ATP Citrate Lyase Supports Cardiac Function and NAD+/NADH Balance And Is Depressed in Human Heart Failure

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ATP Citrate Lyase Supports Cardiac Function and NAD+/NADH Balance And Is Depressed in Human Heart Failure


Meddeb, M.; Koleini, N.; Jun, S.; Keykhaei, M.; Farshidfar, F.; Zhao, L.; Kwon, S.; Lin, B.; Keceli, G.; Paolocci, N.; Hahn, V.; Sharma, K.; Pearce, E. L.; Kass, D. A.


Background: ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) converts citrate into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate in the cytosol. It plays a prominent role in lipogenesis and fat accumulation coupled to excess glucose, and its inhibition is approved for treating hyperlipidemia. In RNAseq analysis of human failing myocardium, we found ACLY gene expression is reduced; however the impact this might have on cardiac function and/or metabolism has not been previously studied. As new ACLY inhibitors are in development for cancer and other disorders, such understanding has added importance. Methods: Cardiomyocytes, ex-vivo beating hearts, and in vivo hearts with ACLY inhibited by selective pharmacologic (BMS303141, ACLYi) or genetic suppression, were studied. Regulation of ACLY gene/protein expression, and effects of ACLYi on function, cytotoxicity, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle metabolism, and redox and NAD+/NADH balance were assessed. Mice with cardiac ACLY knockdown induced by AAV9-acly-shRNA or cardiomyocyte tamoxifen-inducible Acly knockdown were studied. Results: Acly gene expression was reduced more in obese patients with heart failure and preserved EF (HFpEF) than HF with reduced EF. In vivo pressure-overload and in vitro hormonal stress increased ACLY protein expression, whereas it declined upon fatty-acid exposure. Acute ACLYi (1-hr) dose-dependently induced cytotoxicity in adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes, and caused substantial reduction of systolic and diastolic function in myocytes and ex-vivo beating hearts. In the latter, ATP/ADP ratio also fell and lactate increased. U13C-glucose tracing revealed an ACLYdependent TCA-bypass circuit in myocytes, where citrate generated in mitochondria is transported to the cytosol, metabolized by ACLY and then converted to malate to re-enter mitochondria,bypassing several NADH-generating steps. ACLYi lowered NAD+/NADH ratio and restoring this balance ameliorated cardiomyocyte toxicity. Oxidative stress was undetected with ACLYi. Adult hearts following 8-weeks of reduced cardiac and/or cardiomyocyte ACLY downregulation exhibited ventricular dilation and reduced function that was prevented by NAD augmentation. Cardiac dysfunction from ACLY knockdown was worse in hearts subjected to sustained pressureoverload, supporting a role in stress responses. Conclusions: ACLY supports normal cardiac function through maintenance of the NAD+/NADH balance and is upregulated by hemodynamic and hormonal stress, but depressed by lipid excess. ACLY levels are most reduced in human HFpEF with obesity potentially worsening cardio-metabolic reserve.

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