Differential reliance of CTD-nuclear envelope phosphatase 1 on its regulatory subunit in ER lipid synthesis and storage

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Differential reliance of CTD-nuclear envelope phosphatase 1 on its regulatory subunit in ER lipid synthesis and storage

Authors

Carrasquillo Rodriguez, J. W.; Uche, O.; Gao, S.; Lee, S.; Airola, M. V.; Bahmanyar, S.

Abstract

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site for the synthesis of the major membrane and storage lipids. Lipin 1 produces diacylglycerol, the lipid intermediate critical for the synthesis of both membrane and storage lipids in the ER. CTD-Nuclear Envelope Phosphatase 1 (CTDNEP1) regulates lipin 1 to restrict ER membrane synthesis, but its role in lipid storage in mammalian cells is unknown. Here, we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway controls the levels of ER/nuclear envelope-associated CTDNEP1 to regulate ER membrane synthesis through lipin 1. The N-terminus of CTDNEP1 is an amphipathic helix that targets to the ER, nuclear envelope and lipid droplets. We identify key residues at the binding interface of CTDNEP1 with its regulatory subunit NEP1R1 and show that they facilitate complex formation in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate a role for NEP1R1 in temporarily shielding CTDNEP1 from proteasomal degradation to regulate lipin 1 and restrict ER size. Unexpectedly, we found that NEP1R1 is not required for CTDNEP1\'s role in restricting lipid droplet biogenesis. Thus, the reliance of CTDNEP1 function on its regulatory subunit differs during ER membrane synthesis and lipid storage. Together, our work provides a framework into understanding how the ER regulates lipid synthesis and storage under fluctuating conditions.

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