Ligand-Dependent Mechanisms of C-C Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) Trafficking Revealed by APEX2 Proximity Labeling Proteomics

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Ligand-Dependent Mechanisms of C-C Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) Trafficking Revealed by APEX2 Proximity Labeling Proteomics

Authors

Gu, S.; Maurya, S.; Lona, A.; Borrega-Roman, L.; Salanga, C.; Gonzalez, D. J.; Kufareva, I.; Handel, T.

Abstract

CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) contributes to inflammatory responses by driving cell migration and scavenging chemokine to shape directional chemokine gradients. A drug against CCR5 has been approved for blocking HIV entry into cells. However, targeting CCR5 for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer has had limited success because of the complex biology and pharmacology of this receptor. CCR5 is activated by many natural and engineered chemokines that elicit distinct receptor signaling and trafficking responses, including some that sequester the receptor inside the cell. The sequestration phenomenon may be therapeutically exploitable, but the mechanisms by which different ligands traffic CCR5 to different cellular locations are poorly understood. Here we employed live cell ascorbic acid peroxidase proximity labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry proteomics for unbiased discovery of temporally resolved protein neighborhoods of CCR5 following stimulation with its endogenous agonist, CCL5, and two CCL5 variants that promote intracellular retention of the receptor. Along with targeted pharmacological assays, the data reveals distinct ligand-dependent CCR5 trafficking patterns with temporal resolution. All three chemokines internalize CCR5 via {beta}-arrestin-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis but to different extents, with different kinetics and with varying dependencies on GPCR kinase subtypes. The agonists differ in their ability to target the receptor to lysosomes for degradation, as well as to the Golgi compartment and the trans-Golgi network, and these trafficking patterns translate into distinct levels of ligand scavenging. The results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms behind CCR5 intracellular sequestration and suggest actionable patterns for the development of chemokine-based CCR5 targeting molecules.

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