Structural basis of saccharine derivative inhibition of carbonic anhydrase IX

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Leitans, J.; Kazaks, A.; Bogans, J.; Supuran, C. T.; Akopjana, I.; Ivanova, J.; Zalubovskis, R.; Tars, K.


This scientific study explores the binding mechanisms of saccharine derivatives with human carbonic anhydrase IX (hCA IX), an antitumor drug target, with the aim of facilitating the design of potent and selective inhibitors. Through the use of crystallographic analysis, we investigate the structures of hCA IX - saccharine derivative complexes, unveiling their unique binding modes that exhibit both similarities to sulfonamides and distinct orientations of the ligand tail. Our comprehensive structural insights provide information regarding the crucial interactions between the ligands and the protein, shedding light on interactions that dictate inhibitor binding and selectivity. Through a comparative analysis of the binding modes observed in hCA II and hCA IX, isoform-specific interactions are identified, offering promising strategies for the development of iso form-selective inhibitors that specifically target tumor-associated hCA IX. The findings of this study significantly deepen our understanding of the binding mechanisms of hCA inhibitors, laying a solid foundation for the rational design of more effective inhibitors.

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