The Quantum Internet: A Hardware Review
In the century following its discovery, applications for quantum physics are opening a new world of technological possibilities. With the current decade witnessing quantum supremacy, quantum technologies are already starting to change the ways information is generated, transmitted, stored and processed. The next major milestone in quantum technology is already rapidly emerging -- the quantum internet. Since light is the most logical candidate for quantum communication, quantum photonics is a critical enabling technology. This paper reviews the hardware aspects of the quantum internet, mainly from a photonics perspective. Though a plethora of quantum technologies and devices have emerged in recent years, we are more focused on devices or components that may enable the quantum internet. Our approach is primarily qualitative, providing a broad overview of the necessary technologies for a large-scale quantum internet.