Brefeldin A and M-COPA block the export of RTKs from the endoplasmic reticulum via simultaneous inactivation of ARF1, ARF4, and ARF5

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Brefeldin A and M-COPA block the export of RTKs from the endoplasmic reticulum via simultaneous inactivation of ARF1, ARF4, and ARF5

Authors

Natsume, M.; Niwa, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Okamoto, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Usukura, D.; Murata, T.; Abe, R.; Shimonaka, M.; Nishida, T.; Shiina, I.; Obata, Y.

Abstract

Normal receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) need to reach the plasma membrane (PM) for ligand-induced activation, whereas its cancer-causing mutants can be activated before reaching the PM in organelles, such as the Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN). Inhibitors of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such as brefeldin A (BFA) and 2-methylcoprophilinamide (M-COPA), can suppress the activation of mutant RTKs in cancer cells, suggesting that RTK mutants cannot initiate signaling in the ER. BFA and M-COPA block the function of ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) that play a crucial role in ER-Golgi protein trafficking. However, which ARFs among AFR family proteins are inhibited by BFA or M-COPA, that is, which ARFs are involved in RTKs transport from the ER, remains unclear. In this study, we showed that M-COPA blocked the export of not only KIT but also PDGFRA/EGFR/MET RTKs from the ER. ER-retained RTKs could not fully transduce anti-apoptotic signals, thereby leading to cancer cell apoptosis. Moreover, single knockdown of ARF1, ARF3, ARF4, ARF5, or ARF6 could not block ER export of RTKs, indicating that BFA/M-COPA treatment cannot be mimicked by knockdown of only one ARF member. Interestingly, simultaneous transfection of ARF1, ARF4, and ARF5 siRNAs mirrored the effect of BFA/M-COPA treatment. Consistent with these results, in vitro pulldown assays showed that BFA/M-COPA blocked the function of ARF1, ARF4, and ARF5. Taken together, these results suggest that BFA/M-COPA targets at least ARF1, ARF4, and ARF5; in other words, RTKs require the simultaneous activation of ARF1, ARF4, and ARF5 for their ER export.

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