Harnessing Generative AI to Decode Enzyme Catalysis and Evolution for Enhanced Engineering

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Harnessing Generative AI to Decode Enzyme Catalysis and Evolution for Enhanced Engineering

Authors

Xie, W.; Warshel, A.

Abstract

Enzymes, as paramount protein catalysts, occupy a central role in fostering remarkable progress across numerous fields. However, the intricacy of sequence-function relationships continues to obscure our grasp of enzyme behaviors and curtails our capabilities in rational enzyme engineering. Generative artificial intelligence (AI), known for its proficiency in handling intricate data distributions, holds the potential to offer novel perspectives in enzyme research. By applying generative models, we could discern elusive patterns within the vast sequence space and uncover new functional enzyme sequences. This review highlights the recent advancements in employing generative AI for enzyme sequence analysis. We delve into the impact of generative AI in predicting mutation effects on enzyme fitness, activity, and stability, rationalizing the laboratory evolution of de novo enzymes, decoding protein sequence semantics, and its applications in enzyme engineering. Notably, the prediction of enzyme activity and stability using natural enzyme sequences serves as a vital link, indicating how enzyme catalysis shapes enzyme evolution. Overall, we foresee that the integration of generative AI into enzyme studies will remarkably enhance our knowledge of enzymes and expedite the creation of superior biocatalysts.

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