P. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Zheng The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, J. N. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, P. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, X. X. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, C. G. Zhu The LHAASO Collaboration, F. R. Zhu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Zhu The LHAASO Collaboration, K. J. Zhu The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Zuo. The LHAASO Collaboration

Abstract: We present the first catalog of very-high energy and ultra-high energy $\gamma$-ray sources detected by the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), using 508 days of data collected by the Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA) from March 2021 to September 2022 and 933 days of data recorded by the Kilometer Squared Array (KM2A) from January 2020 to September 2022. This catalog represents the most sensitive $E > 1$ TeV gamma-ray survey of the sky covering declination from $-$20$^{\circ}$ to 80$^{\circ}$. In total, the catalog contains 90 sources with extended size smaller than $2^\circ$ and with significance of detection at $> 5\sigma$. For each source, we provide its position, extension and spectral characteristics. Furthermore, based on our source association criteria, 32 new TeV sources are proposed in this study. Additionally, 43 sources are detected with ultra-high energy ($E > 100$ TeV) emission at $> 4\sigma$ significance level.

9.K2 Optical Emission from OJ 287 and Other Gamma-Ray Blazars on Hours-to-Weeks Timescales from 2014-2018

Authors:Ann E. Wehrle Space Science Institute, Michael Carini Western Kentucky University, Paul J. Wiita The College of New Jersey, Joshua Pepper Lehigh University, B. Scott Gaudi The Ohio State University, Richard W. Pogge The Ohio State Univserity, Keivan G. Stassun Vanderbilt University, Steven Villaneuva, Jr. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Abstract: We present second observations by K2 of OJ~287 and 7 other $\gamma$-ray AGNs obtained in 2017-2018, second and third observations of the lobe-dominated, steep spectrum quasar 3C~207, and observations of 9 additional blazars not previously observed with K2. The AGN were observed simultaneously with K2 and the Fermi Large Area Telescope for 51-81 days. Our full sample, observed in 2014-2018, contained 16 BL Lac objects (BL Lacs), 9 Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs), and 4 other $\gamma$-ray AGNs. Twelve BL Lacs and 7 FSRQs exhibited fast, jagged light curves while 4 BL Lacs and 2 FSRQs had slow, smooth light curves. Some objects changed their red-noise character significantly between repeated K2 observations. The optical characteristics of OJ~287 derived from the short-cadence K2 light curves changed between observations made before and after the predicted passage of the suspected secondary supermassive black hole through the accretion disk of the primary supermassive black hole. The average slopes of the periodogram power spectral densities of the BL Lacs' and FSRQs' light curves differed significantly, by $\approx 12$\%, with the BL Lac slopes being steeper, and a KS test with a $p$-value of 0.039 indicates that these samples probably come from different populations; however, this result is not as strongly supported by PSRESP analyses. Differences in the origin of the jets from the ergosphere or accretion disk in these two classes could produce such a disparity, as could different sizes or locations of emission regions within the jets.

10.Sun is a cosmic ray TeVatron

Authors:Prabir Banik, Arunava Bhadra, Sanjay K. Ghosh

Abstract: Very recently, HAWC observatory discovered the high-energy gamma ray emission from the solar disk during the quiescent stage of the sun, extending the Fermi-LAT detection of intense, hard emission between 0.1 - 200 GeV to TeV energies. The flux of these observed gamma-rays is significantly higher than that theoretically expected from hadronic interactions of galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. More importantly, spectral slope of Fermi and HAWC observed gamma ray energy spectra differ significantly from that of galactic cosmic rays casting doubt on the prevailing galactic cosmic ray ancestry model of solar disk gamma rays. In this letter, we argue that the quiet sun can accelerate cosmic rays to TeV energies with an appropriate flux level in the solar chromosphere, as the solar chromosphere in its quiet state probably possesses the required characteristics to accelerate cosmic rays to TeV energies. Consequently, the mystery of the origin of observed gamma rays from the solar disc can be resolved consistently through the hadronic interaction of these cosmic rays with solar matter above the photosphere in a quiet state. The upcoming IceCube-Gen2 detector should be able to validate the proposed model in future through observation of TeV muon neutrino flux from the solar disk. The proposed idea should have major implications on the origin of galactic cosmic rays.

11.Monte Carlo Radiation Transport for Astrophysical Transients Powered by Circumstellar Interaction

Authors:Gururaj A. Wagle, Emmanouil Chatzopoulos, Ryan Wollaeger, Christopher J. Fontes

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce \texttt{SuperLite}, an open-source Monte Carlo radiation transport code designed to produce synthetic spectra for astrophysical transient phenomena affected by circumstellar interaction. \texttt{SuperLite} utilizes Monte Carlo methods for semi-implicit, semi-relativistic radiation transport in high-velocity shocked outflows, employing multi-group structured opacity calculations. The code enables rapid post-processing of hydrodynamic profiles to generate high-quality spectra that can be compared with observations of transient events, including superluminous supernovae, pulsational pair-instability supernovae, and other peculiar transients. We present the methods employed in \texttt{SuperLite} and compare the code's performance to that of other radiative transport codes, such as \texttt{SuperNu} and CMFGEN. We show that \texttt{SuperLite} has successfully passed standard Monte Carlo radiation transport tests and can reproduce spectra of typical supernovae of Type Ia, Type IIP and Type IIn.

12.Dynamical friction in dark matter spikes: corrections to Chandrasekhar's formula

Authors:Fani Dosopoulou

Abstract: We consider the intermediate mass-ratio inspiral of a stellar-mass compact object with an intermediate-mass black hole that is surrounded by a dark matter density spike. The interaction of the inspiraling black hole with the dark matter particles in the spike leads to dynamical friction. This can alter the dynamics of the black hole binary, leaving an imprint on the gravitational wave signal. Previous calculations did not include in the evaluation of the dynamical friction coefficient the contribution from particles that move faster than the black hole. This term is neglected in the standard Chandrasekhar's treatment where only slower moving particles contribute to the decelerating drag. Here, we demonstrate that dynamical friction produced by the fast moving particles has a significant effect on the evolution of a massive binary within a dark matter spike. For a density profile $\rho\propto r^{-\gamma}$ with $\gamma\lesssim 1$, the dephasing of the gravitational waveform can be several orders of magnitude larger than estimated using the standard treatment. As $\gamma$ approaches $0.5$ the error becomes arbitrarily large. Finally, we show that dynamical friction tends to make the orbit more eccentric for any $\gamma < 1.8$. However, energy loss by gravitational wave radiation is expected to dominate the inspiral, leading to orbital circularization in most cases.

1.Timing the X-ray pulsating companion of the hot-subdwarf HD 49798 with NICER

Authors:Michela Rigoselli, Davide De Grandis, Sandro Mereghetti, Christian~Malacaria

Abstract: HD 49798 is a hot subdwarf of O spectral type in a 1.55 day orbit with the X-ray source RX J0648.0-4418, a compact object with spin period of 13.2 s. We use recent data from the NICER instrument, joined with archival data from XMM-Newton and ROSAT, to obtain a phase-connected timing solution spanning ~30 years. Contrary to previous works, that relied on parameters determined through optical observations, the new timing solution could be derived using only X-ray data. We confirm that the compact object is steadily spinning up with Pdot = -2.28(2)x10^-15 s/s and obtain a refined measure of the projected semi-major axis of the compact object aX sini = 9.60(5) lightsec. This allows us to determine the inclination and masses of the system as i = 84.5(7) deg, MX = 1.220(8) Msun and Mopt = 1.41(2) Msun. We also study possible long term (~year) and orbital variations of the soft X-ray pulsed flux, without finding evidence for variability. In the light of the new findings, we discuss the nature of the compact object, concluding that the possibility of a neutron star in the subsonic propeller regime is unlikely, while accretion of the subdwarf wind onto a massive white dwarf can explain the observed luminosity and spin-up rate for a wind velocity of ~800 km/s.

2.MASTER OT J030227.28+191754.5: a dwarf nova at a massive oxygen-neon white-dwarf system ?

Authors:Mariko Kimura, Kazumi Kashiyama, Toshikazu Shigeyama, Yusuke Tampo, Shinya Yamada, Teruaki Enoto

Abstract: We present timing and spectral analysis results of the {\it NICER} and {\it NuSTAR} observations of the dwarf nova MASTER OT J030227.28$+$191754.5 during the 2021--2022 outburst. The soft X-ray component was found to be dominated by blackbody radiation with a temperature of $\sim$30 eV and also showed prominent oxygen and neon emission lines. The blackbody luminosity exceeded 10$^{34}$ ergs s$^{-1}$, which is consistent with theoretical predictions, and then decreased more than an order of magnitude in 3.5 days. The inferred abundances of oxygen and neon in the optically-thin coronal region surrounding the central white dwarf (WD) are several times higher than the respective solar values. Although inconclusive, the abundance enrichment may originate from the WD, indicating that it may be mainly composed of oxygen and neon. Assuming that the blackbody radiation comes from the belt-shaped boundary layer between the WD and the accretion disk, we estimated the WD radius to be $(2.9\pm1.1)\times10^{8}$ cm, which corresponds to the WD mass range of 1.15--1.34 $M_{\odot}$. If the accretion continues for another $\sim$Gyr, the WD may experience an accretion-induced collapse into a neutron star and form a so-called black-widow pulsar system.

3.Solution To The Cosmic Rays Puzzle ?

Authors:Shlomo Dado, Arnon Dar

Abstract: Recent observations provide compelling evidence that the bulk of the high energy cosmic rays (CRs) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are co-produced by highly relativistic jets of plasmoids of stellar matter. These jets are launched by fall back matter on newly born neutron stars and stellar black holes in core collapse of stripped envelope massive stars with or without an associated supernova. The electrons in the plasmoids produce GRB pulses mainly by inverse Compton scattering of photons on their path, while magnetic reflection of the charged particles produces the high energy cosmic rays.

4.On the Spectral Changes of OJ 287 -- I: Particle Spectrum during the Lowest X-ray state -- extended at Optical-UV and Hard at X-rays

Authors:Pankaj Kushwaha IISER-Mohali

Abstract: Blazar optical-UV emission is synchrotron with the observed spectral shape directly related to the underlying particle distribution. Here, we report the finding of an extended optical-UV spectrum with a power-law photon spectral index of $\rm 2.71\pm0.03$, continuing to the X-ray band during the lowest recorded X-ray flux state of the BL Lacetrae object OJ 287 by the Swift facility. Accounting for the synchrotron contribution at X-rays, we found an X-ray spectrum with a power-law photon spectral index of $\rm 1.22 \pm 0.22$, the hardest reported X-ray spectrum for the source. The inferred X-ray spectrum is consistent with the spectrum reported at hard energies from the study of the Swift-BAT data. We further found that this X-ray spectrum naturally reproduces most of the flat X-ray spectra when combined with the corresponding optical-UV continuum during the low and intermediate flux states implying synchrotron as the primary driver of most of the X-ray spectral changes in the LBL state of the source. Combined with sharp-steepening/cutoff of the optical-UV spectrum during bright phases, the extended-spectrum indicates a much larger emission region which may be related to the large-scale jet emission. The optical-UV and X-ray together trace the complete particle distribution required for the observed broadband emission with low and high-energy power-law particle spectral indices of $\rm 1.44 \pm 0.40$ and $\rm 4.42 \pm 0.06$ respectively.

5.An Optically Targeted Search for Gravitational Waves emitted by Core-Collapse Supernovae during the Third Observing Run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

Authors:Marek J. Szczepańczyk, Yanyan Zheng, Javier M. Antelis, Michael Benjamin, Marie-Anne Bizouard, Alejandro Casallas-Lagos, Pablo Cerdá-Durán, Derek Davis, Dorota Gondek-Rosińska, Sergey Klimenko, Claudia Moreno, Martin Obergaulinger, Jade Powell, Dymetris Ramirez, Brad Ratto, Colter Richarson, Abhinav Rijal, Amber L. Stuver, Paweł Szewczyk, Gabriele Vedovato, Michele Zanolin, Imre Bartos, Shubhagata Bhaumik, Tomasz Bulik, Marco Drago, José A. Font, Fabio De Colle, Juan García-Bellido, V. Gayathri, Brennan Hughey, Guenakh Mitselmakher, Tanmaya Mishra, Soma Mukherjee, Quynh Lan Nguyen, Man Leong Chan, Irene Di Palma, Brandon J. Piotrzkowski, Neha Singh

Abstract: We present the results from a search for gravitational-wave transients associated with core-collapse supernovae observed optically within 30 Mpc during the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. No gravitational wave associated with a core-collapse supernova has been identified. We then report the detection efficiency for a variety of possible gravitational-wave emissions. For neutrino-driven explosions, the distance at which we reach 50% detection efficiency is up to 8.9 kpc, while more energetic magnetorotationally-driven explosions are detectable at larger distances. The distance reaches for selected models of the black hole formation, and quantum chromodynamics phase transition are also provided. We then constrain the core-collapse supernova engine across a wide frequency range from 50 Hz to 2 kHz. The upper limits on gravitational-wave energy and luminosity emission are at low frequencies down to $10^{-4}\,M_\odot c^2$ and $5 \times 10^{-4}\,M_\odot c^2$/s, respectively. The upper limits on the proto-neutron star ellipticity are down to 5 at high frequencies. Finally, by combining the results obtained with the data from the first and second observing runs of LIGO and Virgo, we improve the constraints of the parameter spaces of the extreme emission models. Specifically, the proto-neutron star ellipticities for the long-lasting bar mode model are down to 1 for long emission (1 s) at high frequency.

6.Multiwavelength Characterization of the High Mass X-ray Binary Population of M33

Authors:Margaret Lazzarini, Kyros Hinton, Cheyanne Shariat, Benjamin F. Williams, Kristen Garofali, Julianne J. Dalcanton, Meredith Durbin, Vallia Antoniou, Breanna Binder, Michael Eracleous, Neven Vulic, Jun Yang, Daniel Wik, Aria Gasca, Quetzalcoatl Kuauhtzin

Abstract: We present multi-wavelength characterization of 65 high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) candidates in M33. We use the Chandra ACIS survey of M33 (ChASeM33) catalog to select hard X-ray point sources that are spatially coincident with UV-bright point source optical counterparts in the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury: Triangulum Extended Region (PHATTER) catalog, which covers the inner disk of M33 at near infrared, optical, and near ultraviolet wavelengths. We perform spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting on multi-band photometry for each point source optical counterpart to measure its physical properties including mass, temperature, luminosity, and radius. We find that the majority of the HMXB companion star candidates are likely B-type main sequence stars, suggesting that the HMXB population of M33 is dominated by Be-XRBs, as is seen in other Local Group galaxies. We use spatially-resolved recent star formation history (SFH) maps of M33 to measure the age distribution of the HMXB candidate sample and the HMXB production rate for M33. We find a bimodal distribution for the HMXB production rate over the last 80 Myr, with a peak at $\sim$10 Myr and $\sim$40 Myr, which match theoretical formation timescales for the most massive HMXBs and Be X-ray binaries (Be-XRBs), respectively. We measure an HMXB production rate of 107$-$136 HMXBs/(M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$) over the last 50 Myr and 150$-$199 HMXBs/(M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$) over the last 80 Myr. For sources with compact object classifications from overlapping NuSTAR observations, we find a preference for giant/supergiant companion stars in BH-HMXBs and main sequence companion stars in neutron star HMXBs (NS-HMXBs).

7.The early evolution of magnetar rotation -- II. Rapidly rotating magnetars: Implications for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Super Luminous Supernovae

Authors:Tejas Prasanna, Matthew S. B. Coleman, Matthias J. Raives, Todd A. Thompson

Abstract: Rapidly rotating magnetars have been associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe). Using a suite of 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulations at fixed neutrino luminosity and a couple of evolutionary models with evolving neutrino luminosity and magnetar spin period, we show that magnetars are viable central engines for powering GRBs and SLSNe. We also present analytic estimates of the energy outflow rate from the proto-neutron star (PNS) as a function polar magnetic field strength $B_0$, PNS angular velocity $\Omega_{\star}$, PNS radius $R_{\star}$ and mass outflow rate $\dot{M}$. We show that rapidly rotating magnetars with spin periods $P_{\star}\lesssim 4$ ms and polar magnetic field strength $B_0\gtrsim 10^{15}$ G can release $10^{50}-5\times 10^{51}$ ergs of energy during the first $\sim2$ s of the cooling phase. This magnitude of energy release is sufficient to power long duration GRBs. We also show that magnetars with moderate field strengths of $B_0\lesssim 5\times 10^{14}$ G do not release a large fraction of their rotational kinetic energy during the cooling phase and hence, are not likely to power GRBs. Although we cannot simulate to times greater than $\sim 3-5$ s after a supernova, we can hypothesize that moderate field strength magnetars can brighten the supernova light curves by releasing their rotational kinetic energy via magnetic dipole radiation on timescales of days to weeks, since these do not expend most of their rotational kinetic energy during the early cooling phase.

8.New Measurement of Muon Neutrino Disappearance from the IceCube Experiment

Authors:Shiqi Yu for the IceCube Collaboration

Abstract: The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a Cherenkov detector located at the South Pole. Its main component consists of an in-ice array of optical modules instrumenting one cubic kilometer of deep Glacial ice. The DeepCore sub-detector is a denser in-fill array with a lower energy threshold, allowing us to study atmospheric neutrinos oscillations with energy below 100 GeV arriving through the Earth. We present preliminary results of an atmospheric muon neutrino disappearance analysis using data from 2012 to 2021 and employing convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for precise and fast event reconstructions.

1.New constraints on the kinematic, relativistic and evolutionary properties of the PSR J1757$-$1854 double neutron star system

Authors:A. D. Cameron, M. Bailes, D. J. Champion, P. C. C. Freire, M. Kramer, M. A. McLaughlin, C. Ng, A. Possenti, A. Ridolfi, T. M. Tauris, H. M. Wahl, N. Wex

Abstract: PSR J1757$-$1854 is one of the most relativistic double neutron star binary systems known in our Galaxy, with an orbital period of $P_\text{b}=4.4\,\text{hr}$ and an orbital eccentricity of $e=0.61$. As such, it has promised to be an outstanding laboratory for conducting tests of relativistic gravity. We present the results of a 6-yr campaign with the 100-m Green Bank and 64-m Parkes radio telescopes, designed to capitalise on this potential. We identify secular changes in the profile morphology and polarisation of PSR J1757$-$1854, confirming the presence of geodetic precession and allowing the constraint of viewing geometry solutions consistent with General Relativity. We also update PSR J1757$-$1854's timing, including new constraints of the pulsar's proper motion, post-Keplerian parameters and component masses. We conclude that the radiative test of gravity provided by PSR J1757$-$1854 is fundamentally limited to a precision of 0.3 per cent due to the pulsar's unknown distance. A search for pulsations from the companion neutron star is also described, with negative results. We provide an updated evaluation of the system's evolutionary history, finding strong support for a large kick velocity of $w\ge280\,\text{km s}^{-1}$ following the second progenitor supernova. Finally, we reassess PSR J1757$-$1854's potential to provide new relativistic tests of gravity. We conclude that a 3-$\sigma$ constraint of the change in the projected semi-major axis ($\dot{x}$) associated with Lense-Thirring precession is expected no earlier than 2031. Meanwhile, we anticipate a 3-$\sigma$ measurement of the relativistic orbital deformation parameter $\delta_\theta$ as soon as 2026.

2.Implications of the Conformal Sound Speed Constraint on the Radius of PSR J0952-0607 within Rastall Gravity

Authors:Waleed El Hanafy, Adel Awad

Abstract: It has been shown that the nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter can provide models for massive compact Stars \citep{ElHanafy:2022kjl}, which are consistent with the conformal bound on the sound speed, $0\leq c_s^2 \leq c^2/3$, where the core density approaches a few times the nuclear saturation density. We impose the conformal sound speed upper bound constraint on Rastall's field equations of gravity, with Krori-Barua potentials in presence of an anisotropic fluid as a matter source, to estimate the radius of the most massive pulsar PSR J0952\textendash{0607} ever observed. For its measured mass $M = 2.35\pm 0.17\, M_\odot$, we obtain a radius $R=14.087 \pm 1.0186$~km as inferred by the model. We investigate possible connection between Rastall garvity and MIT bag model with an EoS, $p_r(\rho) \approx c_s^2\left(\rho - \rho_\text{s}\right)$, in the radial direction, with $c_s=c/\sqrt{3}$ and a surface density $\rho_\text{s}$ slightly above the nuclear saturation density $\rho_\text{nuc}=2.7\times 10^{14}$~g/cm$^3$. The corresponding mass\textendash{radius} diagram is in agreement with our estimated value of the radius and with astrophysical observations of other pulsars at 68\% C.L.

3.Progenitors of Low Redshift Gamma-ray Bursts

Authors:Petrosian Vah/'e, Maria Giovanna Dainotti

Abstract: Bimodal distribution of the observed duration of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has led to two distinct progenitors; compact star mergers, either two neutron stars (NSs) or a NS and a black hole (BH), for short GRBs (SGRBs), and so-called collapsars for long GRBs (LGRBs). It is therefore expected that formation rate (FR) of LGRBs should be similar to the cosmic star formation rate (SFR), while that of SGRBs to be delayed relative to the SFR. The localization of some LGRBs in and around the star forming regions of host galaxies and some SGRBs away form such regions support this expectation. Another distinct feature of SGRBs is their association with gravitational wave (GW) sources and kilonovae. However, several independent investigations of the FRs of long and short bursts, using the Efron-Petrosian non-parametric method have shown a LGRB FR that is significantly larger than SFR at low redhift, and similar to the FR of SGRBs. In addition, recent discovery of association of a low redshift long GRB211211A with a kilonova raises doubt about its collapsar origin. In this letter we review these results and show that low redshift LGRBs could also have compact star mergers as progenitor increasing the expected rate of the GW sources and kilonovae significantly.

4.Gravitational wave signatures from the phase-transition-induced collapse of a magnetized neutron star

Authors:Anson Ka Long Yip, Patrick Chi-Kit Cheong, Tjonnie Guang Feng Li

Abstract: Strong magnetic fields make neutron stars potential sources of detectable electromagnetic and gravitational-wave signals. Hence, inferring these magnetic fields is critical to understand the emissions of neutron stars. However, due to the lack of direct observational evidence, the interior magnetic field configuration remains ambiguous. Here, for the first time, we show that the internal magnetic field strength along with the composition of a neutron star can be directly constrained by detecting the gravitational waves from the phase-transition-induced collapse of a magnetized neutron star. By dynamically simulating this collapsing event, we first find that the dominant peaks in the gravitational waveform are the fundamental $l=0$ quasi-radial $F$ mode and the fundamental $l=2$ quadrupolar $^2f$ mode. We next show that the maximum gravitational wave amplitude $|h|_\mathrm{max}$ increases with the maximum magnetic field strength of the interior toroidal field $\mathcal{B}_\mathrm{max}$ until the maximum rest-mass density at bounce $\rho_\mathrm{max,b}$ decreases due to the increasing $\mathcal{B}_\mathrm{max}$. We then demonstrated that the magnetic suppression of fundamental modes found in our previous work remains valid for the hybrid stars formed after the phase-transition-induced collapses. We finally show that measuring the frequency ratio between the two fundamental modes $f_{^2f}/f_{F}$ allows one to infer $\mathcal{B}_\mathrm{max}$ and the baryonic mass fraction of matter in the mixed phase $M_\mathrm{mp} / M_{0}$ of the resulting hybrid star. Consequently, taking $\mathcal{B}_\mathrm{max}$ and $M_\mathrm{mp} / M_{0}$ as examples, this work has demonstrated that much information inside neutron stars could be extracted similarly through measuring the oscillation modes of the stars.

5.X-ray polarimetry of the accreting pulsar GX 301-2

Authors:Valery F. Suleimanov, Sofia V. Forsblom, Sergey S. Tsygankov, Juri Poutanen, Victor Doroshenko, Rosalia Doroshenko, Fiamma Capitanio, Alessandro Di Marco, Denis González-Caniulef, Jeremy Heyl, Fabio La Monaca, Alexander A. Lutovinov, Sergey V. Molkov, Christian Malacaria, Alexander A. Mushtukov, Andrey E. Shtykovsky, Iván Agudo, Lucio A. Antonelli, Matteo Bachetti, Luca Baldini, Wayne H. Baumgartner, Ronaldo Bellazzini, Stefano Bianchi, Stephen D. Bongiorno, Raffaella Bonino, Alessandro Brez, Niccolò Bucciantini, Simone Castellano, Elisabetta Cavazzuti, Chien-Ting Chen, Stefano Ciprini, Enrico Costa, Alessandra De Rosa, Ettore Del Monte, Laura Di Gesu, Niccolò Di Lalla, Immacolata Donnarumma, Michal Dovčiak, Steven R. Ehlert, Teruaki Enoto, Yuri Evangelista, Sergio Fabiani, Riccardo Ferrazzoli, Javier A. Garcia, Shuichi Gunji, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Wataru Iwakiri, Svetlana G. Jorstad, Philip Kaaret, Vladimir Karas, Fabian Kislat, Takao Kitaguchi, Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak, Henric Krawczynski, Luca Latronico, Ioannis Liodakis, Simone Maldera, Alberto Manfreda, Frédéric Marin, Andrea Marinucci, Alan P. Marscher, Herman L. Marshall, Francesco Massaro, Giorgio Matt, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Fabio Muleri, Michela Negro, Chi-Yung Ng, Stephen L. O'Dell, Nicola Omodei, Chiara Oppedisano, Alessandro Papitto, George G. Pavlov, Abel L. Peirson, Matteo Perri, Melissa Pesce Rollins, Pierre Olivier Petrucci, Maura Pilia, Andrea Possenti, Simonetta Puccetti, Brian D. Ramsey, John Rankin, Ajay Ratheesh, Oliver J. Roberts, Roger W. Romani, Carmelo Sgrò, Patrick Slane, Paolo Soffitta, Gloria Spandre, Douglas A. Swartz, Toru Tamagawa, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Roberto Taverna, Yuzuru Tawara, Allyn F. Tennant, Nicholas E. Thomas, Francesco Tombesi, Alessio Trois, Roberto Turolla, Jacco Vink, Martin C. Weisskopf, Kinwah Wu, Fei Xie, Silvia Zane

Abstract: The phase- and energy-resolved polarization measurements of accreting X-ray pulsars (XRPs) allow us to test different theoretical models of their emission, as well as to provide an avenue to determine the emission region geometry. We present the results of the observations of the XRP GX 301-2 performed with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). GX 301-2 is a persistent XRP with one of the longest known spin periods of ~680 s. A massive hyper-giant companion star Wray 977 supplies mass to the neutron star via powerful stellar winds. We do not detect significant polarization in the phase-averaged data using spectro-polarimetric analysis, with the upper limit on the polarization degree (PD) of 2.3% (99% confidence level). Using the phase-resolved spectro-polarimetric analysis we get a significant detection of polarization (above 99% c.l.) in two out of nine phase bins and marginal detection in three bins, with a PD ranging between ~3% and ~10%, and a polarization angle varying in a very wide range from ~0 deg to ~160 deg. Using the rotating vector model we obtain constraints on the pulsar geometry using both phase-binned and unbinned analysis getting excellent agreement. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for a low observed polarization in GX 301-2.

1.The jet emitting disk standard accretion disk model applied to the active galactic nuclei ultra violet Xray correlation

Authors:Samuel Barnier, Pierre-Olivier Petrucci, Jonathan Ferreira, Gregoire Marcel

Abstract: The non linear correlation between the UV and X-ray emission observed in Active Galactic Nuclei remains a puzzling question that challenged accretion models. While the UV emission originates from the cold disk, the X-ray emission is emitted by a hot corona whose physical characteristics and geometry are still highly debated. The Jet Emitting Disk - Standard Accretion Disk (JED-SAD) is a spectral model stemming from self similar accretion-ejection solutions. It is composed of an inner highly magnetized and hot accretion flow launching jets, the JED, and an outer SAD. The model has been successfully applied to X-ray binaries outbursts. The AGN UV X-ray correlation represent another essential test for the JED-SAD model. We use multiple AGN samples to explore the parameter space and identify the regions able to reproduce the observations. In this first paper, we show that JED-SAD model is able to reproduce the UV--X-ray correlation.

2.X-ray Polarization of BL Lacertae in Outburst

Authors:Abel L. Peirson, Michela Negro, Ioannis Liodakis, Riccardo Middei, Dawoon E. Kim, Alan P. Marscher, Herman L. Marshall, Luigi Pacciani, Roger W. Romani, Kinwah Wu, Alessandro Di Marco, Niccolo Di Lalla, Nicola Omodei, Svetlana G. Jorstad, Ivan Agudo, Pouya M. Kouch, Elina Lindfors, Francisco Jose Aceituno, Maria I. Bernardos, Giacomo Bonnoli, Victor Casanova, Maya Garcia-Comas, Beatriz Agis-Gonzalez, Cesar Husillos, Alessandro Marchini, Alfredo Sota, Carolina Casadio, Juan Escudero, Ioannis Myserlis, Albrecht Sievers, Mark Gurwell, Ramprasad Rao, Ryo Imazawa, Mahito Sasada, Yasushi Fukazawa, Koji S. Kawabata, Makoto Uemura, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Tatsuya Nakaoka, Hiroshi Akitaya, Yeon Cheong, Hyeon-Woo Jeong, Sincheol Kang, Sang-Hyun Kim, Sang-Sung Lee, Emmanouil Angelakis, Alexander Kraus, Nicolo Cibrario, Immacolata Donnarumma, Juri Poutanen, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Lucio A. Antonelli, Matteo Bachetti, Luca Baldini, Wayne H. Baumgartner, Ronaldo Bellazzini, Stefano Bianchi, Stephen D. Bongiorno, Raffaella Bonino, Alessandro Brez, Niccolo Bucciantini, Fiamma Capitanio, Simone Castellano, Elisabetta Cavazzuti, Chien-Ting Chen, Stefano Ciprini, Enrico Costa, Alessandra De Rosa, Ettore Del Monte, Laura Di Gesu, Victor Doroshenko, Michal Dovciak, Steven R. Ehlert, Teruaki Enoto, Yuri Evangelista, Sergio Fabiani, Riccardo Ferrazzoli, Javier A. Garcia, Shuichi Gunji, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Jeremy Heyl, Wataru Iwakiri, Philip Kaaret, Vladimir Karas, Takao Kitaguchi, Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak, Henric Krawczynski, Fabio La Monaca, Luca Latronico, Grzegorz Madejski, Simone Maldera, Alberto Manfreda, Frederic Marin, Andrea Marinucci, Francesco Massaro, Giorgio Matt, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Fabio Muleri, C. -Y. Ng, Stephen L. O'Dell, Chiara Oppedisano, Alessandro Papitto, George G. Pavlov, Matteo Perri, Melissa Pesce-Rollins, Pierre-Olivier Petrucci, Maura Pilia, Andrea Possenti, Simonetta Puccetti, Brian D. Ramsey, John Rankin, Ajay Ratheesh, Oliver J. Roberts, Carmelo Sgro, Patrick Slane, Paolo Soffitta, Gloria Spandre, Douglas A. Swartz, Toru Tamagawa, Roberto Taverna, Yuzuru Tawara, Allyn F. Tennant, Nicholas E. Thomas, Francesco Tombesi, Alessio Trois, Sergey Tsygankov, Roberto Turolla, Jacco Vink, Martin C. Weisskopf, Fei Xie, Silvia Zane

Abstract: We report the first $> 99\%$ confidence detection of X-ray polarization in BL Lacertae. During a recent X-ray/$\gamma$-ray outburst, a 287 ksec observation (2022 November 27-30) was taken using the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer ({\it IXPE}), together with contemporaneous multiwavelength observations from the Neil Gehrels {\it Swift} observatory and {\it XMM-Newton} in soft X-rays (0.3--10~keV), {\it NuSTAR} in hard X-rays (3--70~keV), and optical polarization from the Calar Alto, and Perkins Telescope observatories. Our contemporaneous X-ray data suggest that the {\it IXPE} energy band is at the crossover between the low- and high-frequency blazar emission humps. The source displays significant variability during the observation, and we measure polarization in three separate time bins. Contemporaneous X-ray spectra allow us to determine the relative contribution from each emission hump. We find $>99\%$ confidence X-ray polarization $\Pi_{2-4{\rm keV}} = 21.7^{+5.6}_{-7.9}\%$ and electric vector polarization angle $\psi_{2-4{\rm keV}} = -28.7 \pm 8.7^{\circ}$ in the time bin with highest estimated synchrotron flux contribution. We discuss possible implications of our observations, including previous {\it IXPE} BL Lacertae pointings, tentatively concluding that synchrotron self-Compton emission dominates over hadronic emission processes during the observed epochs.

3.On the large scale morphology of Hercules A: destabilized hot jets?

Authors:Manel Perucho, Jose López-Miralles, Nectaria A. B. Gizani, José-María Martí, Bia Boccardi

Abstract: Extragalactic jets are generated as bipolar outflows at the nuclei of active galaxies. Depending on their morphology, they are classified as Fanaroff-Riley type I (centre-brightened) and Fanaroff-Riley type II (edge-brightened) radio jets. However, this division is not sharp and observations of these sources at large scales often show intermediate jet morphologies or even hybrid jet morphologies with a FRI type jet on one side and a FRII type jet on the other. A good example of a radio galaxy that is difficult to classify as FRI or FRII is Hercules~A. This source shows jets with bright radio lobes (a common feature of FRII type jets) albeit without the hotspots indicative of the violent interaction between the jet and the ambient medium at the impact region, because the jets seem to be disrupted inside the lobes at a distance from the bow shocks surrounding the lobes. In this paper, we explore the jet physics that could trigger this peculiar morphology by means of three-dimensional relativisitic hydrodynamical simulations. Our results show that the large-scale morphological features of Hercules A jets and lobes can be reproduced by the propagation of a relativistically hot plasma outflow that is disrupted by helical instability modes, and generates a hot lobe that expands isotropically against the pressure-decreasing intergalactic medium. We also discuss the implications that this result may have for the host active nucleus in terms of a possible transition from high-excitation to low-excitation galaxy modes.

4.Confronting the neutron star population with inverse cascades

Authors:Nikhil Sarin, Axel Brandenburg, Brynmor Haskell

Abstract: The origin and evolution of magnetic fields of neutron stars from birth has long been a source of debate. Here, motivated by recent simulations of the Hall cascade with magnetic helicity, we invoke a model where the large-scale magnetic field of neutron stars grows as a product of small-scale turbulence through an inverse cascade. We apply this model to a simulated population of neutron stars at birth and show how this model can account for the evolution of such objects across the $P\dot{P}$ diagram, explaining both pulsar and magnetar observations. Under the assumption that small-scale turbulence is responsible for large-scale magnetic fields, we place a lower limit on the spherical harmonic degree of the energy-carrying magnetic eddies of $\approx 40$. Our results favor the presence of a highly resistive pasta layer at the base of the neutron star crust. We further discuss the implications of this paradigm on direct observables, such as the nominal age and braking index of pulsars.

1.Exploring the high energy frontiers of the Milky Way with ground-based gamma-ray astronomy: PeVatrons and the quest for the origin of Galactic cosmic-rays

Authors:E. O. Angüner

Abstract: Cosmic rays (CRs) are charged particles that arrive at Earth isotropically from all directions and interact with the atmosphere. The presence of a spectral knee feature seen in the CR spectrum at $\sim$3 PeV energies is an evidence that astrophysical objects within our Galaxy, which are known as 'Galactic PeVatrons', are capable of accelerating particles to PeV energies. Scientists have been trying to identify the origin of Galactic CRs and have been looking for signatures of Galactic PeVatrons through neutral messengers. Recent advancements in ground-based $\gamma$-ray astronomy have led to the discovery of 12 Galactic sources emitting above 100 TeV energies, and even the first time detection of PeV photons from the direction of the Crab Nebula and the Cygnus region. These groundbreaking discoveries have opened up the field of ultra-high energy (UHE, E$>$100 TeV) $\gamma$-ray astronomy, which can help us explore the high energy frontiers of our Galaxy, hunt for PeVatron sources, and shed light on the century-old problem of the origin of CRs. This review article provides an overview of the current state of the art and potential future directions for the search for Galactic PeVatrons using ground-based $\gamma$-ray observations.

2.Rapidly Evolving Transients in Archival ZTF Public Alerts

Authors:Wenxiong Li, Iair Arcavi, Ehud Nakar, Alexei V. Filippenko, Thomas G. Brink, WeiKang Zheng, Marco C. Lam, Ido Keinan, Seán J. Brennan, Noi Shitrit

Abstract: We search the archival Zwicky Transient Facility public survey for rapidly evolving transient (RET) candidates based on well-defined criteria between 2018 May and 2021 December. The search yielded 19 bona-fide RET candidates, corresponding to a discovery rate of $\sim 5.2$ events per year. Even with a Galactic latitude cut of $20^\circ$, 8 of the 19 events ($\sim 42$%) are Galactic, including one with a light-curve shape closely resembling that of the GW170817 kilonova (KN). An additional event is a nova in M31. Four out of the 19 events ($\sim 21$%) are confirmed extragalactic RETs (one confirmed here for the first time) and the origin of 6 additional events cannot be determined. We did not find any extragalactic events resembling the GW170817 KN, from which we obtain an upper limit on the volumetric rate of GW170817-like KNe of $R \le$ 2400 Gpc$^{-3}$ yr$^{-1}$ (95% confidence). These results can be used for quantifying contaminants to RET searches in transient alert streams, specifically when searching for kilonovae independently of gravitational-wave and gamma-ray-burst triggers.

3.The X-ray polarisation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy IC 4329A

Authors:A. Ingram, M. Ewing, A. Marinucci, D. Tagliacozzo, D. J. Rosario, A. Veledina, D. E. Kim, F. Marin, S. Bianchi, J. Poutanen, G. Matt, H. L. Marshall, F. Ursini, A. De Rosa, P-O. Petrucci, G. Madejski, T. Barnouin, L. Di Gesu, M. Dovvciak, V. E. Gianolli, H. Krawczynski, V. Loktev, R. Middei, J. Podgorny, S. Puccetti, A. Ratheesh, P. Soffitta, F. Tombesi, S. R. Ehlert, F. Massaro, I. Agudo, L. A. Antonelli, M. Bachetti, L. Baldini, W. H. Baumgartner, R. Bellazzini, S. D. Bongiorno, R. Bonino, A. Brez, N. Bucciantini, F. Capitanio, S. Castellano, E. Cavazzuti, C. -T. Chen, S. Ciprini, E. Costa, E. Del Monte, N. Di Lalla, A. Di Marco, I. Donnarumma, V. Doroshenko, T. Enoto, Y. Evangelista, S. Fabiani, R. Ferrazzoli, J. A. Garcia, S. Gunji, J. Heyl, W. Iwakiri, S. G. Jorstad, P. Kaaret, V. Karas, F. Kislat, T. Kitaguchi, J. J. Kolodziejczak, F. La Monaca, L. Latronico, I. Liodakis, S. Maldera, A. Manfreda, A. P. Marscher, I. Mitsuishi, T. Mizuno, F. Muleri, M. Negro, C. -Y. Ng, S. L. ODell, N. Omodei, C. Oppedisano, A. Papitto, G. G. Pavlov, A. L. Peirson, M. Perri, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pilia, A. Possenti, B. D. Ramsey, J. Rankin, O. J. Roberts, R. W. Romani, C. Sgro, P. Slane, G. Spandre, D. A. Swartz, T. Tamagawa, F. Tavecchio, R. Taverna, Y. Tawara, A. F. Tennant, N. E. Thomas, A. Trois, S. S. Tsygankov, R. Turolla, J. Vink, M. C. Weisskopf, K. Wu, F. Xie, S. Zane

Abstract: We present an X-ray spectro-polarimetric analysis of the bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A. The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) observed the source for ~500 ks, supported by XMM-Newton (~60 ks) and NuSTAR (~80 ks) exposures. We detect polarisation in the 2-8 keV band with 2.97 sigma confidence. We report a polarisation degree of $3.3\pm1.1$ per cent and a polarisation angle of $78\pm10$ degrees (errors are 1 sigma confidence). The X-ray polarisation is consistent with being aligned with the radio jet, albeit partially due to large uncertainties on the radio position angle. We jointly fit the spectra from the three observatories to constrain the presence of a relativistic reflection component. From this, we obtain constraints on the inclination angle to the inner disc (< 39 degrees at 99 per cent confidence) and the disc inner radius (< 11 gravitational radii at 99 per cent confidence), although we note that modelling systematics in practice add to the quoted statistical error. Our spectro-polarimetric modelling indicates that the 2-8 keV polarisation is consistent with being dominated by emission directly observed from the X-ray corona, but the polarisation of the reflection component is completely unconstrained. Our constraints on viewer inclination and polarisation degree tentatively favour more asymmetric, possibly out-flowing, coronal geometries that produce more highly polarised emission, but the coronal geometry is unconstrained at the 3 sigma level.

4.Using Giant Pulses to Measure the Impulse Response of the Interstellar Medium

Authors:Nikhil Mahajan, Marten H. van Kerkwijk

Abstract: Giant pulses emitted by PSR B1937+21 are bright, intrinsically impulsive bursts. Thus, the observed signal from a giant pulse is a noisy but direct measurement of the impulse response from the ionized interstellar medium. We use this fact to detect 13,025 giant pulses directly in the baseband data of two observations of PSR B1937+21. Using the giant pulse signals, we model the time-varying impulse response with a sparse approximation method, in which the time dependence at each delay is decomposed in Fourier components, thus constructing a wavefield as a function of delay and differential Doppler shift. We find that the resulting wavefield has the expected parabolic shape, with several diffuse structures within it, suggesting the presence of multiple scattering locations along the line of sight. We also detect an echo at a delay of about 2.4 ms, over 1.5 times the rotation period of the pulsar, which between the two observations moves along the trajectory expected from geometry. The structures in the wavefield are insufficiently sparse to produce a complete model of the system, and hence the model is not predictive across gaps larger than about the scintillation time. Nevertheless, within its range, it reproduces about 75% of the power of the impulse response, a fraction limited mostly by the signal-to-noise ratio of the observations. Furthermore, we show that by deconvolution, using the model impulse response, we can successfully recover the intrinsic pulsar emission from the observed signal.

5.Type Ia Supernova Explosions in Binary Systems: A Review

Authors:Zheng-Wei Liu, Friedrich K. Roepke, Zhanwen Han

Abstract: SNe Ia play a key role in the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. It is widely accepted that SNe Ia arise from thermonuclear explosions of WDs in binaries. However, there is no consensus on the fundamental aspects of the nature of SN Ia progenitors and their explosion mechanism. This fundamentally flaws our understanding of these important astrophysical objects. We outline the diversity of SNe Ia and the proposed progenitor models and explosion mechanisms. We discuss the recent theoretical and observational progress in addressing the SN Ia progenitor and explosion mechanism in terms of the observables at various stages of the explosion, including rates and delay times, pre-explosion companion stars, ejecta-companion interaction, early excess emission, early radio/X-ray emission from CSM interaction, surviving companions, late-time spectra and photometry, polarization signals, and SNR properties, etc. Despite the efforts from both the theoretical and observational side, the questions of how the WDs reach an explosive state and what progenitor systems are more likely to produce SNe Ia remain open. No single published model is able to consistently explain all observational features and the full diversity of SNe Ia. This may indicate that either a new progenitor paradigm or the improvement of current models is needed if all SNe Ia arise from the same origin. An alternative scenario is that different progenitor channels and explosion mechanisms contribute to SNe Ia. In the next decade, the ongoing campaigns with the JWST, Gaia and the ZTF, and upcoming extensive projects with the LSST and the SKA will allow us to conduct not only studies of individual SNe Ia in unprecedented detail but also systematic investigations for different subclasses of SNe Ia. This will advance theory and observations of SNe Ia sufficiently far to gain a deeper understanding of their origin and explosion mechanism.

1.Emergence of hot corona and truncated disk in simulations of accreting stellar mass black holes

Authors:Rodrigo Nemmen, Artur Vemado, Ivan Almeida, Javier Garcia, Pedro Motta

Abstract: Stellar mass black holes in X-ray binaries (XRBs) are known to display different states characterized by different spectral and timing properties, understood in the framework of a hot corona coexisting with a thin accretion disk whose inner edge is truncated. There are several open questions related to the nature and properties of the corona, the thin disk, and dynamics behind the hard state. This motivated us to perform two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of accretion flows onto a 10 solar masses black hole. We consider a two-temperature plasma, incorporate radiative cooling with bremmstrahlung, synchrotron and comptonization losses and approximate the Schwarzschild spacetime via a pseudo-Newtonian potential. We varied the mass accretion rate in the range 0.02 <= Mdot/Mdot_Edd <= 0.35. Our simulations show the natural emergence of a colder truncated thin disk embedded in a hot corona, as required to explain the hard state of XRBs. We found that as Mdot increases, the corona contracts and the inner edge of the thin disk gets closer to the event horizon. At a critical accretion rate 0.02 <= Mdot_crit\Mdot_Edd <= 0.06, the thin disk disappears entirely. We discuss how our simulations compare with XRB observations in the hard state.

2.Two-Screen Scattering in CRAFT FRBs

Authors:Mawson W. Sammons, Adam T. Deller, Marcin Glowacki, Kelly Gourdji, C. W. James, J. Xavier Prochaska, Hao Qiu, Danica R. Scott, R. M. Shannon, C. M. Trott

Abstract: Temporal broadening is a commonly observed property of fast radio bursts (FRBs), associated with turbulent media which cause radiowave scattering. Similarly to dispersion, scattering is an important probe of the media along the line of sight to an FRB source, such as the circum-burst or circum-galactic mediums (CGM). Measurements of characteristic scattering times alone are insufficient to constrain the position of the dominant scattering media along the line of sight. However, where more than one scattering screen exists, Galactic scintillation can be leveraged to form strong constraints. We quantify the scattering and scintillation in 10 FRBs with 1) known host galaxies and redshifts and 2) captured voltage data enabling high time resolution analysis, obtained from the Commensal Real-time ASKAP (Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder) Fast Transient survey science project (CRAFT). We find strong evidence for two screens in three cases. For FRBs 20190608B and 20210320C, we find evidence for scattering screens less than approximately 16.7 and 3000 kpc respectively, from their sources. For FRB 20201124A we find evidence for a scattering screen at $\approx$26 kpc. Each of these measures is consistent with the scattering occurring in the host ISM (inter-stellar medium) or CGM. If pulse broadening is assumed to be contributed by the host galaxy ISM or circum-burst environment, the definitive lack of observed scintillation in four FRBs in our sample suggests that existing models may be over-estimating scattering times associated with the Milky Way's ISM, similar to the anomalously low scattering observed for FRB 20201124A.

3.Density and magnetic intensity dependence of radio pulses induced by energetic air showers

Authors:Juan Ammerman-Yebra, Jaime Alvarez-Muñiz, Enrique Zas

Abstract: We have studied the effect of changing the density and magnetic field strength in the coherent pulses that are emitted as energetic showers develop in the atmosphere. For this purpose we have developed an extension of ZHS, a program to calculate coherent radio pulses from electromagnetic showers in homogeneous media, to account for the Lorentz force due to a magnetic field. This makes it possible to perform quite realistic simulations of radio pulses from air showers in a medium similar to the atmosphere but without variations of density with altitude. The effects of independently changing the density, the refractive index and the magnetic field strength are studied in the frequency domain for observers in the Cherenkov direction at far distances from the shower. This approach is particularly enlightening providing an explanation of the spectral behavior of the induced electric field in terms of shower development parameters. More importantly, it clearly displays the complex scaling properties of the pulses as density and magnetic field intensity are varied. The usually assumed linear behavior of electric field amplitude with magnetic field intensity is shown to hold up to a given magnetic field strength at which the extra time delays due to the deflection in the magnetic field break it. Scaling properties of the pulses are obtained as the density of air decreases relative to sea level. A remarkably accurate scaling law is obtained that relates the spectra of pulses obtained when reducing the density and increasing the magnetic field.

1.Lepto-hadronic interpretation of 2021 RS Ophiuchi nova outburst

Authors:Agnibha De Sarkar, Nayana A. J., Nirupam Roy, Soebur Razzaque, G. C. Anupama

Abstract: Very high energy (VHE; 100 GeV $<$ E $\leq$ 100 TeV) and high energy (HE; 100 MeV $<$ E $\leq$ 100 GeV) gamma-rays were observed from the symbiotic recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) during its outburst in August 2021, by various observatories such as High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC), and {\it Fermi}-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The models explored so far tend to favor a hadronic scenario of particle acceleration over an alternative leptonic scenario. This paper explores a time-dependent lepto-hadronic scenario to explain the emission from the RS Oph source region. We have used simultaneous low frequency radio data observed by various observatories, along with the data provided by H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and \textit{Fermi}-LAT, to explain the multi-wavelength (MWL) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) corresponding to 4 days after the outburst. Our results show that a lepto-hadronic interpretation of the source not only explains the observed HE-VHE gamma-ray data but the corresponding model synchrotron component is also consistent with the first 4 days of low radio frequency data, indicating the presence of non-thermal radio emission at the initial stage of nova outburst. We have also calculated the expected neutrino flux from the source region and discussed the possibility of detecting neutrinos.

2.The first X-ray look at SMSS J114447.77-430859.3: the most luminous quasar in the last 9 Gyr

Authors:E. S. Kammoun, Z. Igo, J. M. Miller, A. C. Fabian, M. T. Reynolds, A. Merloni, D. Barret, E. Nardini, P. -O. Petrucci, E. Piconcelli, S. Barnier, J. Buchner, T. Dwelly, I. Grotova, M. Krumpe, T. Liu, K. Nandra, A. Rau, M. Salvato, T. Urrutia, J. Wolf

Abstract: SMSS\,J114447.77-430859.3 ($z=0.83$) has been identified in the SkyMapper Southern Survey as the most luminous quasar in the last $\sim 9\,\rm Gyr$. In this paper, we report on the eROSITA/Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observations of the source from the eROSITA All Sky Survey, along with presenting results from recent monitoring performed using Swift, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. The source shows a clear variability by factors of $\sim 10$ and $\sim 2.7$ over timescales of a year and of a few days, respectively. When fit with an absorbed power law plus high-energy cutoff, the X-ray spectra reveal a $\Gamma=2.2 \pm 0.2$ and $E_{\rm cut}=23^{+26}_{-5}\,\rm keV$. Assuming Comptonisation, we estimate a coronal optical depth and electron temperature of $\tau=2.5-5.3\, (5.2-8)$ and $kT=8-18\, (7.5-14)\,\rm keV$, respectively, for a slab (spherical) geometry. The broadband SED is successfully modelled by assuming either a standard accretion disc illuminated by a central X-ray source, or a thin disc with a slim disc emissivity profile. The former model results in a black hole mass estimate of the order of $10^{10}\,M_\odot$, slightly higher than prior optical estimates; meanwhile, the latter model suggests a lower mass. Both models suggest sub-Eddington accretion when assuming a spinning black hole, and a compact ($\sim 10\,r_{\rm g}$) X-ray corona. The measured intrinsic column density and the Eddington ratio strongly suggest the presence of an outflow driven by radiation pressure. This is also supported by variation of absorption by an order of magnitude over the period of $\sim 900\,\rm days$.

3.A transient ultraviolet outflow in the short-period X-ray binary UW CrB

Authors:S. Fijma, N. Castro Segura, N. Degenaar, C. Knigge, N. Higginbottom, J. V. Hernández Santisteban, T. J. Maccarone

Abstract: Accreting low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are capable of launching powerful outflows such as accretion disc winds. In disc winds, vast amounts of material can be carried away, potentially greatly impacting the binary and its environment. Previous studies have uncovered signatures of disc winds in the X-ray, optical, near-infrared, and recently even the UV band, predominantly in LMXBs with large discs ($P_{orb}{\geq}20$ hrs). Here, we present the discovery of transient UV outflow features in UW CrB, a high-inclination ($i{\geq}77$\deg) neutron star LMXB with an orbital period of only $P_{orb}{\approx}111$ min. We present P-Cygni profiles detected for Si iv 1400\r{A} and tentatively for N v 1240\r{A} in one 15 min exposure, which is the only exposure covering orbital phase $\phi{\approx}0.7{-}0.8$, with a velocity of ${\approx}1500$ km/s. We show that due to the presence of black body emission from the neutron star surface and/or boundary layer, a thermal disc wind can be driven despite the short $P_{orb}$, but explore alternative scenarios as well. The discovery that thermal disc winds may occur in NS-LMXBs with $P_{orb}$ as small as ${\approx}111$ min, and can potentially be transient on time scales as short as ${\approx}15$ min, warrants further observational and theoretical work.

4.Peering into the tilted heart of Cyg X-1 with high-precision optical polarimetry

Authors:Vadim Kravtsov, Alexandra Veledina, Andrei V. Berdyugin, Andrzej A. Zdziarski, Gary D. Henson, Vilppu Piirola, Takeshi Sakanoi, Masato Kagitani, Svetlana V. Berdyugina, Juri Poutanen

Abstract: We present the high-precision optical polarimetric observations of black hole X-ray binary Cyg X-1, spanning several cycles of its 5.6 day orbital period. Week-long observations on two telescopes located in opposite hemispheres allowed us to track the evolution of the polarization within one orbital cycle with the highest temporal resolution to date. Using the field stars, we determine the interstellar polarization in the source direction and subsequently its intrinsic polarization. The optical polarization angle is aligned with that in the X-rays as recently obtained with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer. Furthermore, it is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the position angle of the radio ejections. We show that the intrinsic PD is variable with the orbital period with the amplitude of $\sim$0.2% and discuss various sites of its production. Assuming the polarization arises from a single Thomson scattering of the primary star radiation by the matter that follows the black hole in its orbital motion, we constrain the inclination of the binary orbit $i>120^\circ$ and its eccentricity $e<0.08$. The asymmetric shape of the orbital profiles of Stokes parameters implies also the asymmetry of the scattering matter distribution about the orbital plane, which may arise from the tilted accretion disk. We compare our data to the polarimetric observations made over 1975-1987 and find good, within $1^\circ$, agreement between the intrinsic polarization angles. On the other hand, the PD decreased by 0.4% over half a century, suggesting the presence of secular changes in the geometry of accreting matter.

5.Production of $p$-nuclei from $r$-process seeds: the $νr$-process

Authors:Zewei Xiong, Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo, Oliver Just, Andre Sieverding

Abstract: We present a new nucleosynthesis process that may take place on neutron-rich ejecta experiencing an intensive neutrino flux. The nucleosynthesis proceeds similarly to the standard $r$-process, a sequence of neutron-captures and beta-decays, however with charged-current neutrino absorption reactions on nuclei operating much faster than beta-decays. Once neutron capture reactions freeze-out the produced $r$-process neutron-rich nuclei undergo a fast conversion of neutrons into protons and are pushed even beyond the $\beta$-stability line producing the neutron-deficient $p$-nuclei. This scenario, which we denote as the $\nu r$-process, provides an alternative channel for the production of $p$-nuclei and the short-lived nucleus $^{92}$Nb. We discuss the necessary conditions posed on the astrophysical site for the $\nu r$-process to be realized in nature. While these conditions are not fulfilled by current neutrino-hydrodynamic models of $r$-process sites, future models, including more complex physics and a larger variety of outflow conditions, may achieve the necessary conditions in some regions of the ejecta.

6.Multiple Peaks and a Long Precursor in the Type IIn Supernova 2021qqp: An Energetic Explosion in a Complex Circumsteller Environment

Authors:Daichi Hiramatsu, Tatsuya Matsumoto, Edo Berger, Conor Ransome, V. Ashley Villar, Sebastian Gomez, Yvette Cendes, Kishalay De, Joseph Farah, D. Andrew Howell, Curtis McCully, Megan Newsome, Estefania Padilla Gonzalez, Craig Pellegrino, Akihiro Suzuki, Giacomo Terreran

Abstract: We present detailed optical photometry and spectroscopy of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2021qqp. Its unusual light curve is marked by a long gradual brightening (i.e., precursor) for about 300 days, a rapid increase in brightness for about 60 days, and then a sharp increase of about 1.6 mag in only a few days to a first peak of $M_r\approx -19.5$ mag. The light curve then turns over and declines rapidly, until it re-brightens to a second distinct and sharp peak with $M_r\approx -17.3$ mag centered at about 335 days after the first peak. The spectra are dominated by Balmer-series lines with a complex morphology that includes a narrow component with a width of $\approx 1300$ km s$^{-1}$ (first peak) and $\approx 2500$ km s$^{-1}$ (second peak) that we associate with the circumstellar medium (CSM), and a P Cygni component with an absorption velocity of $\approx 8500$ km s$^{-1}$ (first peak) and $\approx 5600$ km s$^{-1}$ (second peak) that we associate with the SN-CSM interaction shell. Using the bolometric light curve and velocity evolution, we construct an analytical model to extract the CSM profile and SN properties. We find two significant mass-loss episodes with peak mass loss rates of $\approx 10$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ and $\approx 5$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ about 0.8 and 2 years before explosion, and a total CSM mass of $\approx 2-4\,M_\odot$. We show that the most recent mass-loss episode can explain the precursor for the year preceding the explosion. The SN ejecta mass is constrained to be $M_{\rm SN}\approx 5-30\,M_\odot$ for an explosion energy of $E_{\rm SN}\approx (3-10)\times10^{51}\,{\rm erg}$. We discuss eruptive massive stars (luminous blue variable, pulsational pair instability) and an extreme stellar merger with a compact object as possible progenitor channels for generating the energetic explosion in the complex CSM environment.

1.Impact of scale-height derivative on general relativistic slim disks in tidal disruption events

Authors:T. Mageshwaran, Kimitake Hayasaki

Abstract: We construct a numerical model of steady-state, general relativistic (GR) super-Eddington accretion flows in an optically thick, advection-dominated regime, motivated by tidal disruption events wherein super-Eddington accretion assumes a pivotal role. Our model takes into account the loss of angular momentum due to radiation and the scale-height derivative in the basic equations of the GR slim disk. For comparison purposes, we also provide a new analytical solution for a radiation-pressure-dominant GR slim disk, which neglects the angular momentum loss due to radiation and the scale-height derivative. We find that the radiation pressure enhances by incorporating the scale height derivative into the basic equations. As a result, the surface density near the disk's inner edge decreases, whereas the disk temperature and scale height increase, brightening the disk spectrum in the soft X-ray waveband. Notably, an extremely high mass accretion rate significantly enhances the effect of the scale-height derivative, affecting the entire disk. In contrast, the inclusion of the radiation-driven angular momentum loss only slightly influences the disk surface density and temperature compared with the case of the scale-height derivative inclusion. The X-ray luminosity increases significantly due to scale height derivative for $\dot{M}/\dot{M}_{\rm Edd} \gtrsim 2$. In addition, the increment is higher for the non-spinning black hole than the spinning black hole case, resulting in a one-order of magnitude difference for $\dot{M}/\dot{M}_{\rm Edd}\gtrsim100$. We conclude that incorporating the scale-height derivative into a GR slim disk model is crucial as it impacts the disk structure and its resultant spectrum, particularly on a soft-X-ray waveband.

2.The beaming effect for Fermi-LAT-detected FR-I radio galaxies

Authors:Xu-Hong Ye, Xiang-Tao Zeng, Dan-Yi Huang, Zhuang Zhang, Zhi-Yuan Pei, Jun-Hui Fan

Abstract: Our knowledge of Giga-electron volt (GeV) radio galaxies has been revolutionized by the Fermi-LAT Telescope, which provides an excellent opportunity to study the physical properties of GeV radio galaxies. According to the radio power and morphology, radio galaxies can be separated into Fanaroff-Riley Type I radio galaxies (FR-Is) and Type II radio galaxies (FR-IIs). In this paper, we consider the unification of FR-Is and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and assume FR-Is to be a standard candle to discuss the beaming effect for Fermi-LAT-detected FR-Is. Our main conclusions are as follows: (1) The estimated Doppler factors for 30 Fermi-LAT-detected FR-Is are in a range of $\delta_{\rm{I}}=0.88-7.49$. The average Doppler factor ($<\delta_{\rm{I}}>=2.56\pm0.30$) of the 30 FR-Is is smaller than that ($<\delta_{\rm{BL}}>=10.28\pm2.03$) of the 126 Fermi-LAT-detected BL Lacs, supporting the unification model that FR-Is are regarded as the misaligned BL Lacs with smaller Doppler factors; (2) We propose that different regions of FR-Is in the plot of the $\gamma$-ray luminosity against the photon spectral index $(\log L_{\gamma}-\alpha_{\rm{ph}})$ may indicate the different beaming effects; (3) The average Doppler factor of the 6 TeV FR-Is is similar to that of the 24 non-TeV FR-Is, which implies that the difference between the TeV and GeV emissions is not driven by the beaming effect in the Fermi-LAT-detected FR-I samples.

3.The geometry of the hot corona in MCG-05-23-16 constrained by X-ray polarimetry

Authors:D. Tagliacozzo, A. Marinucci, F. Ursini, G. Matt, S. Bianchi, L. Baldini, T. Barnouin, N. Cavero Rodriguez, A. De Rosa, L. Di Gesu, M. Dovciak, D. Harper, A. Ingram, V. Karas, D. E. Kim, H. Krawczynski, G. Madejski, F. Marin, R. Middei, H. L. Marshall, F. Muleri, C. Panagiotou, P. O. Petrucci, J. Podgorny, J. Poutanen, S. Puccetti, P. Soffitta, F. Tombesi, A. Veledina, W. Zhang, I. Agudo, L. A. Antonelli, M. Bachetti, W. H. Baumgartner, R. Bellazzini, S. D. Bongiorno, R. Bonino, A. Brez, N. Bucciantini, F. Capitanio, S. Castellano, E. Cavazzuti, C. T. Chen, S. Ciprini, E. Costa, E. Del Monte, N. Di Lalla, A. Di Marco, I. Donnarumma, V. Doroshenko, S. R. Ehlert, T. Enoto, Y. Evangelista, S. Fabiani, R. Ferrazzoli, J. A. Garcia, S. Gunji, J. Heyl, W. Iwakiri, S. G. Jorstad, P. Kaaret, F. Kislat, T. Kitaguchi, J. J. Kolodziejczak, F. La Monaca, L. Latronico, I. Liodakis, S. Maldera, A. Manfreda, A. P. Marscher, F. Massaro, I. Mitsuishi, T. Mizuno, M. Negro, C. Y. Ng, S. L. O'Dell, N. Omodei, C. Oppedisano, A. Papitto, G. G. Pavlov, A. L. Peirson, M. Perri, M. Pesce Rollins, M. Pilia, A. Possenti, B. D. Ramsey, J. Rankin, A. Ratheesh, O. J. Roberts, R. W. Romani, C. Sgrò, P. Slane, G. Spandre, D. A. Swartz, T. Tamagawa, F. Tavecchio, R. Taverna, Y. Tawara, A. F. Tennant, N. E. Thomas, A. Trois, S. S. Tsygankov, R. Turolla, J. Vink, M. C. Weisskopf, K. Wu, F. Xie, S. Zane

Abstract: We report on the second observation of the radio-quiet active galactic nucleus (AGN) MCG-05-23-16 performed with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). The observation started on 2022 November 6 for a net observing time of 640 ks, and was partly simultaneous with NuSTAR (86 ks). After combining these data with those obtained in the first IXPE pointing on May 2022 (simultaneous with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR) we find a 2-8 keV polarization degree $\Pi$ = 1.6 $\pm$ 0.7 (at 68 per cent confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit $\Pi$ = 3.2 per cent (at 99 per cent confidence level). We then compare the polarization results with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with the MONK code, with which different coronal geometries have been explored (spherical lamppost, conical, slab and wedge). Furthermore, the allowed range of inclination angles is found for each geometry. If the best fit inclination value from a spectroscopic analysis is considered, a cone-shaped corona along the disc axis is disfavoured.

4.Model of Cosmic Ray Propagation in the Milky Way at the Knee

Authors:G. Giacinti, D. Semikoz

Abstract: We present a new model of anisotropic cosmic ray propagation in the Milky Way, where cosmic rays are injected at discrete transient sources in the disc and propagated in the Galactic magnetic field. In the framework of our model, we show that the cosmic ray spectrum is time-dependent and space-dependent around the energy of the knee. It has a major contribution of one or a few nearby recent sources at any given location in the Galaxy, in particular at the position of the Solar system. We find that the distribution of $\sim$ PeV cosmic rays in our Galaxy is significantly clumpy and inhomogeneous, and therefore substantially different from the smoother distribution of GeV cosmic rays. Our findings have important implications for the calculation and future interpretation of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes at very high energies.

5.Unstable cosmic-ray nuclei constrain low-diffusion zones in the Galactic disk

Authors:Hanno Jacobs, Philipp Mertsch, Vo Hong Minh Phan

Abstract: Observations of the vicinity of a variety of galactic gamma-ray sources have indicated a local suppression of diffusivity of cosmic rays by up to three orders of magnitude. However, the impact of these low-diffusion zones on \emph{global} properties of cosmic-ray transport is however only poorly understood. Here, we argue that cosmic-ray nuclear ratios, like the boron-to-carbon ratio and relative abundances of Beryllium isotopes are sensitive to the filling fraction of such low-diffusion zones and hence their measurements can be used to constrain the typical sizes and ages of such regions. We have performed a careful parameter study of a cosmic-ray transport model that allows for different diffusion coefficients $\kappa_{\mathrm{disk}}$ and $\kappa_{\mathrm{halo}}$ in the galactic disk and halo, respectively. Making use of preliminary data from the AMS-02 experiment on the ratio of Beryllium isotopes, we find a $3.5 \sigma$ preference for a suppression of the diffusion coefficient in the disk with a best-fit value of $\kappa_{\mathrm{disk}}/\kappa_{\mathrm{halo}} = 0.20^{+0.10}_{-0.06}$. We forecast that with upcoming data from the HELIX balloon experiment, the significance could increase to $6.8 \sigma$. Adopting a coarse-graining approach, we find that such a strong suppression could be realised if the filling fraction of low-diffusion zones in the disk was $\sim 66 \, \%$. We conclude that the impact of regions of suppressed diffusion might be larger than usually assumed and ought to be taken into account in models of Galactic cosmic ray transport.

1.Imprint of magnetic obliquity in apparent spin-down of radio pulsars

Authors:Anton Biryukov, Gregory Beskin

Abstract: Numerical simulations predict that the spin-down rate of a single rotation-powered neutron star depends on the angle $\alpha$ between its spin and magnetic axes as $P\dot P \propto \mu^2 (k_0 + k_1\sin^2\alpha)$, where $P$ is the star spin period, $\mu$ is its magnetic moment, while $k_0 \sim k_1 \sim 1$. Here we describe a simple observational test for this prediction based on the comparison of spin-down rates of 50 nearly orthogonal (with $\alpha$ close to 90 deg) and 27 nearly aligned (with $\alpha$ close to 0 deg) pulsars. We found, that the apparent pulsar spin-down is consistent with the theory if assumed, that magnetic moments of orthogonal rotators are systematically larger than those of aligned ones for $\sim 0.15..0.2$ dex. Also, as a by-product of the analysis, we provide yet another constraint on the average braking index of radio pulsars as $1 \le n \le 4$ with formal significance not worse than 99\%.

2.X-ray polarization observations of IC 4329A with IXPE: Constraining the geometry of the X-ray corona

Authors:Indrani Pal, C. S. Stalin, Rwitika Chatterjee, Vivek K. Agrawal

Abstract: X-ray polarimetry is a powerful tool to probe the geometry of the hot X-ray corona in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Here, we present our results on the characterisation of the X-ray polarization of the radio-quiet Seyfert-type AGN IC 4329A at a redshift of $z$ = 0.016. This is based on observations carried out by the {\it Imaging X-ray Polarimeter (IXPE)}. {\it IXPE} observed IC 4329A on January 5, 2023, for a total observing time of 458 ks. From the model-independent analysis, we found a polarization degree ($\Pi_{X}$) of 3.7$\pm$1.5$\%$ and a polarization position angle ($\Psi_{X}$) of 61$^{\circ}$$\pm$12$^{\circ}$ in the 2$-$8 keV energy range (at 1$\sigma$ confidence level). This is also in agreement with the values of $\Pi_{X}$ and $\Psi_{X}$ of 4.7$\pm$2.2$\%$ and 71$^{\circ}$ $\pm$14$^{\circ}$ respectively obtained from spectro-polarimetric analysis of the I, Q and U Stokes spectra in the 2$-$8 keV energy band (at the 90$\%$ confidence). The value of $\Pi_X$ in the 2-8 keV band obtained from the model-independent analysis is lower than the minimum detectable polarization (MDP) value of 4.5$\%$. However, $\Pi_X$ obtained from spectro-polarimetric analysis in the 2-8 keV band is larger than the MDP value. In the 3-5 keV band, we found $\Pi_X$ of 6.5 $\pm$ 1.8, which is larger than the MDP value of 5.5$\%$. The observed moderate value of $\Pi_{X}$ obtained from the analysis of the {\it IXPE} data in the 3$-$5 keV band argues against a spherical lamp$-$post geometry for the X-ray corona in IC 4329A; however, considering simulations, the observed polarization measurements tend to favour a conical shape geometry for the corona. This is the first time measurement of X-ray polarization in IC 4329A. Measurements of the X-ray polarization in many such radio-quiet AGN will help in constraining the geometry of the X-ray corona in AGN.

3.Physics of Binary Star Evolution -- from Stars to X-ray Binaries and Gravitational Wave Sources

Authors:Thomas M. Tauris Aalborg, Ed P. J. van den Heuvel Amsterdam

Abstract: The majority of all stars are members of a binary system. The evolution of such binary stars and their subsequent production of pairs of compact objects in tight orbits, such as double neutron stars and double black holes, play a central role in modern astrophysics, Binary evolution leads to the formation of different types of violent cosmic events such as novae, supernova explosions, gamma-ray bursts, mass transfer and accretion processes in X-ray binaries, and the formation of exotic radio millisecond pulsars. In some cases, the binary systems terminate as spectacular collisions between neutron stars and/or black holes. These collisions lead to powerful emission of gravitational waves, as detected by LIGO since 2015. The coming decade is expected to reveal a large number of discoveries of binary compact systems, as well as their progenitors and merger remnants, from major instruments such as the radio Square-Kilometre Array; the gravitational wave observatories LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA-IndIGO and LISA; the astrometric space observatory Gaia; the James Webb Space Telescope; and the X-ray space observatories eXTP, STROBE-X, and Athena. In this light, it is important to have a modern textbook on the physics of binary stars evolution, from ordinary stars to X-ray binaries and gravitational wave sources. The scope of this book is that the reader (student or educated expert) will learn the physics of binary interactions, from stellar birth to compact objects, and relate this knowledge to the latest observations. The reader will learn about stellar structure and evolution, and detailed binary interactions covering a broad range of phenomena, including mass transfer and orbital evolution, formation and accretion onto compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes), and their observational properties. Exercises are provided throughout the book.

4.SN 2016ije: An SN 2002es-like Type Ia Supernova Exploded in a Metal-poor and Low-surface Brightness Galaxy

Authors:Zhitong Li, Tianmeng Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang, Jujia Zhang, Lluís Galbany, Alexei V. Filippenko, Thomas G. Brink, Chris Ashall, WeiKang Zheng, Thomas de Jaeger, Fabio Ragosta, Maxime Deckers, Mariusz Gromadzki, D. R. Young, Gaobo Xi, Juncheng Chen, Xulin Zhao, Hanna Sai, Shengyu Yan, Danfeng Xiang, Zhihao Chen, Wenxiong Li, Bo Wang, Hu Zou, Jipeng Sui, Jiali Wang, Jun Ma, Jundan Nie, Suijian Xue, Xu Zhou, Zhimin Zhou

Abstract: We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of the peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2016ije that was discovered through the Tsinghua-NAOC Transient Survey. This peculiar object exploded in the outskirts of a metal-poor, low-surface brightness galaxy (i.e., $M_{g}$ = $-$14.5 mag). Our photometric analysis reveals that SN~2016ije is subluminous ($M_{B,\rm{max}}$ = $-$17.65$\pm$0.06 mag) but exhibits relatively broad light curves (${\Delta}m_{15}(B)$ = 1.35$\pm$0.14 mag), similar to the behavior of SN~2002es. Our analysis of the bolometric light curve indicates that only 0.14$\pm$0.04 $M_{\odot}$ of $^{56}$Ni was synthesized in the explosion of SN~2016ije, which suggests a less energetic thermonuclear explosion when compared to normal SNe~Ia, and this left a considerable amount of unburned materials in the ejecta. Spectroscopically, SN~2016ije resembles other SN~2002es-like SNe~Ia, except that the ejecta velocity inferred from its carbon absorption line ($\sim$ 4500~km~s$^{-1}$) is much lower than that from silicon lines ($\sim$ 8300~km~s$^{-1}$) at around the maximum light. Additionally, most of the absorption lines are broader than other 02es-like SNe Ia. These peculiarities suggest the presence of significant unburned carbon in the inner region and a wide line-forming region along the line of sight. These characteristics suggest that SN 2016ije might originate from the violent merger of a white dwarf binary system, when viewed near an orientation along the iron-group-element cavity caused by the companion star.

5.Hunting for gamma-ray emission from Fast Radio Bursts

Authors:G. Principe, L. Di Venere, M. Negro, N. Di Lalla, N. Omodei, R. Di Tria, M. N. Mazziotta, F. Longo

Abstract: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a recently discovered class of GHz-band, ms-duration, Jy-level-flux astrophysical transients, which origin is still a mystery. Exploring their gamma-ray counterpart is crucial for constraining their origin and emission mechanism. Thanks to more than 13 years of gamma-ray data collected by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope, and to more than 1000 FRB events, one of the largest sample created as of today, we perform the largest and deepest search for gamma-ray emission from FRB sources to date. In addition to the study of individual FRB events on different time-scales (from few seconds up to several years), we performed, for the first time, a stacking analysis on the full sample of FRB events as well as a search for triplet photons in coincidence with the radio event. We do not detect significant emission, reporting the most stringent constraints, on short time scales, for the FRB-like emission from SGR 1935+2154 with $E<10^{41}$ erg, corresponding to a factor $<10^7$ with respect to the emitted radio energy. For the stacked signal of steady emission from all repeaters, the obtained upper limit (UL) on the FRBs luminosity ($L<1.6\times10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$) is more than two orders of magnitudes lower than those derived from the individual sources. Finally, no individual or triplet photons have been significantly associated with FRB events. We derived the LAT ms energy sensitivity to be $E<10^{47}$ (D$_L$/150 Mpc)$^2$ erg, ruling out a gamma-ray-to-radio energy ratio greater than $10^9$ on ms timescales. The results reported here represent the most stringent UL reported so far on the high-energy emission from FRBs on short and long time scales, as well as on cumulative emission and individual photon searches. While the origin of FRBs is still unclear, our work provides important constraints for FRB modeling, which might shed light on their emission mechanism.

6.Constraining the cosmic-ray pressure in the inner Virgo Cluster using H.E.S.S. observations of M 87

Authors:H. E. S. S. Collaboration, :, F. Aharonian, F. Ait Benkhali, C. Arcaro, J. Aschersleben, M. Backes, V. Barbosa Martins, R. Batzofin, Y. Becherini, D. Berge, K. Bernlöhr, B. Bi, M. Böttcher, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, J. Borowska, F. Bradascio, M. Breuhaus, R. Brose, F. Brun, B. Bruno, T. Bulik, C. Burger-Scheidlin, T. Bylund, S. Caroff, S. Casanova, R. Cecil, J. Celic, M. Cerruti, T. Chand, S. Chandra, A. Chen, J. Chibueze, O. Chibueze, G. Cotter, J. Damascene Mbarubucyeye, A. Djannati-Ataï, K. Egberts, J. -P. Ernenwein, G. Fichet de Clairfontaine, M. Filipovic, G. Fontaine, M. Füßling, S. Funk, S. Gabici, S. Ghafourizadeh, G. Giavitto, D. Glawion, J. F. Glicenstein, P. Goswami, G. Grolleron, M. -H. Grondin, L. Haerer, M. Haupt, G. Hermann, J. A. Hinton, T. L. Holch, D. Horns, M. Jamrozy, F. Jankowsky, V. Joshi, I. Jung-Richardt, E. Kasai, K. Katarzyński, R. Khatoon, B. Khélifi, W. Kluźniak, Nu. Komin, K. Kosack, D. Kostunin, R. G. Lang, S. Le Stum, F. Leitl, A. Lemière, M. Lemoine-Goumard, J. -P. Lenain, F. Leuschner, T. Lohse, A. Luashvili, I. Lypova, J. Mackey, D. Malyshev, D. Malyshev, V. Marandon, P. Marchegiani, A. Marcowith, P. Marinos, G. Martí-Devesa, R. Marx, M. Meyer, A. Mitchell, R. Moderski, L. Mohrmann, A. Montanari, E. Moulin, J. Muller, K. Nakashima, M. de Naurois, J. Niemiec, A. Priyana Noel, P. O'Brien, S. Ohm, L. Olivera-Nieto, E. de Ona Wilhelmi, S. Panny, M. Panter, R. D. Parsons, G. Peron, S. Pita, D. A. Prokhorov, H. Prokoph, G. Pühlhofer, A. Quirrenbach, P. Reichherzer, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, M. Renaud, F. Rieger, G. Rowell, B. Rudak, E. Ruiz Velasco, V. Sahakian, H. Salzmann, D. A. Sanchez, A. Santangelo, M. Sasaki, J. Schäfer, F. Schüssler, U. Schwanke, J. N. S. Shapopi, H. Sol, A. Specovius, S. Spencer, Ł. Stawarz, R. Steenkamp, S. Steinmassl, C. Steppa, I. Sushch, H. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, A. M. Taylor, R. Terrier, M. Tsirou, N. Tsuji, Y. Uchiyama, C. van Eldik, B. van Soelen, M. Vecchi, J. Veh, C. Venter, J. Vink, T. Wach, S. J. Wagner, R. White, A. Wierzcholska, Yu Wun Wong, M. Zacharias, D. Zargaryan, A. A. Zdziarski, A. Zech, S. Zouari, N. Żywucka

Abstract: The origin of the gamma-ray emission from M87 is currently a matter of debate. This work aims to localize the VHE (100 GeV-100 TeV) gamma-ray emission from M87 and probe a potential extended hadronic emission component in the inner Virgo Cluster. The search for a steady and extended gamma-ray signal around M87 can constrain the cosmic-ray energy density and the pressure exerted by the cosmic rays onto the intra-cluster medium, and allow us to investigate the role of the cosmic rays in the active galactic nucleus feedback as a heating mechanism in the Virgo Cluster. H.E.S.S. telescopes are sensitive to VHE gamma rays and have been utilized to observe M87 since 2004. We utilized a Bayesian block analysis to identify M87 emission states with H.E.S.S. observations from 2004 until 2021, dividing them into low, intermediate, and high states. Because of the causality argument, an extended ($\gtrsim$kpc) signal is allowed only in steady emission states. Hence, we fitted the morphology of the 120h low state data and found no significant gamma-ray extension. Therefore, we derived for the low state an upper limit of 58"(corresponding to $\approx$4.6kpc) in the extension of a single-component morphological model described by a rotationally symmetric 2D Gaussian model at 99.7% confidence level. Our results exclude the radio lobes ($\approx$30 kpc) as the principal component of the VHE gamma-ray emission from the low state of M87. The gamma-ray emission is compatible with a single emission region at the radio core of M87. These results, with the help of two multiple-component models, constrain the maximum cosmic-ray to thermal pressure ratio $X_{{CR,max.}}$$\lesssim$$0.32$ and the total energy in cosmic-ray protons (CRp) to $U_{CR}$$\lesssim$5$\times10^{58}$ erg in the inner 20kpc of the Virgo Cluster for an assumed CRp power-law distribution in momentum with spectral index $\alpha_{p}$=2.1.

1.Tidal Spin-up of Black Hole Progenitor Stars

Authors:Linhao Ma, Jim Fuller

Abstract: Gravitational wave observations indicate the existence of merging black holes (BHs) with high spin ($a\gtrsim0.3$), whose formation pathways are still an open question. A possible way to form those binaries is through the tidal spin-up of a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star by its BH companion. In this work, we investigate this scenario by directly calculating the tidal excitation of oscillation modes in WR star models, determining the tidal spin-up rate, and integrating the coupled spin-orbit evolution for WR-BH binaries. We find that for short-period orbits and massive WR stars, the tidal interaction is mostly contributed by standing gravity modes, in contrast to Zahn's model of travelling waves which is frequently assumed in the literature. The standing modes are less efficiently damped than traveling waves, meaning that prior estimates of tidal spin-up may be overestimated. We show that tidal synchronization is rarely reached in WR-BH binaries, and the resulting BH spins have $a \lesssim 0.4$ for all but the shortest period ($P_{\rm orb} \! \lesssim 0.5 \, {\rm d}$) binaries. Tidal spin-up in lower-mass systems is more efficient, providing an anti-correlation between the mass and spin of the BHs, which could be tested in future gravitational wave data. Non-linear damping processes are poorly understood but may allow for more efficient tidal spin-up. We also discuss a new class of gravito-thermal modes that appear in our calculations.

2.A new emission mode of PSR B1859+07

Authors:Tao Wang, P. F. Wang, J. L. Han, Yi Yan, Ye Zhao Yu, Fei Fei Kou

Abstract: Previous studies have identified two emission modes in PSR B1859+07: a normal mode that has three prominent components in the average profile, with the trailing one being the brightest, and an anomalous mode (i.e. the A mode) where emissions seem to be shifted to an earlier phase. Within the normal mode, further analysis has revealed the presence of two sub-modes, i.e. the cW mode and cB mode, where the central component can appear either weak or bright. As for the anomalous mode, a new bright component emerges in the advanced phase while the bright trailing component in the normal mode disappears. New observations of PSR B1859+07 by using the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) have revealed the existence of a previously unknown emission mode, dubbed as the Af mode. In this mode, all emission components seen in the normal and anomalous modes are detected. Notably, the mean polarization profiles of both the A and Af modes exhibit an orthogonal polarization angle jump in the bright leading component. The polarization angles for the central component in the original normal mode follow two distinct orthogonal polarization modes in the A and Af modes respectively. The polarization angles for the trailing component show almost the same but a small systematic shift in the A and Af modes, roughly following the values for the cW and cB modes. Those polarization features of this newly detected emission mode imply that the anomalous mode A of PSR B1859+07 is not a result of ``phase shift" or ``swooshes" of normal components, but simply a result of the varying intensities of different profile components. Additionally, subpulse drifting has been detected in the leading component of the Af mode.

3.Fission and fusion of heavy nuclei induced by the passage of a radiation-mediated shock in BNS mergers

Authors:Alon Granot, Amir Levinson, Ehud Nakar

Abstract: We compute the structure of a Newtonian, multi-ion radiation-mediated shock for different compositions anticipated in various stellar explosions, including supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and binary neutron star mergers, using a multi-fluid RMS model that incorporates a self-consistent treatment of electrostatic coupling between the different plasma constituents. We find a significant velocity separation between ions having different charge-to-mass ratios in the immediate shock downstream and demonstrate that in fast enough shocks ion-ion collisions can trigger fusion and fission events at a relatively large rate. Our analysis does not take into account potential kinetic effects, specifically, anomalous coupling through plasma microturbulence, that can significantly reduce the velocity spread downstream, below the activation energy for nuclear reactions. A rough estimate of the scale separation in RMS suggests that for shocks propagating in BNS merger ejecta, the anomalous coupling length may exceed the radiation length, allowing a considerable composition change behind the shock via inelastic collisions of $\alpha$ particles with heavy elements at shock velocities $\beta_u\gtrsim0.2$. Moreover, a sufficient abundance of free neutrons upstream of the shock can also trigger fission through neutron capture reactions downstream. The resultant change in the composition profile may affect the properties of the early kilonova emission. The implications for other exploding systems are also briefly discussed.

4.The X-ray binaries in M83: will any of them form gravitational wave sources for LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA?

Authors:Iwona Kotko, Krzysztof Belczynski

Abstract: There are 214 X-ray point-sources ($L_{\rm X}>10^{35} \mathrm{erg/s}$) identified as X-ray binaries (XRBs) in the nearby spiral galaxy M83. Since XRBs are powered by accretion onto a neutron star or a black hole from a companion/donor star these systems are promising progenitors of merging double compact objects (DCOs): black hole - black hole (BH-BH), black hole - neutron star (BH-NS), or neutron star - neutron star (NS-NS) systems. The connection (i.e. XRBs evolving into DCOs) may provide some hints to the yet unanswered question: what is the origin of the LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA mergers? Available observations do not allow to determine what will be the final fate of the XRBs observed in M83. Yet, we can use evolutionary model of isolated binaries to reproduce the population of XRBs in M83 by matching model XRBs numbers/types/luminosities to observations. Knowing the detailed properties of M83 model XRBs (donor/accretor masses, their evolutionary ages and orbits) we follow their evolution to the death of donor stars to check whether any merging DCOs are formed. Although all merging DCOs in our isolated binary evolution model go through the XRB phase (defined as reaching X-ray luminosity from RLOF/wind accretion onto NS/BH above $10^{35}$ erg/s), only very few XRBs evolve to form merging (in Hubble time) DCOs. For M83 with its solar-like metallicity stars and continiuous star-formation we find that only $\sim 1-2\%$ of model XRBs evolve into merging DCOs depending on the adopted evolutionary physics. This is caused by (i) merger of donor star with compact object during common envelope phase, (ii) binary disruption at the supernova explosion of donor star, (iii) formation of a DCO on a wide orbit (merger time longer than Hubble time).

5.Implications of Spectra and Polarizations of Fast Radio Bursts: From Perspective of Radiation Mechanisms

Authors:Yuan-Pei Yang

Abstract: The extremely high brightness temperatures of fast radio bursts (FRBs) imply that the radiation process must be coherent, but the radiation mechanism is still unknown. The observed properties of narrow spectra and polarization distributions could be used to constrain the radiation mechanism of FRBs. In this work, we discuss the implications of the spectra and polarizations of FRBs from the perspective of intrinsic radiation mechanisms. We first analyze the observed relative spectral bandwidth of radio bursts from an FRB repeater. Furthermore, we generally discuss the properties of the spectra and polarization of the radiation mechanisms involving the relativistic particle's perpendicular acceleration, which depends on the relation between the particle's deflection angle $\psi$ and the radiation beaming angle $1/\gamma$. We find that: (1) If the narrow spectra of FRBs are attributed to the intrinsic radiation mechanism of a single particle, the condition of $\gamma\psi\ll1$ would be necessary, in which scenario, the observed number fraction between linearly and circularly polarized bursts of some FRB repeaters might be due to the propagation effects; (2) Coherent process by multiple particles with some special distributions can lead to a narrow spectrum even for the scenario with $\gamma\psi\gg1$; (3) If the observed number fraction between linearly and circularly polarized bursts is attributed to the radiation mechanism with $\gamma\psi\gg1$, the cumulative distributions of the linear and circular polarization degrees would mainly depend on the particle's beaming distribution.

1.The Spatially Resolved Properties of the GW170817 Host Galaxy

Authors:Yubin Li, Jirong Mao, Jianbo Qin, Xianzhong Zheng, Fengshan Liu, Yinghe Zhao, Xiao-Hong Zhao

Abstract: GW170817 is the unique gravitational-wave (GW) event that is associated to the electromagnetic (EM) counterpart GRB 170817A. NGC 4993 is identified as the host galaxy of GW170817/GRB 170817A. In this paper, we particularly focus on the spatially resolved properties of NGC 4993. We present the photometric results from the comprehensive data analysis of the high spatial-resolution images in the different optical bands. The morphological analysis reveals that NGC 4993 is a typical early-type galaxy without significant remnants of major galaxy merger. The spatially resolved stellar population properties of NGC 4993 suggest that the galaxy center has passive evolution with the outskirt formed by gas accretion. We derive the merging rate of the compact object per galaxy by a co-evolution scenario of supermassive black hole and its host galaxy. If the galaxy formation is at redshift 1.0, the merging rate per galaxy is $3.2\times 10^{-4}$ to $7.7\times 10^{-5}$ within the merging decay time from 1.0 to 5.0 Gyr. The results provide the vital information for the ongoing GW EM counterpart detections. The HST data analysis presented in this paper can be also applied for the Chinese Space Station Telescope (CSST) research in the future.

2.Phase Transition Phenomenology with Nonparametric Representations of the Neutron Star Equation of State

Authors:Reed Essick, Isaac Legred, Katerina Chatziioannou, Sophia Han, Philippe Landry

Abstract: Astrophysical observations of neutron stars probe the structure of dense nuclear matter and have the potential to reveal phase transitions at high densities. Most recent analyses are based on parametrized models of the equation of state with a finite number of parameters and occasionally include extra parameters intended to capture phase transition phenomenology. However, such models restrict the types of behavior allowed and may not match the true equation of state. We introduce a complementary approach that extracts phase transitions directly from the equation of state without relying on, and thus being restricted by, an underlying parametrization. We then constrain the presence of phase transitions in neutron stars with astrophysical data. Current pulsar mass, tidal deformability, and mass-radius measurements disfavor only the strongest of possible phase transitions (latent energy per particle $\gtrsim 100\,\mathrm{MeV}$). Weaker phase transitions are consistent with observations. We further investigate the prospects for measuring phase transitions with future gravitational-wave observations and find that catalogs of \result{$O(100)$} events will (at best) yield Bayes factors of $\sim 10:1$ in favor of phase transitions even when the true equation of state contains very strong phase transitions. Our results reinforce the idea that neutron star observations will primarily constrain trends in macroscopic properties rather than detailed microscopic behavior. Fine-tuned equation of state models will likely remain unconstrained in the near future.

3.Interplanetary scintillation and pulsar pulse statistics

Authors:S. A. Tyul'bashev, I. V. Chashei, M. A. Kitaeva

Abstract: The effect of interplanetary plasma on pulsed pulsar radiation passing through is considered. The pulses of two rotating radio transients (J0609+16, J1132+25) and a pulsar (B0320+39) detected on the Large Phased Array (Pushchino observatory) were analyzed. It is shown that in observations at the frequency of 111 MHz, on elongations of 20o-40o, both an increase and a decrease in the number of received pulses are observed. The change in the number of pulses is explained by the distortion of the energy distribution of pulses due to interplanetary scintillation. These changes in the number of observed pulses are in qualitative agreement with the expected dependence of the scintillation index on the observed sources elongation. Analytical expressions are obtained that allow estimating the effective modulation index from observations of individual pulses for the power distribution of pulses by energy.

4.Modelling the variable emission states of $γ$-ray emitting Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies

Authors:Anna Luashvili, Catherine Boisson, Andreas Zech, Maialen Arrieta-Lobo, Daniel Kynoch

Abstract: $\gamma$-ray-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies ($\gamma$-NLS1) constitute an intriguing small population of Active Galactic Nuclei with $\gamma$-ray emission resembling low power flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ), but with differing physical properties. They are jetted, $\gamma$/radio-loud Seyfert galaxies, with relatively low black hole masses, accreting at exceptionally high, near-Eddington rates. Certain of these sources exhibit highly variable emission states on relatively short time scales, the physical origin of which remains elusive. In this work, varying emission states of two bona-fide NLS1s, 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022, and one little studied FSRQ/intermediate object, B2 0954+25A, are examined. For each source, we analyzed quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength data for different states of $\gamma$-ray activity and present the results of their broad-band emission modelling, taking into account all available physical constraints to limit the range of the model parameters. Two different scenarios are discussed, in the framework of a one-zone leptonic model, where the high energy emission is due to the inverse Compton scattering of the disc and broad line region (BLR) or torus photons by relativistic electrons within the jet. The transition from low to high state is well described by variations of the jet parameters, leaving the external photon fields unchanged. The parameterisation favours an emission scenario with particle injection on a stationary shock inside the jet. When considering all physical constraints, the disc & BLR scenario is preferred for all three sources. We use the multi-epoch modelling to characterize total jet powers and discuss the intrinsic nature of $\gamma$-NLS1 galaxies and FSRQs.

5.A QPO in Mkn 421 from Archival RXTE Data

Authors:Evan Smith Florida Institute of Technology, Lani Oramas Florida Institute of Technology, Eric Perlman Florida Institute of Technology

Abstract: We report a 325(-7, +8) day quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the X-ray emission of the blazar Mkn 421, based on data obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The QPO is seen prominently in the ASM data (at least 15 cycles), due to the fact that it has had near-continuous sampling for more than a decade. The PCA data, where the sampling is not uniform and shows many large gaps, provide supporting evidence at lower significance. This QPO is present in both the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and All-Sky Monitor (ASM) light curves, however it is far more secure (32 sigma significance) in the ASM data since much of the PCA data are from target-of-opportunity flare observations and thus have substantial gaps. QPOs are an important observable in accretion disks, can be modulated by various orbital timescales, and may be generated by a number of mechanisms. They have been studied extensively in X-ray binaries, and should be present in active galactic nuclei (AGN) if they are governed by a common set of physical principles. In jetted sources, QPOs can probe jet-disk interactions or helical oscillations. This QPO previously has been claimed intermittently in X-ray, radio and gamma-ray data, but the continuous, 15-year extent (1996-2011) of the ASM observations (in which Mkn 421 is the brightest AGN observed) provides a unique window. The QPO appears present for nearly the entire extent of the ASM observations. We explore various physical origins and modulating mechanisms, particularly interpretations of the QPO as a result of disk-jet interactions, either due to an accretion disk limit cycle, jet instabilities or helical motions. Limit-cycle related oscillations would not interact with either Keplerian or Lense-Thirring modulated oscillations, however those associated with jet instabilities or helical motions in the jet would likely be modulated by Lense-Thirring precession.

6.The extremely X-ray luminous quasar CFHQS J142952+544717 at $z=6.18$ under Chandra high-angular resolution lens

Authors:G. Migliori, A. Siemiginowska, M. Sobolewska, C. C. Cheung, Ł. Stawarz, D. Schwartz, B. Snios, A. Saxena, V. Kashyap

Abstract: We present the first X-ray observation at sub-arcsecond resolution of the high-redshift ($z=6.18$) quasar CFHQS J142952+544717 (J1429). The ~100 net-count 0.3-7 keV spectrum obtained from $\sim 30$ ksec Chandra exposure is best fit by a single power-law model with a photon index $\Gamma=2.0\pm0.2$ and no indication of an intrinsic absorber, implying a 3.6-72 keV rest-frame luminosity $L_{\rm X}=(2.3^{+0.6}_{-0.5})\times10^{46}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We identify a second X-ray source at 30 arcsec, distance from J1429 position, with a soft ($\Gamma\simeq 2.8$) and absorbed (equivalent hydrogen column density $N_{\rm H} <13.4\times 10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$) spectrum, which likely contaminated J1429 spectra obtained in lower angular resolution observations. Based on the analysis of the Chandra image, the bulk of the X-ray luminosity is produced within the central $\sim 3$ kpc region, either by the disk/corona system, or by a moderately aligned jet. In this context, we discuss the source properties in comparison with samples of low- and high-redshift quasars. We find indication of a possible excess of counts over the expectations for a point-like source in a 0.5 arcsec-1.5 arcsec ($\sim 3-8$ kpc) annular region. The corresponding X-ray luminosity at J1429 redshift is $4\times 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$. If confirmed, this emission could be related to either a large-scale X-ray jet, or a separate X-ray source.

7.Prospects of detecting soft X-ray emission from typical WHIM filaments around massive clusters and the Coma cluster soft excess

Authors:E. Churazov, I. I. Khabibullin, K. Dolag, N. Lyskova, R. A. Sunyaev

Abstract: While hot ICM in galaxy clusters makes these objects powerful X-ray sources, the cluster's outskirts and overdense gaseous filaments might give rise to much fainter sub-keV emission. Cosmological simulations show a prominent "focusing" effect of rich clusters on the space density of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments up to a distance of $\sim 10\,{\rm Mpc}$ ($\sim$ turnaround radius, $r_{ta}$) and beyond. Here, we use Magneticum simulations to characterize their properties in terms of integrated emission measure for a given temperature and overdensity cut and the level of contamination by the more dense gas. We suggest that the annuli $(\sim 0.5-1)\times \,r_{ta}$ around massive clusters might be the most promising sites for the search of the gas with overdensity $\lesssim 50$. We model spectral signatures of the WHIM in the X-ray band and identify two distinct regimes for the gas at temperatures below and above $\sim 10^6\,{\rm K}$. Using this model, we estimate the sensitivity of X-ray telescopes to the WHIM spectral signatures. We found that the WHIM structures are within reach of future high spectral resolution missions, provided that the low-density gas is not extremely metal-poor. We then consider the Coma cluster observed by SRG/eROSITA during the CalPV phase as an example of a nearby massive object. We found that beyond the central $r\sim 40'$ ($\sim 1100\,{\rm kpc}$) circle, where calibration uncertainties preclude clean separation of the extremely bright cluster emission from a possible softer component, the conservative upper limits are about an order of magnitude larger than the levels expected from simulations.

8.A multi-messenger model for neutron star - black hole mergers

Authors:B. P. Gompertz, M. Nicholl, J. C. Smith, S. Harisankar, G. Pratten, P. Schmidt, G. P. Smith

Abstract: We present a semi-analytic model for predicting kilonova light curves from the mergers of neutron stars with black holes (NSBH). The model is integrated into the MOSFiT platform, and can generate light curves from input binary properties and nuclear equation-of-state considerations, or incorporate measurements from gravitational wave (GW) detectors to perform multi-messenger parameter estimation. The rapid framework enables the generation of NSBH kilonova distributions from binary populations, light curve predictions from GW data, and statistically meaningful comparisons with an equivalent BNS model in MOSFiT. We investigate a sample of kilonova candidates associated with cosmological short gamma-ray bursts, and demonstrate that they are broadly consistent with being driven by NSBH systems, though most have limited data. We also perform fits to the very well sampled GW170817, and show that the inability of an NSBH merger to produce lanthanide-poor ejecta results in a significant underestimate of the early ($\lesssim 2$ days) optical emission. Our model indicates that NSBH-driven kilonovae may peak up to a week after merger at optical wavelengths for some observer angles. This demonstrates the need for early coverage of emergent kilonovae in cases where the GW signal is either ambiguous or absent; they likely cannot be distinguished from BNS mergers by the light curves alone from $\sim 2$ days after the merger. We also discuss the detectability of our model kilonovae with the Vera C. Rubin Observatory's Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST).

9.On the nature of M31 gamma-ray halo in its relation to dark matter annihilation

Authors:Andrei E. Egorov

Abstract: The present work analyzes various aspects of M31 gamma-ray halo emission in its relation to annihilating dark matter (DM). The main aspect is the predicted effect of asymmetry of the intensity of emission due to inverse Compton scattering (ICS) of a possible population of relativistic electrons and positrons ($e^\pm$) in the galactic halo on starlight photons. This asymmetry is expected to exist around the major galactic axis, and arises due to anisotropy of the interstellar radiation field and the inclination of M31. ICS emission and its asymmetry were modeled by GALPROP code for the trial case of $e^\pm$ generated by annihilating weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with various properties. The asymmetry was obtained to appear at photon energies above $\sim$ 0.1 MeV. Morphological and spectral properties of the asymmetry were studied in detail. Potential observational detection of the asymmetry may allow to infer the leptonic fraction in the emission generation mechanism, thus providing valuable inferences for understanding the nature of M31 gamma-ray halo emission. Specific asymmetry predictions were made for the recently claimed DM interpretation of the outer halo emission. The paper also studied the role of secondary -- ICS and bremsstrahlung -- emissions due to DM annihilation for that interpretation. And, finally, the latter was shown to be in significant tension with the recently derived WIMP constraints by radio data on M31.

10.How do supernova remnants cool? -- I. Morphology, optical emission lines, and shocks

Authors:Ekaterina I. Makarenko I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln, Germany, Stefanie Walch I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln, Germany, Seamus D. Clarke Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, Daniel Seifried I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln, Germany, Thorsten Naab Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany, Pierre C. Nürnberger I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln, Germany, Tim-Eric Rathjen I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln, Germany

Abstract: Supernovae (SNe) inject $\sim 10^{51}$ erg in the interstellar medium, thereby shocking and heating the gas. A substantial fraction of this energy is later lost via radiative cooling. We present a post-processing module for the FLASH code to calculate the cooling radiation from shock-heated gas using collisional excitation data from MAPPINGS V. When applying this tool to a simulated SN remnant (SNR), we find that most energy is emitted in the EUV. However, optical emission lines ($[$O III$]$, $[$N II$]$, $[$S II$]$, H${\alpha}$, H${\beta}$) are usually best observable. Our shock detection scheme shows that [S II] and [N II] emissions arise from the thin shell surrounding the SNR, while [O III], H$\rm \alpha$, and H$\rm \beta$ originate from the volume-filling hot gas inside the SNR bubble. We find that the optical emission lines are affected by the SNR's complex structure and its projection onto the plane of the sky because the escaping line luminosity can be reduced by 10 -- 80\% due to absorption along the line-of-sight. Additionally, the subtraction of contaminating background radiation is required for the correct classification of an SNR on the oxygen or sulphur BPT diagrams. The electron temperature and density obtained from our synthetic observations match well with the simulation but are very sensitive to the assumed metallicity.

1.XTE J1906+090: a persistent low luminosity Be X-ray Binary

Authors:V. Sguera, L. Sidoli, A. J. Bird, N. La Palombara

Abstract: We present new results from INTEGRAL and Swift observations of the hitherto poorly studied and unidentified X-ray source XTE J1906+090. A bright hard X-ray outburst (luminosity of $\sim$10$^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ above 20 keV) has been discovered with INTEGRAL observations in 2010, this being the fourth outburst ever detected from the source. Such events are sporadic, the source duty cycle is in the range (0.8--1.6)% as inferred from extensive INTEGRAL and Swift monitoring in a similar hard X-ray band. Using five archival unpublished Swift/XRT observations, we found that XTE J1906+090 has been consistently detected at a persistent low X-ray luminosity value of $\sim$10$^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$, with limited variability (a factor as high as 4). Based on our findings, we propose that XTE J1906+090 belongs to the small and rare group of persistent low luminosity Be X-ray Binaries.

2.Interpreting the GeV-TeV Gamma-Ray Spectra of Local Giant Molecular Clouds using GEANT4 Simulation

Authors:Abhijit Roy, Jagdish C. Joshi, Martina Cardillo, Ritabrata Sarkar

Abstract: Recently, the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray satellite has detected six Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) located in the Gould Belt and the Aquila Rift regions. In half of these objects (Taurus, Orion A, Orion B), the observed gamma-ray spectrum can be explained using the Galactic diffused Cosmic Ray (CR) interactions with the gas environments. In the remaining three GMCs (Rho Oph, Aquila Rift, Cepheus), the origin of the gamma-ray spectrum is still not well established. We use the GEometry ANd Tracking (GEANT4) simulation framework in order to simulate gamma-ray emission due to CR/GMC interaction in these three objects, taking into account the gas density distribution inside the GMCs. We find that propagation of diffused Galactic CRs inside these GMCs can explain the Fermi-LAT detected gamma-ray spectra. Further, our estimated TeV-PeV fluxes are consistent with the HAWC upper limits, available for the Aquila Rift GMC. As last step, we compute the total neutrino flux estimated for these GMCs and compare it with the IceCube detection sensitivity.

3.Searching for temporary gamma-ray dark blazars associated with IceCube neutrinos

Authors:Emma Kun, Imre Bartos, Julia Becker Tjus, Peter L. Biermann, Anna Franckowiak, Francis Halzen, György Mező

Abstract: Tensions between the diffuse gamma-ray sky observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the diffuse high-energy neutrino sky detected by the IceCube South Pole Neutrino Observatory question our knowledge about high-energy neutrino sources in the gamma-ray regime. While blazars are among the most energetic persistent particle accelerators in the Universe, studies suggest that they could account for up to for 10-30% of the neutrino flux measured by IceCube. Our recent results highlighted that the associated IceCube neutrinos arrived in a local gamma-ray minimum (dip) of three strong neutrino point-source candidates. We increase the sample of neutrino-source candidates to study their gamma-ray light curves. We generate the one-year Fermi-LAT light curve for 8 neutrino source candidate blazars (RBS 0958, GB6 J1040+0617, PKS 1313-333, TXS 0506+056, PKS 1454-354, NVSS J042025-374443, PKS 0426-380 and PKS 1502+106), centered on the detection time of the associated IceCube neutrinos. We apply the Bayesian block algorithm on the light curves to characterize their variability. Our results indicate that GB6 J1040+0617 was in the phase of high gamma-ray activity, while none of the other 7 neutrino source candidates were statistically bright during the detection of the corresponding neutrinos and that indeed even most of the times neutrinos arrived in a faint gamma-ray phase of the light curves. This suggests that the 8 source-candidate blazars (associated with 7 neutrino events) in our reduced sample are either not the sources of the corresponding IceCube neutrinos, or that an in-source effect (e.g. suppression of gamma rays due to high gamma-gamma opacity) complicates the multimessenger scenario of neutrino emission for these blazars.

4.Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission from GeV to PeV energies in light of up-to-date cosmic ray measurements

Authors:Rui Zhang, Xiaoyuan Huang, Zhi-Hui Xu, Shiping Zhao, Qiang Yuan

Abstract: The diffuse gamma-ray emission between 10 and 1000 TeV from the Galactic plane was recently measured precisely by the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), which is very useful in constraining the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays in the Milky Way. On the other hand, new measurements of CR spectra reach a very high precision up to 100 TeV energies, revealing multiple spectral structures of various species. In this work, we confront the model prediction of the diffuse gamma-ray emission, based on up-to-date measurements of the local cosmic ray spectra and simplified propagation setup, with the measurements of diffuse gamma-rays. To better constrain the low-energy part of the model, we analyze Fermi-LAT data to extract the diffuse emission between 1 and 500 GeV from the same sky regions of LHAASO. Compared with the prediction, we find that clear excesses between several GeV and ~60 TeV of the diffuse emission exist. Possible reasons to explain the excesses may include unresolved sources or more complicated propagation models. We illustrate that an exponential-cutoff-power-law component with an index of -2.40 and cutoff energy of ~30 TeV is able to account for such excesses.

1.The spin measurement of MAXI J0637-430: a black hole candidate with high disk density

Authors:Nan Jia, Ye Feng, Yujia Song, Jun Yang, Jieun Yuh, Peijun Huang, Lijun Gou

Abstract: The Galactic black hole candidate MAXI J0637-430 was first discovered by $\textit{MAXI/GSC}$ on 2019 November 02. We study the spectral properties of MAXI J0637-430 by using the archived $\textit{NuSTAR}$ data and $\textit{Swift}$/XRT data. After fitting the eight spectra by using a disk component and a powerlaw component model with absorption, we select the spectra with relatively strong reflection components for detailed X-ray reflection spectroscopy. Using the most state-of-art reflection model $\tt{relxillCp}$, the spectral fitting measures a black hole spin $\textit{a}_{\rm{*}} > 0.72$ and the inclination angle of the accretion disk $i$ = $46.1_{-5.3}^{+4.0}$ degrees, at 90 per cent confidence level. In addition, the fitting results show an extreme supersolar iron abundance. Combined with the fitting results of the reflection model $\tt{reflionx\_hd}$, we consider that this unphysical iron abundance may be caused by a very high density accretion disk ( $n_{\rm{e}} > 2.34 \times 10^{21}$ $\rm{cm}^{-3}$ ) or a strong Fe K$\alpha$ emission line. The soft excess is found in the soft state spectral fitting results, which may be an extra free-free heating effect caused by high density of the accretion disk. Finally, we discuss the robustness of black hole spin obtained by X-ray reflection spectroscopy. The result of relatively high spin is self-consistent with broadened Fe K$\alpha$ line. Iron abundance and disk density have no effect on the spin results.

2.Implications of pulsar timing array observations for LISA detections of massive black hole binaries

Authors:Nathan Steinle, Hannah Middleton, Christopher J. Moore, Siyuan Chen, Antoine Klein, Geraint Pratten, Riccardo Buscicchio, Eliot Finch, Alberto Vecchio

Abstract: Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will open complementary observational windows on massive black-hole binaries (MBHBs), i.e., with masses in the range $\sim 10^6 - 10^{10}\,$ M$_{\odot}$. While PTAs may detect a stochastic gravitational-wave background from a population of MBHBs, during operation LISA will detect individual merging MBHBs. To demonstrate the profound interplay between LISA and PTAs, we estimate the number of MBHB mergers that one can expect to observe with LISA by extrapolating direct observational constraints on the MBHB merger rate inferred from PTA data. For this, we postulate that the common noise currently detected in PTAs is an astrophysical background sourced by a single MBHB population. We then constrain the LISA detection rate, $\mathcal{R}$, in the mass-redshift space by combining our Bayesian-inferred merger rate with LISA's sensitivity to spin-aligned, inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms. Using an astrophysically-informed formation model, we predict a 95$\%$ upper limit on the detection rate of $\mathcal{R} < 134\,{\rm yr}^{-1}$ for binaries with total masses in the range $10^7 - 10^8\,$ M$_{\odot}$. For higher masses, i.e., $>10^8\,$ M$_{\odot}$, we find $\mathcal{R} < 2\,(1)\,\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ using an astrophysically-informed (agnostic) formation model, rising to $11\,(6)\,\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ if the LISA sensitivity bandwidth extends down to $10^{-5}$ Hz. Forecasts of LISA science potential with PTA background measurements should improve as PTAs continue their search.

3.Detectability of a phase transition in neutron star matter with third-generation gravitational wave interferometers

Authors:C. Mondal, M. Antonelli, F. Gulminelli, M. Mancini, J. Novak, M. Oertel

Abstract: Possible strong first-order hadron-quark phase transitions in neutron star interiors leave an imprint on gravitational waves, which could be detected with planned third-generation interferometers. Given a signal from the late inspiral of a binary neutron star (BNS) coalescence, %the possibility of assessing the presence of such a phase transition depends on the precision that can be attained in the determination of the tidal deformability parameter, as well as on the model used to describe the hybrid star equation of state. For the latter, we employ here a phenomenological meta-modelling of the equation of state that largely spans the parameter space associated with both the low density phase and the quark high density compatible with current constraints. We show that with a network of third-generation detectors, a single loud BNS event might be sufficient to infer the presence of a phase transition at low baryon densities with an average Bayes factor $B\approx 100$, up to a luminosity distance ($\mathcal{D}_L \lesssim$ 300 Mpc).

4.MeerKAT caught a Mini Mouse: serendipitous detection of a young radio pulsar escaping its birth sit

Authors:S. E. Motta, J. D. Turner, B. Stappers, R. P. Fender, I. Heywood, M. Kramer, E. D. Barr

Abstract: In MeerKAT observations pointed at a Galactic X-ray binary located on the Galactic plane we serendipitously discovered a radio nebula with cometary-like morphology. The feature, which we named `the Mini Mouse' based on its similarity with the previously discovered `Mouse' nebula, points back towards the previously unidentified candidate supernova remnant G45.24$+$0.18. We observed the location of the Mini Mouse with MeerKAT in two different observations, and we localised with arcsecond precision the 138 ms radio pulsar PSR J1914+1054g, recently discovered by the FAST telescope, to a position consistent with the head of the nebula. We confirm a dispersion measure of about 418 pc cm$^{-3}$ corresponding to a distance between 7.8 and 8.8 kpc based on models of the electron distribution. Using our accurate localisation and 2 period measurements spaced 90 days apart we calculate a period derivative of (2.7 $\pm$ 0.3) $\times$ 10 $^{-14}$ s s$^{-1}$. We derive a characteristic age of approximately 82 kyr and a spin down luminosity of 4$\times$10$^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$, respectively. For a pulsar age comparable with the characteristic age, we find that the projected velocity of the neutron star is between 320 and 360 km/s if it was born at the location of the supernova remnant. The size of the proposed remnant appears small if compared with the pulsar characteristic age, however the relatively high density of the environment near the Galactic plane could explain a suppressed expansion rate and thus a smaller remnant.

5.Multi-Messenger Diagnostics of the Engine behind Core-Collapse Supernovae

Authors:Christopher L. Fryer, Eric Burns, Aimee Hungerford, Samar Safi-Harb, R. T. Wollaeger, Richard S. Miller, Michela Negro, Samalka Anandagoda, Dieter H. Hartmann

Abstract: Core-collapse supernova explosions play a wide role in astrophysics by producing compact remnants (neutron stars, black holes) and the synthesis and injection of many heavy elements into their host Galaxy. Because they are produced in some of the most extreme conditions in the universe, they can also probe physics in extreme conditions (matter at nuclear densities and extreme temperatures and magnetic fields). To quantify the impact of supernovae on both fundamental physics and our understanding of the Universe, we must leverage a broad set of observables of this engine. In this paper, we study a subset of these probes using a suite of 1-dimensional, parameterized mixing models: ejecta remnants from supernovae, ultraviolet, optical and infra-red lightcurves, and transient gamma-ray emission. We review the other diagnostics and show how the different probes tie together to provide a more clear picture of the supernova engine.

6.Jet-powered turbulence in common envelope evolution

Authors:Shlomi Hillel Technion, Israel, Ron Schreier Technion, Israel, Noam Soker Technion, Israel

Abstract: We conduct a three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a common envelope evolution (CEE) where a neutron star (NS) spirals-in inside the envelope of a red supergiant (RSG) star in a predetermined orbit. We find that the jets shed pairs of vortices in an expanding spiral pattern, inflate two expanding spirally-shaped low-density bubbles, one above and one below the equatorial plane, and deposit angular momentum to the envelope. In the simulation we do not include the gravity of the NS such that all effects we find are solely due to the jets that the spiralling-in NS launches. The angular momentum that the jets deposit to the envelope is of the same order of magnitude as the orbital angular momentum and has the same direction. The turbulence that the jets induce in the common envelope might play a role in transporting energy and angular momentum. The jet-deposited energy that is radiated away (a process not studied here) leads to a transient event that is termed common envelope jets supernova (CEJSN) and might mimic an energetic core collapse supernova. The turbulence and the spiral pattern that we explore here might lead to bumps in the late light curve of the CEJSN when different segments of the ejected envelope collide with each other. This study emphasises the roles that jets can play in CEE (including jets launched by black hole companions) and adds to the rich variety of processes in CEJSN events.

7.Unpacking merger jets: a Bayesian analysis of GW170817, GW190425 and electromagnetic observations of short gamma-ray bursts

Authors:Fergus Hayes, Ik Siong Heng, Gavin Lamb, En-Tzu Lin, John Veitch, Michael J. Willams

Abstract: We present a novel fully Bayesian analysis to constrain short gamma-ray burst jet structures associated with cocoon, wide-angle and simple top-hat jet models, as well as the binary neutron star merger rate. These constraints are made given the distance and inclination information from GW170817, observed flux of GRB170817A, observed rate of short gamma-ray bursts detected by Swift, and the neutron star merger rate inferred from LIGO's first and second observing runs. A separate analysis is conducted where a fitted short gamma-ray burst luminosity function is included to provide further constraints. The jet structure models are further constrained using the observation of GW190425 and we find that the assumption that it produced a GRB170817-like short gamma-ray burst that went undetected due to the jet geometry is consistent with previous observations. We find and quantify evidence for low luminosity and wide-angled jet structuring in the short gamma-ray burst population, independently from afterglow observations, with log Bayes factors of $0.45{-}0.55$ for such models when compared to a classical top-hat jet. Slight evidence is found for a Gaussian jet structure model over all others when the fitted luminosity function is provided, producing log Bayes factors of $0.25{-}0.9\pm0.05$ when compared to the other models. However without considering GW190425 or the fitted luminosity function, the evidence favours a cocoon-like model with log Bayes factors of $0.14\pm0.05$ over the Gaussian jet structure. We provide new constraints to the binary neutron star merger rates of $1{-}1300$Gpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$ or $2{-}680$Gpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$ when a fitted luminosity function is assumed.

8.3D evolution of neutron star magnetic-fields from a realistic core-collapse turbulent topology

Authors:Clara Dehman, Daniele Viganò, Stefano Ascenzi, Jose A. Pons, Nanda Rea

Abstract: We present the first 3D fully coupled magneto-thermal simulations of neutron stars (including the most realistic background structure and microphysical ingredients so far) applied to a very complex initial magnetic field topology in the crust, similar to what recently obtained by proto-neutron star dynamo simulations. In such configurations, most of the energy is stored in the toroidal field, while the dipolar component is a few percent of the mean magnetic field. This initial feature is maintained during the long-term evolution (1e6 yr), since the Hall term favours a direct cascade (compensating for Ohmic dissipation) rather than a strong inverse cascade, for such an initial field topology. The surface dipolar component, responsible for the dominant electromagnetic spin-down torque, does not show any increase in time, when starting from this complex initial topology. This is at contrast with the timing properties of young pulsars and magnetars which point to higher values of the surface dipolar fields. A possibility is that the deep-seated magnetic field (currents in the core) is able to self-organize in large scales (during the collapse or in the early life of a neutron star). Alternatively, the dipolar field might be lower than is usually thought, with magnetosphere substantially contributing to the observed high spin-down, via e.g., strong winds or strong coronal magnetic loops, which can also provide a natural explanation to the tiny surface hotspots inferred from X-ray data.

1.Multi-messenger observations of double neutron stars in Galactic disk with gravitational and radio waves

Authors:Wen-Fan Feng, Jie-Wen Chen, Yan Wang, Soumya D. Mohanty, Yong Shao

Abstract: We evaluate the prospects for radio follow-up of the double neutron stars (DNSs) in the Galactic disk that could be detected through future space-borne gravitational wave (GW) detectors. We first simulate the DNS population in the Galactic disk that is accessible to space-borne GW detectors according to the merger rate from recent LIGO results. Using the inspiraling waveform for the eccentric binary, the average number of the DNSs detectable by TianQin (TQ), LISA, and TQ+LISA are 217, 368, and 429, respectively. For the joint GW detection of TQ+LISA, the forecasted parameter estimation accuracies, based on the Fisher information matrix, for the detectable sources can reach the levels of $\Delta P_{\mathrm b}/P_{\mathrm b} \lesssim 10^{-6}$, $\Delta \Omega \lesssim 100~{\mathrm {deg}}^2$, $\Delta e/e \lesssim 0.3$, and $\Delta \dot{P}_{\mathrm b} / \dot{P}_{\mathrm b} \lesssim 0.02$. These estimation accuracies are fitted in the form of power-law function of signal-to-noise ratio. Next, we simulate the radio pulse emission from the possible pulsars in these DNSs according to pulsar beam geometry and the empirical distributions of spin period and luminosity. For the DNSs detectable by TQ+LISA, the average number of DNSs detectable by the follow-up pulsar searches using the Parkes, FAST, SKA1, and SKA are 8, 10, 43, and 87, respectively. Depending on the radio telescope, the average distances of these GW-detectable pulsar binaries vary from 1 to 7 kpc. Considering the dominant radiometer noise and phase jitter noise, the timing accuracy of these GW-detectable pulsars can be as low as 70 ${\rm ns}$ while the most probable value is about 100 $\mu {\rm s}$.

2.A renewed search for radio emission from the variable $γ$-ray pulsar PSR J2021$+$4026

Authors:B. Shaw, B. W. Stappers, P. Weltevrede, C. A. Jordan, M. B. Mickaliger A. G. Lyne

Abstract: We undertake the first targeted search at 1.5 GHz for radio emission from the variable $\gamma$-ray pulsar PSR J2021$+$4026. This radio-quiet pulsar assumes one of two stable $\gamma$-ray emission states, between which it transitions on a timescale of years. These transitions, in both $\gamma$-ray flux and pulse profile shape, are accompanied by contemporaneous changes to the pulsar's spin-down rate. A number of radio pulsars are known to exhibit similar correlated variability, which in some cases involves an emission state in which the radio emission ceases to be detectable. In this paper, we perform a search for radio emission from PSR J2021$+$4026, using archival radio observations recorded when the pulsar was in each of its emission/spin-down states. Using improved techniques, we search for periodic radio emission as well as single pulse phenomena such as giant radio pulses and RRAT-like emission. Our search reveals no evidence of radio emission from PSR J2021$+$4026. We estimate that the flux density for periodic emission from PSR J2021$+$4026 does not exceed 0.2 mJy at this frequency. We also estimate single-pulse flux limits for RRAT-like bursts and giant radio pulses to be 0.3 and 100 Jy respectively. We discuss the transitioning behaviour of PSR J2021$+$4026 in the context of pulsar glitches, intermittent pulsars and the increasingly common emission-rotation correlation observed in radio pulsars.

3.Shocks Power Tidal Disruption Events

Authors:Taeho Ryu, Julian Krolik, Tsvi Piran, Scott Noble, Mark Avara

Abstract: Accretion of debris seems to be the natural mechanism to power the radiation emitted during a tidal disruption event (TDE), in which a supermassive black hole tears apart a star. However, this requires the prompt formation of a compact accretion disk. Here, using a fully relativistic global simulation for the long-term evolution of debris in a TDE with realistic initial conditions, we show that at most a tiny fraction of the bound mass enters such a disk on the timescale of observed flares. To "circularize" most of the bound mass entails an increase in the binding energy of that mass by a factor $\sim 30$; we find at most an order unity change. Our simulation suggests it would take a time scale comparable to a few tens of the characteristic mass fallback time to dissipate enough energy for "circularization". Instead, the bound debris forms an extended eccentric accretion flow with eccentricity $\simeq 0.4-0.5$ by $\sim 2$ fallback times. Although the energy dissipated in shocks in this large-scale flow is much smaller than the "circularization" energy, it matches the observed radiated energy very well. Nonetheless, the impact of shocks is not strong enough to unbind initially bound debris into an outflow.

4.Measurement of ultra-high-energy diffuse gamma-ray emission of the Galactic plane from 10 TeV to 1 PeV with LHAASO-KM2A

Authors:Zhen Cao The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Aharonian The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. An The LHAASO Collaboration, Axikegu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. X. Bai The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. W. Bao The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Bastieri The LHAASO Collaboration, X. J. Bi The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. J. Bi The LHAASO Collaboration, J. T. Cai The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Cao The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Y. Cao The LHAASO Collaboration, Zhe Cao The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Chang The LHAASO Collaboration, J. F. Chang The LHAASO Collaboration, A. M. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, E. S. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Liang Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Lin Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Long Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, M. J. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, M. L. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. H. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, S. H. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, S. Z. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, T. L. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Chen The LHAASO Collaboration, N. Cheng The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. D. Cheng The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Y. Cui The LHAASO Collaboration, S. W. Cui The LHAASO Collaboration, X. H. Cui The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. D. Cui The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Z. Dai The LHAASO Collaboration, H. L. Dai The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. G. Dai The LHAASO Collaboration, Danzengluobu The LHAASO Collaboration, D. della Volpe The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Q. Dong The LHAASO Collaboration, K. K. Duan The LHAASO Collaboration, J. H. Fan The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Z. Fan The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Fang The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Fang The LHAASO Collaboration, C. F. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, S. H. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, X. T. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. L. Feng The LHAASO Collaboration, S. Gabici The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, C. D. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Q. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, W. K. Gao The LHAASO Collaboration, M. M. Ge The LHAASO Collaboration, L. S. Geng The LHAASO Collaboration, G. Giacinti The LHAASO Collaboration, G. H. Gong The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. B. Gou The LHAASO Collaboration, M. H. Gu The LHAASO Collaboration, F. L. Guo The LHAASO Collaboration, X. L. Guo The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Q. Guo The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Y. Guo The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. A. Han The LHAASO Collaboration, H. H. He The LHAASO Collaboration, H. N. He The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Y. He The LHAASO Collaboration, X. B. He The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. He The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Heller The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. K. Hor The LHAASO Collaboration, B. W. Hou The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Hou The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Hou The LHAASO Collaboration, H. B. Hu The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Hu The LHAASO Collaboration, S. C. Hu The LHAASO Collaboration, D. H. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, T. Q. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, W. J. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. T. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Y. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. C. Huang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. L. Ji The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Y. Jia The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Jia The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Jiang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. W. Jiang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. J. Jiang The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Jin The LHAASO Collaboration, M. M. Kang The LHAASO Collaboration, T. Ke The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Kuleshov The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Kurinov The LHAASO Collaboration, B. B. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Cheng Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Cong Li The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, H. B. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, H. C. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Y. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Jian Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Jie Li The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, W. L. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, W. L. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, X. R. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Xin Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Z. Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Zhe Li The LHAASO Collaboration, Zhuo Li The LHAASO Collaboration, E. W. Liang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. F. Liang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. J. Lin The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. D. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, J. L. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Y. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Y. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Y. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, S. M. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. N. Liu The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Lu The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Luo The LHAASO Collaboration, H. K. Lv The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Q. Ma The LHAASO Collaboration, L. L. Ma The LHAASO Collaboration, X. H. Ma The LHAASO Collaboration, J. R. Mao The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. Min The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Mitthumsiri The LHAASO Collaboration, H. J. Mu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. C. Nan The LHAASO Collaboration, A. Neronov The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. W. Ou The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Y. Pang The LHAASO Collaboration, P. Pattarakijwanich The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. Y. Pei The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Y. Qi The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Q. Qi The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Q. Qiao The LHAASO Collaboration, J. J. Qin The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Ruffolo The LHAASO Collaboration, A. Saiz The LHAASO Collaboration, D. Semikoz The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Y. Shao The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Shao The LHAASO Collaboration, O. Shchegolev The LHAASO Collaboration, X. D. Sheng The LHAASO Collaboration, F. W. Shu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. C. Song The LHAASO Collaboration, Yu. V. Stenkin The LHAASO Collaboration, V. Stepanov The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Su The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. N. Sun The LHAASO Collaboration, X. N. Sun The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. B. Sun The LHAASO Collaboration, P. H. T. Tam The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. W. Tang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. B. Tang The LHAASO Collaboration, W. W. Tian The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, C. B. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, G. W. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. G. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. H. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, J. C. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, K. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, L. P. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Y. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, P. H. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. G. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Y. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. D. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. J. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. H. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. X. Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Zhen Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, Zheng Wang The LHAASO Collaboration, D. M. Wei The LHAASO Collaboration, J. J. Wei The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. J. Wei The LHAASO Collaboration, T. Wen The LHAASO Collaboration, C. Y. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. R. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, S. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, X. F. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. S. Wu The LHAASO Collaboration, S. Q. Xi The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Xia The LHAASO Collaboration, J. J. Xia The LHAASO Collaboration, G. M. Xiang The LHAASO Collaboration, D. X. Xiao The LHAASO Collaboration, G. Xiao The LHAASO Collaboration, G. G. Xin The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. L. Xin The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. Xing The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. Xiong The LHAASO Collaboration, D. L. Xu The LHAASO Collaboration, R. F. Xu The LHAASO Collaboration, R. X. Xu The LHAASO Collaboration, W. L. Xu The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Xue The LHAASO Collaboration, D. H. Yan The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Z. Yan The LHAASO Collaboration, T. Yan The LHAASO Collaboration, C. W. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, F. F. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. W. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Y. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, L. L. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, M. J. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Z. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. B. Yang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. H. Yao The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. G. Yao The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. M. Ye The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Q. Yin The LHAASO Collaboration, N. Yin The LHAASO Collaboration, X. H. You The LHAASO Collaboration, Z. Y. You The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. H. Yu The LHAASO Collaboration, Q. Yuan The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Yue The LHAASO Collaboration, H. D. Zeng The LHAASO Collaboration, T. X. Zeng The LHAASO Collaboration, W. Zeng The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Zha The LHAASO Collaboration, B. B. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. M. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Y. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, J. L. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, L. X. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, Li Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, P. F. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, P. P. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. B. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. R. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, S. S. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, X. P. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, Y. F. Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, Yi Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, Yong Zhang The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, J. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, L. Z. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, S. P. Zhao The LHAASO Collaboration, F. Zheng The LHAASO Collaboration, B. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, J. N. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, M. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, P. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, R. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, X. X. Zhou The LHAASO Collaboration, C. G. Zhu The LHAASO Collaboration, F. R. Zhu The LHAASO Collaboration, H. Zhu The LHAASO Collaboration, K. J. Zhu The LHAASO Collaboration, X. Zuo The LHAASO Collaboration

Abstract: The diffuse Galactic $\gamma$-ray emission, mainly produced via interactions between cosmic rays and the diffuse interstellar medium, is a very important probe of the distribution, propagation, and interaction of cosmic rays in the Milky Way. In this work we report the measurements of diffuse $\gamma$-rays from the Galactic plane between 10 TeV and 1 PeV energies, with the square kilometer array of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO). Diffuse emissions from the inner ($15^{\circ}<l<125^{\circ}$, $|b|<5^{\circ}$) and outer ($125^{\circ}<l<235^{\circ}$, $|b|<5^{\circ}$) Galactic plane are detected with $29.1\sigma$ and $12.7\sigma$ significance, respectively. The outer Galactic plane diffuse emission is detected for the first time in the very- to ultra-high-energy domain ($E>10$~TeV). The energy spectrum in the inner Galaxy regions can be described by a power-law function with an index of $-2.99\pm0.04$, which is different from the curved spectrum as expected from hadronic interactions between locally measured cosmic rays and the line-of-sight integrated gas content. Furthermore, the measured flux is higher by a factor of $\sim3$ than the prediction. A similar spectrum with an index of $-2.99\pm0.07$ is found in the outer Galaxy region, and the absolute flux for $10\lesssim E\lesssim60$ TeV is again higher than the prediction for hadronic cosmic ray interactions. The latitude distributions of the diffuse emission are consistent with the gas distribution, while the longitude distributions show slight deviation from the gas distribution. The LHAASO measurements imply that either additional emission sources exist or cosmic ray intensities have spatial variations.

5.R-modes as a New Probe of Dark Matter in Neutron Stars

Authors:Swarnim Shirke, Suprovo Ghosh, Debarati Chatterjee, Laura Sagunski, Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich

Abstract: In this work, we perform the first systematic investigation of effects of the presence of dark matter on r-mode oscillations in neutron stars (NSs). Using a self-interacting dark matter (DM) model based on the neutron decay anomaly and a hadronic model obtained from the posterior distribution of a recent Bayesian analysis, we impose constraints on the DM self-interaction strength using recent multimessenger astrophysical observations. The constrained DM interaction strength is then used to estimate DM self-interaction cross section and shear viscosity resulting from DM, which is found to be several orders of magnitude smaller than shear viscosity due to hadronic matter. Assuming that the DM fermion is in chemical equilibrium with the neutrons in the neutron star, we estimate the bulk viscosity resulting from the dark decay of neutrons, and find it to be much smaller than the hadronic bulk viscosity. We also conclude that the instability window with minimal hadronic damping mechanisms can become smaller when including DM shear and bulk viscosity but remains incompatible with the X-ray and pulsar observational data for the chosen DM model.

1.Stability of interlinked neutron vortex and proton flux-tube arrays in a neutron star -- III. Proton feedback

Authors:K. H. Thong, A. Melatos, L. V. Drummond

Abstract: The coupled, time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii and Ginzburg-Landau equations are solved simultaneously in three dimensions to investigate the equilibrium state and far-from-equilibrium, spin-down dynamics of an interpenetrating neutron superfluid and proton type-II superconductor, as an idealized description of the outer core of a neutron star. The simulations generalize previous calculations without the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, where proton feedback is absent. If the angle $\theta$ between the rotation and magnetic axes does not equal zero, the equilibrium state consists of geometrically complicated neutron vortex and proton flux-tube tangles, as the topological defects pin to one another locally but align with different axes globally. During spin-down, new types of motion are observed. For $\theta = 0$, entire vortices pair rectilinearly with flux tubes and move together while pinned. For $\theta \neq 0$, vortex segments pair with segments from one or more flux tubes, and the paired segments move together while pinned. The degree to which proton feedback impedes the deceleration of the crust is evaluated as a function of $\theta$ and the pinning strength, $\eta$. Key geometric properties of vortex-flux-tube tangles, such as filament length, mean curvature, and polarity are analysed. It is found that proton feedback smooths the deceleration of the crust, reduces the rotational glitch sizes, and stabilizes the vortex tangle dynamics. The dimensionless control parameters in the simulations are mutually ordered to match what is expected in a real neutron star, but their central values and dynamics ranges differ from reality by many orders of magnitude due to computational limitations.

2.Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Dense Ejecta Knots in the Outer Eastern Area of the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

Authors:Bon-Chul Koo, Yong-Hyun Lee, Jae-Joon Lee, Sung-Chul Yoon

Abstract: The Cassiopeia A supernova remnant has a complex structure, manifesting the multidimensional nature of core-collapse supernova explosions. To further understand this, we carried out near-infrared multi-object spectroscopy on the ejecta knots located in the "northeastern (NE) jet" and the "Fe K plume" regions, which are two distinct features in the outer eastern area of the remnant. Our study reveals that the knots exhibit varying ratios of [S II] 1.03 $\mu$m, [P II] 1.189 $\mu$m, and [Fe II] 1.257 $\mu$m lines depending on their locations within the remnant, suggesting regional differences in elemental composition. Notably, the knots in the NE jet are mostly 'S-rich' with weak or no [P II] lines, implying that they originated below the explosive Ne burning layer, consistent with the results of previous studies. We detected no ejecta knots exhibiting only [Fe II] lines in the NE jet area that are expected in the jet-driven SN explosion model. Instead, we discovered a dozen 'Fe-rich' knots in the Fe K plume area. We propose that they are dense knots produced by a complete Si burning with $\alpha$-rich freezeout in the innermost region of the progenitor and ejected with the diffuse X-ray emitting Fe ejecta but decoupled after crossing the reverse shock. In addition to these metal-rich ejecta knots, several knots emitting only He I 1.083 $\mu$m lines were detected, and their origin remains unclear. We also detected three extended H emission features of circumstellar or interstellar origin in this area and discuss its association with the supernova remnant.

3.High energy gamma-ray emission powered by a young protostar: the case of S255 NIRS 3

Authors:Emma de Oña Wilhelmi, Rubén López-Coto, Yang Su

Abstract: Evidence of efficient acceleration of cosmic rays in massive young stellar objects has been recently reported. Among these massive protostars, S255 NIRS 3 for which extreme flaring events associated with radio jets have been detected, is one of the best objects to test this hypothesis. We search for gamma-ray emission associated with this object in Fermi-LAT data and inspect the gas content in different molecular lines using the MWISP survey. A GeV source dubbed 4FGL J0613.1+1749c lies on top of the MYSO region, where two filamentary ~10 pc CO structures extend along the same direction of the sub-parsec radio jets. We investigate the spectrum, morphology, and light curve of the gamma-ray source and compare it with the theoretical emission expected from hadronic and leptonic populations accelerated in the radio jets. We argue that the gamma-ray source could be powered by particles accelerated in the S255 NIRS 3 jets, radiating via Bremsstrahlung or proton-proton interaction, and with a synchrotron component shinning in radio from primary or secondary electrons in the case of a leptonic or hadronic population.

4.Scaling and Universality in the Temporal Occurrence of Repeating FRBs

Authors:Yanqi Du, Ping Wang, Liming Song, Shaolin Xiong

Abstract: The dynamics of repeating fast radio bursts (FRBs) are driven by their physical nature and central engine, however their event rate, energy distribution and temporal occurrence behaviour are still remain uncertain due to the server lack of information of bursts. Recently, the available of high-frequency observation data for the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) has made it possible to statistically study the temporal occurrence on timescales from several milliseconds to over several thousand seconds. In this research we studied both the FRB121102 and FRB20201124A temporal occurrence and report here a statistical result about the behaviour of the waiting time (or recurrence-time) between successive bursts. The results exhibit novel scaling and universality which have not reported in the field yet. Specifically, we find the scaling law for FRBs recurrence-time distribution which is a clear indication of the importance of correlations in the structure of its physical nature and central engine. The scaling relationships were observed for time scales spanning three orders of magnitude. Given that they are sharing the same scaling law between two repeating FRBs, we infer that the scaling law of waiting time distribution should acts as a indicator which provides insights into the physical nature and the development of the central engine model.

5.Non-thermal emissions from a head-tail radio galaxy in 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations

Authors:Takumi Ohmura, Katsuaki Asano, Kosuke Nishiwaki, Mami Machida, Haruka Sakemi

Abstract: We present magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a jet-wind interaction in a galaxy cluster and the radio to gamma-ray and the neutrino emissions from this "head-tail galaxy". Our simulation follows the evolution of cosmic-ray (CR) particle spectra with energy losses and the stochastic turbulence acceleration. We find that the reacceleration is essential to explain the observed radio properties of head-tail galaxies, in which the radio flux and spectral index do not drastically change. Our models suggest that hard X-ray emissions can be detected around the head-tail galaxy in the Perseus cluster by the hard X-ray satellites, such as FORCE, and it will potentially constrain the acceleration efficiency. We also explore the origin of the collimated synchrotron threads, which are found in some head-tail galaxies by recent high-quality radio observations. Thin and elongated flux tubes, connecting the two tails, are formed by strong backflows at an early phase. We find that these threads advect with the wind for over 300 Myr without disrupting. The radio flux from the flux tubes is much lower than the typical observed flux. An efficient CR diffusion process along the flux tubes, however, may solve this discrepancy.

6.Magnetically Threaded Thin Disks in the Presence of the Quadrupole Magnetic Field

Authors:Sercan Çıkıntoğlu

Abstract: Neutron stars might have multipole magnetic fields as implied by recent observations of pulsars. The presence of the quadrupole field might have an effect on the interaction between the disc and the neutron star depending on the location of the inner radius of the disc and the strength of the quadrupole field. For a quadrudipole stellar field, we calculate the toroidal field generated within the disc, the magnetospheric radius and the torque exerted onto the star. Also, we deduce the effect of the rotation of the star on the magnetospheric radius which is relevant even for pure dipole magnetic fields.

1.Early excess emission in Type Ia supernovae from the interaction between supernova ejecta and their circumstellar wind

Authors:Takashi J. Moriya, Paolo A. Mazzali, Chris Ashall, Elena Pian

Abstract: The effects of the interaction between Type Ia supernova ejecta and their circumstellar wind on the photometric properties of Type Ia supernovae are investigated. We assume that a hydrogen-rich, dense, and extended circumstellar matter (CSM) is formed by the steady mass loss of their progenitor systems. The CSM density is assumed to be proportional to r^{-2}. When the mass-loss rate is above 1e-4 Msun/yr with a wind velocity of 100 km/s, CSM interaction results in an early flux excess in optical light-curves within 4 days of explosion. In these cases, the optical colour quickly evolves to the blue. The ultraviolet flux below 3000 A is found to have a persistent flux excess compared to Type Ia supernovae as long as CSM interaction continues. Type Ia supernovae with progenitor mass-loss rates between 1e-4 and 1e-3 Msun/yr may not have a CSM that is dense enough to affect spectra to make them Type Ia-CSM, but they may still result in Type Ia supernovae with an early optical flux excess. Because they have a persistent ultraviolet flux excess, ultraviolet light curves around the luminosity peak would be significantly different from those with a low-density CSM.

2.An independent determination of the distance to supernova SN 1987A by means of the light echo AT 2019xis

Authors:Aleksandar Cikota, Jiachen Ding, Lifan Wang, Dietrich Baade, Stefan Cikota, Peter Höflich, Justyn Maund, Ping Yang

Abstract: Accurate distance determination to astrophysical objects is essential for the understanding of their intrinsic brightness and size. The distance to SN 1987A has been previously measured by the expanding photosphere method, and by using the angular size of the circumstellar rings with absolute sizes derived from light curves of narrow UV emission lines, with reported distances ranging from 46.77 kpc to 55 kpc. In this study, we independently determined the distance to SN 1987A using photometry and imaging polarimetry observations of AT 2019xis, a light echo of SN 1987A, by adopting a radiative transfer model of the light echo developed in Ding et al. (2021). We obtained distances to SN 1987A in the range from 49.09 $\pm$ 2.16 kpc to 59.39 $\pm$ 3.27 kpc, depending on the interstellar polarization and extinction corrections, which are consistent with the literature values. This study demonstrates the potential of using light echoes as a tool for distance determination to astrophysical objects in the Milky Way, up to kiloparsec level scales.

3.Constraints on Undetected Long-Period Binaries in the Known Pulsar Population

Authors:Megan L. Jones, David L. Kaplan, Maura A. McLaughlin, Duncan R. Lorimer

Abstract: Although neutron star-black hole binaries have been identified through mergers detected in gravitational waves, a pulsar-black hole binary has yet to be detected. While short-period binaries are detectable due to a clear signal in the pulsar's timing residuals, effects from a long-period binary could be masked by other timing effects, allowing them to go undetected. In particular, a long-period binary measured over a small subset of its orbital period could manifest via time derivatives of the spin-frequency incompatible with isolated pulsar properties. We assess the possibility of pulsars having unknown companions in long-period binaries and put constraints on the range of binary properties that may remain undetected in current data, but that may be detectable with further observations. We find that for 35% of canonical pulsars with published higher order derivatives, the precision of measurements is not enough to confidently reject binarity (period greater than ~2 kyr), and that a black-hole binary companion could not be ruled out for a sample of pulsars without published constraints if the period is greater than 1 kyr. While we find no convincing cases in the literature, we put more stringent limits on orbital period and longitude of periastron for the few pulsars with published higher-order frequency derivatives (n greater than 3). We discuss the detectability of candidates and find that a sample pulsar in a 100 yr orbit could be detectable within 5-10 yr.

4.Elasticity of neutron star mantle: improved compressible liquid drop model for cylindrical phases

Authors:Nikita A. Zemlyakov Ioffe Institute, Andrey I. Chugunov Ioffe Institute

Abstract: Neutron stars are the densest objects in the Universe. They have microscopically homogeneous core and heterogeneous crust. In particular, there may be a specific layer inside neutron stars, the mantle, which consists of substantially non-spherical nuclei immersed in a background of relativistic degenerate electrons and quasi-free neutrons. In this paper we reconsider transverse shear modulus for cylindrical phases of the mantle within the framework of compressible liquid drop model. We demonstrate that transverse shear affects the shape of nuclear clusters: their cross-section becomes elliptical. This effect reduces respective elastic constant. Using a simple model we perform all derivations analytically and obtain the expression for the transverse shear modulus, which can be useful for astrophysical applications.

5.Peering into the central region of a nano-quasar: XMM-Newton and Chandra views of the CH Cyg Symbiotic System

Authors:J. A. Toalá, O. González-Martín, M. Karovska, R. Montez Jr., M. K. Botello, L. Sabin

Abstract: We present the analysis of archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of CH Cyg, one of the most studied symbiotic stars (SySts). The combination of the high-resolution XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra HETG X-ray spectra allowed us to obtain reliable estimates of the chemical abundances and to corroborate the presence of multi-temperature X-ray-emitting gas. Spectral fitting of the medium-resolution XMM-Newton MOS (MOS1+MOS2) spectrum required the use of an additional component not seen in previous studies in order to fit the 2.0-4.0 keV energy range. Detailed spectral modelling of the XMM-Newton MOS data suggests the presence of a reflection component, very similar to that found in active galactic nuclei. The reflection component is very likely produced by an ionised disk (the accretion disk around the white dwarf) and naturally explains the presence of the fluorescent Fe emission line at 6.4 keV while also contributing to the soft and medium energy ranges. The variability of the global X-ray properties of CH Cyg are discussed as well as the variation of the three Fe lines around the 6-7 keV energy range. We conclude that reflection components are needed to model the hard X-ray emission and may be present in most $\beta/\delta$-type SySt.

1.The impact of effective matter mixing based on three-dimensional hydrodynamical models on the molecule formation in the ejecta of SN 1987A

Authors:Masaomi Ono, Takaya Nozawa, Shigehiro Nagataki, Alexandra Kozyreva, Salvatore Orlando, Marco Miceli, Ke-Jung Chen

Abstract: To investigate the impact of matter mixing on the formation of molecules in the ejecta of SN 1987A, time-dependent rate equations for chemical reactions are solved for one-zone and one-dimensional ejecta models of SN 1987A. The latter models are based on the one-dimensional profiles obtained by angle-averaging of the three-dimensional hydrodynamical models, which effectively reflect the 3D matter mixing; the impact is demonstrated, for the first time, based on three-dimensional hydrodynamical models. The distributions of initial seed atoms and radioactive $^{56}$Ni influenced by the mixing could affect the formation of molecules. By comparing the calculations for spherical cases and for several specified directions in the bipolar-like explosions in the three-dimensional hydrodynamical models, the impact is discussed. The decay of $^{56}$Ni, practically $^{56}$Co at later phases, could heat the gas and delay the molecule formation. Additionally, Compton electrons produced by the decay could ionize atoms and molecules and could destruct molecules. Several chemical reactions involved with ions such as H$^+$ and He$^+$ could also destruct molecules. The mixing of $^{56}$Ni plays a non-negligible role in both the formation and destruction of molecules through the processes above. The destructive processes of carbon monoxide and silicon monoxide due to the decay of $^{56}$Ni generally reduce the amounts. However, if the molecule formation is sufficiently delayed under a certain condition, the decay of $^{56}$Ni could increase the amounts through a sequence of passes instead compared with the case with lower efficiencies for the destructive processes above.

2.Comparison of Burst Properties between FRB 20190520B and FRB 20121102A

Authors:Fen Lyu, En-Wei Liang

Abstract: A comparative analysis of the individual bursts between FRB 20190520B and FRB 20121102A is presented by compiling a sample of bursts in multiple wavelengths. It is found that the peak frequency ($\nu_p$) distribution of the bursts of FRB 20190520B illustrates four discrete peaks in $\sim1-6$ GHz and their spectral width distribution can be fitted with a log-normal function peaking at 0.35 GHz. The discrete $\nu_p$ distribution and the narrow-banded spectral feature are analogous to FRB 20121102A. The burst duration of FRB 20190520B in the rest frame averages 10.72 ms, longer than that of FRB 20121102A by a factor 3. The specific energy ($E_{\rm \mu_{\rm c}}$) at 1.25 GHz of FRB 20190520B observed with the FAST telescope narrowly ranges in $[0.4, 1]\times 10^{38}$ erg, different from the bimodal $E_{\rm \mu_{\rm c}}$ distribution of FRB 20121102A. Assuming a Gaussian spectral profile of the bursts, our Monte Carlo simulation analysis suggests that a power-law (PL) or a cutoff power-law (CPL) energy function can comparably reproduce the $E_{\rm \mu_{\rm c}}$ distribution of FRB 20190520B. The derived energy function index of the PL model is $4.46\pm 0.17$, much steeper than that of FRB 20121102A ($1.82^{+0.10}_{-0.30}$). For the CPL model, we obtain an index of $0.47$ and a cutoff energy of $7.4\times 10^{37}$ erg. Regarding the predicted $\nu_p$ distribution in 1-2 GHz, the CPL model is more preferred than the PL model. These results indicate that FRB 20190520B and FRB 20121102A shares similar spectral properties, but their energy functions are intrinsically different.

3.Confining Burst Energy Function and Spectral Fringe Pattern of FRB 20121102A with Multifrequency Observations

Authors:Fen Lyu, Ji-Gui Cheng, En-Wei Liang, Can-Min Deng, Tao An, Qing Lin

Abstract: The observed spectral shapes variation and tentative bimodal burst energy distribution (E-distribution) of fast radio burst (FRB) 20121102A with the FAST telescope are great puzzles. Adopting the published multifrequency data observed with the FAST and Arecibo telescopes at $L$ band and the GBT telescope at $C$ band, we investigate these puzzles through Monte Carlo simulations. The intrinsic energy function (E-function) is modeled as $dp/dE\propto E^{-\alpha_{\rm E}}$, and the spectral profile is described as a Gaussian function. A fringe pattern of its spectral peak frequency ($\nu_{\rm p}$) in 0.5-8 GHz is inferred from the $\nu_{\rm p}$ distribution of the GBT sample. We estimate the likelihood of $\alpha_{\rm E}$ and the standard deviation of the spectral profile ($\sigma_{\rm s}$) by utilizing the Kolmogorov--Smirnov (K-S) test probability for the observed and simulated specific E-distributions. Our simulations yields $\alpha_{\rm E}=1.82^{+0.10}_{-0.30}$ and $\sigma_{\rm s}=0.18^{+0.28}_{-0.06}$ ($3\sigma$ confidence level) with the FAST sample. These results suggest that a single power-law function is adequate to model the E-function of FRB 20121102A. The variations of its observed spectral indices and E-distributions with telescopes in different frequency ranges are due to both physical and observational reasons, i.e. narrow spectral width for a single burst and discrete $\nu_{p}$ fringe pattern in a broad frequency range among bursts, and the selection effects of the telescope bandpass and sensitivity. The putative $\nu_{p}$ fringe pattern cannot be explained with the current radiation physics models of FRBs. Some caveats of possible artificial effects that may introduce such a feature are discussed.

4.Disk-wind-driven Expanding Radio-emitting Shell in Tidal Disruption Events

Authors:Kimitake Hayasaki, Ryo Yamazaki

Abstract: We study the evolution of a non-relativistically expanding thin shell in radio-emitting tidal disruption events (TDEs) based on a one-dimensional spherically symmetric model considering the effect of both a time-dependent mass loss rate of the disk wind and the ambient mass distribution. The analytical solutions are derived in two extreme limits: one is the approximate solution near the origin in the form of the Taylor series, and the other is the asymptotic solution in which the ambient matter is dominant far away from the origin. Our numerical solutions are confirmed to agree with the respective analytical solutions. We find that no simple power-law of time solution exists in early to middle times because the mass loss rate varies over time, affecting the shell dynamics. We also discuss the application of our model to the observed radio-emitting TDE, AT2019dsg.

5.Disk-corona modeling for spectral index and luminosity correlation of tidal disruption events

Authors:T. Mageshwaran Chungbuk National University, South Korea, Sudip Bhattacharyya Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India

Abstract: We present a relativistic disk-corona model for a steady state advective accretion disk to explain the UV to X-ray spectral index $\alpha_{\text{OX}}$ evolution of \textbf{four} tidal disruption event (TDE) sources XMMSL2J1446, XMMSL1J1404, XMMSL1J0740, \textbf{and AT2018fyk}. The viscous stress in our model depends on gas ($P_g$) and total ($P_t$) pressures as $\tau_{r\phi} \propto P_g^{\mu} P_t^{1-\mu}$, where $\mu$ is a constant. We compare various steady and time-dependent sub-Eddington TDE accretion models along with our disk-corona model to the observed $\alpha_{\text{OX}}$ of TDE sources and find that the disk-corona model agrees with the observations better than the other models. We find that $\mu$ is much smaller than unity for TDE sources XMMSL2J1446, XMMSL1J1404, and XMMSL1J0740. We also compare the relativistic model with a non-relativistic disk-corona model. The relativistic accretion dynamics reduce the spectral index relative to the non-relativistic accretion by increasing the energy transport to the corona. We estimate the mass accretion rate for all the sources and find that the observed luminosity follows a nearly linear relation with the mass accretion rate. The ratio of X-ray luminosity from the disk to the corona increases with the mass accretion rate. The observed $\alpha_{\text{OX}}$ shows positive and negative correlations with luminosity. The disk-corona model explains the negative correlation seen in the TDE sources XMMSL1J0740, XMMSL2J1446, and XMMSL1J1404. However, TDE AT2018fyk shows a positive correlation at higher luminosity and shows a better fit when a simple spherical adiabatic outflow model is added to the relativistic disk-corona model. Even though the disk luminosity dominates at a higher mass accretion rate, we show that the accretion models without a corona are unable to explain the observations, and the presence of a corona is essential.

6.On the problems of detecting Fast Radio Bursts with the LPA LPI

Authors:E. A. Brylyakova, S. A. Tyul'bashev

Abstract: The paper presents the verification of previously published fast radio bursts (FRB) from the work of V.A. Fedorova and A.E. Rodin, detected in the monitoring data of the Large Phased Array (LPA) radio telescope using a search algorithm based on the convolution of data with a scattered pulse pattern. The same 6-channel data (channel width 415 kHz) were used for verification, in which FRBs were detected with dispersion measures of 247, 570 and 1767 pc/cm3. Additional verification of the published FRB was also carried out in 32-channel data (channel width 78 kHz). We have not been able to confirm any published FRB on the signal-to-noise ratios stated in the original paper. The main errors are caused by incorrect identification of the baseline and incorrect estimation of the standard deviations of noise.

7.VERITAS discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from S3 1227+25 and multiwavelength observations

Authors:Atreya Acharyya VERITAS Collaboration, Colin Adams VERITAS Collaboration, Avery Archer VERITAS Collaboration, Priyadarshini Bangale VERITAS Collaboration, Wystan Benbow VERITAS Collaboration, Aryeh Brill VERITAS Collaboration, Jodi Christiansen VERITAS Collaboration, Alisha Chromey VERITAS Collaboration, Manel Errando VERITAS Collaboration, Abe Falcone VERITAS Collaboration, Qi Feng VERITAS Collaboration, John Finley VERITAS Collaboration, Gregory Foote VERITAS Collaboration, Lucy Fortson VERITAS Collaboration, Amy Furniss VERITAS Collaboration, Greg Gallagher VERITAS Collaboration, William Hanlon VERITAS Collaboration, David Hanna VERITAS Collaboration, Olivier Hervet VERITAS Collaboration, Claire Hinrichs VERITAS Collaboration, John Hoang VERITAS Collaboration, Jamie Holder VERITAS Collaboration, Weidong Jin VERITAS Collaboration, Madalyn Johnson VERITAS Collaboration, Philip Kaaret VERITAS Collaboration, Mary P. Kertzman VERITAS Collaboration, David Kieda VERITAS Collaboration, Tobias Kleiner VERITAS Collaboration, Nikolas Korzoun VERITAS Collaboration, Frank Krennrich VERITAS Collaboration, Mark Lang VERITAS Collaboration, Matthew Lundy VERITAS Collaboration, Gernot Maier VERITAS Collaboration, Conor McGrath VERITAS Collaboration, Matthew Millard VERITAS Collaboration, John Millis VERITAS Collaboration, Connor Mooney VERITAS Collaboration, Patrick Moriarty VERITAS Collaboration, Reshmi Mukherjee VERITAS Collaboration, Stephan O'Brien VERITAS Collaboration, Rene A. Ong VERITAS Collaboration, Martin Pohl VERITAS Collaboration, Elisa Pueschel VERITAS Collaboration, John Quinn VERITAS Collaboration, Kenneth J. Ragan VERITAS Collaboration, Paul Reynolds VERITAS Collaboration, Deivid Ribeiro VERITAS Collaboration, Emmet Thomas Roache VERITAS Collaboration, Iftach Sadeh VERITAS Collaboration, Alberto Sadun VERITAS Collaboration, Lab Saha VERITAS Collaboration, Marcos Santander VERITAS Collaboration, Glenn Sembroski VERITAS Collaboration, Ruo Shang VERITAS Collaboration, Megan Splettstoesser VERITAS Collaboration, Anjana Talluri VERITAS Collaboration, James Tucci VERITAS Collaboration, Vladimir Vassiliev VERITAS Collaboration, David Williams VERITAS Collaboration, Sam Wong VERITAS Collaboration, Talvikki Hovatta, Svetlana Jorstad, Sebastian Kiehlmann, Anne Lahteenmaki, Ioannis Liodakis, Alan Marscher, Walter Max-Moerbeck, Anthony Readhead, Rodrigo Reeves, Paul S Smith, Merja Tornikoski

Abstract: We report the detection of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the blazar S3 1227+25 (VER J1230+253) with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). VERITAS observations of the source were triggered by the detection of a hard-spectrum GeV flare on May 15, 2015 with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). A combined five-hour VERITAS exposure on May 16th and May 18th resulted in a strong 13$\sigma$ detection with a differential photon spectral index, $\Gamma$ = 3.8 $\pm$ 0.4, and a flux level at 9% of the Crab Nebula above 120 GeV. This also triggered target of opportunity observations with Swift, optical photometry, polarimetry and radio measurements, also presented in this work, in addition to the VERITAS and Fermi-LAT data. A temporal analysis of the gamma-ray flux during this period finds evidence of a shortest variability timescale of $\tau_{obs}$ = 6.2 $\pm$ 0.9 hours, indicating emission from compact regions within the jet, and the combined gamma-ray spectrum shows no strong evidence of a spectral cut-off. An investigation into correlations between the multiwavelength observations found evidence of optical and gamma-ray correlations, suggesting a single-zone model of emission. Finally, the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution is well described by a simple one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton radiation model.

8.Galactic cosmic ray transport in the absence of resonant scattering

Authors:O. Pezzi, P. Blasi

Abstract: Galactic cosmic ray transport relies on the existence of turbulence on scales comparable with the gyration radius of the particles and with wavenumber vector oriented along the local magnetic field. In the standard picture, in which turbulence is injected at large scales and cascades down to smaller scales, it is all but guaranteed that turbulence on the relevant scales may be present, either because of anisotropic cascading or because of the onset of damping processes. This raises questions on the nature of cosmic-ray scattering, especially at energies $\gtrsim 1$ TeV, where self-generation is hardly relevant. Here, by means of numerical simulations of charged test-particles in a prescribed magnetic field, we investigate particle diffusion in a situation in which turbulence is mainly present at large scales, with the possible presence of a smaller power on small scales, and discuss possible implications of this setup for cosmic-ray transport phenomenology.

9.Synchrotron intensity plots from a relativistic stratified jet

Authors:V. A. Frolova, E. E. Nokhrina, I. N. Pashchenko

Abstract: We examine the effect of a jet transversal structure from magnetohydrodynamic semi-analytical modelling on the total intensity profiles of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. In order to determine the conditions for forming double- and triple-peaked transverse intensity profiles, we calculate the radiative transfer for synchrotron emission with self-absorption from the jets described by the models with a constant angular velocity and with a total electric current closed inside a jet. We show that double-peaked profiles appear either in the models with high maximal Lorentz factors or in optically thick conditions. We show that triple-peaked profiles in radio galaxies constrain the fraction of the emitting particles in a jet. We introduce the possible conditions for triple-peaked profiles under the assumptions that nonthermal electrons are preferably located at the jet edges or are distributed according to Ohmic heating.

10.The FLUKA cross sections for cosmic-ray leptons and uncertainties on current positron predictions

Authors:Pedro De la Torre Luque, Mario Nicola Mazziotta, Francesco Loparco

Abstract: Cosmic-ray (CR) antiparticles have the potential to reveal signatures of unexpected astrophysical processes and even new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recent CR detectors have provided accurate measurements of the positron flux, revealing the so-called positron excess at high energies. However, the uncertainties related to the modelling of the local positron flux are still very high, significantly affecting our models of positron emission from pulsars and current dark matter searches. In this work, we report a new set of cross sections for positron and electron production derived from the {\tt FLUKA} code. We compare them with the most extended cross-section data-sets and show the impact of neglecting the positron production from heavy CRs. Then, we review the most significant sources of uncertainties in our current estimations of the secondary positron flux at Earth and examine for the first time the impact of considering the spiral arm structure of the Galaxy in these estimations. Finally, we provide state-of-the-art predictions of the local positron flux and discuss the limitations of our dark matter searches with positrons and difficulties to determine the contribution from pulsars to the positron flux at low energies.

1.Constraining the dark matter interpretation of the positron excess with $γ$-ray data

Authors:Haoxiang Zhan

Abstract: The particle origin of dark matter (DM) is still one of the main puzzles in modern physics. One of the most promising search strategy to detect DM at laboratories is through the indirect search of cosmic particles that are produced from DM annihilation in space. In particular, the flux of cosmic positrons has been measured with high precision by the AMS-02 experiment demonstrating that an excess above 10 GeV, with respect to the secondary production, is present. We study in this paper the possible DM origin of the positron excess finding the values of the DM mass $M$ and annihilation cross section $\langle \sigma v \rangle$ that are needed to fit high-energy positron data. In particular, we find that for DM annihilating into $b\bar{b}$ it is required to have $M=43$ TeV and $\langle \sigma v \rangle = 10^{-21}$ cm$^3$/s while for $\tau^+\tau^-$ $M=2$ TeV and $\langle \sigma v \rangle = 3\times 10^{-23}$ cm$^3$/s. If DM produce positrons, they are expected to generate gamma rays from the center of the Milky Way and around dwarf galaxy satellites of the Galaxy. We thus combine the values for the DM mass and annihilation cross section obtained with the fit to AMS-02 positron data with the upper limits derived with the non-detection of $\gamma$ rays with HESS in the direction of the Galactic center and Fermi-LAT for the combined analysis of dwarf galaxies. The main result of the paper is that only DM annihilating into $\mu^+ \mu^-$ with a mass around 500 GeV and $\langle \sigma v \rangle = 4\times 10^{-24}$ cm$^3$/s can fit AMS-02 data and be compatible with the upper limits found with $\gamma$ rays. As for the $\tau^+ \tau^-$ ($b\bar{b}$) channel, DM can contribute at most at a few tens $\%$ (a few \%) level.

2.The self-confinement of electrons and positrons from dark matter

Authors:Marco Regis, Michael Korsmeier, Gianni Bernardi, Giada Pignataro, Javier Reynoso-Cordova, Piero Ullio

Abstract: Radiative emissions from electrons and positrons generated by dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay are one of the most investigated signals in indirect searches of WIMPs. Ideal targets must have large ratio of DM to baryonic matter. However, such ``dark'' systems have a poorly known level of magnetic turbulence, which determines the residence time of the electrons and positrons and therefore also the strength of the expected signal. This typically leads to significant uncertainties in the derived DM bounds. In a novel approach, we compute the self-confinement of the DM-induced electrons and positrons. Indeed, they themselves generate irregularities in the magnetic field, thus setting a lower limit on the presence of the magnetic turbulence. We specifically apply this approach to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Finally, by comparing the expected synchrotron emission with radio data from the direction of the Draco galaxy collected at the Giant Metre Radio Telescope, we show that the proposed approach can be used to set robust and competitive bounds on WIMP DM.

3.Application of the disk instability model to all Quasi-Periodic Eruptions

Authors:Xin Pan, Shuang-Liang Li, Xinwu Cao

Abstract: After the first quasi-periodic eruptions (QPEs, GSN069) was reported in 2019, four other sources have been identified as QPEs or its candidate. However, the physics behind QPEs is still unclear so far, though several models have been proposed. Pan et al. (2022) proposed an instability model for the accretion disk with magnetically driven outflows in the first QPEs GSN 069, which is able to reproduce both the light curve and the evolution of spectrum fairly well. In this work, we exploit this model to all the QPEs. We imporve the calculations of the spectrum of disk by introducing a hardening factor, which is caused by the deviation of opacity from the blackbody. We find that the light curves and evolution of the spectra of the four QPEs or candidate can all be well reproduced by our model calculations.

4.Testing the Blazar Sequence with Spectra of Recently Discovered Dim Blazars from the Fermi Unassociated Catalog

Authors:Stephen Kerby, Abraham D. Falcone

Abstract: Recent works have developed samples of blazars from among the Fermi-LAT unassociated sources via machine learning comparisons with known blazar samples. Continued analysis of these new blazars tests the predictions of the blazar sequence and enables more flux-complete samples of blazars as a population. Using Fermi, Swift, WISE, and archival radio data, we construct broadband spectral energy distributions for 106 recently identified blazars. Drawn from the unassociated 4FGL source sample, this new sample has a lower median flux than the overall sample of gamma-ray blazars. By measuring the synchrotron peak frequency, we compare our sample of new blazars with known blazars from the 4LAC catalog. We find that the bulk of the new blazars are similar to High-Synchrotron Peak (HSP) BL Lac objects, with a higher median synchrotron peak; the sample has a median $ log( {\nu}_{syn} /Hz ) = 15.5 $ via BLaST peak estimation, compared to $ log( {\nu}_{syn} /Hz ) = 14.2 $ for the 4LAC BL Lacs. Finally, we conduct synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) leptonic modeling, comparing fitted physical and phenomenological properties to brighter blazars. We find that the new blazars have smaller characteristic Lorentz factors ${\gamma}_{boost}$ and fitted magnetic fields $B$, in agreement with blazar sequence predictions. The new blazars have slightly higher Compton dominance ratios than expected, which may point to alternative emission models for these dim blazars. Our results extend the predictions of the blazar sequence to a sample of dimmer blazars, confirming the broad predictions of that theory.

1.Constraining the ellipticity and frequency of binary neutron star remnant via its gravitational-wave and electromagnetic radiations

Authors:Yong Yuan, Xi-Long Fan, Hou-Jun Lv

Abstract: The nature of the merger remnant of binary neutron star (BNS) remains an open question. From the theoretical point of view, one possible outcome is a supra-massive neutron star (SMNS), which is supported by rigid rotation and through its survival of hundreds of seconds before collapsing into a black hole (BH). If this is the case, the SMNS can emit continuous gravitational waves (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) radiation, particularly in the X-ray band. In this work, the ellipticity and initial frequency of SMNS are constrained with a Bayesian framework using simulated X-ray and GW signals, which could be detected by The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) and Einstein Telescope (ET), respectively. We found that only considering the X-ray emission can not completely constrain the initial frequency and ellipticity of the SMNS, but it can reduce the ranges of the parameters. Afterwards, we can use the posterior distribution of the X-ray parameter estimates as a prior for the GW parameter estimates. It was found that the 95$\%$ credible region of the joint X-ray-GW analysis was about $10^5$ times smaller than that of the X-ray analysis alone.

2.Search for pulsars in an area with coordinates 3h < α< 4h and +21o < δ< +42o

Authors:S. A. Tyul'bashev, G. E. Tyul'basheva

Abstract: On the Large Phased Array (LPA) of Lebedev Physics Institute (LPI), a search for pulsars outside the Galaxy plane was carried out in a 300 sq. deg area. The search with a sensitivity 5-10 times better than that of previously conducted surveys was at a frequency of 111 MHz. The search was carried out in the summed power spectra. With an accumulation equivalent to 100 hours of continuous observations for each point of the area, 5 known pulsars were detected with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) from 20 to 1300 in the first harmonic of the spectrum. Average profiles were obtained for the detected pulsars. Estimates of the peak and integral flux densities of the found pulsars are given for individual sessions and for the power spectra summarized over 5.5 years, obtained using the developed method based on measurements of the height of harmonics in the power spectrum. No new pulsars have been detected in the area. Apparently, when searching for pulsars in the area, we have approached the lower limit of the luminosity of the second pulsars. The completeness of the survey is at the level of 0.5 mJy.

1.Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Afterglows of GRB 201015A and GRB 201216C

Authors:Lu-Lu Zhang, Jia Ren, Yun Wang, En-Wei Liang

Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 201015A and 201216C are valuable cases with detection of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray afterglows. By analysing their prompt emission data, we find that GRB 201216C is an extremely energetic long GRB with a hard gamma-ray spectrum, while GRB 201015A is a relative sub-energetic, soft spectrum GRB. Attributing their radio-optical-X-ray afterglows to the synchrotron radiation of the relativistic electrons accelerated in their jets, we fit their afterglow lightcurves with the standard external shock model and infer their VHE afterglows from the synchrotron self-Compton scattering process of the electrons. It is found that the jet of GRB 201015A is mid-relativistic ($\Gamma_0=44$) surrounded by a very dense medium ($n=1202$ cm$^{-3}$) and the jet of GRB 201216C is ultra-relativistic ($\Gamma_0=331$) surrounded by a moderate dense medium ($n=5$ cm$^{-3}$). The inferred peak luminosity of the VHE gamma-ray afterglows of GRB 201216C is approximately $10^{-9}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ at $57-600$ seconds after the GRB trigger, making it can be detectable with the MAGIC telescopes at a high confidence level, even the GRB is at a redshift of 1.1. Comparing their intrinsic VHE gamma-ray lightcurves and spectral energy distributions with GRBs~180720B, 190114C, and 190829A, we show that their intrinsic peak luminosity of VHE gamma-ray afterglows at $10^{4}$ seconds post the GRB trigger is variable from $10^{45}$ to $5\times 10^{48}$ erg s$^{-1}$, and their kinetic energy, initial Lorentz factor, and medium density are diverse among bursts.

1.FAST Observations of FRB 20220912A: Burst Properties and Polarization Characteristics

Authors:Yong-Kun Zhang, Di Li, Bing Zhang, Shuo Cao, Yi Feng, Wei-Yang Wang, Yuan-Hong Qu, Jia-Rui Niu, Wei-Wei Zhu, Jin-Lin Han, Peng Jiang, Ke-Jia Lee, Dong-Zi Li, Rui Luo, Chen-Hui Niu, Chao-Wei Tsai, Pei Wang, Fa-Yin Wang, Zi-Wei Wu, Heng Xu, Yuan-Pei Yang, Jun-Shuo Zhang, De-Jiang Zhou, Yu-Hao Zhu

Abstract: We report the observations of FRB 20220912A using the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST). We conducted 17 observations totaling 8.67 hours and detected a total of 1076 bursts with an event rate up to 390 hr$^{-1}$. The cumulative energy distribution can be well described using a broken power-law function with the lower and higher-energy slopes of $-0.38\pm0.02$ and $-2.07\pm0.07$, respectively. We also report the L band ($1-1.5$ GHz) spectral index of the synthetic spectrum of FRB~20220912A bursts, which is $-2.6\pm0.21$. The average rotation measure (RM) value of the bursts from FRB~20220912A is $-0.08\pm5.39\ \rm rad\,m^{-2}$, close to 0 $\rm rad\,m^{-2}$ and maintain relatively stable over two months. Most bursts have nearly 100\% linear polarization. About 45\% of the bursts have circular polarization with SNR $>$ 3, and the highest circular polarization degree can reach 70\%. Our observations suggest that FRB~20220912A is located in a relatively clean local environment with complex circular polarization characteristics. These various behaviors imply that the mechanism of circular polarization of FRBs likely originates from an intrinsic radiation mechanism, such as coherent curvature radiation or inverse Compton scattering inside the magnetosphere of the FRB engine source (e.g. a magnetar).

2.An extreme active repeating fast radio burst in a clean environment

Authors:Yi Feng, Di Li, Yong-Kun Zhang, Chao-Wei Tsai, Wei-Yang Wang, Yuan-Pei Yang, Yuanhong Qu, Pei Wang, Dengke Zhou, Jiarui Niu, Chenchen Miao, Mao Yuan, Jiaying Xu, Ryan S. Lynch, Will Armentrout, Brenne Gregory, Lingqi Meng, Shen Wang, Xianglei Chen, Shi Dai, Chen-Hui Niu, Mengyao Xue, Ju-Mei Yao, Bing Zhang, Junshuo Zhang, Weiwei Zhu, Yuhao Zhu

Abstract: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are bright millisecond radio bursts at cosmological distances. Only three FRBs have exhibited extreme activities, such as achieving a peak event rate $\gtrsim 100$ hr$^{-1}$ or being persistently active. Only these three among $\sim 50$ known repeating FRBs have circular polarization. We observed the FRB 20220912A with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at L-band on 24 October 2022 and detected 128 bursts in 1.4 hours, corresponding to a burst rate of about 90 hr$^{-1}$, which is the highest yet for FRBs observed by the GBT and makes it the fourth extremely active FRB. The median energy of the bursts is $4.0\times10^{37}$ erg, close to the characteristic energy of FRB 20121102A. The average rotation measure (RM) was $-$0.4 rad m$^{-2}$ with unnoticeable intraday RM change, indicating a likely clean environment, in contrast to the other three extremely active repeating FRBs. Most bursts have nearly 100% linear polarization. Approximately 56% of the bright bursts have circular polarization, the highest such fraction among all FRBs. A downward drift in frequency and polarization angle swings were found in our sample. The discovery and characterization of FRB 20220912A support the view that the downward drift in frequency, polarization angle swings, and circular polarization are intrinsic to radiation physics, which may be shared by active repeaters regardless of the environments.

3.Scintillation Arc from FRB 20220912A

Authors:Zi-Wei Wu, Robert A. Main, Wei-Wei Zhu, Bing Zhang, Peng Jiang, Jia-Rui Niu, Jin-Lin Han, Di Li, Ke-Jia Lee, Dong-Zi Li, Yuan-Pei Yang, Fa-Yin Wang, Rui Luo, Pei Wang, Chen-Hui Niu, Heng Xu, Bo-Jun Wang, Wei-Yang Wang, Yong-Kun Zhang, Yi Feng, De-Jiang Zhou, Yong-Hua Xu, Can-Min Deng, Yu-Hao Zhu

Abstract: We present the interstellar scintillation analysis of fast radio burst (FRB) 20220912A during its extremely active episode in 2022 using data from the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST). We detect a scintillation arc in the FRB's secondary spectrum, which describes the power in terms of the scattered FRB signals' time delay and Doppler shift. The arc indicates that the scintillation is caused by a highly localized region of the ionized interstellar medium (IISM). Our analysis favors a Milky Way origin for the localized scattering medium but cannot rule out a host galaxy origin. We present our method for detecting the scintillation arc, which can be applied generally to sources with irregularly spaced bursts or pulses. These methods could help shed light on the complex interstellar environment surrounding the FRBs and in our Galaxy.

4.Direct Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Helium Spectrum from 40 GeV to 250 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station

Authors:O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, A. Bruno, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, G. A. de Nolfo, K. Ebisawa, A. W. Ficklin, H. Fuke, S. Gonzi, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kobayashi, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, S. Sugita, A. Sulaj, M. Takita, T. Tamura, T. Terasawa, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida, W. V. Zober

Abstract: We present the results of a direct measurement of the cosmic-ray helium spectrum with the CALET instrument in operation on the International Space Station since 2015. The observation period covered by this analysis spans from October 13, 2015 to April 30, 2022 (2392 days). The very wide dynamic range of CALET allowed to collect helium data over a large energy interval, from ~40 GeV to ~250 TeV, for the first time with a single instrument in Low Earth Orbit. The measured spectrum shows evidence of a deviation of the flux from a single power-law by more than 8$\sigma$ with a progressive spectral hardening from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. This result is consistent with the data reported by space instruments including PAMELA, AMS-02, DAMPE and balloon instruments including CREAM. At higher energy we report the onset of a softening of the helium spectrum around 30 TeV (total kinetic energy). Though affected by large uncertainties in the highest energy bins, the observation of a flux reduction turns out to be consistent with the most recent results of DAMPE. A Double Broken Power Law (DBPL) is found to fit simultaneously both spectral features: the hardening (at lower energy) and the softening (at higher energy). A measurement of the proton to helium flux ratio in the energy range from 60 GeV/n to about 60 TeV/n is also presented, using the CALET proton flux recently updated with higher statistics.

5.Revisiting constraints on the photon rest mass with cosmological fast radio bursts

Authors:Bao Wang, Jun-Jie Wei, Xue-Feng Wu, Martín López-Corredoiraa

Abstract: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been suggested as an excellent celestial laboratory for testing the zero-mass hypothesis of the photon. In this work, we use the dispersion measure (DM)--redshift measurements of 23 localized FRBs to revisit the photon rest mass $m_{\gamma}$. As an improvement over previous studies, here we take into account the more realistic probability distributions of DMs contributed by the FRB host galaxy and intergalactic medium (IGM) from the IllustrisTNG simulation. To better account for the systematic uncertainty induced by the choices of priors of cosmological parameters, we also combine the FRB data with the cosmic microwave background data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, and type Ia supernova data to constrain the cosmological parameters and $m_{\gamma}$ simultaneously. We derive a new upper limit of $m_{\gamma}\le3.8\times 10^{-51}\;\rm{kg}$, or equivalently $m_{\gamma}\le2.1 \times 10^{-15} \, \rm{eV/c^2}$ ($m_{\gamma} \le 7.2 \times 10^{-51} \, \rm{kg}$, or equivalently $m_{\gamma}\le4.0 \times 10^{-15} \, \rm{eV/c^2}$) at $1\sigma$ ($2\sigma$) confidence level. Meanwhile, our analysis can also lead to a reasonable estimation for the IGM baryon fraction $f_{\rm IGM}=0.873^{+0.061}_{-0.050}$. With the number increment of localized FRBs, the constraints on both $m_{\gamma}$ and $f_{\rm IGM}$ will be further improved. A caveat of constraining $m_{\gamma}$ within the context of the standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model is also discussed.

6.RX J0440.9+4431: another supercritical X-ray pulsar

Authors:Alexander Salganik, Sergey S. Tsygankov, Victor Doroshenko, Sergey V. Molkov, Alexander A. Lutovinov, Alexander A. Mushtukov, Juri Poutanen

Abstract: In the beginning of 2023 the Be transient X-ray pulsar RX J0440.9+4431 underwent a fist-ever giant outburst observed from the source peaking in the beginning of February and reaching peak luminosity of $\sim 4.3\times10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Here we present the results of a detailed spectral and temporal study of the source based on NuSTAR, INTEGRAL, Swift, and NICER observations performed during this period and covering wide range of energies and luminosities. We find that both the pulse profile shape and spectral hardness change abruptly around $\sim2.8\times10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$, which we associate with a transition to super-critical accretion regime and erection of the accretion column. The observed pulsed fraction decreases gradually with energy up to 20 keV (with a local minimum around fluorescence iron line), which is unusual for an X-ray pulsar, and then rises rapidly at higher energies with the pulsations significantly detected up to $\sim120$ keV. The broadband energy spectra of RX J0440.9+4431 at different luminosity states can be approximated with a two-hump model with peaks at energies of about 10-20 and 50-70 keV previously suggested for other pulsars without additional features. In particular an absorption feature around 30 keV previously reported and interpreted as a cyclotron line in the literature appears to be absent when using this model, so the question regarding the magnetic field strength of the neutron star remains open. Instead, we attempted to estimate field using several indirect methods and conclude that all of them point to a relatively strong field of around $B\sim 10^{13}$ G.

7.Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis of Jet-Driven Supernovae I: Parameter Study of the Dependence on Jet Energetics

Authors:Shing-Chi Leung, Ken'ichi Nomoto, Tomoharu Suzuki

Abstract: Rotating massive stars with initial progenitor masses $M_{\rm prog} \sim$ 25 $M_{\odot}$ -- $\sim$140 $M_{\odot}$ can leave rapidly rotating black holes to become collapsars. The black holes and the surrounding accretion disks may develop powerful jets by magneto-hydrodynamics instabilities. The propagation of the jet in the stellar envelope provides the necessary shock heating for triggering nucleosynthesis unseen in canonical core-collapse supernovae. Yet, the energy budget of the jet and its effects on the final chemical abundance pattern are unclear. In this exploratory work, we present a survey on the parameter dependence of collapsar nucleosynthesis on jet energetics. We use the zero-metallicity star with $M_{\rm prog} \sim$ 40 $M_{\odot}$ as the progenitor. The parameters include the jet duration, its energy deposition rate, deposited energy, and the opening angle. We examine the correlations of following observables: (1) the ejecta and remnant masses, (2) the energy deposition efficiency, (3) the $^{56}$Ni production and its correlation with the ejecta velocity, deposited energy, and the ejected mass, (4) the Sc-Ti-V correlation as observed in metal-poor stars, and (5) the [Zn/Fe] ratio as observed in some metal-poor stars. We also provide the chemical abundance table of these explosion models for the use of the galactic chemical evolution and stellar archaeology.

1.Discovery of two promising isolated neutron star candidates in the SRG/eROSITA All-Sky Survey

Authors:J. Kurpas, A. D. Schwope, A. M. Pires, F. Haberl, D. A. H. Buckley

Abstract: We report the discovery of the isolated neutron star (INS) candidates eRASSU J065715.3+260428 and eRASSU J131716.9-402647 from the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) eROSITA All-Sky Survey. Selected for their soft X-ray emission and absence of catalogued counterparts, both objects were recently targeted with the Large Binocular Telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope. The absence of counterparts down to deep optical limits (25 mag, 5$\sigma$) and, as a result, large X-ray-to-optical flux ratios in both cases strongly suggest an INS nature. The X-ray spectra of both sources are well described by a simple absorbed blackbody, whereas other thermal and non-thermal models (e.g. a hot-plasma emission spectrum or power law) are disfavoured by the spectral analysis. Within the current observational limits, and as expected for cooling INSs, no significant variation ($>2\sigma$) has been identified over the first two-year time span of the survey. Upcoming dedicated follow-up observations will help us to confirm the candidates' nature.

2.X-ray Binaries in External Galaxies

Authors:Marat Gilfanov, Giuseppina Fabbiano, Bret Lehmer, Andreas Zezas

Abstract: X-ray appearance of normal galaxies is mainly determined by X-ray binaries powered by accretion onto a neutron star or a stellar mass black hole. Their populations scale with the star-formation rate and stellar mass of the host galaxy and their X-ray luminosity distributions show a significant split between star-forming and passive galaxies, both facts being consequences of the dichotomy between high- and low-mass X-ray binaries. Metallicity, IMF and stellar age dependencies, and dynamical formation channels add complexity to this picture. The numbers of high-mass X-ray binaries observed in star-forming galaxies indicate quite high probability for a massive star to become an accretion powered X-ray source once upon its lifetime. This explains the unexpectedly high contribution of X-ray binaries to the Cosmic X-ray Background, of the order of $\sim 10\%$, mostly via X-ray emission of faint star-forming galaxies located at moderate redshifts which may account for the unresolved part of the CXB. Cosmological evolution of the $L_X-{\rm SFR}$ relation can make high-mass X-ray binaries a potentially significant factor in (pre)heating of intergalactic medium in the early Universe.

3.Cosmic ray density variations in nearby giant molecular clouds

Authors:Jiahao Liu, Bing Liu, Ruizhi Yang

Abstract: In this paper, we analyzed 12 years of Fermi LAT gamma-ray data towards three nearby giant molecular clouds (GMCs), i.e., R~CrA, Chamaeleon, and Lupus. We calibrated the gas column density of these regions by using the Planck dust opacity map as well as the Gaia extinction map. With both the gamma-ray observations and gas column density maps, we derived the cosmic ray densities in the three GMCs. We found the derived CR spectra have almost the same shape but significantly different normalizations, which may reflect that the distributions of CRs in the vicinity of solar systems are inhomogeneous.

4.Bursts from Space: MeerKAT - The first citizen science project dedicated to commensal radio transients

Authors:Alex Andersson, Chris Lintott, Rob Fender, Joe Bright, Francesco Carotenuto, Laura Driessen, Mathilde Espinasse, Kelebogile Gaseahalwe, Ian Heywood, Alexander J. van der Horst, Sara Motta, Lauren Rhodes, Evangelia Tremou, David R. A. Williams, Patrick Woudt, Xian Zhang, Steven Bloemen, Paul Groot, Paul Vreeswijk, Stefano Giarratana, Payaswini Saikia, Jonas Andersson, Lizzeth Ruiz Arroyo, Loïc Baert, Matthew Baumann, Wilfried Domainko, Thorsten Eschweiler, Tim Forsythe, Sauro Gaudenzi, Rachel Ann Grenier, Davide Iannone, Karla Lahoz, Kyle J. Melville, Marianne De Sousa Nascimento, Leticia Navarro, Sai Parthasarathi, Piilonen, Najma Rahman, Jeffrey Smith, B. Stewart, Newton Temoke, Chloe Tworek, Isabelle Whittle

Abstract: The newest generation of radio telescopes are able to survey large areas with high sensitivity and cadence, producing data volumes that require new methods to better understand the transient sky. Here we describe the results from the first citizen science project dedicated to commensal radio transients, using data from the MeerKAT telescope with weekly cadence. Bursts from Space: MeerKAT was launched late in 2021 and received ~89000 classifications from over 1000 volunteers in 3 months. Our volunteers discovered 142 new variable sources which, along with the known transients in our fields, allowed us to estimate that at least 2.1 per cent of radio sources are varying at 1.28 GHz at the sampled cadence and sensitivity, in line with previous work. We provide the full catalogue of these sources, the largest of candidate radio variables to date. Transient sources found with archival counterparts include a pulsar (B1845-01) and an OH maser star (OH 30.1-0.7), in addition to the recovery of known stellar flares and X-ray binary jets in our observations. Data from the MeerLICHT optical telescope, along with estimates of long time-scale variability induced by scintillation, imply that the majority of the new variables are active galactic nuclei. This tells us that citizen scientists can discover phenomena varying on time-scales from weeks to several years. The success both in terms of volunteer engagement and scientific merit warrants the continued development of the project, whilst we use the classifications from volunteers to develop machine learning techniques for finding transients.

5.Stellar wind variability in Cygnus X-1 from high-resolution excess variance spectroscopy with Chandra

Authors:Lucia K. Härer, Michael L. Parker, Ileyk El Mellah, Victoria Grinberg, Ralf Ballhausen, Zsofi Igo, Amy Joyce, Jörn Wilms

Abstract: Stellar winds of massive stars are known to be driven by line absorption of UV photons, a mechanism which is prone to instabilities, causing the wind to be clumpy. The clumpy structure hampers wind mass-loss estimates, limiting our understanding of massive star evolution. The wind structure also impacts accretion in high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) systems. We analyse the wavelength-dependent variability of X-ray absorption in the wind to study its structure. Such an approach is possible in HMXBs, where the compact object serves as an X-ray backlight. We probe different parts of the wind by analysing data taken at superior and inferior conjunction. We apply excess variance spectroscopy to study the wavelength-dependent soft X-ray variability of the HMXB Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard spectral state. Excess variance spectroscopy quantifies the variability of an object above the statistical noise as a function of wavelength, which allows us to study the variability of individual spectral lines. As one of the first studies, we apply this technique to high-resolution gratings spectra provided by Chandra, accounting for various systematic effects. The frequency dependence is investigated by changing the time binning. The strong orbital phase dependence we observe in the excess variance is consistent with column density variations predicted by a simple model for a clumpy wind. We identify spikes of increased variability with spectral features found by previous spectroscopic analyses of the same data set, most notably from silicon in over-dense clumps in the wind. In the silicon line region, the variability power is redistributed towards lower frequencies, hinting at increased line variability in large clumps. In prospect of the microcalorimetry missions that are scheduled to launch within the next decade, excess variance spectra present a promising approach to constrain the wind structure.

6.Probing AGN variability with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

Authors:F. Cangemi for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, T. Hovatta for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, E. Lindfors for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, M. Cerruti for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, J. Becerra-Gonzalez for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, J. Biteau for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, C. Boisson for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, M. Böttcher for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, E. de Gouveia Dal Pino for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, D. Dorner for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, G. Grolleron for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, J. -P. Lenain for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, M. Manganaro for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, W. Max-Moerbeck for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, P. Morris for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, K. Nilsson for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, L. Passos Reis for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, P. Romano for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, O. Sergijenko for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, F. Tavecchio for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, S. Vercellone for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, S. Wagner for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium, M. Zacharias for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium

Abstract: Relativistic jets launched by Active Galactic Nuclei are among the most powerful particle accelerators in the Universe. The emission over the entire electromagnetic spectrum of these relativistic jets can be extremely variable with scales of variability from less than few minutes up to several years. These variability patterns, which can be very complex, contain information about the acceleration processes of the particles and the area(s) of emission. Thanks to its sensitivity, five-to twenty-times better than the current generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes depending on energy, the Cherenkov Telescope Array will be able to follow the emission from these objects with a very accurate time sampling and over a wide spectral coverage from 20 GeV to > 20 TeV and thus reveal the nature of the acceleration processes at work in these objects. We will show the first results of our lightcurve simulations and long-term behavior of AGN as will be observed by CTA, based on state-of-art particle acceleration models.

7.X-ray flares in long-term light curve of low luminosity AGN - M81*

Authors:Gunjan Tomar, Nayantara Gupta

Abstract: Most active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at the center of the nearby galaxies have super-massive black holes accreting at sub-Eddington rates through hot accretion flows or radiatively inefficient accretion flows, which efficiently produce jets. The association of radio and X-ray flares with the knot ejection from M81* inspires us to model its multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution during these flares to constrain the physical parameters of the jet. Moreover, we construct a long-term light curve in X-rays to identify the flares in the available data and constrain the jet parameters during those periods. The jet activity may vary on short and long time scales, which may produce flares in different frequency bands. The spectral energy distributions from radio to X-ray during the quiescent as well as flaring states are found to be satisfactorily explained by synchrotron emission of relativistic electrons from a single zone. The variation in the values of the jet parameters during the different states is shown and compared with high synchrotron peaked blazars.

8.GRB 221009A Afterglow from a Shallow Angular Structured Jet

Authors:Ramandeep Gill, Jonathan Granot

Abstract: The afterglows of exceptionally bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can reveal the angular structure of their ultra-relativistic jets after they emerge from the confining medium, e.g. the progenitor's stellar envelope in long-soft GRBs. These jets appear to have a narrow core (of half-opening angle $\theta_c$), beyond which their kinetic energy drops as a power-law with the angle $\theta$ from the jet's symmetry axis, $E_{k,\rm iso}(\theta)\propto[1+(\theta/\theta_c)^2]^{-a/2}$. The power-law index $a$ reflects the amount of mixing between the shocked jet and confining medium, which depends on the jet's inital magnetization. Weakly magnetized jets undergo significant mixing, leading to shallow ($a\lesssim2$) angular profiles. Here we use the exquisite multi-waveband afterglow observations of GRB 221009A to constrain the jet angular structure using a dynamical model that accounts for both the forward and reverse shocks, for a power-law external density radial profile, $n_{\rm{}ext}\propto{}R^{-k}$. Both the forward shock emission, that dominates the optical and X-ray flux, and the reverse shock emission, that produces the radio afterglow, require a jet with a narrow core ($\theta_c\approx0.021$) and a shallow angular structure ($a\approx0.8$) expanding into a stellar wind ($k\approx2$). In addition, the fraction of shock-heated electrons forming a relativistic power-law energy distribution is limited to $\xi_e\approx10^{-2}$ in both shocks.

1.Millihertz X-ray variability during the 2019 outburst of black hole candidate Swift~J1357.2$-$0933

Authors:Aru Beri, Vishal Gaur, Phil Charles, David R. A. Williams, Jahanvi, John A. Paice, Poshak Gandhi, Diego Altamirano, Rob Fender, David A. Green, David Titterington

Abstract: Swift J1357.2$-$0933 is a black-hole candidate X-ray transient, which underwent its third outburst in 2019, during which several multi-wavelength observations were carried out.~Here, we report results from the \emph{Neil Gehrels Swift} and \emph{NICER} observatories and radio data from \emph{AMI}.~For the first time,~millihertz quasi-periodic X-ray oscillations with frequencies varying between ${\sim}$~1--5~$\rm{mHz}$ were found in \emph{NICER} observations and a similar feature was also detected in one \emph{Swift}--\textsc{XRT} dataset.~Our spectral analysis indicate that the maximum value of the measured X-ray flux is much lower compared to the peak values observed during the 2011 and 2017 outbursts.~This value is ${\sim}$~100 times lower than found with \emph{MAXI} on MJD~58558 much ($\sim$~68 days) earlier in the outburst, suggesting that the \emph{Swift} and \emph{NICER} fluxes belong to the declining phase of the 2019 outburst.~An additional soft component was detected in the \textsc{XRT} observation with the highest flux level, but at a relatively low $L_{\rm X}$~$\sim$~$3{\times}10^{34}~(d/{\rm 6~kpc)}^2\rm{erg}~\rm{s}^{-1}$, and which we fitted with a disc component at a temperature of $\sim 0.17$~keV.~The optical/UV magnitudes obtained from \emph{Swift}--\textsc{UVOT} showed a correlation with X-ray observations, indicating X-ray reprocessing to be the plausible origin of the optical and UV emission.~However, the source was not significantly detected in the radio band.~There are currently a number of models that could explain this millihertz-frequency X-ray variability; not least of which involves an X-ray component to the curious dips that, so far, have only been observed in the optical.

2.The width-flux relation of the broad iron line during the state transition of the black hole X-ray binaries

Authors:Hang-Ying Shui, Fu-Guo Xie, Zhen Yan, Ren-Yi Ma

Abstract: The observation of varying broad iron lines during the state transition of the black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) have been accumulating.In this work, the relation between the normalized intensity and the width of iron lines is investigated, in order to understand better the variation of iron lines and possibly its connection to state transition. Considering the uncertainties due to ionization and illuminating X-rays, only the effects of geometry and gravity are taken into account. Three scenarios were studied, i.e., the continuous disk model, innermost annulus model, and the cloud model. As shown by our calculations, at given iron width, the line flux of the cloud model is smaller than that of the continuous disk model; while for the innermost annulus model, the width is almost unrelated with the flux. The range of the line strength depends on both the BH spin and the inclination of the disk. We then apply to the observation of MAXI J1631-479 by NuSTAR during its decay from the soft state to the intermediate state. We estimated the relative line strength and width according to the spectral fitting results by Xu et al.(2020), and then compared with our theoretical width-flux relation. It was found that the cloud model was more favored. We further modeled the iron line profiles, and found that the cloud model can explain both the line profile and its variation with reasonable parameters.

3.A new small glitch in Vela discovered with a hidden Markov model

Authors:L. Dunn, A. Melatos, C. M. Espinoza, D. Antonopoulou, R. Dodson

Abstract: A striking feature of the Vela pulsar (PSR J0835$-$4510) is that it undergoes sudden increases in its spin frequency, known as glitches, with a fractional amplitude on the order of $10^{-6}$ approximately every 900 days. Glitches of smaller magnitudes are also known to occur in Vela. Their distribution in both time and amplitude is less well constrained but equally important for understanding the physical process underpinning these events. In order to better understand these small glitches in Vela, an analysis of high-cadence observations from the Mount Pleasant Observatory is presented. A hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to search for small, previously undetected glitches across 24 years of observations covering MJD 44929 to MJD 53647. One previously unknown glitch is detected around MJD 48636 (Jan 15 1992), with fractional frequency jump $\Delta f/f = (8.19 \pm 0.04) \times 10^{-10}$ and frequency derivative jump $\Delta\dot{f}/\dot{f} = (2.98 \pm 0.01) \times 10^{-4}$. Two previously reported small glitches are also confidently re-detected, and independent estimates of their parameters are reported. Excluding these events, 90% confidence frequentist upper limits on the sizes of missed glitches are also set, with a median upper limit of $\Delta f^{90\%}/f = 1.35 \times 10^{-9}$. Upper limits of this kind are enabled by the semi-automated and computationally efficient nature of the HMM, and are crucial to informing studies which are sensitive to the lower end of the glitch size distribution.

4.Local magneto-shear instability in Newtonian gravity

Authors:T. Celora, I. Hawke, N. Andersson, G. L. Comer

Abstract: The magneto-rotational instability (MRI) - which is due to an interplay between a sheared background and the magnetic field - is commonly considered a key ingredient for developing and sustaining turbulence in the outer envelope of binary neutron star merger remnants. To assess whether (or not) the instability is active and resolved, criteria originally derived in the accretion disk literature - thus exploiting the symmetries of such systems - are often used. In this paper we discuss the magneto-shear instability as a truly local phenomenon, relaxing common symmetry assumptions on the background on top of which the instability grows. This makes the discussion well-suited for highly dynamical environments such as binary mergers. We find that - although this is somewhat hidden in the usual derivation of the MRI dispersion relation - the instability crucially depends on the assumed symmetries. Relaxing the symmetry assumptions on the background we find that the role of the magnetic field is significantly diminished, as it affects the modes' growth but does not drive it. This suggests that we should not expect the standard instability criteria to provide a faithful indication/diagnostic of what "is actually going on" in mergers. We conclude by making contact with a suitable filtering operation, as this is key to separating background and fluctuations in highly dynamical systems.

5.X-ray Polarimetry of the accreting pulsar 1A~0535+262 in the supercritical state with PolarLight

Authors:Xiangyun Long, Hua Feng, Hong Li, Ling-Da Kong, Jeremy Heyl, Long Ji, Lian Tao, Fabio Muleri, Qiong Wu, Jiahuan Zhu, Jiahui Huang, Massimo Minuti, Weichun Jiang, Saverio Citraro, Hikmat Nasimi, Jiandong Yu, Ge Jin, Ming Zeng, Peng An, Luca Baldini, Ronaldo Bellazzini, Alessandro Brez, Luca Latronico, Carmelo Sgrò, Gloria Spandre, Michele Pinchera, Paolo Soffitta, Enrico Costa

Abstract: The X-ray pulsar 1A 0535+262 exhibited a giant outburst in 2020, offering us a unique opportunity for X-ray polarimetry of an accreting pulsar in the supercritical state. Measurement with PolarLight yielded a non-detection in 3-8 keV; the 99% upper limit of the polarization fraction (PF) is found to be 0.34 averaged over spin phases, or 0.51 based on the rotating vector model. No useful constraint can be placed with phase resolved polarimetry. These upper limits are lower than a previous theoretical prediction of 0.6-0.8, but consistent with those found in other accreting pulsars, like Her X-1, Cen X-3, 4U 1626-67, and GRO J1008-57, which were in the subcritical state, or at least not confidently in the supercritical state, during the polarization measurements. Our results suggest that the relatively low PF seen in accreting pulsars cannot be attributed to the source not being in the supercritical state, but could be a general feature.

6.Nonlinear Hall effect in a cylinder

Authors:G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan, M. V. Glushikhina

Abstract: A conducting cylinder, with a uniform magnetic field along its axis, and radial temperature gradient, is considered. At large temperature gradients the azimuthal Hall electrical current creates the axial magnetic field which strength may be comparable with the original one. It is shown, that the magnetic field generated by the azimuthal Hall current leads to the decrease of magnetic field originated by external sources.

7.Optical study of the polar BM CrB in low accretion state

Authors:A. I. Kolbin, N. V. Borisov, A. N. Burenkov, O. I. Spiridonova, I. F. Bikmaev, M. V. Suslikov

Abstract: This paper presents a spectral and photometric study of the poorly studied polar BM CrB. Three states of the polar brightness and signs of transition from one-pole to two-pole accretion mode were found by an analysis of ZTF data. It is shown that the transition from the low state to the high state changes the longitude of the main accretion spot (by $\approx 17^{\circ}$) and increases its elongation (by $\approx 10^{\circ}$). The spectra contain Zeeman absorptions of the H$\alpha$ line which are formed at a magnetic field strength of $15.5\pm1$ MG. These absorptions are likely produced by a cold halo extending from the accretion spot at $\approx {^1/_4}$ of the white dwarf radius. Modeling of the behavior of the H$\alpha$ emission line shows that the main source of emission is the part of the accretion stream near the Lagrangian point L$_1$, which is periodically eclipsed by the donor star. The spectra exhibit a cyclotron component formed in the accretion spot. Its modeling by a simple accretion spot model gives constraints on the magnetic field strength $B=15-40$ MG and the temperature $T_e\gtrsim15$ keV.

1.Constraints on the $e^{\pm }$ Pair Injection of Pulsar Halos: Implications from the Galactic Diffuse Multi-TeV Gamma-ray Emission

Authors:Kai Yan, Ruo-Yu Liu

Abstract: Diffuse gamma-ray emission (DGE) has been discovered over the Galactic disk in the energy range from sub-GeV to sub-PeV. While it is believed to be dominated by the pionic emission of cosmic ray (CR) hadrons via interactions with interstellar medium, unresolved gamma-ray sources may also be potential contributors. TeV gamma-ray halos around middle-aged pulsars have been proposed as such sources. Their contribution to DGE, however, highly depends on the injection rate of electrons and the injection spectral shape, which are not well determined based on current observations. The measured fluxes of DGE can thus provide constraints on the $e^\pm$ injection of the pulsar halo population in turn. In this paper, we estimate the contribution of pulsar halos to DGE based on the ATNF pulsar samples with taking into account the off-beamed pulsars. The recent measurement on DGE by Tibet AS$\gamma$ and an early measurement by MILAGRO are used to constrain the pair injection parameters of the pulsar halo population. Our result may be used to distinguish different models for pulsar halos.

2.A radio-emitting outflow produced by the tidal disruption event AT2020vwl

Authors:A. J. Goodwin, K. D. Alexander, J. C. A. Miller-Jones, M. F. Bietenholz, S. van Velzen, G. E. Anderson, E. Berger, Y. Cendes, R. Chornock, D. L. Coppejans, T. Eftekhari, S. Gezari, T. Laskar, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, R. Saxton

Abstract: A tidal disruption event (TDE) occurs when a star is destroyed by a supermassive black hole. Broadband radio spectral observations of TDEs trace the emission from any outflows or jets that are ejected from the vicinity of the supermassive black hole. However, radio detections of TDEs are rare, with less than 20 published to date, and only 11 with multi-epoch broadband coverage. Here we present the radio detection of the TDE AT2020vwl and our subsequent radio monitoring campaign of the outflow that was produced, spanning 1.5 years post-optical flare. We tracked the outflow evolution as it expanded between $10^{16}$ cm to $10^{17}$ cm from the supermassive black hole, deducing it was non-relativistic and launched quasi-simultaneously with the initial optical detection through modelling the evolving synchrotron spectra of the event. We deduce that the outflow is likely to have been launched by material ejected from stream-stream collisions (more likely), the unbound debris stream, or an accretion-induced wind or jet from the supermassive black hole (less likely). AT2020vwl joins a growing number of TDEs with well-characterised prompt radio emission, with future timely radio observations of TDEs required to fully understand the mechanism that produces this type of radio emission in TDEs.

3.Search for correlations of high-energy neutrinos detected in IceCube with radio-bright AGN and gamma-ray emission from blazars

Authors:R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, C. Benning, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, N. Chau, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado, H. Dembinski, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, S. El Mentawi, D. Elsässer, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, O. Gries, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, N. Heyer, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, S. Hori, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, O. Janik, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, J. Krishnamoorthi, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, S. Latseva, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, E. Manao, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, A. Negi, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, V. O'Dell, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Pontén, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, B. Riedel, A. Rifaie, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, L. Schlickmann, B. Schlüter, F. Schlüter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, M. Seikh, S. Seunarine, R. Shah, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, P. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, M. Thiesmeyer, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, M. Vereecken, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, A. Wolf, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, R. Young, F. Yu, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, P. Zhelnin

Abstract: The IceCube Neutrino Observatory sends realtime neutrino alerts with high probability of being astrophysical in origin. We present a new method to correlate these events and possible candidate sources using $2,089$ blazars from the Fermi-LAT 4LAC-DR2 catalog and with $3,413$ AGNs from the Radio Fundamental Catalog. No statistically significant neutrino emission was found in any of the catalog searches. The result is compatible with a small fraction, $<1$%, of AGNs being neutrino emitters and prior evidence for neutrino emission presented by IceCube and other authors from sources such as TXS 0506+056 and PKS 1502+06. We also present cross-checks to other analyses that claim a significant correlation using similar data samples, and we find that adding more information on the neutrino events and more data overall makes the result compatible with background.

4.Broadband X-ray spectral analysis of the ULX NGC 1313\,X-1 using JeTCAF: Origin of the ULX bubble

Authors:Biswaraj Palit, Santanu Mondal

Abstract: NGC 1313\,X-1 is a mysterious Ultra-luminous X-ray (ULX) source whose X-ray powering mechanism and a bubble-like structure surrounding the source are topics of intense study. Here, we perform the X-ray spectroscopic study of the source using a joint {\it XMM-Newton} and {\it NuSTAR} observations taken during 2012 $-$ 2017. The combined spectra cover the energy band 0.3 $-$ 20 keV. We use the accretion-ejection-based JeTCAF model for spectral analysis. The model fitted disc mass accretion rate varies from 4.6 to 9.6 $\dot M_{\rm Edd}$ and the halo mass accretion rate varies from 4.0 to 6.1 $\dot M_{\rm Edd}$ with a dynamic Comptonizing corona of average size of $\sim 15$ $r_g$. The data fitting is carried out for different black hole (BH) mass values. The goodness of the fit and uncertainties in model parameters improve while using higher BH mass with most probable mass of the compact object to be $133\pm33$ M$_\odot$. We have estimated the mass outflow rate, its velocity and power, and the age of the inflated bubble surrounding the source. Our estimated bubble morphology is in accord with the observed optical bubble and winds found through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy, suggesting that the bubble expanded by the outflows originating from the central source. Finally, we conclude that the super-Eddington accretion onto a nearly intermediate mass BH may power a ULX when the accretion efficiency is low, though their efficiency increases when jet/outflow is taken into account, in agreement with numerical simulations in the literature.

5.The high polarisation of the X-rays from the Black Hole X-ray Binary 4U 1630-47 challenges standard thin accretion disc scenario

Authors:Ajay Ratheesh, Michal Dovčiak, Henric Krawczynski, Jakub Podgorný, Lorenzo Marra, Alexandra Veledina, Valery Suleimanov, Nicole Rodriguez Cavero, James Steiner, Jiri Svoboda, Andrea Marinucci, Stefano Bianchi, Michela Negro, Giorgio Matt, Francesco Tombesi, Juri Poutanen, Adam Ingram, Roberto Taverna, Andrew West, Vladimir Karas, Francesco Ursini, Paolo Soffitta, Fiamma Capitanio, Domenico Viscolo, Alberto Manfreda, Fabio Muleri, Maxime Parra, Banafsheh Beheshtipour, Sohee Chun, Niccolò Cibrario, Niccolò Di Lalla, Sergio Fabiani, Kun Hu, Philip Kaaret, Vladislav Loktev, Romana Mikušincová, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Nicola Omodei, Pierre-Olivier Petrucci, Simonetta Puccetti, John Rankin, Silvia Zane, Sixuan Zhang, Iván Agudo, Lucio Antonelli, Matteo Bachetti, Luca Baldini, Wayne Baumgartner, Ronaldo Bellazzini, Stephen Bongiorno, Raffaella Bonino, Alessandro Brez, Niccolò Bucciantini, Simone Castellano, Elisabetta Cavazzuti, Chien-Ting Chen, Stefano Ciprini, Enrico Costa, Alessandra De Rosa, Ettore Del Monte, Laura Di Gesu, Alessandro Di Marco, Immacolata Donnarumma, Victor Doroshenko, Steven Ehlert, Teruaki Enoto, Yuri Evangelista, Riccardo Ferrazzoli, Javier Garcia, Shuichi Gunji, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Jeremy Heyl, Wataru Iwakiri, Svetlana Jorstad, Fabian Kislat, Takao Kitaguchi, Jeffery Kolodziejczak, Fabio La Monaca, Luca Latronico, Ioannis Liodakis, Simone Maldera, Frédéric Marin, Alan Marscher, Herman Marshall, Francesco Massaro, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, C. -Y. Ng, Stephen O'Dell, Chiara Oppedisano, Alessandro Papitto, George Pavlov, Abel Peirson, Matteo Perri, Melissa Pesce-Rollins, Maura Pilia, Andrea Possenti, Brian Ramsey, Oliver Roberts, Roger Romani, Carmelo Sgrò, Patrick Slane, Gloria Spandre, Douglas Swartz, Toru Tamagawa, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Yuzuru Tawara, Allyn Tennant, Nicholas Thomas, Alessio Trois, Sergey Tsygankov, Roberto Turolla, Jacco Vink, Martin Weisskopf, Kinwah Wu, Fei Xie

Abstract: Large, energy-dependent X-ray polarisation is observed in 4U 1630-47, a black hole in an X-ray binary, in the high-soft emission state. In this state, X-ray emission is believed to be dominated by a thermal, geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disc. However, the observations with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) reveal an unexpectedly high polarisation degree, rising from 6% at 2 keV to 10% at 8 keV, which cannot be reconciled with standard models of thin accretion discs. We argue that an accretion disc with an only partially ionised atmosphere flowing away from the disc at mildly relativistic velocities can explain the observations.

6.Torque reversal and cyclotron absorption feature in HMXB 4U 1538-522

Authors:Prince Sharma Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, India, Chetana Jain Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India, Anjan Dutta Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Abstract: We present a comprehensive timing and spectral analysis of the HMXB 4U 1538-522 by using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observatory data. Using three archived observations made between 2019 and 2021, we have detected $\sim $ 526 s coherent pulsations up to 60 keV. We have found an instantaneous spin-down rate of $\dot{P} = 6.6_{-6.0}^{+2.4} \times 10^{-6}$ s s$^{-1}$ during the first observation. The pulse profiles had a double peaked structure consisting of a broad primary peak and an energy dependent, weak secondary peak. We have also analysed the long-term spin-period evolution of 4U 1538-522 from data spanning more than four decades, including the data from Fermi/GBM. Based on the recent spin trends, we have found that the third torque reversal in 4U 1538-522 happened around MJD 58800. The source is currently spinning up with $\dot{P} = -1.9(1) \times 10^{-9}$ s s$^{-1}$. We also report a periodic fluctuation in the spin-period of 4U 1538-522. The broad-band persistent spectra can be described with a blackbody component and either powerlaw or Comptonization component along with a Fe K$_{\alpha}$ line at 6.4 keV and a cyclotron absorption feature around 22 keV. We have also found a relatively weak absorption feature around 27 keV in the persistent spectra of 4U 1538-522 in all three observations. We have estimated a magnetic field strength of $1.84_{-0.06}^{+0.04} (1+z) \times 10^{12}$ and $2.33_{-0.24}^{+0.15} (1+z) \times 10^{12}$ G for the two features, respectively.

7.Discovery of extraordinary X-ray emission from magnetospheric interaction in the unique binary stellar system $ε$ Lupi

Authors:B. Das, V. Petit, Y. Nazé, M. F. Corcoran, D. H. Cohen, A. Biswas, P. Chandra, A. David-Uraz, M. A. Leutenegger, C. Neiner, H. Pablo, E. Paunzen, M. E. Shultz, A. ud-Doula, G. A. Wade

Abstract: We report detailed X-ray observations of the unique binary system $\epsilon$ Lupi, the only known short-period binary consisting of two magnetic early-type stars. The components have comparably strong, but anti-aligned magnetic fields. The orbital and magnetic properties of the system imply that the magnetospheres overlap at all orbital phases, suggesting the possibility of variable inter-star magnetospheric interaction due to the non-negligible eccentricity of the orbit. To investigate this effect, we observed the X-ray emission from $\epsilon$ Lupi both near and away from periastron passage, using the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer mission (NICER) X-ray Telescope. We find that the system produces excess X-ray emission at the periastron phase, suggesting the presence of variable inter-star magnetospheric interaction. We also discover that the enhancement at periastron is confined to a very narrow orbital phase range ($\approx 5\%$ of the orbital period), but the X-ray properties close to periastron phase are similar to those observed away from periastron. From these observations, we infer that the underlying cause is magnetic reconnection heating the stellar wind plasma, rather than shocks produced by wind-wind collision. Finally, by comparing the behavior of $\epsilon$ Lupi with that observed for cooler magnetic binary systems, we propose that elevated X-ray flux at periastron phase is likely a general characteristic of interacting magnetospheres irrespective of the spectral types of the constituent stars.

1.Timing analysis of Swift J0243.6+6124 with NICER and Fermi/GBM during the decay phase of the 2017-2018 outburst

Authors:M. M. Serim, Ç. K. Dönmez, D. Serim, L. Ducci, A. Baykal, A. Santangelo

Abstract: We present a timing and noise analysis of the Be/X-ray binary system Swift J0243.6+6124 during its 2017-2018 super-Eddington outburst using NICER/XTI observations. For the initial segments of the data that overlap with the Fermi/GBM pulse frequency history, we apply a synthetic pulse timing analysis to enrich the spin frequency history of the source. In addition, we employ phase-coherent timing analysis for NICER/XTI observations that extends beyond the Fermi/GBM frequency history. We show that the pulse profiles switch from double-peaked to single-peaked when the X-ray luminosity drops below $\sim$$7\times 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We suggest that this transitional luminosity is associated with the transition from a pencil beam pattern to a hybrid beam pattern when the Coulomb interactions become ineffective to decelerate the accretion flow, which implies a dipolar magnetic field strength of $\sim$$5\times 10^{12}$ G. We also obtained the power density spectra (PDS) of the spin frequency derivative fluctuations. The red noise component of the PDS is found to be steeper ($\omega^{-3.36}$) than the other transient accreting sources. We find significantly high noise strength estimates above the super-Eddington luminosity levels, which may arise from the torque fluctuations due to interactions with the quadrupole fields at such levels.

2.The origin of long soft lags and the nature of the hard-intermediate state in black hole binaries

Authors:Tenyo Kawamura, Chris Done, Tadayuki Takahashi

Abstract: Fast variability of the X-ray corona in black hole binaries can produce a soft lag by reverberation, where the reprocessed thermalized disc photons lag behind the illuminating hard X-rays. This lag is small, and systematically decreases with increasing mass accretion rate towards the hard-soft transition, consistent with a decreasing truncation radius between the thin disc and X-ray hot inner flow. However, the soft lag suddenly increases dramatically just before the spectrum becomes disc-dominated (hard-intermediate state). Interpreting this as reverberation requires that the X-ray source distance from the disc increases dramatically, potentially consistent with switching to X-rays produced in the radio jet. However, this change in lag behaviour occurs without any clear change in hard X-ray spectrum, and before the plasmoid ejection event which might produce such a source (soft-intermediate state). Instead, we show how the soft lag can be interpreted in the context of propagation lags from mass accretion rate fluctuations. These normally produce hard lags, as the model has radial stratification, with fluctuations from larger radii modulating the harder spectra produced at smaller radii. However, all that is required to switch the sign is that the hottest Comptonized emission has seed photons which allow it to extend down in energy below the softer emission from the slower variable turbulent region from the inner edge of the disc. Our model connects the timing change to the spectral change, and gives a smooth transition of the X-ray source properties from the bright hard state to the disc-dominated states.

3.Colour-Flavour Locked Quark Stars in Light of the Compact Object in HESS J1731-347 and the GW190814 Event

Authors:P. T. Oikonomou, Ch. C. Moustakidis

Abstract: The central compact object within HESS J1731- 347 possesses unique mass and radius properties that renders it a compelling candidate for a self-bound star. In this research, we examine the capability of quark stars composed of colour superconducting quark matter to explain the latter object by using its marginalised posterior distribution and imposing it as a constraint on the relevant parameter space. Namely, we investigate quark matter for $N_f=2,3$ in the colour superconducting phase, incorporating perturbative QCD corrections, and we derive their properties accordingly. The utilised thermodynamic potential of this work possesses an MIT bag model formalism with the parameters being established as flavour-independent. In this instance, we conclude the favour of 3-flavour over 2-flavour colour superconducting quark matter, isolating our interest on the former. The parameter space is further confined due to the additional requirement for a high maximum mass ($M_{\text{TOV}} \geq 2.6 M_{\odot}$), accounting for GW$190814$'s secondary companion. We pay a significant attention on the speed of sound and the trace anomaly (proposed as a measure of conformality [\href{}{10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.252702}]). We conclude that it is possible for colour-flavour locked quark stars to reach high masses without violating the conformal bound or the $\langle \Theta \rangle _{\mu_B} \geq 0$ if the quartic coefficient value $\alpha_4$ does not exceed an upper limit which is solely dependent on the established $M_{\text{TOV}}$. For $M_{\text{TOV}}=2.6 M_{\odot}$, we find that the limit reads $\alpha_4 \leq 0.594$. Lastly, a further study takes place on the agreement of colour-flavour locked quark stars with additional astrophysical objects including the GW$170817$ and GW$190425$ events, followed by a relevant discussion.

4.Constraining the onset density for the QCD phase transition with the neutrino signal from core-collapse supernovae

Authors:Noshad Khosravi Largani, Tobias Fischer, Niels Uwe F. Bastian

Abstract: The occurrence of a first-order hadron-quark matter phase transition at high baryon densities is investigated in astrophysical simulations of core-collapse supernovae, to decipher yet incompletely understood properties of the dense matter equation of state using neutrinos from such cosmic events. It is found that the emission of a non-standard second neutrino burst, dominated by electron-antineutrinos, is not only a measurable signal for the appearance of deconfined quark matter but also reveals information about the state of matter at extreme conditions encountered at the supernova interior. To this end, a large set of spherically symmetric supernova models is investigated, studying the dependence on the equation of state and on the stellar progenitor. General relativistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics is employed featuring three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport and a microscopic hadron-quark hybrid matter equation of state class, that covers a representative range of parameters. This facilitates the direct connection between intrinsic signatures of the neutrino signal and properties of the equation of state. In particular, a set of novel relations have been found empirically. These potentially provide a constraint for the onset density of a possible QCD phase transition, which is presently one of the largest uncertainties in modern investigations of the QCD phase diagram, from the future neutrino observation of the next galactic core-collapse supernova.

1.The spin-down accretion regime of Galactic ultra-luminous X-ray pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124

Authors:Jiren Liu, Long Ji, MIngyu Ge

Abstract: The relative high fluxes of the Galactic ultra-luminous X-ray pulsar Swift J0243 allow a detailed study of its spin-down regime in quiescence state, for a first time. After the 2017 giant outburst, its spin frequencies show a linear decreasing trend with some variations due to minor outbursts. The linear spin-down rate is $\sim-1.9\times10^{-12}$ Hz/s during the period of lowest luminosity, from which one can infer a dipole field $\sim1.75\times10^{13}$ G. The $\dot{\nu}-L$ relation during the spin-down regime is complex, and the $\dot{\nu}$ is close to 0 when the luminosity reaches both the high end ($L_{38}\sim0.3$) and the lowest value ($L_{38}\sim0.03$). The luminosity of zero-torque is different for the giant outburst and other minor outbursts. It is likely due to different accretion flows for different types of outburst, as evidenced by the differences of the spectra and pulse profiles at a similar luminosity for different types of outburst (giant or not). The pulse profile changes from double peaks in the spin-up state to a single broad peak in the low spin-down regime, indicating the emission beam/region is larger in the low spin-down regime. These results show that accretion is still ongoing in the low spin-down regime for which the neutron star is supposed to be in a propeller state.

2.Transient jet ejections associated with limit-cycle behaviors in the very high state of black hole binaries

Authors:Hajime Inoue

Abstract: Ejection mechanism of transient relativistic jets from black hole binaries is studied. Based on the observations of the limit-cycle behaviors of the superluminal jet source, GRS 1915+105, we infer that the transient jet ejections could happen just after the slim disk emerging from the standard disk at some distance runs over the standard disk and reaches the vicinity of the central black hole. The standard disk releases about a half of the gravitational energy in the course of the accretion, but the released radiative energy could be absorbed by the optically thick slim disk covering the standard disk in this situation. Then, since the inward motion of the slim disk is much faster than that of the standard disk, a quantity of energy released by an amount of gas in the standard disk is received by the much smaller amount of gas in the slim disk. As the result, the energy per mass received by the slim disk is expected to be largely amplified and is estimated to get highly relativistic. Since the energy is much larger than the gravitational energy, the height of the slim disk could significantly increase. Hence, the innermost part of the slim disk from which almost all the angular momentum has been transferred outward could have a much larger height than the black hole size and collide with one another around the central axis of the disk, turning to an outward flow along the axis normal to the disk plane. The flow in this direction can be approximated to be that through the de Laval nozzle and could become supersonic near the distance where the flow has the smallest cross section.

3.Neutron star phase transition as the origin for the fast radio bursts and soft gamma-ray repeaters of SGR J1935+2154

Authors:Jun-Yi Shen, Yuan-Chuan Zou, Shu-Hua Yang, Xiao-Ping Zheng, Kai Wang

Abstract: Magnetars are believed as neutron stars (NSs) with strong magnetic fields. X-ray flares and fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been observed from the magnetar (soft gamma-ray repeater, SGR J1935+2154). We propose that the phase transition of the NS can power the FRBs and SGRs.Based on the equation of state provided by the MIT bag model and the mean field approximation, we solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations to get the NS structure. With spin-down of the NS, the hadronic shell gradually transfers to the quark shell.The gravitational potential energy released by one time of the phase transition can be achieved. The released energy, time interval between two successive phase transitions, and glitch are all consistent with the observations of the FRBs and the X-ray flares from SGR J1935+2154. We conclude that the phase transition of an NS is a plausible mechanism to power the SGRs as well as the repeating FRBs.

4.A Cross-correlation Study between IceCube Neutrino Events and the Fermi Unresolved Gamma-ray Sky

Authors:Michela Negro, Milena Crnogorčević, Eric Burns, Eric Charles, Lea Marcotulli, Regina Caputo

Abstract: With the coincident detections of electromagnetic radiation together with gravitational waves (GW170817) or neutrinos (TXS 0506+056), the new era of multimessenger astrophysics has begun. Of particular interest are the searches for correlation between the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos detected by the IceCube Observatory and gamma-ray photons detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). So far, only sources detected by the LAT have been considered in correlation with IceCube neutrinos, neglecting any emission from sources too faint to be resolved individually. Here, we present the first cross-correlation analysis considering the unresolved gamma-ray background (UGRB) and IceCube events. We perform a thorough sensitivity study and, given the lack of identified correlation, we place upper limits on the fraction of the observed neutrinos that would be produced in proton-proton (p-p) or proton-gamma (p-gamma) interactions from the population of sources contributing to the UGRB emission and dominating its spatial anisotropy (aka blazars). Our analysis suggests that, under the assumption that there is no intrinsic cutoff and/or hardening of the spectrum above Fermi-LAT energies, and that all gamma-rays from the unresolved blazars dominating the UGRB fluctuation field are produced by neutral pions from p-p (p-gamma) interactions, up to 60% (30%) of such population may contribute to the total neutrino events observed by IceCube. This translates into a O(1%) maximum contribution to the astrophysical high-energy neutrino flux observed by IceCube at 100 TeV.

5.Potential of Constraining Propagation Parameters of Galactic Cosmic Rays with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection facility onboard China's Space Station

Authors:Zhi-Hui Xu, Qiang Yuan, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Xiao-Jun Bi

Abstract: Precise measurements of the spectra of secondary and primary cosmic rays are crucial for understanding the origin and propagation of those energetic particles. The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China`s Space Station, which is expected to operate in 2027, will push the direct measurements of cosmic ray fluxes precisely up to PeV energies. In this work, we investigate the potential of HERD on studying the propagation of cosmic rays using the measurements of boron, carbon, and oxygen spectra. We find that, compared with the current results, the new HERD measurements can improve the accuracy of the propagation parameters by 8\% to 40\%. The constraints on the injection spectra at high energies will also be improved.

6.Detectability of Late-time Supernova Neutrinos with Fallback Accretion onto Protoneutron star

Authors:Ryuichiro Akaho, Hiroki Nagakura, Thierry Foglizzo

Abstract: We investigate the late-time neutrino emission powered by fallback mass accretion onto proto-neutron star (PNS), using neutrino radiation-hydrodynamic simulations with full Boltzmann neutrino transport. We follow the time evolution of accretion flow onto PNS until the system reaches a steady state. A standing shock wave is commonly formed in the accretion flow, whereas the shock radius varies depending on mass accretion rate and PNS mass. A sharp increase in temperature emerges in the vicinity of PNS ($\sim 10$ km), which characterizes neutrino emission. Both neutrino luminosity and average energy become higher with increasing mass accretion rate and PNS mass. The mean energy of emitted neutrinos is in the range of $10\lesssim\epsilon\lesssim20\,\mathrm{MeV}$, which is higher than that estimated from PNS cooling models ($\lesssim10\,\mathrm{MeV}$). Assuming a distance to core-collapse supernova of $10\,\mathrm{kpc}$, we quantify neutrino event rates for Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) and DUNE. The estimated detection rates are well above the background, and their energy-dependent features are qualitatively different from those expected from PNS cooling models. Another notable feature is that the neutrino emission is strongly flavor dependent, exhibiting that the neutrino event rate hinges on the neutrino oscillation model. We estimate them in the case with adiabatic Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein model, and show that the normal- and inverted mass hierarchy offer the large number of neutrino detection in Super-K and DUNE, respectively. Hence the simultaneous observation with Super-K and DUNE of the fallback neutrinos will provide a strong constraint on neutrino mass hierarchy.

1.Early-time spectroscopic modelling of the transitional Type Ia Supernova 2021rhu with TARDIS

Authors:Luke Harvey, Kate Maguire, Mark R. Magee, Matia Bulla, Suhail Dhawan, Steve Schulze, Jesper Sollerman, Maxime Deckers, Georgios Dimitriadis, Simeon Reusch, Mathew Smith, Jacco Terwel, Michael W. Coughlin, Frank Masci, Josiah Purdum, Alexander Reedy, Estelle Robert, Avery Wold

Abstract: An open question in SN Ia research is where the boundary lies between 'normal' Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are used in cosmological measurements and those that sit off the Phillips relation. We present the spectroscopic modelling of one such '86G-like' transitional SN Ia, SN 2021rhu, that has recently been employed as a local Hubble Constant calibrator using a tip of the red-giant branch measurement. We detail its modelling from -12 d until maximum brightness using the radiative-transfer spectral-synthesis code tardis. We base our modelling on literature delayed-detonation and deflagration models of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, as well as the double-detonation models of sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. We present a new method for 'projecting' abundance profiles to different density profiles for ease of computation. Due to the small velocity extent and low outer densities of the W7 profile, we find it inadequate to reproduce the evolution of SN 2021rhu as it fails to match the high-velocity calcium components. The host extinction of SN 2021rhu is uncertain but we use modelling with and without an extinction correction to set lower and upper limits on the abundances of individual species. Comparing these limits to literature models we conclude that the spectral evolution of SN 2021rhu is also incompatible with double-detonation scenarios, lying more in line with those resulting from the delayed detonation mechanism (although there are some discrepancies, in particular a larger titanium abundance in SN 2021rhu compared to the literature). This suggests that SN 2021rhu is likely a lower luminosity, and hence lower temperature, version of a normal SN Ia.

2.Hard TeV Gamma-Ray Afterglows of Nearby GRB 190829A as a Tentative Signature of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays Accelerated in Gamma-Ray Burst Jets

Authors:Jian-Kun Huang GXU, Xiao-Li Huang GZNU, Ji-Gui Cheng GXU, Jia Ren NJU, Lu-Lu Zhang GXU, En-Wei Liang GXU

Abstract: The observed hard TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the nearby gamma-ray burst (GRB) 190829A may challenge the conventional leptonic GRB afterglow model. It has been proposed that an ultra-high-energy (UHE; $\varepsilon^{'}_{\rm p}\sim 10^{20}$ eV) proton population can be pre-accelerated by internal shocks in GRB jets. We study possible signatures of the UHE protons embedded in the TeV afterglows when they escape the afterglow fireball. We show that the leptonic model can represent the observed multiwavelength lightcurves and spectral energy distributions of GRB 190829A by considering the uncertainties of the model parameters. Attributing the TeV gamma-ray afterglows to the emission of both the electron self-Compton scattering process and the UHE proton synchrotron radiations in the afterglow fireball, we obtain tentative upper limits of $\log_{10} \varepsilon_{\rm p}^{\prime}/{\rm eV}\sim 20.46$ and $\log_{10}E_{\rm p, total}/{\rm erg}\leq 50.75$, where $E_{\rm p, total}$ is the total energy of the proton population. The synchrotron radiations of the UHE protons should dominate the early TeV gamma-ray afterglows, implying that early observations are critical for revealing the UHE proton population.

3.Massive black holes in galactic nuclei: Observations

Authors:Marianne Vestergaard University of Copenhagen, Kayhan Gültekin University of Michigan

Abstract: Since a black hole does not emit light from its interior, nor does it have a surface on which light from nearby sources can be reflected, observational study of black hole physics requires observing the gravitational impact of the black hole on its surroundings. A massive black hole leaves a dynamical imprint on stars and gas close by. Gas in the immediate vicinity of an accreting massive black hole can, due to the presence of the black hole, shine so brightly that it outshines the light of the billions of stars in its host galaxy and be detected across the Universe. By observing the emission from stars and gas and determining their kinematics scientists can extract vital information not only on the fundamental properties of the black holes themselves but also the impact they have on their surroundings. As it turns out, supermassive black holes appear to play a vital role in shaping the Universe as we know it, as they can profoundly impact the star formation history in galaxies. As a consequence, these black holes indirectly impact the cosmic build up of chemical elements heavier than Helium and thus affect when and where life can form. For these reasons alone, observations of massive black holes constitute a very active research area of modern astrophysics. In this chapter we aim to provide a general overview -- fit for a non-expert -- of what scientists have learned, and hope to learn, from analyzing observations of massive black holes and the material around them.

4.The Challenge of Eccentricity when Observing Stellar-mass Binary Black Holes with Space-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors

Authors:Han Wang, Ian Harry, Alexander Nitz, Yi-Ming Hu

Abstract: Eccentricity is a smoking gun for the formation channel of stellar-mass binary black holes (sBBHs). Space-based gravitational wave observatories can determine binary eccentricity to $e_0\gtrsim\mathcal{O}(10^{-4}) $, but the detection of these systems can be very challenging. A targeted search of archival data triggered by ground-based detectors shrinks the search range thus making the task tractable. Previous studies ignored the effect of eccentricity. For the first time, we constructed a template bank for space-borne gravitational wave detectors that includes the impact of eccentricity. We find that even for a mild upper limit of $0.1$, the inclusion of eccentricity can still boost the template bank size by five orders of magnitudes. Our work marked a solid step towards the detection of a realistic sBBH, and it demonstrated that with the appropriate extension, the template bank method can still identify the early inspiral of sBBHs.

5.A Superluminous Supernova Lightened by Collisions with Pulsational Pair-instability Shells

Authors:Weili Lin, Xiaofeng Wang, Lin Yan, Avishay Gal-Yam, Jun Mo, Thomas G. Brink, Alexei V. Filippenko, Danfeng Xiang, Ragnhild Lunnan, Weikang Zheng, Peter Brown, Mansi Kasliwal, Christoffer Fremling, Nadejda Blagorodnova, Davron Mirzaqulov, Shuhrat A. Ehgamberdiev, Han Lin, Kaicheng Zhang, Jicheng Zhang, Shengyu Yan, Jujia Zhang, Zhihao Chen, Licai Deng, Kun Wang, Lin Xiao, Lingjun Wang

Abstract: Superluminous supernovae are among the most energetic stellar explosions in the Universe, but their energy sources remain an open question. Here we present long-term observations of one of the closest examples of the hydrogen-poor subclass (SLSNe-I), SN~2017egm, revealing the most complicated known luminosity evolution of SLSNe-I. Three distinct post-peak bumps were recorded in its light curve collected at about $100$--350\,days after maximum brightness, challenging current popular power models such as magnetar, fallback accretion, and interaction between ejecta and a circumstellar shell. However, the complex light curve can be well modelled by successive interactions with multiple circumstellar shells with a total mass of about $6.8$--7.7\,M$_\odot$. In this scenario, large energy deposition from interaction-induced reverse shocks results in ionization of neutral oxygen in the supernova ejecta and hence a much lower nebular-phase line ratio of [O\,\textsc{i}] $\lambda6300$/([Ca\,\textsc{ii}] + [O\,\textsc{ii}]) $\lambda7300$ ($\sim 0.2$) compared with that derived for other superluminous and normal stripped-envelope SNe. The pre-existing multiple shells indicate that the progenitor of SN~2017egm experienced pulsational mass ejections triggered by pair instability within 2 years before explosion, in robust agreement with theoretical predictions for a pre-pulsation helium-core mass of 48--51\,M$_{\odot}$.

1.Confronting strange stars with compact-star observations and new physics

Authors:Shu-Hua Yang, Chun-Mei Pi, Xiao-Ping Zheng, Fridolin Weber

Abstract: Strange stars ought to exist in the universe according to the strange quark matter hypothesis, which states that matter made of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks could be the true ground state of baryonic matter rather than ordinary atomic nuclei. Theoretical models of strange quark matter, such as the standard MIT bag model, the density-dependent quark mass model, or the quasi-particle model, however, appear to be unable to reproduce some of the properties (masses, radii and tidal deformabilities) of recently observed compact stars. This is different if alternative gravity theory (e.g., non-Newtonian gravity) or dark matter (e.g., mirror dark matter) are considered, which resolve these issues. The possible existence of strange stars could thus provide a clue to new physics, as discussed in this review.

1.X-ray flashes from the low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17407-2808

Authors:L. Ducci, C. Malacaria, P. Romano, E. Bozzo, M. Berton, A. Santangelo, E. Congiu

Abstract: IGR J17407-2808 is an enigmatic and poorly studied X-ray binary that was recently observed quasi-simultaneously with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton. In this paper we report the results of this observational campaign. During the first 60 ks of observation, the source was caught in a relatively low emission state, characterised by a modest variability and an average flux of ~8.3E-13 erg/cm^2/s (4-60 keV). Afterwards, IGR J17407-2808 entered a significantly more active emission state that persisted for the remaining ~40 ks of the NuSTAR observation. During this state, IGR J17407-2808 displayed several fast X-ray flares, featuring durations of ~1-100 s and profiles with either single or multiple peaks. The source flux in the flaring state reached values as high as 2E-9 erg/cm^2/s (4-60 keV), leading to a measured dynamic range during the NuSTAR and XMM-Newton campaign of >~ 10^3. We also analysed available archival photometric near-infrared data of IGR J17407-2808 to improve the constraints available so far on the the nature of the donor star hosted in this system. Our analysis shows that the donor star can be either a rare K or M-type sub-subgiant or an K type main sequence star, or sub-giant star. Our findings support the classification of IGR J17407-2808 as a low-mass X-ray binary. We discuss the source X-ray behaviour as recorded by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton in view of this revised classification.

2.A Dark Matter Probe in Accreting Pulsar-Black Hole Binaries

Authors:Ali Akil, Qianhang Ding

Abstract: The accretion of dark matter (DM) into astrophysical black holes slowly increases their mass. The rate of this mass accretion depends on the DM model and the model parameters. If this mass accretion effect can be measured accurately enough, it is possible to rule out some DM models, and, with the sufficient technology and the help of other DM constraints, possibly confirm one model. We propose a DM probe based on accreting pulsar-black hole binaries, which provide a high-precision measurement on binary orbital phase shifts induced by DM accretion into black holes, and can help rule out DM models and study the nature of DM.

3.The evolutionary route to form planetary nebulae with central neutron star - white dwarf binaries

Authors:Iminhaji Ablimit, Noam Soker

Abstract: We present a possible evolutionary pathway to form planetary nebulae (PNe) with close neutron star (NS)-white dwarf (WD) binary central stars. By employing a comprehensive binary population synthesis technique we find that the evolution involves two common envelope evolution (CEE) phases and a core collapse supernova explosion between them that forms the NS. Later the lower mass star engulfs the NS as it becomes a red giant, a process that leads to the second CEE phase and to the ejection of the envelope. This leaves a hot horizontal branch star that evolves to become a helium WD and an expanding nebula. Both the WD and the NS power the nebula. The NS in addition might power a pulsar wind nebula inside the expanding PN. From our simulations we find that the Galactic formation rate of NS-WD PNe is $1.8 \times 10^{-5} {\rm yr}^{-1}$ while the Galactic formation rate of all PNe is $0.42 {\rm yr}^{-1}$. There is a possibility that one of the observed Galactic PNe might be a NS-WD PN, and a few NS-WD PNe might exist in the Galaxy. The central binary systems might be sources for future gravitational wave detectors like LISA, and possibly of electromagnetic telescopes.

4.Tidal disruption events and quasi periodic eruptions

Authors:Natalie A. Webb, Didier Barret, Olivier Godet, Maitrayee Gupta, Dacheng Lin, Erwan Quintin, Hugo Tranin

Abstract: Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star passes close to a massive black hole, so that the tidal forces of the black hole exceed the binding energy of a star and cause it to be ripped apart. Part of the matter will fall onto the black hole, causing a strong increase in the luminosity. Such events are often seen in the optical or the X-ray (or both) or even at other wavelengths such as in the radio, where the diversity of observed emission is still poorly understood. The XMM-Newton catalogue of approximately a million X-ray detections covering 1283$^2$ degrees of sky contains a number of these events. Here I will show the diverse nature of a number of TDEs discovered in the catalogue and discuss their relationship with quasi periodic eruptions.

5.Possible origin of AT2021any: a failed GRB from a structured jet

Authors:Fan Xu, Yong-Feng Huang, Jin-Jun Geng

Abstract: Searching for afterglows not associated with any gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is a longstanding goal of transient surveys. These surveys provide the very chance of discovering the so-called orphan afterglows. Recently, a promising orphan afterglow candidate, AT2021any, was found by the Zwicky Transient Facility. Here we perform multi-wavelength fitting of AT2021any with three different outflow models, namely the top-hat jet model, the isotropic fireball model, and the structured Gaussian jet model. Although the three models can all fit the observed light curve well, it is found that the structured Gaussian jet model presents the best result, and thus is preferred by observations. In the framework of the Gaussian jet model, the best-fit Lorentz factor is about 68, which indicates that AT2021any should be a failed GRB. The half-opening angle of the jet and the viewing angle are found to be 0.104 and 0.02, respectively, which means that the jet is essentially observed on-axis. The trigger time of the GRB is inferred to be about 1000 s before the first detection of the orphan afterglow. An upper limit of 21.4% is derived for the radiative efficiency, which is typical in GRBs.

6.Mass measurements and 3D orbital geometry of PSR J1933$-$6211

Authors:M. Geyer, V. Venkatraman Krishnan, P. C. C. Freire, M. Kramer, J. Antoniadis, M. Bailes, M. C. i Bernadich, S. Buchner, A. D. Cameron, D. J. Champion, A. Karastergiou, M. J. Keith, M. E. Lower, S. Osłowski, A. Possenti, A. Parthasarathy, D. J. Reardon, M. Serylak, R. M. Shannon, R. Spiewak, W. van Straten, J. P. W. Verbiest

Abstract: PSR J1933$-$6211 is a 3.5-ms pulsar in a 12.8-d orbit with a white dwarf (WD). Its high proper motion and low dispersion measure result in such significant interstellar scintillation that high signal-to-noise detections require long observing durations or fortuitous timing. We turn to the sensitive MeerKAT telescope and, combined with historic Parkes data, leverage PSR J1933$-$6211's kinematic and relativistic effects to constrain its 3D orbital geometry and the component masses. We obtain precise proper motion and parallax estimates, and measure their effects as secular changes in the Keplerian orbital parameters: a variation in orbital period of $7(1) \times 10^{-13}$ s s$^{-1}$ and a change in projected semi-major axis of $1.60(5) \times 10^{-14}$ s s$^{-1}$. A self-consistent analysis of all kinematic and relativistic effects yields a distance of $1.6^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$ kpc, an orbital inclination, $i = 55(1)$ deg and a longitude of the ascending node, $\Omega = 255^{+8}_{-14}$ deg. The probability densities for $\Omega$ and $i$ and their symmetric counterparts, ($180-i$, $360-\Omega$), are seen to depend on the fiducial orbit used to measure the time of periastron passage. We investigate this unexpected dependence and rule out software-related causes using simulations. Nevertheless, we constrain the pulsar and WD masses to $1.4^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$ M$_\odot$ and $0.43(5)$ M$_\odot$ respectively. These strongly disfavour a helium-dominated WD. The orbital similarities between PSRs J1933$-$6211 and J1614$-$2230 suggest they underwent Case A Roche lobe overflow, an extended evolution while the companion star is still on the Main Sequence. However, with a mass of $\sim 1.4$ M$_\odot$, PSR J1933$-$6211 has not accreted significant matter. This highlights the low accretion efficiency of the spin-up process and suggests that observed neutron star masses are mostly a result of supernova physics.

7.Optical darkness in short-duration $γ$-ray bursts

Authors:Caden Gobat, Alexander J. van der Horst, David Fitzpatrick

Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts categorically produce broadband afterglow emission, but in some cases, emission in the optical band is dimmer than expected based on the contemporaneously observed X-ray flux. This phenomenon, aptly dubbed "optical darkness", has been studied extensively in long GRBs (associated with the explosive deaths of massive stars), with possible explanations ranging from host environment extinction to high redshift to possibly unique emission mechanisms. However, investigations into optical darkness in short GRBs (associated with the mergers of compact object binaries) have thus far been limited. This work implements a procedure for determining the darkness of GRBs based on spectral indices calculated using temporally-matched Swift-XRT data and optical follow-up observations; presents a complete and up-to-date catalog of known short GRBs that exhibit optical darkness; and outlines some of the possible explanations for optically dark short GRBs. In the process of this analysis, we developed versatile and scalable data processing code that facilitates reproducibility and reuse of our pipeline. These analysis tools and resulting complete sample of dark short GRBs enable a systematic statistical study of the phenomenon and its origins, and reveal that optical darkness is indeed quite rare in short GRBs, and highly dependent on observing response time and observational effects.

1.Search for X-ray Quasi-periodicity of six AGNs using Gaussian Process method

Authors:Haoyang Zhang, Shenbang Yang, Benzhong Dai

Abstract: The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) found in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are a very interesting observational phenomenon implying an unknown physical mechanism around supermassive black holes. Several AGNs have been found to have QPO phenomena in the X-ray energy band. Long-duration X-ray observations were collected and reduced for six AGNs with a suspected QPO. The Gaussian process (GP) model celerite was used to fit the light curves and to search for the quasi-periodicity behavior. The power spectral density and parameter posterior distributions of each light curve were calculated with the optimal model. Of the six AGNs, only RE J1034+396 was found to have a QPO of about 3600 s. The other five sources do not show QPO modulation behavior. We propose that a hot spot on the accretion disk is a possible physical mechanism resulting in this quasi-periodic behavior of AGNs.

2.Prospects for ultra-high-energy particle acceleration at relativistic shocks

Authors:Zhi-Qiu Huang, Brian Reville, John G. Kirk, Gwenael Giacinti

Abstract: We study the acceleration of charged particles by ultra-relativistic shocks using test-particle Monte-Carlo simulations. Two field configurations are considered: (i) shocks with uniform upstream magnetic field in the plane of the shock, and (ii) shocks in which the upstream magnetic field has a cylindrical geometry. Particles are assumed to diffuse in angle due to frequent non-resonant scattering on small-scale fields. The steady-state distribution of particles' Lorentz factors is shown to approximately satisfy $dN/d\gamma \propto \gamma^{-2.2}$ provided the particle motion is scattering dominated on at least one side of the shock. For scattering dominated transport, the acceleration rate scales as $t_{\rm acc}\propto t^{1/2}$, though recovers Bohm scaling $t_{\rm acc}\propto t$ if particles become magnetised on one side of the shock. For uniform field configurations, a limiting energy is reached when particles are magnetised on both sides of the shock. For the cylindrical field configuration, this limit does not apply, and particles of one sign of charge will experience a curvature drift that redirects particles upstream. For the non-resonant scattering model considered, these particles preferentially escape only when they reach the confinement limit determined by the finite system size, and the distribution approaches the escapeless limit $dN/d\gamma \propto \gamma^{-1}$. The cylindrical field configuration resembles that expected for jets launched by the Blandford $\&$ Znajek mechanism, the luminous jets of AGN and GRBs thus provide favourable sites for the production of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

3.Prospects for annihilating dark matter from M31 and M33 observations with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

Authors:Miltiadis Michailidis, Lorenzo Marafatto, Denys Malyshev, Fabio Iocco, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Olga Sergijenko, Maria Isabel Bernardos, Christopher Eckner, Alexey Boyarsky, Anastasia Sokolenko, Andrea Santangelo

Abstract: M31 and M33 are the closest spiral galaxies and the largest members (together with the Milky Way) of the Local group, which makes them interesting targets for indirect dark matter searches. In this paper we present studies of the expected sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to an annihilation signal from weakly interacting massive particles from M31 and M33. We show that a 100 h long observation campaign will allow CTA to probe annihilation cross-sections up to $\langle\sigma\upsilon\rangle\approx 5\cdot10^{-25}~\mathrm{cm^{3}s^{-1}}$ for the $\tau^{+}\tau^{-}$ annihilation channel (for M31, at a DM mass of 0.3 TeV), improving the current limits derived by HAWC by up to an order of magnitude. We present an estimate of the expected CTA sensitivity, by also taking into account the contributions of the astrophysical background and other possible sources of systematic uncertainty. We also show that CTA might be able to detect the extended emission from the bulge of M31, detected at lower energies by the Fermi/LAT.

4.Detached and Continuous Circumstellar Matter in Type Ibc Supernovae from Mass Eruption

Authors:Daichi Tsuna, Yuki Takei

Abstract: Some hydrogen-poor supernovae (SNe) are found to undergo interaction with dense circumstellar matter (CSM) that may originate from mass eruption(s) just prior to core-collapse. We model the interaction between the remaining star and the bound part of the erupted CSM that eventually fall back to the star. We find that while fallback initially results in a continuous CSM down to the star, feedback processes from the star can push the CSM to large radii of $\gtrsim 10^{15}$ cm from several years after the eruption. In the latter case, a tenuous bubble surrounded by a dense and detached CSM extending to $\gtrsim 10^{16}$ cm is expected. Our model offers a natural unifying explanation for the diverse CSM structures seen in hydrogen-poor SNe, such as Type Ibn/Icn SNe that show CSM signatures soon after explosion, and the recently discovered Type Ic SNe 2021ocs and 2022xxf ("the Bactrian") with CSM signatures seen only at late times.

5.Investigating Time Evolution of Thermal Emission from the Putative Neutron Star in SN 1987A for 50+ Years

Authors:Akira Dohi, Emanuele Greco, Shigehiro Nagataki, Masaomi Ono, Marco Miceli, Salvatore Orlando, Barbara Olmi

Abstract: Observations collected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and analysis of broadband X-ray spectra have recently suggested the presence of a central compact object (CCO) in SN 1987A. However, no direct evidence of the CCO has been found yet. Here we analyze Chandra X-ray observations of SN 1987A collected in 2007 and 2018, and synthesize the 2027 Chandra and 2037 Lynx spectra of the faint inner region of SN 1987A. We estimate the temporal evolution of the upper limits of the intrinsic luminosity of the putative CCO in three epochs (2018, 2027 and 2037). We find that these upper limits are higher for higher neutron star (NS) kick velocities due to the increased absorption from the surrounding cold ejecta. We compare NS cooling models with both the intrinsic luminosity limits obtained from the X-ray spectra, and the ALMA constraints with the assumption that the observed blob of SN 1987A is primarily heated by thermal emission. We find that the synthetic Lynx spectra are crucial to constrain physical properties of the CCO, which will be confirmed by future observations in the 2040s. We draw our conclusions based on two scenarios, namely the non-detection and detection of NS by Lynx. If the NS is not detected, its kick velocity should be ~700 km/s. Furthermore, the non-detection of the NS would suggest rapid cooling processes around the age of 40 years, implying strong crust superfluidity. Conversely, in the case of NS detection, the mass of the NS envelope must be high.

1.X-ray polarization evidence for a 200 years-old flare of Sgr A$^*$

Authors:Frédéric Marin, Eugene Churazov, Ildar Khabibullin, Riccardo Ferrazzoli, Laura Di Gesu, Thibault Barnouin, Alessandro Di Marco, Riccardo Middei, Alexey Vikhlinin, Enrico Costa, Paolo Soffitta, Fabio Muleri, Rashid Sunyaev, William Forman, Ralph Kraft, Stefano Bianchi, Immacolata Donnarumma, Pierre-Olivier Petrucci, Teruaki Enoto, Iván Agudo, Lucio A. Antonelli, Matteo Bachetti, Luca Baldini, Wayne H. Baumgartner, Ronaldo Bellazzini, Stephen D. Bongiorno, Raffaella Bonino, Alessandro Brez, Niccolò Bucciantini, Fiamma Capitanio, Simone Castellano, Elisabetta Cavazzuti, Chien-Ting Chen, Stefano Ciprini, Alessandra De Rosa, Ettore Del Monte, Niccolò Di Lalla, Victor Doroshenko, Michal Dovciak, Steven R. Ehlert, Yuri Evangelista, Sergio Fabiani, Javier A. Garcia, Shuichi Gunji, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Jeremy Heyl, Adam Ingram, Wataru Iwakiri, Svetlana G. Jorstad, Philip Kaaret, Vladimir Karas, Takao Kitaguchi, Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak, Henric Krawczynski, Fabio La Monaca, Luca Latronico, Ioannis Liodakis, Simone Maldera, Alberto Manfreda, Andrea Marinucci, Alan P. Marscher, Herman L. Marshall, Francesco Massaro, Giorgio Matt, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Michela Negro, C. -Y. Ng, Stephen L. O'Dell, Nicola Omodei, Chiara Oppedisano, Alessandro Papitto, George G. Pavlov, Abel L. Peirson, Matteo Perri, Melissa Pesce-Rollins, Maura Pilia, Andrea Possenti, Juri Poutanen, Simonetta Puccetti, Brian D. Ramsey, John Rankin, Ajay Ratheesh, Oliver J. Roberts, Roger W. Romani, Carmelo Sgrò, Patrick Slane, Gloria Spandre, Doug Swartz, Toru Tamagawa, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Roberto Taverna, Yuzuru Tawara, Allyn F. Tennant, Nicholas E. Thomas, Francesco Tombesi, Alessio Trois, Sergey S. Tsygankov, Roberto Turolla, Jacco Vink, Martin C. Weisskopf, Kinwah Wu, Fei Xie, Silvia Zane

Abstract: The center of the Milky Way Galaxy hosts a $\sim$4 million solar mass black hole (Sgr A$^*$) that is currently very quiescent with a luminosity many orders of magnitude below those of active galactic nuclei. Reflection of X-rays from Sgr A$^*$ by dense gas in the Galactic Center region offers a means to study its past flaring activity on times scales of hundreds and thousands of years. The shape of the X-ray continuum and the strong fluorescent iron line observed from giant molecular clouds in the vicinity of Sgr A$^*$ are consistent with the reflection scenario. If this interpretation is correct, the reflected continuum emission should be polarized. Here we report observations of polarized X-ray emission in the direction of the Galactic center molecular clouds using the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). We measure a polarization degree of 31\% $\pm$ 11\%, and a polarization angle of $-$48$^\circ$ $\pm$ 11$^\circ$. The polarization angle is consistent with Sgr A$^*$ being the primary source of the emission, while the polarization degree implies that some 200 years ago the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A$^*$ was briefly comparable to a Seyfert galaxy.

2.Measuring spin in coalescing binaries of neutron stars showing double precursors

Authors:Hao-Jui Kuan, Arthur G. Suvorov, Kostas D. Kokkotas

Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts resulting from binary neutron-star mergers are sometimes preceded by precursor flares. These harbingers may be ignited by quasi-normal modes, excited by orbital resonances, shattering the stellar crust of one of the inspiralling stars up to $\gtrsim10$ seconds before coalescence. In the rare case that a system displays two precursors, successive overtones of either interface- or $g$-modes may be responsible for the overstrainings. Since the free-mode frequencies of these overtones have an almost constant ratio, and the inertial-frame frequencies for rotating stars are shifted relative to static ones, the spin frequency of the flaring component can be constrained as a function of the equation of state, the binary mass ratio, the mode quantum numbers, and the spin-orbit misalignment angle. As a demonstration of the method, we find that the precursors of GRB090510 hint at a spin frequency range of $2 \lesssim \nu_{\star}/\text{Hz} \lesssim 20$ for the shattering star if we allow for an arbitrary misalignment angle, assuming $\ell=2$ $g$-modes account for the events.

3.The Impacts of Neutron-Star Structure and Base Heating on Type I X-Ray Bursts and Code Comparison

Authors:Guoqing Zhen, Guoliang Lv, Helei Liu, Akira Dohi, Bobuya Nishimura, Chunhua Zhu, Liyu Song, Weiyang Wang, Renxin Xu

Abstract: Type I X-ray bursts are rapidly brightening phenomena triggered by thermonuclear burning on accreting layer of a neutron star (NS). The light curves represent the physical properties of NSs and the nuclear reactions on the proton-rich nuclei. The numerical treatments of the accreting NS and physics of the NS interior are not established, which shows uncertainty in modelling for observed X-ray light curves. In this study, we investigate theoretical X-ray-burst models, compared with burst light curves with GS~1826-24 observations. We focus on the impacts of the NS mass, the NS radius, and base-heating on the NS surface using the MESA code. We find a monotonic correlation between the NS mass and the parameters of the light curve. The higher the mass, the longer the recurrence time and the greater the peak luminosity. While the larger the radius, the longer the recurrence time, the peak luminosity remains nearly constant. In the case of increasing base heating, both the recurrence time and peak luminosity decrease. We also examine the above results using with a different numerical code, HERES, based on general relativity and consider the central NS. We find that the burst rate, burst energy and burst strength are almost same in two X-ray burst codes by adjusting the base-heat parameter in MESA (the relative errors $\lesssim5\%$), while the duration time and the rise time are significantly different between (the relative error is possibly $\sim50\%$). The peak luminosity and the e-folding time are ragged between two codes for different accretion rates.

4.Effect of magnetic fields on the dynamics and gravitational wave emission of PPI-saturated self-gravitating accretion disks: simulations in full GR

Authors:Erik Wessel, Vasileios Paschalidis, Antonios Tsokaros, Milton Ruiz, Stuart L. Shapiro

Abstract: We explore the effect magnetic fields have on self-gravitating accretion disks around spinning black holes via numerical evolutions in full dynamical magnetohydrodynamic spacetimes. The configurations we study are unstable to the Papaloizou-Pringle Instability (PPI). PPI-saturated accretion tori have been shown to produce gravitational waves, detectable to cosmological distances by third-generation gravitational wave (GW) observatories. While the PPI operates strongly for purely hydrodynamic disks, the situation can be different for disks hosting initially small magnetic fields. Evolutions of disks without self-gravity in fixed BH spacetimes have shown that small seed fields can initiate the rapid growth of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which then strongly suppresses the PPI. Since realistic astrophysical disks are expected to be magnetized, PPI-generated GW signals may be suppressed as well. However, it is unclear what happens when the disk self-gravity is restored. Here, we study the impact of magnetic fields on the PPI-saturated state of a self-gravitating accretion disk around a spinning BH ($\chi = 0.7$) aligned with the disk angular momentum, as well as one around a non-spinning BH. We find the MRI is effective at reducing the amplitude of PPI modes and their associated GWs, but the systems still generate GWs. Estimating the detectability of these systems accross a wide range of masses, we show that magnetic fields reduce the maximum detection distance by Cosmic Explorer from 300Mpc (in the pure hydrodynamic case) to 45Mpc for a $10 M_{\odot}$ system, by LISA from 11500Mpc to 2700Mpc for a $2 \times 10^{5} M_{\odot}$ system, and by DECIGO from $z \approx 5$ down to $z \approx 2$ for a $1000 M_{\odot}$ system.

5.Optimizing the Resolution of Hydrodynamic Simulations for MCRaT Radiative Transfer Calculations

Authors:Jose Arita-Escalante, Tyler Parsotan, S. Bradley Cenko

Abstract: Despite their discovery about half a century ago, the Gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission mechanism is still not well understood. Theoretical modeling of the prompt emission has advanced considerably due to new computational tools and techniques. One such tool is the PLUTO hydrodynamics code, which is used to numerically simulate GRB outflows. PLUTO uses Adaptive Mesh Refinement to focus computational efforts on the portion of the grid that contains the simulated jet. Another tool is the Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer (MCRaT) code, which predicts electromagnetic signatures of GRBs by conducting photon scatterings within a jet using PLUTO. The effects of the underlying resolution of a PLUTO simulation with respect to MCRaT post-processing radiative transfer results have not yet been quantified. We analyze an analytic spherical outflow and a hydrodynamically simulated GRB jet with MCRaT at varying spatial and temporal resolutions and quantify how decreasing both resolutions affect the resulting mock observations. We find that changing the spatial resolution changes the hydrodynamic properties of the jet, which directly affect the MCRaT mock observable peak energies. We also find that decreasing the temporal resolution artificially decreases the high energy slope of the mock observed spectrum, which increases both the spectral peak energy and the luminosity. We show that the effects are additive when both spatial and temporal resolutions are modified. Our results allow us to understand how decreased hydrodynamic temporal and spatial resolutions affect the results of post-processing radiative transfer calculations, allowing for the optimization of hydrodynamic simulations for radiative transfer codes.

1.A Contribution of the HAWC Observatory to the TeV era in the High Energy Gamma-Ray Astrophysics: The case of the TeV-Halos

Authors:Ramiro Torres-Escobedo The HAWC Collaboration, Hao Zhou The HAWC Collaboration, Eduardo de la Fuente The HAWC Collaboration, A. U. Abeysekara The HAWC Collaboration, A. Albert The HAWC Collaboration, R. Alfaro The HAWC Collaboration, C. Alvarez The HAWC Collaboration, J. D. Álvarez The HAWC Collaboration, J. R. Angeles Camacho The HAWC Collaboration, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez The HAWC Collaboration, K. P. Arunbabu The HAWC Collaboration, D. Avila Rojas The HAWC Collaboration, H. A. Ayala Solares The HAWC Collaboration, R. Babu The HAWC Collaboration, V. Baghmanyan The HAWC Collaboration, A. S. Barber The HAWC Collaboration, J. Becerra Gonzalez The HAWC Collaboration, E. Belmont-Moreno The HAWC Collaboration, S. Y. BenZvi The HAWC Collaboration, D. Berley The HAWC Collaboration, C. Brisbois The HAWC Collaboration, K. S. Caballero-Mora The HAWC Collaboration, T. Capistrán The HAWC Collaboration, A. Carramiñana The HAWC Collaboration, S. Casanova The HAWC Collaboration, O. Chaparro-Amaro The HAWC Collaboration, U. Cotti The HAWC Collaboration, J. Cotzomi The HAWC Collaboration, S. Coutiño de León The HAWC Collaboration, C. de León The HAWC Collaboration, L. Diaz-Cruz The HAWC Collaboration, R. Diaz Hernandez The HAWC Collaboration, J. C. Díaz-Vélez The HAWC Collaboration, B. L. Dingus The HAWC Collaboration, M. Durocher The HAWC Collaboration, M. A. DuVernois The HAWC Collaboration, R. W. Ellsworth The HAWC Collaboration, K. Engel The HAWC Collaboration, C. Espinoza The HAWC Collaboration, K. L. Fan The HAWC Collaboration, K. Fang The HAWC Collaboration, M. Fernández Alonso The HAWC Collaboration, B. Fick The HAWC Collaboration, H. Fleischhack The HAWC Collaboration, J. L. Flores The HAWC Collaboration, N. I. Fraija The HAWC Collaboration, D. Garcia The HAWC Collaboration, J. A. García-González The HAWC Collaboration, G. García-Torales The HAWC Collaboration, F. Garfias The HAWC Collaboration, G. Giacinti The HAWC Collaboration, H. Goksu The HAWC Collaboration, M. M. González The HAWC Collaboration, J. A. Goodman The HAWC Collaboration, J. P. Harding The HAWC Collaboration, S. Hernandez The HAWC Collaboration, I. Herzog The HAWC Collaboration, J. Hinton The HAWC Collaboration, B. Hona The HAWC Collaboration, D. Huang The HAWC Collaboration, F. Hueyotl-Zahuantitla The HAWC Collaboration, C. M. Hui The HAWC Collaboration, B. Humensky The HAWC Collaboration, P. Hüntemeyer The HAWC Collaboration, A. Iriarte The HAWC Collaboration, A. Jardin-Blicq The HAWC Collaboration, H. Jhee The HAWC Collaboration, V. Joshi The HAWC Collaboration, D. Kieda The HAWC Collaboration, G J. Kunde The HAWC Collaboration, S. Kunwar The HAWC Collaboration, A. Lara The HAWC Collaboration, J. Lee The HAWC Collaboration, W. H. Lee The HAWC Collaboration, D. Lennarz The HAWC Collaboration, H. León Vargas The HAWC Collaboration, J. Linnemann The HAWC Collaboration, A. L. Longinotti The HAWC Collaboration, R. López-Coto The HAWC Collaboration, G. Luis-Raya The HAWC Collaboration, J. Lundeen The HAWC Collaboration, K. Malone The HAWC Collaboration, V. Marandon The HAWC Collaboration, O. Martinez The HAWC Collaboration, I. Martinez-Castellanos The HAWC Collaboration, H. Martínez-Huerta The HAWC Collaboration, J. Martínez-Castro The HAWC Collaboration, J. A. J. Matthews The HAWC Collaboration, J. McEnery The HAWC Collaboration, P. Miranda-Romagnoli The HAWC Collaboration, J. A. Morales-Soto The HAWC Collaboration, E. Moreno The HAWC Collaboration, M. Mostafá The HAWC Collaboration, A. Nayerhoda The HAWC Collaboration, L. Nellen The HAWC Collaboration, M. Newbold The HAWC Collaboration, M. U. Nisa The HAWC Collaboration, R. Noriega-Papaqui The HAWC Collaboration, L. Olivera-Nieto The HAWC Collaboration, N. Omodei The HAWC Collaboration, A. Peisker The HAWC Collaboration, Y. Pérez Araujo The HAWC Collaboration, E. G. Pérez-Pérez The HAWC Collaboration, C. D. Rho The HAWC Collaboration, C. Rivière The HAWC Collaboration, D. Rosa-Gonzalez The HAWC Collaboration, E. Ruiz-Velasco The HAWC Collaboration, J. Ryan The HAWC Collaboration, H. Salazar The HAWC Collaboration, F. Salesa Greus The HAWC Collaboration, A. Sandoval The HAWC Collaboration, M. Schneider The HAWC Collaboration, H. Schoorlemmer The HAWC Collaboration, J. Serna-Franco The HAWC Collaboration, G. Sinnis The HAWC Collaboration, A. J. Smith The HAWC Collaboration, R. W. Springer The HAWC Collaboration, P. Surajbali The HAWC Collaboration, I. Taboada The HAWC Collaboration, M. Tanner The HAWC Collaboration, K. Tollefson The HAWC Collaboration, I. Torres The HAWC Collaboration, R. Turner The HAWC Collaboration, F. Ureña-Mena The HAWC Collaboration, L. Villaseñor The HAWC Collaboration, X. Wang The HAWC Collaboration, I. J. Watson The HAWC Collaboration, T. Weisgarber The HAWC Collaboration, F. Werner The HAWC Collaboration, E. Willox The HAWC Collaboration, J. Wood The HAWC Collaboration, G. B. Yodh The HAWC Collaboration, A. Zepeda The HAWC Collaboration

Abstract: We present a short overview of the TeV-Halos objects as a discovery and a relevant contribution of the High Altitude Water \v{C}erenkov (HAWC) observatory to TeV astrophysics. We discuss history, discovery, knowledge, and the next step through a new and more detailed analysis than the original study in 2017. TeV-Halos will contribute to resolving the problem of the local positron excess observed on the Earth. To clarify the latter, understanding the diffusion process is mandatory.

2.Radio timing constraints on the mass of the binary pulsar PSR J1528-3146

Authors:A. Berthereau, L. Guillemot, P. C. C. Freire, M. Kramer, V. Venkatraman Krishnan, I. Cognard, G. Theureau, M. Bailes, M. C. i Bernadich, M. E. Lower

Abstract: PSR J1528-3146 is a 60.8 ms pulsar orbiting a heavy white dwarf (WD) companion, with an orbital period of 3.18 d. This work aimed at characterizing the pulsar's astrometric, spin and orbital parameters by analyzing timing measurements conducted at the Parkes, MeerKAT and Nan\c{c}ay radio telescopes over almost two decades. The measurement of post-Keplerian perturbations to the pulsar's orbit can be used to constrain the masses of the two component stars of the binary, and in turn inform us on the history of the system. We analyzed timing data from the Parkes, MeerKAT and Nan\c{c}ay radio telescopes collected over $\sim$16 yrs, obtaining a precise rotation ephemeris for PSR J1528-3146. A Bayesian analysis of the timing data was carried out to constrain the masses of the two components and the orientation of the orbit. We further analyzed the polarization properties of the pulsar, in order to constrain the orientations of the magnetic axis and of the line-of-sight with respect to the spin axis. We measured a significant rate of advance of periastron for the first time, and put constraints on the Shapiro delay in the system and on the rate of change of the projected semi-major axis of the pulsar's orbit. The Bayesian analysis yielded measurements for the pulsar and companion masses of respectively $M_p = 1.61_{-0.13}^{+0.14}$ M$_\odot$ and $M_c = 1.33_{-0.07}^{+0.08}$ M$_\odot$ (68\% C.L.), confirming that the companion is indeed massive. This companion mass as well as other characteristics of PSR J1528$-$3146 make this pulsar very similar to PSR J2222-0137, a 32.8 ms pulsar orbiting a WD whose heavy mass ($\sim 1.32$ M$_\odot$) was unique among pulsar-WD systems until now. Our measurements therefore suggest common evolutionary scenarios for PSRs J1528-3146 and J2222-0137.

3.GRB 211211A-like Events and How Gravitational Waves May Tell Their Origin

Authors:Yi-Han Iris Yin, Bin-Bin Zhang, Hui Sun, Jun Yang, Yacheng Kang, Lijing Shao, Yu-Han Yang, Bing Zhang

Abstract: GRB 211211A is a rare burst with a genuinely long duration, yet its prominent kilonova association provides compelling evidence that this peculiar burst was the result of a compact binary merger. However, the exact nature of the merging objects, whether they were neutron star pairs, neutron star-black hole systems, or neutron star-white dwarf systems, remains unsettled. This Letter delves into the rarity of this event and the possibility of using current and next-generation gravitational wave detectors to distinguish between the various types of binary systems. Our research reveals an event rate density of $\gtrsim 5.67^{+13.04}_{-4.69} \times 10^{-3}\ \rm Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}$ for GRB 211211A-like GRBs, which is significantly smaller than that of typical long and short GRB populations. We further calculated that if the origin of GRB 211211A is a result of a neutron star-black hole merger, it would be detectable with a significant signal-to-noise ratio, given the LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA designed sensitivity. On the other hand, a neutron star-white dwarf binary would also produce a considerable signal-to-noise ratio during the inspiral phase at decihertz and is detectable by next-generation space-borne detectors DECIGO and BBO. However, to detect this type of system with millihertz space-borne detectors like LISA, Taiji, and TianQin, the event must be very close, approximately 3 Mpc in distance or smaller.

4.Interpolated kilonova spectra models: necessity for a phenomenological, blue component in the fitting of AT2017gfo spectra

Authors:Marko Ristic, Richard O'Shaughnessy, V. Ashley Villar, Ryan T. Wollaeger, Oleg Korobkin, Chris L. Fryer, Christopher J. Fontes, Atul Kedia

Abstract: In this work, we present a simple interpolation methodology for spectroscopic time series, based on conventional interpolation techniques (random forests) implemented in widely-available libraries. We demonstrate that our existing library of simulations is sufficient for training, producing interpolated spectra that respond sensitively to varied ejecta parameter, post-merger time, and viewing angle inputs. We compare our interpolated spectra to the AT2017gfo spectral data, and find parameters similar to our previous inferences using broadband light curves. However, the spectral observations have significant systematic short-wavelength residuals relative to our models, which we cannot explain within our existing framework. Similar to previous studies, we argue that an additional blue component is required. We consider a radioactive heating source as a third component characterized by light, slow-moving, lanthanide-free ejecta with $M_{\rm th} = 0.003~M_\odot$, $v_{\rm th} = 0.05$c, and $\kappa_{\rm th} = 1$ cm$^2$/g. When included as part of our radiative transfer simulations, our choice of third component reprocesses blue photons into lower energies, having the opposite effect and further accentuating the blue-underluminosity disparity in our simulations. As such, we are unable to overcome short-wavelength deficits at later times using an additional radioactive heating component, indicating the need for a more sophisticated modeling treatment.

1.The neutron star to black hole mass gap in the frame of the jittering jets explosion mechanism (JJEM)

Authors:Noam Soker Technion, Israel

Abstract: I build a toy model in the frame of the jittering jets explosion mechanism (JJEM) of core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) that incorporates both the stochastically varying angular momentum component of the material that the newly born neutron star (NS) accretes and the constant angular momentum component and show that the JJEM can account for the ~2.5-5Mo mass gap between NSs and black holes (BHs). The random component of the angular momentum results from pre-collapse core convection fluctuations that are amplified by post-collapse instabilities. The fixed angular momentum component results from pre-collapse core rotation. For slowly rotating pre-collapse cores the stochastic angular momentum fluctuations form intermittent accretion disks (or belts) around the NS with varying angular momentum axes in all directions. The intermittent accretion disk/belt launches jets in all directions that expel the core material in all directions early on, hence leaving a NS remnant. Rapidly rotating pre-collapse cores form an accretion disk with angular momentum axis that is about the same as the pre-collapse core rotation. The NS launches jets along this axis and hence the jets avoid the equatorial plane region. In-flowing core material continues to feed the central object from the equatorial plane increasing the NS mass to form a BH. The narrow transition from slow to rapid pre-collapse core rotation, i.e., from an efficient to inefficient jet feedback mechanism, accounts for the sparsely populated mass gap.

2.The luminosity functions of kilonovae from binary neutron star mergers under different equation of states

Authors:Chunyang Zhao NAOC, Youjun Lu NAOC, Qingbo Chu NAOC, Wen Zhao USTC

Abstract: Kilonovae produced by mergers of binary neutron stars (BNSs) are important transient events to be detected by time domain surveys with the alerts from the ground-based gravitational wave detectors. The observational properties of these kilonovae depend on the physical processes involved in the merging processes and the equation of state (EOS) of neutron stars (NSs). In this paper, we investigate the dependence of kilonova luminosities on the parameters of BNS mergers, and estimate the distribution functions of kilonova peak luminosities (KLFs) at the u-, g-, r-, i-, y-, and z-bands as well as its dependence on the NS EOS, by adopting a comprehensive semi-analytical model for kilonovae (calibrated by the observations of GW170817), a population synthesis model for the cosmic BNSs, and the ejecta properties of BNS mergers predicted by numerical simulations. We find that the kilonova light curves depend on both the BNS properties and the NS EOS, and the KLFs at the considered bands are bimodal with the bright components mostly contributed by BNS mergers with total mass $\lesssim 3.2M_\odot$/$2.8M_\odot$ and fainter components mostly contributed by BNS mergers with total mass $\gtrsim 3.2M_\odot$/$2.8M_\odot$ by assuming a stiff/soft (DD2/SLy) EOS. The emission of the kilonovae in the KLF bright components are mostly due to the radiation from the wind ejecta by the remnant disks of BNS mergers, while the emission of the kilonovae in the KLF faint components are mostly due to the radiation from the dynamical ejecta by the BNS mergers.

3.Diversity of early kilonova with the realistic opacities of highly ionized heavy elements

Authors:Smaranika Banerjee, Masaomi Tanaka, Daiji Kato, Gediminas Gaigalas

Abstract: We investigate the early (t < 1 day) kilonova from the neutron star merger by deriving atomic opacities for all the elements from La to Ra (Z = 57 - 88) ionized to the states V - XI. The opacities at high temperatures for the elements with open f-shells (e.g., lanthanides) are exceptionally high, reaching kappa_{exp} ~ 10^4 cm2/g at lambda < 1000 A at T ~ 70,000 K, whereas, the opacities at the same temperature and wavelengths for the elements with the open d-, p-, and s-shells reach kappa_{exp} ~ 1 cm2/g, 0.1 cm2/g, and 0.01 cm2/g, respectively. Using the new opacity dataset, we derive the early kilonovae for various compositions and density structures expected for neutron star merger ejecta. The bolometric luminosity for the lanthanide-rich ejecta shows distinct signatures and is fainter than that for the lanthanide-free ejecta. The early luminosity is suppressed by the presence of a thin outer layer, agreeing with the results of Kasen et al. (2017) and Banerjee et al. (2020). The early brightness in Swift UVOT filters and in the optical g-, r-, i-, z-filters for a source at 100 Mpc are ~ 22 - 20 mag and ~ 21 - 19 mag, respectively, at t ~ 0.1 days. Such kilonovae are ideal targets for the upcoming UV satellites, such as ULTRASAT, UVEX, and DORADO, and the upcoming surveys, e.g., Vera Rubin Observatory. We suggest the gray opacities to reproduce the bolometric light curves with and without lanthanides are ~ 1 - 20 cm2/g and ~ 0.8 - 1 cm2/g.

4.Astrophysical cloaking of a naked singularity

Authors:Ronaldo S. S. Vieira, Włodek Kluźniak

Abstract: A massive naked singularity would be cloaked by accreted matter, and thus may appear to a distant observer as an opaque \mbox{(quasi-)}spherical surface of a fluid, not unlike that of a star or planet. We present here analytical solutions for levitating atmospheres around a wide class of spherically symmetric naked singularities. Such an atmosphere can be constructed in every spacetime which possesses a zero-gravity radius and which is a solution of a (modified-)gravity theory possessing the usual conservation laws for matter. Its density peaks at the zero-gravity radius and the atmospheric fluid is supported against infall onto the singularity by gravity alone. In an astrophysical context, an opaque atmosphere would be formed in a very short time by accretion of ambient matter onto the singularity -- in a millisecond for an X-ray binary, in a thousand seconds for a singularity traversing interstellar space, and a thousand years for a singularity that is the central engine of an AGN.

1.Future Constraints on Dark Matter with Gravitationally Lensed Fast Radio Bursts Detected by BURSTT

Authors:Simon C. -C. Ho, Tetsuya Hashimoto, Tomotsugu Goto, Yu-Wei Lin, Seong Jin Kim, Yuri Uno, Tiger Y. -Y. Hsiao

Abstract: Understanding dark matter is one of the most urgent questions in modern physics. A very interesting candidate is primordial black holes (PBHs; Carr2016). For the mass ranges of $< 10^{-16} M_{\odot}$ and $> 100 M_{\odot}$, PBHs have been ruled out. However, they are still poorly constrained in the mass ranges of $10^{-16} - 100 M_{\odot}$ (Belotsky et al. 2019). Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond flashes of radio light of unknown origin mostly from outside the Milky Way. Due to their short timescales, gravitationally lensed FRBs, which are yet to be detected, have been proposed as a useful probe for constraining the presence of PBHs in the mass window of $< 100M_{\odot}$ (Mu\~noz et al. 2016). Up to now, the most successful project in finding FRBs has been CHIME. Due to its large field of view (FoV), CHIME is detecting at least 600 FRBs since 2018. However, none of them is confirmed to be gravitationally lensed (Leung et al. 2022). Taiwan plans to build a new telescope, BURSTT dedicated to detecting FRBs. Its survey area will be 25 times greater than CHIME. BURSTT can localize all of these FRBs through very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI). We estimate the probability to find gravitationally lensed FRBs, based on the scaled redshift distribution from the latest CHIME catalog and the lensing probability function from Mu\~noz et al. (2016). BURSTT-2048 can detect ~ 24 lensed FRBs out of ~ 1,700 FRBs per annum. With BURSTT's ability to detect nanosecond FRBs, we can constrain PBHs to form a part of dark matter down to $10^{-4}M_{\odot}$.

2.Characterizing quasi-steady states of fast neutrino-flavor conversion by stability and conservation laws

Authors:Masamichi Zaizen, Hiroki Nagakura

Abstract: The question of what ingredients characterize the quasi-steady state of fast neutrino-flavor conversion (FFC) is one of the long-standing riddles in neutrino oscillation. Addressing this issue is necessary for accurate modeling of neutrino transport in core-collapse supernova and binary neutron star merger. Recent numerical simulations of FFC have shown, however, that the quasi-steady state is sensitively dependent on boundary conditions in space, and the physical reason for the dependence is not clear at present. In this study, we provide a physical interpretation of this issue based on arguments with stability and conservation laws. The stability can be determined by the disappearance of ELN(electron neutrino-lepton number)-XLN(heavy-leptonic one) angular crossings, and we also highlight two conserved quantities characterizing the quasi-steady state of FFC: (1) lepton number conservation along each neutrino trajectory and (2) conservation law associated with angular moments, depending on boundary conditions, for each flavor of neutrinos. We demonstrate that neutrino distributions in quasi-steady states can be determined in an analytic way regardless of boundary conditions, which are in good agreement with numerical simulations. This study represents a major step forward a unified picture determining asymptotic states of FFCs.

3.Diffusive Shock Acceleration of Cosmic Rays -- Quasi-thermal and Non-thermal Particle Distributions

Authors:Bojan Arbutina

Abstract: A well-known paradigm about the origin of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) is that these high-energy particles are accelerated in the process of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at collisionless shocks (at least up to the so-called "knee"energy of $10^{15}$ eV). Knowing the details of injection of electrons, protons and heavier nuclei into the DSA, their initial and the resulting spectrum, is extremely important in many "practical" applications of the CR astrophysics, e.g. in modelling of the gamma or synchrotron radio emission of astrophysical sources. In this contribution I we will give an overview of the DSA theory and the results of observations and kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations that support the basic theoretical concepts. PIC simulations of quasi-parallel collisionless shocks show that thermal and supra-thermal proton distribution functions at the shock can be represented by a single quasi-thermal distribution - the $\kappa$-distribution that is commonly observed in out-of-equilibrium space plasmas. Farther downstream, index $\kappa$ increases and the low-energy spectrum tends to Maxwell distribution. On the other hand, higher-energy particles continue through the acceleration process and the non-thermal particle spectrum takes a characteristic power-law form predicted by the linear DSA theory. In the end, I will show what modification of the spectra is expected in the non-linear DSA, when CR back-reaction to the shock is taken into account.

4.Typical X-ray Outburst Light Curves of Aql X-1

Authors:Ömer Faruk Çoban, Unal Ertan

Abstract: We show that a typical X-ray outburst light curve of Aql X-1 can be reproduced by accretion onto the neutron star in the frame of the disc instability model without invoking partial accretion or propeller effect. The knee and the subsequent sharp decay in the X-ray light curve can be generated naturally by taking into account the weak dependence of the disc aspect ratio, $h/r$, on the disc mass-flow rate, $\dot{M}_\mathrm{in}$, in the X-ray irradiation flux calculation. This $\dot{M}_\mathrm{in}$ dependence of $h/r$ only slightly modifies the irradiation temperature profile along the hot disc in comparison to that obtained with constant $h/r$. Nevertheless, this small difference has a significant cumulative effect on the hot disc radius leading to a much faster decrease in the size of the hot disc, and thereby to a sharper decay in the X-ray outburst light curve. The same model also produces the long-term evolution of the source consistently with its observed outburst recurrence times and typical light curves of Aql X-1. Our results imply that the source accretes matter from the disc in the quiescent state as well. We also estimate that the dipole moment of the source $\mu \lesssim 2 \times 10^{26}$ G cm$^3$.

1.Spectral and Temporal Studies of Swift\,J1658.2--4242 using {\it AstroSat} Observations with {\tt JeTCAF} Model

Authors:Santanu Mondal, V. Jithesh

Abstract: We present the X-ray spectral and temporal analysis of the black hole X-ray transient Swift J1658.2--4242 observed by {\it AstroSat}. Three epochs of data have been analysed using the JeTCAF model to estimate the mass accretion rates and to understand the geometry of the flow. The best-fit disc mass accretion rate ($\dot m_d$) varies between $0.90^{+0.02}_{-0.01}$ to $1.09^{+0.04}_{-0.03}$ $\dot M_{\rm Edd}$ in these observations, while the halo mass accretion rate changes from $0.15^{+0.01}_{-0.01}$ to $0.25^{+0.02}_{-0.01}$ $\dot M_{\rm Edd}$. We estimate the size of the dynamic corona, that varies substantially from $64.9^{+3.9}_{-3.1}$ to $34.5^{+2.0}_{-1.5}$ $r_g$ and a moderately high jet/outflow collimation factor stipulates isotropic outflow. The inferred high disc mass accretion rate and bigger corona size indicate that the source might be in the intermediate to soft spectral state of black hole X-ray binaries. The mass of the black hole estimated from different model combinations is $\sim 14 M_\odot$. In addition, we compute the quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequencies from the model-fitted parameters, which match the observed QPOs. We further calculate the binary parameters of the system from the decay profile of the light curve and the spectral parameters. The estimated orbital period of the system is $4.0\pm0.4$ hr by assuming the companion as a mid or late K-type star. Our analysis using the JeTCAF model sheds light on the physical origin of the spectro-temporal behaviour of the source, and the observed properties are mainly due to the change in both the mass accretion rates and absorbing column density.

2.Bright X-ray pulsars as sources of MeV neutrinos in the sky

Authors:Aman Asthana, Alexander A. Mushtukov, Alexandra A. Dobrynina, Igor S. Ognev

Abstract: High mass accretion rate onto strongly magnetised neutron stars results in the appearance of accretion columns supported by the radiation pressure and confined by the strong magnetic field of a star. At mass accretion rates above $\sim 10^{19}\,{\rm g\,s^{-1}}$, accretion columns are expected to be advective. Under such conditions, a noticeable part of the total energy release can be carried away by neutrinos of a MeV energy range. Relying on a simple model of the neutrino luminosity of accreting strongly magnetised neutron stars, we estimate the neutrino energy fluxes expected from six ULX pulsars known up to date and three brightest Be X-ray transits hosting magnetised neutron stars. Despite the large neutrino luminosity expected in ULX pulsars, the neutrino energy flux from the Be X-ray transients of our Galaxy, SMC and LMC is dominant. However, the neutrino flux from the brightest X-ray transients is estimated to be below the isotropic background by two orders of magnitude at least, which makes impossible direct registration of neutrino emission from accreting strongly magnetised neutron stars nowadays.

3.Effect of magnetic field correlation length on the gamma-ray pulsar halo morphology under anisotropic diffusion

Authors:Kun Fang, Hong-Bo Hu, Xiao-Jun Bi, En-Sheng Chen

Abstract: Anisotropic diffusion is one of the potential interpretations for the morphology of the Geminga pulsar halo. It interprets the observed slow-diffusion phenomenon through a geometric effect, assuming the mean magnetic field direction around Geminga is closely aligned with the line of sight toward it. However, this direction should not extend further than the correlation length of the turbulent magnetic field $L_c$, which could be $100$ pc or less. We first revisit the $L_c=\infty$ scenario and show that the halo asymmetry predicted by this scenario is mainly contributed by the electrons located beyond the ``core" section around Geminga, which has a length of $100$ pc. Then, considering the directional variation of the magnetic field beyond the core section, we take one magnetic field configuration as an example to investigate the possible halo morphology. The predicted morphology has some different features compared to the $L_c=\infty$ scenario. The current experiments may already be able to test these features. In addition, we use a semi-analytical method to solve the anisotropic propagation equation, which offers significant convenience compared to numerical approaches.

4.Antistars as possible sources of antihelium cosmic rays

Authors:Andrey Bykov Ioffe PTI, Konstantin Postnov SAI Moscow U., Alexander Bondar Budker INP, Serguey Blinnikov Kurchatov Institute, Aleksander Dolgov Novosibirsk U.

Abstract: A minor population of antistars in galaxies has been predicted by some of non-standard models of baryogenesis and nucleosynthesis in the early Universe, and their presence is not yet excluded by the currently available observations. Detection of an unusually high abundance of antinuclei in cosmic rays can probe the baryogenesis scenarios in the early Universe. Recent report of the \textit{AMS-02} collaboration on the tentative detection of a few antihelium nuclei in GeV cosmic rays provided a great hope on the progress in this issue. We discuss possible sources of antinuclei in cosmic rays from antistars which are predicted in a modified Affleck-Dine baryogenesis scenario by Dolgov and Silk (1993). The model allows us to estimate the expected fluxes and isotopic content of antinuclei in the GeV cosmic rays produced in scenarios involving antistars. We show that the flux of antihelium CRs reported by the \textit{AMS-02} experiment can be explained by Galactic anti-nova outbursts, thermonuclear anti-SN Ia explosions, a collection of flaring antistars or an extragalactic source with abundances not violating existing gamma-ray and microlensing constraints on the antistar population.

5.Prompt-to-afterglow transition of optical emission in a long gamma-ray burst consistent with a fireball

Authors:Liping Xin, Xuhui Han, Huali Li, Bing Zhang, Jing Wang, Damien Turpin, Xing Yang, Yulei Qiu, Enwei Liang, Zigao Dai, Hongbo Cai, Xiaomeng Lu, Xiang-Yu Wang, Lei Huang, Xianggao Wang, Chao Wu, He Gao, Jia Ren, Lulu Zhang, Yuangui Yang, Jingsong Deng, Jianyan Wei

Abstract: Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which signify the end-life collapsing of very massive stars, are produced by extremely relativistic jets colliding into circumstellar medium. Huge energy is released both in the first few seconds, namely the internal dissipation phase that powers prompt emissions, and in the subsequent self-similar jet-deceleration phase that produces afterglows observed in broad-band electromagnetic spectrum. However, prompt optical emissions of GRBs have been rarely detected, seriously limiting our understanding of the transition between the two phases. Here we report detection of prompt optical emissions from a gamma-ray burst (i.e. GRB 201223A) using a dedicated telescope array with a high temporal resolution and a wide time coverage. The early phase coincident with prompt {\gamma}-ray emissions show a luminosity in great excess with respect to the extrapolation of {\gamma}-rays, while the later luminosity bump is consistent with onset of the afterglow. The clearly detected transition allows us to differentiate physical processes contributing to early optical emissions and to diagnose the composition of the jet

6.Detecting Stochastic Wave Dark Matter with Fermi-LAT $γ$-ray Pulsar Timing Array

Authors:Hoang Nhan Luu, Tao Liu, Jing Ren, Tom Broadhurst, Ruizhi Yang, Jie-Shuang Wang, Zhen Xie

Abstract: Wave dark matter (DM) represents a class of the most representative DM candidates. Due to its periodic perturbation to spacetime, the wave DM can be detected with a galactic interferometer - pulsar timing array (PTA). We perform in this Letter a first analysis of applying the $\gamma$-ray PTA to detect the wave DM, with the data of Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). Despite the limitation in statistics, the $\gamma$-PTA demonstrates a promising sensitivity potential for a mass $\sim 10^{-23}-10^{-22}$ eV. We show that the upper limits not far from those of the dedicated radio-PTA projects can be achieved. Particularly, we have fulfilled an analysis to cross-correlate the pulsar data, which has been essentially missing so far in real data analysis but is known to be crucial for identifying the nature of potential signals, with the Fermi-LAT data of two pulsars.