Global siRNA Screen Reveals Critical Human Host Factors of SARS-CoV-2 Multicycle Replication

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Global siRNA Screen Reveals Critical Human Host Factors of SARS-CoV-2 Multicycle Replication

Authors

Yin, X.; Pu, Y.; Yuan, S.; Pache, L.; Churas, C.; Weston, S.; Riva, L.; Simons, L. M.; Cisneros, W.; Clausen, T.; de Jesus, P.; Kim, H. N.; Fuentes, D.; Whitelock, J.; Esko, J.; Lord, M.; Mena, I.; Garcia-Sastre, A.; Hultquist, J.; Frieman, M.; Ideker, T.; Pratt, D.; Martin-Sancho, L.; Chanda, S.

Abstract

Defining the subset of cellular factors governing SARS-CoV-2 replication can provide critical insights into viral pathogenesis and identify targets for host-directed antiviral therapies. While a number of genetic screens have previously reported SARS-CoV-2 host dependency factors, these approaches relied on utilizing pooled genome-scale CRISPR libraries, which are biased towards the discovery of host proteins impacting early stages of viral replication. To identify host factors involved throughout the SARS-CoV-2 infectious cycle, we conducted an arrayed genome-scale siRNA screen. Resulting data were integrated with published datasets to reveal pathways supported by orthogonal datasets, including transcriptional regulation, epigenetic modifications, and MAPK signalling. The identified proviral host factors were mapped into the SARS-CoV-2 infectious cycle, including 27 proteins that were determined to impact assembly and release. Additionally, a subset of proteins were tested across other coronaviruses revealing 17 potential pan-coronavirus targets. Further studies illuminated a role for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan in SARS-CoV-2 viral entry, and found that inhibition of the non-canonical NF-kB pathway through targeting of BIRC2 restricts SARS-CoV-2 replication both in vitro and in vivo. These studies provide critical insight into the landscape of virus-host interactions driving SARS-CoV-2 replication as well as valuable targets for host-directed antivirals.

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