By: Ryan O'Donnell, Rocco A. Servedio, Pedro Paredes

We give a strongly explicit construction of $\varepsilon$-approximate $k$-designs for the orthogonal group $\mathrm{O}(N)$ and the unitary group $\mathrm{U}(N)$, for $N=2^n$. Our designs are of cardinality $\mathrm{poly}(N^k/\varepsilon)$ (equivalently, they have seed length $O(nk + \log(1/\varepsilon)))$; up to the polynomial, this matches the number of design elements used by the construction consisting of completely random matrices.

We give a strongly explicit construction of $\varepsilon$-approximate $k$-designs for the orthogonal group $\mathrm{O}(N)$ and the unitary group $\mathrm{U}(N)$, for $N=2^n$. Our designs are of cardinality $\mathrm{poly}(N^k/\varepsilon)$ (equivalently, they have seed length $O(nk + \log(1/\varepsilon)))$; up to the polynomial, this matches the number of design elements used by the construction consisting of completely random matrices. less

5 SciCasts by Librarian .

# An Improved Composition Theorem of a Universal Relation and Most Functions via Effective Restriction

0upvotes

By: Hao Wu

Recently, Ivan Mihajlin and Alexander Smal proved a composition theorem of a universal relation and some function via so called xor composition, that is there exists some function $f:\{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}$ such that $\textsf{CC}(\text{U}_n \diamond \text{KW}_f) \geq 1.5n-o(n)$ where $\textsf{CC}$ denotes the communication complexity of the problem. In this paper, we significantly improve their result and present an asymptotically ti... more

Recently, Ivan Mihajlin and Alexander Smal proved a composition theorem of a universal relation and some function via so called xor composition, that is there exists some function $f:\{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}$ such that $\textsf{CC}(\text{U}_n \diamond \text{KW}_f) \geq 1.5n-o(n)$ where $\textsf{CC}$ denotes the communication complexity of the problem. In this paper, we significantly improve their result and present an asymptotically tight and much more general composition theorem of a universal relation and most functions, that is for most functions $f:\{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}$ we have $\textsf{CC}(\text{U}_m \diamond \text{KW}_f) \geq m+ n -O(\sqrt{m})$ when $m=\omega(\log^2 n),n =\omega(\sqrt{m})$. This is done by a direct proof of composition theorem of a universal relation and a multiplexor in the partially half-duplex model avoiding the xor composition. And the proof works even when the multiplexor only contains a few functions. One crucial ingredient in our proof involves a combinatorial problem of constructing a tree of many leaves and every leaf contains a non-overlapping set of functions. For each leaf, there is a set of inputs such that every function in the leaf takes the same value, that is all functions are restricted. We show how to choose a set of good inputs to effectively restrict these functions to force that the number of functions in each leaf is as small as possible while maintaining the total number of functions in all leaves. This results in a large number of leaves. less

By: Oleg Verbitsky, Maksim Zhukovskii

It is well known that almost all graphs are canonizable by a simple combinatorial routine known as color refinement. With high probability, this method assigns a unique label to each vertex of a random input graph and, hence, it is applicable only to asymmetric graphs. The strength of combinatorial refinement techniques becomes a subtle issue if the input graphs are highly symmetric. We prove that the combination of color refinement with ve... more

It is well known that almost all graphs are canonizable by a simple combinatorial routine known as color refinement. With high probability, this method assigns a unique label to each vertex of a random input graph and, hence, it is applicable only to asymmetric graphs. The strength of combinatorial refinement techniques becomes a subtle issue if the input graphs are highly symmetric. We prove that the combination of color refinement with vertex individualization produces a canonical labeling for almost all circulant digraphs (Cayley digraphs of a cyclic group). To our best knowledge, this is the first application of combinatorial refinement in the realm of vertex-transitive graphs. Remarkably, we do not even need the full power of the color refinement algorithm. We show that the canonical label of a vertex $v$ can be obtained just by counting walks of each length from $v$ to an individualized vertex. less

By: Thomas Muñoz, Cristian Riveros, Stijn Vansummeren

Due to the importance of linear algebra and matrix operations in data analytics, there is significant interest in using relational query optimization and processing techniques for evaluating (sparse) linear algebra programs. In particular, in recent years close connections have been established between linear algebra programs and relational algebra that allow transferring optimization techniques of the latter to the former. In this paper, w... more

Due to the importance of linear algebra and matrix operations in data analytics, there is significant interest in using relational query optimization and processing techniques for evaluating (sparse) linear algebra programs. In particular, in recent years close connections have been established between linear algebra programs and relational algebra that allow transferring optimization techniques of the latter to the former. In this paper, we ask ourselves which linear algebra programs in MATLANG correspond to the free-connex and q-hierarchical fragments of conjunctive first-order logic. Both fragments have desirable query processing properties: free-connex conjunctive queries support constant-delay enumeration after a linear-time preprocessing phase, and q-hierarchical conjunctive queries further allow constant-time updates. By characterizing the corresponding fragments of MATLANG, we hence identify the fragments of linear algebra programs that one can evaluate with constant-delay enumeration after linear-time preprocessing and with constant-time updates. To derive our results, we improve and generalize previous correspondences between MATLANG and relational algebra evaluated over semiring-annotated relations. In addition, we identify properties on semirings that allow to generalize the complexity bounds for free-connex and q-hierarchical conjunctive queries from Boolean annotations to general semirings. less

By: V. Arvind, Frank Fuhlbrück, Johannes Köbler, Oleg Verbitsky

We consider a hierarchy of graph invariants that naturally extends the spectral invariants defined by F\"urer (Lin. Alg. Appl. 2010) based on angles between the projections of standard basis vectors onto an eigenspace of the adjacency matrix of a graph. We provide a purely combinatorial characterization of this hierarchy in terms of the walk counts. This allows us to give a complete answer to F\"urer's question about the strength of his inv... more

We consider a hierarchy of graph invariants that naturally extends the spectral invariants defined by F\"urer (Lin. Alg. Appl. 2010) based on angles between the projections of standard basis vectors onto an eigenspace of the adjacency matrix of a graph. We provide a purely combinatorial characterization of this hierarchy in terms of the walk counts. This allows us to give a complete answer to F\"urer's question about the strength of his invariants in distinguishing non-isomorphic graphs in comparison to the 2-dimensional Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm, extending the recent work of Rattan and Seppelt (SODA 2023). As another application of the characterization, we prove that almost all graphs are determined up to isomorphism by their eigenvalues and angles, which is closely related to the long-standing open problem whether almost all graphs are determined by their spectrum. Finally, we describe the exact relationship between the hierarchy and the Weisfeiler-Leman algorithms for small dimensions, as also some other important spectral characteristics of a graph such as the generalized and the main spectra. less

By: Vince Grolmusz

The LogRank conjecture of Lov\'asz and Saks from 1988 is the most famous open problem in the communication complexity theory. The statement is as follows: Suppose that two players intend to compute a Boolean function $f(x,y)$ when $x$ is known for the first and $y$ for the second player, and they may send and receive messages encoded with bits, then they can compute $f(x,y)$ with exchanging $(\log \rank (M_f))^c $ bits, where $M_f$ is a Boo... more

The LogRank conjecture of Lov\'asz and Saks from 1988 is the most famous open problem in the communication complexity theory. The statement is as follows: Suppose that two players intend to compute a Boolean function $f(x,y)$ when $x$ is known for the first and $y$ for the second player, and they may send and receive messages encoded with bits, then they can compute $f(x,y)$ with exchanging $(\log \rank (M_f))^c $ bits, where $M_f$ is a Boolean matrix, determined by function $f$. The problem is widely open and very popular, and it has resisted numerous attacks in the last 35 years. The best upper bound is still exponential in the bound of the conjecture. Unfortunately, we cannot prove the conjecture, but we present a communication protocol with $(\log \rank (M_f))^c $ bits, which computes a -- somewhat -- related quantity to $f(x,y)$. The relation is characterized by a representation of low-rank, multi-linear polynomials modulo composite numbers. This result of ours may help to settle this long-time open conjecture. less

By: Ari Karchmer

(Abridged) Carmosino et al. (2016) demonstrated that natural proofs of circuit lower bounds for \Lambda imply efficient algorithms for learning \Lambda-circuits, but only over the uniform distribution, with membership queries, and provided \AC^0[p] \subseteq \Lambda. We consider whether this implication can be generalized to \Lambda \not\supseteq \AC^0[p], and to learning algorithms in Valiant's PAC model, which use only random examples and... more

(Abridged) Carmosino et al. (2016) demonstrated that natural proofs of circuit lower bounds for \Lambda imply efficient algorithms for learning \Lambda-circuits, but only over the uniform distribution, with membership queries, and provided \AC^0[p] \subseteq \Lambda. We consider whether this implication can be generalized to \Lambda \not\supseteq \AC^0[p], and to learning algorithms in Valiant's PAC model, which use only random examples and learn over arbitrary example distributions. We give results of both positive and negative flavor. On the negative side, we observe that if, for every circuit class \Lambda, the implication from natural proofs for \Lambda to learning \Lambda-circuits in Valiant's PAC model holds, then there is a polynomial time solution to O(n^{1.5})-uSVP (unique Shortest Vector Problem), and polynomial time quantum solutions to O(n^{1.5})-SVP (Shortest Vector Problem) and O(n^{1.5})-SIVP (Shortest Independent Vector Problem). This indicates that whether natural proofs for \Lambda imply efficient learning algorithms for \Lambda in Valiant's PAC model may depend on \Lambda. On the positive side, our main result is that specific natural proofs arising from a type of communication complexity argument (e.g., Nisan (1993), for depth-2 majority circuits) imply PAC-learning algorithms in a new distributional variant of Valiant's model. Our distributional PAC model is stronger than the average-case prediction model of Blum et al (1993) and the heuristic PAC model of Nanashima (2021), and has several important properties which make it of independent interest, such as being boosting-friendly. The main applications of our result are new distributional PAC-learning algorithms for depth-2 majority circuits, polytopes and DNFs over natural target distributions, as well as the nonexistence of encoded-input weak PRFs that can be evaluated by depth-2 majority circuits. less

By: Jérémie Cabessa, Yann Strozecki

We provide a refined characterization of the super-Turing computational power of analog, evolving, and stochastic neural networks based on the Kolmogorov complexity of their real weights, evolving weights, and real probabilities, respectively. First, we retrieve an infinite hierarchy of classes of analog networks defined in terms of the Kolmogorov complexity of their underlying real weights. This hierarchy is located between the complexity ... more

We provide a refined characterization of the super-Turing computational power of analog, evolving, and stochastic neural networks based on the Kolmogorov complexity of their real weights, evolving weights, and real probabilities, respectively. First, we retrieve an infinite hierarchy of classes of analog networks defined in terms of the Kolmogorov complexity of their underlying real weights. This hierarchy is located between the complexity classes $\mathbf{P}$ and $\mathbf{P/poly}$. Then, we generalize this result to the case of evolving networks. A similar hierarchy of Kolomogorov-based complexity classes of evolving networks is obtained. This hierarchy also lies between $\mathbf{P}$ and $\mathbf{P/poly}$. Finally, we extend these results to the case of stochastic networks employing real probabilities as source of randomness. An infinite hierarchy of stochastic networks based on the Kolmogorov complexity of their probabilities is therefore achieved. In this case, the hierarchy bridges the gap between $\mathbf{BPP}$ and $\mathbf{BPP/log^*}$. Beyond proving the existence and providing examples of such hierarchies, we describe a generic way of constructing them based on classes of functions of increasing complexity. For the sake of clarity, this study is formulated within the framework of echo state networks. Overall, this paper intends to fill the missing results and provide a unified view about the refined capabilities of analog, evolving and stochastic neural networks. less

# The Recursive Arrival Problem

0upvotes

By: Thomas Webster University of Edinburgh

We study an extension of the Arrival problem, called Recursive Arrival, inspired by Recursive State Machines, which allows for a family of switching graphs that can call each other in a recursive way. We study the computational complexity of deciding whether a Recursive Arrival instance terminates at a given target vertex. We show this problem is contained in NP \cap coNP, and we show that a search version of the problem lies in UEOPL, and ... more

We study an extension of the Arrival problem, called Recursive Arrival, inspired by Recursive State Machines, which allows for a family of switching graphs that can call each other in a recursive way. We study the computational complexity of deciding whether a Recursive Arrival instance terminates at a given target vertex. We show this problem is contained in NP \cap coNP, and we show that a search version of the problem lies in UEOPL, and hence in EOPL = PLS \cap PPAD. Furthermore, we show P-hardness of the Recursive Arrival decision problem. By contrast, the current best-known hardness result for Arrival is PL-hardness. less

By: Yann Strozecki

This habilitation thesis is intended to be a good introduction to enumeration, the problem of listing solutions. It focuses on the different ways of measuring complexity in enumeration, with a particular emphasis on my contributions to the field.

This habilitation thesis is intended to be a good introduction to enumeration, the problem of listing solutions. It focuses on the different ways of measuring complexity in enumeration, with a particular emphasis on my contributions to the field. less