arXiv daily: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

arXiv daily: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

1.Development of a structured, turbulent solar wind as a result of interchange reconnection

Authors:J. F. Drake, S. D. Bale, M. Swisdak, N. E. Raouafi, M. Velli

Abstract: The role of interchange reconnection as a drive mechanism for the solar wind is explored by solving the global magnetic-field-aligned equations describing wind acceleration. Boundary conditions in the low corona, including a reconnection-driven Alfv\'enic outflow and associated heating differ from previous models. Additional heating of the corona associated with Alfv\'en waves or other MHD turbulence, which has been the foundation of many earlier models, is neglected. For this simplified model a sufficient condition for interchange reconnection to overcome gravity to drive the wind is derived. The combination of Alfv\'enic ejection and reconnection-driven heating yields a minimum value of the Alfv\'en speed of the order of 350-400$km/s$ that is required to drive the wind. Recent evidence based on Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations suggests that this threshold is typically exceeded in the coronal holes that are the source regions of the fast wind. On the other hand, since reconnection in the coronal environment is predicted to have a bursty character, the magnitude of reconnection outflows can be highly variable. The consequence is a highly non-uniform wind in which in some regions the velocity increases sharply to super-Alfv\'enic values while in adjacent regions the formation of an asymptotic wind fails. A simple model is constructed to describe the turbulent mixing of these highly-sheared super-Alfv\'enic flows that suggests these flows are the free-energy source of the Alfv\'enic turbulence and associated switchbacks that have been documented in the PSP data in the near coronal environment. The global wind profiles are presented and benchmarked with Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations at 12 solar radii.

2.Dynamically coupled kinetic chemistry in brown dwarf atmospheres I. Performing global scale kinetic modelling

Authors:Elspeth K. H. Lee, Xianyu Tan, Shang-Min Tsai

Abstract: The atmospheres of brown dwarfs have been long observed to exhibit a multitude of non-equilibrium chemical signatures and spectral variability across the L, T and Y spectral types. We aim to investigate the link between the large-scale 3D atmospheric dynamics and time-dependent chemistry in the brown dwarf regime, and to assess its impact on spectral variability. We couple the miniature kinetic chemistry module `mini-chem' to the Exo-FMS general circulation model (GCM). We then perform a series of idealised brown dwarf regime atmospheric models to investigate the dynamical 3D chemical structures produced by our simulations. The GCM output is post-processed using a 3D radiative-transfer model to investigate hemisphere-dependent spectral signatures and rotational variability. Our results show the expected strong non-equilibrium chemical behaviour brought on by vertical mixing as well as global spacial variations due to zonal flows. Chemical species are generally globally homogenised, showing variations of $\pm$10\% or less, dependent on pressure level, and follow the dynamical structures present in the atmosphere. However, we find localised storm regions and eddies can show higher contrasts, up to $\pm$100\%, in mixing ratio compared to the background global mean. This initial study represents another step in understanding the connection between three-dimensional atmospheric flows in brown dwarfs and their rich chemical inventories.

3.Wobbling jets in common envelope evolution

Authors:Noam Dori Technion, Israel, Ealeal Bear Technion, Israel, Noam Soker Technion, Israel

Abstract: We find that the convective motion in the envelopes of red supergiant (RSG) stars supplies a non-negligible stochastic angular momentum to the mass that a secondary star accretes in a common envelope evolution (CEE), such that jets that the secondary star launches wobble. The orbital motion of the secondary star in a CEE and the density gradient in the envelope impose a non-zero angular momentum to the accreted mass with a constant direction parallel to the orbital angular momentum. From one-dimensional stellar evolution simulations with the numerical code \textsc{mesa} we find that the stochastic convection motion in the envelope of RSG stars adds a stochastic angular momentum component with an amplitude that is about 0.1-1 times that of the constant component due to the orbital motion. We mimic a CEE of the RSG star by removing envelope mass at a high rate and by depositing energy into its envelope. The stochastic angular momentum implies that the accretion disk around the secondary star (which we do not simulate), and therefore the jets that it launches, wobble with angles of up to tens of degrees with respect to the orbital angular momentum axis. This wobbling makes it harder for jets to break out from the envelope and can shape small bubbles in the ejecta that compress filaments that appear as arcs in the ejected nebula, i.e., in planetary nebulae when the giant is an asymptotic giant branch star.

4.Young Stellar Object Candidates in IC 417

Authors:L. M. Rebull, R. L. Anderson III, G. Hall, J. D. Kirkpatrick, X. Koenig, C. E. Odden, B. Rodriguez, R. Sanchez, B. Senson, V. Urbanowski, M. Austin, K. Blood, E. Kerman, J. Long, N. Roosa

Abstract: IC 417 is in the Galactic Plane, and likely part of the Aur OB2 association; it is ~2 kpc away. Stock 8 is one of the densest cluster constituents; off of it to the East, there is a 'Nebulous Stream' (NS) that is dramatic in the infrared (IR). We have assembled a list of literature-identified young stellar objects (YSOs), new candidate YSOs from the NS, and new candidate YSOs from IR excesses. We vetted this list via inspection of the images, spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and color-color/color-magnitude diagrams. We placed the 710 surviving YSOs and candidate YSOs in ranked bins, nearly two-thirds of which have more than 20 points defining their SEDs. The lowest-ranked bins include stars that are confused, or likely carbon stars. There are 503 in the higher-ranked bins; half are SED Class III, and $\sim$40\% are SED Class II. Our results agree with the literature in that we find that the NS and Stock 8 are at about the same distance as each other (and as the rest of the YSOs), and that the NS is the youngest region, with Stock 8 a little older. We do not find any evidence for an age spread within the NS, consistent with the idea that the star formation trigger came from the north. We do not find that the other literature-identified clusters here are as young as either the NS or Stock 8; at best they are older than Stock 8, and they may not all be legitimate clusters.

5.Opacity for realistic 3D MHD simulations of cool stellar atmospheres

Authors:A. Perdomo García, N. Vitas, E. Khomenko, M. Collados, C. Allende Prieto, I. Hubeny, Y. Osorio

Abstract: Context. Realistic 3D time-dependent simulations of stellar near-surface convection employ the opacity binning method for efficient and accurate computation of the radiative energy exchange. The method provides several orders of magnitude of speed-up, but its implementation includes a number of free parameters. Aims. Our aim is to evaluate the accuracy of the opacity binning method as a function of the choice of these free parameters. Methods. The monochromatic opacities computed with the SYNSPEC code are used to construct opacity distribution function (ODF) that is then verified through detailed comparison with the results of the ATLAS code. The opacity binning method is implemented with the SYNSPEC opacities for four representative cool main-sequence stellar spectral types (F3V, G2V, K0V, and M2V). Results. The ODFs from SYNSPEC and ATLAS show consistent results for the opacity and bolometric radiative energy exchange rate Q in case of the F, G, and K -- type stars. Significant differences, coming mainly from the molecular line lists, are found for the M -- type star. It is possible to optimise a small number of bins to reduce the deviation of the results coming from the opacity grouping with respect to the ODF for the F, G, and K -- type stars. In the case of the M -- type star, the inclusion of splitting in wavelength is needed in the grouping to get similar results, with a subsequent increase in computing time. In the limit of a large number of bins, the deviation for all the binning configurations tested saturates and the results do not converge to the ODF solution. Due to this saturation, the Q rate cannot be improved by increasing the number of bins to more than about 20 bins. The more effective strategy is to select the optimal location of fewer bins.

6.Understanding the Duration of Solar and Stellar Flares at Various Wavelengths

Authors:Jeffrey W. Reep, Vladimir S. Airapetian

Abstract: Recent irradiance measurements from numerous heliophysics and astrophysics missions including SDO, GOES, Kepler, TESS, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and NICER have provided critical input in understanding the physics of the most powerful transient events on the Sun and magnetically active stars, solar and stellar flares. The light curves of flare events from the Sun and stars show remarkably similar shapes, typically with a sharp rise and protracted decay phase. The duration of solar and stellar flares has been found to be correlated with the intensity of the event in some wavelengths, such as white light, but not in other wavelengths, such as soft X-rays, but it is not evident why this is the case. In this study, we use a radiative hydrodynamics code to examine factors affecting the duration of flare emission at various wavelengths. The duration of a light curve depends on the temperature of the plasma, the height in the atmosphere at which the emission forms, and the relative importance of cooling due to radiation, thermal conduction, and enthalpy flux. We find that there is a clear distinction between emission that forms low in the atmosphere and responds directly to heating, and emission that forms in the corona, indirectly responding to heating-induced chromospheric evaporation, a facet of the Neupert effect. We discuss the implications of our results to a wide range of flare energies.

7.Reinterpreting the Polluted White Dwarf SDSS J122859.93+104032.9 in Light of Thermohaline Mixing Models: More Polluting Material from a Larger Orbiting Solid Body

Authors:Arianna Dwomoh, Evan B. Bauer

Abstract: The polluted white dwarf (WD) system SDSS J122859.93+104032.9 (SDSS J1228) shows variable emission features interpreted as originating from a solid core fragment held together against tidal forces by its own internal strength, orbiting within its surrounding debris disk. Estimating the size of this orbiting solid body requires modeling the accretion rate of the polluting material that is observed mixing into the WD surface. That material is supplied via sublimation from the surface of the orbiting solid body. The sublimation rate can be estimated as a simple function of the surface area of the solid body and the incident flux from the nearby hot WD. On the other hand, estimating the accretion rate requires detailed modeling of the surface structure and mixing in the accreting WD. In this work, we present MESA WD models for SDSS J1228 that account for thermohaline instability and mixing in addition to heavy element sedimentation to accurately constrain the sublimation and accretion rate necessary to supply the observed pollution. We derive a total accretion rate of $\dot M_{\rm acc}=1.8\times 10^{11}\,\rm g\,s^{-1}$, several orders of magnitude higher than the $\dot M_{\rm acc}=5.6\times 10^{8}\,\rm g\,s^{-1}$ estimate obtained in earlier efforts. The larger mass accretion rate implies that the minimum estimated radius of the orbiting solid body is r$_{\rm{min}}$ = 72 km, which, although significantly larger than prior estimates, still lies within upper bounds (a few hundred km) for which the internal strength could no longer withstand tidal forces from the gravity of the WD.

1.The post-disk (or primordial) spin distribution of M dwarf stars

Authors:L. Gehrig, E. Gaidos, M. Güdel

Abstract: We investigate the influence of an accretion disk on the angular momentum (AM) evolution of young M dwarfs, which parameters govern the AM distribution after the disk phase, and whether this leads to a mass-independent distribution of SAM. We find that above an initial rate $\Dot{M}_\mathrm{crit} \sim 10^{-8}~\Msolpyr$ accretion "erases" the initial SAM of M dwarfs during the disk lifetime, and stellar rotation converges to values of SAM that are largely independent of initial conditions. For stellar masses $> 0.3~\mathrm{M_\odot}$, we find that observed initial accretion rates $\Dot{M}_\mathrm{init}$ are comparable to or exceed $\Dot{M}_\mathrm{crit}$. Furthermore, stellar SAM after the disk phase scales with the stellar magnetic field strength as a power-law with an exponent of $-1.1$. For lower stellar masses, $\Dot{M}_\mathrm{init}$ is predicted to be smaller than $\Dot{M}_\mathrm{crit}$ and the initial conditions are imprinted in the stellar SAM after the disk phase. To explain the observed mass-independent distribution of SAM, the stellar magnetic field strength has to range between 20~G and 500~G (700~G and 1500~G) for a 0.1~$\mathrm{M_\odot}$ (0.6~$\mathrm{M_\odot}$) star. These values match observed large-scale magnetic field measurements of young M~dwarfs and the positive relation between stellar mass and magnetic field strength agrees with a theoretically-motivated scaling relation. The scaling law between stellar SAM, mass, and the magnetic field strength is consistent for young stars, where these parameters are constrained by observations. Due to the very limited number of available data, we advocate for efforts to obtain more such measurements. Our results provide new constraints on the relation between stellar mass and magnetic field strength and can be used as initial conditions for future stellar spin models, starting after the disk phase. (shortened)

2.A T-Dwarf Candidate from JWST Early Release NIRCam data

Authors:Po-Ya Wang Institute of Astronomy, NTHU Department of Physics, NTHU, Tomotsugu Goto Institute of Astronomy, NTHU Department of Physics, NTHU, Simon C. -C. Ho Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, ANU, Yu-Wei Lin Institute of Astronomy, NTHU Department of Physics, NTHU, Cossas K. -W. Wu Institute of Astronomy, NTHU Department of Physics, NTHU, Chih-Teng Ling Institute of Astronomy, NTHU, Tetsuya Hashimoto Department of Physics, NCHU, Seong Jin Kim Institute of Astronomy, NTHU, Tiger Y. -Y. Hsiao Center of Astrophysical Science, JHU

Abstract: We present a distant T$-$type brown dwarf candidate at $\approx2.55$ kpc discovered in the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science (CEERS) fields by James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRCam. In addition to the superb sensitivity, we utilised 7 filters from JWST in near-IR and thus is advantageous in finding faint, previously unseen brown dwarfs. From the model spectra in new JWST/NIRCam filter wavelengths, the selection criteria of F115W-F277W$<$-0.8 and F277W-F444W$>$1.1 were chosen to target the spectrum features of brown dwarfs having temperatures from 500K to 1300K. Searching through the data from Early Release Observations (ERO) and Early Release Science (ERS), we find 1 promising candidate in the CEERS field. The result of SED fitting suggested an early T spectral type with a low effective temperature of T$_\text{eff}\approx$1300K, the surface gravity of $\log{g}\approx5.25\text{cm s}^{-2}$, and an eddy diffusion parameter of logK$_{zz}\approx7\text{cm}^2 \text{s}^{-1}$, which indicates an age of $\approx$1.8Gyr and a mass of $\approx0.05$M$_{\odot}$. In contrast to typically found T$-$dwarf within several hundred parsecs, the estimated distance of the source is $\approx2.55$kpc, showing the JWST's power to extend the search to a much larger distance.

3.A Deep Learning Neural Network Algorithm for Classification of Eclipsing Binary Light Curves

Authors:Burak Ulas

Abstract: We present an image classification algorithm using deep learning convolutional neural network architecture, which classifies the morphologies of eclipsing binary systems based on their light curves. The algorithm trains the machine with light curve images generated from the observational data of eclipsing binary stars in contact, detached and semi-detached morphologies, whose light curves are provided by Kepler, ASAS and CALEB catalogues. The structure of the architecture is explained, the parameters of the network layers and the resulting metrics are discussed. Our results show that the algorithm, which is selected among 132 neural network architectures, estimates the morphological classes of an independent validation dataset, 705 real data, with an accuracy of 92%.

4.Accelerated particle beams in a 3D simulation of the quiet Sun. Lower atmospheric spectral diagnostics

Authors:H. Bakke, L. Frogner, L. Rouppe van der Voort, B. V. Gudiksen, M. Carlsson

Abstract: Nanoflare heating through small-scale magnetic reconnection events is one of the prime candidates to explain heating of the solar corona. However, direct signatures of nanoflares are difficult to determine, and unambiguous observational evidence is still lacking. Numerical models that include accelerated electrons, and can reproduce flaring conditions, are essential in understanding how low-energetic events act as a heating mechanism of the corona, and how such events are able to produce signatures in the spectral lines that can be detected through observations. We investigate the effects of accelerated electrons in synthetic spectra from a 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulation to better understand small-scale heating events and their impact on the solar atmosphere. We synthesised the chromospheric Ca II and Mg II lines and the transition region Si IV resonance lines from a quiet Sun numerical simulation that includes accelerated electrons. We calculated the contribution function to the intensity to better understand how the lines are formed, and what factors are contributing to the detailed shape of the spectral profiles. The synthetic spectra are highly affected by variations in temperature and vertical velocity. Beam heating exceeds conductive heating at the heights where the spectral lines form, indicating that the electrons should contribute to the heating of the lower atmosphere and hence affect the line profiles. However, we find that it is difficult to determine specific signatures from the non-thermal electrons due to the complexity of the atmospheric response to the heating in combination with the relatively low energy output (~1e21 erg/s). Still, our results contribute to the understanding of small-scale heating events in the solar atmosphere, and give further guidance to future observations.

5.Damping of coronal oscillations in self-consistent 3D radiative MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere

Authors:P. Kohutova, P. Antolin, M. Szydlarski, M. Carlsson

Abstract: Oscillations are abundant in the solar corona. Coronal loop oscillations are typically studied using highly idealised models of magnetic flux tubes. In order to improve our understanding of coronal oscillations, it is necessary to consider the effect of realistic magnetic field topology and density structuring. We analyse the damping of coronal oscillations using a self-consistent 3D radiation-MHD simulation of the solar atmosphere spanning from the convection zone into the corona, the associated oscillation dissipation and heating, and finally the physical processes responsible for the damping and dissipation. The simulated corona formed in such a model does not depend on any prior assumptions about the shape of the coronal loops. We find that the bundle of magnetic loops shows damped transverse oscillations in response to perturbations in two separate instances with oscillation periods of 177 s and 191 s, velocity amplitudes of 10 km/s and 16 km/s and damping times of 176 s and 198 s, respectively. The coronal oscillations lead to the development of velocity shear in the simulated corona resulting in the formation of vortices seen in the velocity field caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, contributing to the damping and dissipation of the transverse oscillations. The oscillation parameters and evolution observed are in line with the values typically seen in observations of coronal loop oscillations. The dynamic evolution of the coronal loop bundle suggests the models of monolithic and static coronal loops with constant lengths might need to be re-evaluated by relaxing the assumption of highly idealised waveguides.

6.binary_c-python: A Python-based stellar population synthesis tool and interface to binary_c

Authors:D. D. Hendriks, R. G. Izzard

Abstract: We present the software package binary_c-python which provides a convenient and easy-to-use interface to the binary_c framework, allowing the user to rapidly evolve individual systems and populations of stars. binary_c-python is available on Pip and on GitLab. binary_c-python contains many useful features to control and process the output of binary_c, like by providing binary_c-python with logging statements that are dynamically compiled and loaded into binary_c. Moreover, we have recently added standardised output of events like Roche-lobe overflow or double compact-object formation to binary_c, and automatic parsing and managing of that output in binary_c-python. binary_c-python uses multiprocessing to utilise all the cores on a particular machine, and can run populations with HPC cluster workload managers like HTCondor and Slurm, allowing the user to run simulations on large computing clusters. We provide documentation that is automatically generated based on docstrings and a suite of Jupyter notebooks. These notebooks consist of technical tutorials on how to use binary_c-python and use-case scenarios aimed at doing science. Much of binary_c-python is covered by unit tests to ensure reliability and correctness, and the test coverage is continually increased as the package is improved.

7.Dating young open clusters using delta Scuti stars. Results for Trumpler 10 and Praesepe

Authors:D. Pamos Ortega, G. M. Mirouh, A. García Hernández, J. C. Suárez Yanes, S. Barceló Forteza

Abstract: Aims. The main goal of this work is to date young open clusters using $\delta$ Sct stars. Seismic indices such as the large separation and the frequency at maximum power can help to constrain the models to better characterise the stars. We propose a reliable method to identify some radial modes, which gives us greater confidence in the constrained models. Methods. We extract the frequency content of a sample of $\delta$ Sct stars belonging to the same open cluster. We estimate the low-order large separation by means of different techniques and the frequency at maximum power for each member of the sample. We use a grid of models built with the typical parameters of $\delta$ Sct stars, including mass, metallicity and rotation as independent variables, and determine the oscillation modes. We select the observed frequencies whose ratios match those of the models. Once we find a range of radial modes matching the observed frequencies, mainly the fundamental mode, we add it to the other seismic parameters to derive the stellar age. Assuming star groups have similar chemistry and age, we estimate their mean age by computing a weighted probability density function fit to the age distribution of the seismically constrained models. Results. We estimate the age of Trumpler 10 to be $30_{-20}{+30}$ Myr, and that of Praesepe to be $580 \pm 230$ Myr. In this latter case, we find two apparent populations of $\delta$ Sct stars in the same cluster, one at $510 \pm 140$ Myr and another at $890 \pm 140$ Myr. This may be due to two different formation events, different rotational velocities of the members in our sample of stars (as rapid rotation may modify the observed large separation), or to membership of unresolved binary systems.

8.FAUST X. Multi-band, multi-scale dust study of L1527 IRS. Evidence for dust properties variations within the envelope of a Class 0/I YSO

Authors:L. Cacciapuoti, E. Macias, A. J. Maury, C. J. Chandler, N. Sakai, Ł. Tychoniec, S. Viti, A. Natta, M. De Simone, A. Miotello, C. Codella, C. Ceccarelli, L. Podio, D. Fedele, D. Johnstone, Y. Shirley, B. J. Liu, E. Bianchi, Z. E. Zhang, J. Pineda, L. Loinard, F. Ménard, U. Lebreuilly, R. S. Klessen, P. Hennebelle, S. Molinari, L. Testi, S. Yamamoto

Abstract: Early dust grain growth in protostellar envelopes infalling on young discs has been suggested in recent studies, supporting the hypothesis that dust particles start to agglomerate already during the Class 0/I phase of young stellar objects (YSOs). If this early evolution were confirmed, it would impact the usually assumed initial conditions of planet formation, where only particles with sizes $\lesssim 0.25 \mu$m are usually considered for protostellar envelopes. We aim to determine the maximum grain size of the dust population in the envelope of the Class 0/I protostar L1527 IRS, located in the Taurus star-forming region (140 pc). We use Atacama Large millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) and Atacama Compact Array (ACA) archival data and present new observations, in an effort to both enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the faint extended continuum emission and properly account for the compact emission from the inner disc. Using observations performed in four wavelength bands and extending the spatial range of previous studies, we aim to place tight constraints on the spectral ($\alpha$) and dust emissivity ($\beta$) indices in the envelope of L1527 IRS. We find a rather flat $\alpha \sim$ 3.0 profile in the range 50-2000 au. Accounting for the envelope temperature profile, we derive values for the dust emissivity index, 0.9 < $\beta$ < 1.6, and reveal a tentative, positive outward gradient. This could be interpreted as a distribution of mainly ISM-like grains at 2000 au, gradually progressing to (sub-)millimetre-sized dust grains in the inner envelope, where at R=300 au, $\beta$ = 1.1 +/- 0.1. Our study supports a variation of the dust properties in the envelope of L1527 IRS. We discuss how this can be the result of in-situ grain growth, dust differential collapse from the parent core, or upward transport of disc large grains.

9.Light Curve Analysis of the AP Dor Binary System using Ground-Based and TESS Observations

Authors:Atila Poro, Eduardo Fernández Lajús, Mohammad Madani, Golshan Sabbaghian, Farshid Nasrollahzadeh, Faezeh Jahediparizi

Abstract: The short-period AP Dor eclipsing binary's first in-depth and multiband photometric solutions are presented. We made use of our eight nights of ground-based at a southern hemisphere observatory, and twelve sectors of TESS observations. We extracted eight and 1322 minima from our observations and TESS, respectively. We suggested a new linear ephemeris based on the trend of orbital period variations using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs (PHOEBE) Python code and the MCMC approach were used for the light curve analysis. This system did not require a starspot for the light curve solutions. We calculated the absolute parameters of the system using Gaia DR3 parallax method. The orbital angular momentum (J_0) of the AP Dor indicates that this system is located in a region of contact binaries. According to our results, this system is an overcontact binary system with a mass ratio of 0.584, a fillout factor of 48%, and an inclination of 53deg. The positions of AP Dor stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram are represented.

10.Searching for signatures of H $α$ spicule-like features in the solar transition region

Authors:Nived Vilangot Nhalil, Juie Shetye, J. Gerry Doyle

Abstract: New instrumental and telescopes covering the optical and ultra-violet spectral regions have revealed a range of small-scale dynamic features, many which may be related. For example, the range of spicule-like features hints towards a spectrum of features and not just two types; however, direct observational evidence in terms of tracking spicules across multiple wavelengths are needed in order to provide further insight into the dynamics of the Sun's outer atmosphere. This paper uses H $\alpha$ data obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter instrument on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, and in the transition region using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph with the SJI 1400 {\AA} channel plus spectral data via the Si IV 1394 {\AA} line to track spicules termed Rapid Blue-shifted Excursions (RBEs). The RBEs as seen in the H $\alpha$ blue-wing images presented here can be sub-divided into two categories; a single or multi-threaded feature. Based on the H $\alpha$ spectra, the features can be divided into events showing broadening and line core absorption, events showing broadening and line core emission, events with a pure blue shifted H $\alpha$ profile without any absorption in the red wing, broadened line profile with the absorption in the blue stronger compared to the red wing. From the RBE-like events which have a Si IV 1394 {\AA} line profile, 78% of them show a Si IV line flux increase. Most of these features show a second broadened Si IV component which is slightly blue-shifted.

11.A GALEX view of the DA White Dwarf Population

Authors:Renae E. Wall, Mukremin Kilic, P. Bergeron, Nathan D. Leiphart

Abstract: We present a detailed model atmosphere analysis of 14001 DA white dwarfs from the Montreal White Dwarf Database with ultraviolet photometry from the GALEX mission. We use the 100 pc sample, where the extinction is negligible, to demonstrate that there are no major systematic differences between the best-fit parameters derived from optical only data and the optical + UV photometry. GALEX FUV and NUV data improve the statistical errors in the model fits, especially for the hotter white dwarfs with spectral energy distributions that peak in the UV. Fitting the UV to optical spectral energy distributions also reveals UV-excess or UV-deficit objects. We use two different methods to identify outliers in our model fits. Known outliers include objects with unusual atmospheric compositions, strongly magnetic white dwarfs, and binary white dwarfs, including double degenerates and white dwarf + main-sequence systems. We present a list of 89 newly identified outliers based on GALEX UV data; follow-up observations of these objects will be required to constrain their nature. Several current and upcoming large scale spectroscopic surveys are targeting $>10^5$ white dwarfs. In addition, the ULTRASAT mission is planning an all-sky survey in the NUV band. A combination of the UV data from GALEX and ULTRASAT and optical data on these large samples of spectroscopically confirmed DA white dwarfs will provide an excellent opportunity to identify unusual white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood.

1.Theoretical light curve models of the symbiotic nova CN Cha -- Optical flat peak for three years

Authors:Mariko Kato, Izumi Hachisu

Abstract: CN Cha is a slow symbiotic nova characterized by a three-years-long optical flat peak followed by a rapid decline. We present theoretical light curves for CN Cha, based on hydrostatic approximation, and estimate the white dwarf (WD) mass to be $\sim 0.6 ~M_\odot$ for a low metal abundance of Z = 0.004. This kind of flat peak novae are border objects between classical novae having a sharp optical peak and extremely slow novae, the evolutions of which are too slow to be recognized as a nova outburst in human timescale. Theoretically, there are two types of nova envelope solutions, static and optically-thick wind, in low mass WDs ($\lesssim 0.7 ~M_\odot$). Such a nova outburst begins first in a hydrostatic manner, and later it could change to an optically-thick wind evolution due to perturbation by the companion star in the nova envelope. Multiple peaks are a reflection of the relaxation process of transition. CN Cha supports our explanation on the difference between long-lasted flat peak novae like CN Cha and multiple peak novae like V723 Cas, because the companion star is located far outside, and does not perturb, the nova envelope in CN Cha.

2.A study of the capabilities for inferring atmospheric information from high-spatial-resolution simulations

Authors:C. Quintero Noda, E. Khomenko, M. Collados, B. Ruiz Cobo, R. Gafeira, N. Vitas, M. Rempel, R. J. Campbell, A. Pastor Yabar, H. Uitenbroek, D. Orozco Suárez

Abstract: In this work, we study the accuracy that can be achieved when inferring the atmospheric information from realistic numerical magneto-hydrodynamic simulations that reproduce the spatial resolution we will obtain with future observations made by the 4m class telescopes DKIST and EST. We first study multiple inversion configurations using the SIR code and the Fe I transitions at 630 nm until we obtain minor differences between the input and the inferred atmosphere in a wide range of heights. Also, we examine how the inversion accuracy depends on the noise level of the Stokes profiles. The results indicate that when the majority of the inverted pixels come from strongly magnetised areas, there are almost no restrictions in terms of the noise, obtaining good results for noise amplitudes up to 1$\times10^{-3}$ of $I_c$. At the same time, the situation is different for observations where the dominant magnetic structures are weak, and noise restraints are more demanding. Moreover, we find that the accuracy of the fits is almost the same as that obtained without noise when the noise levels are on the order of 1$\times10^{-4}$of $I_c$. We, therefore, advise aiming for noise values on the order of or lower than 5$\times10^{-4}$ of $I_c$ if observers seek reliable interpretations of the results for the magnetic field vector reliably. We expect those noise levels to be achievable by next-generation 4m class telescopes thanks to an optimised polarisation calibration and the large collecting area of the primary mirror.

3.Forecasting >300 MeV SEP events: Extending SPARX to high energies

Authors:Charlotte O. G. Waterfall, Silvia Dalla, Mike S. Marsh, Timo Laitinen, Adam Hutchinson

Abstract: The forecasting of solar energetic particles (SEPs) is a prominent area of space weather research. Numerous forecasting models exist that predict SEP event properties at proton energies <100MeV. One of these models is the SPARX system, a physics-based forecasting tool that calculates >10MeV and >60MeV flux profiles within minutes of a flare being detected. This work describes SPARX-H, the extension of SPARX to forecast SEP events above 300MeV . SPARX-H predicts fluxes in three high energy channels up to several hundred MeV. Correlations between SEP peak flux and peak intensity of the associated solar flare are seen to be weak at high energies, but improved when events are grouped based on the field polarity during the event. Initial results from this new high energy forecasting tool are presented here and the applications of high energy forecasts are discussed. Additionally, the new high energy version of SPARX is tested on a set of historic SEP events. We see that SPARX-H performs best when predicting peak fluxes from events with source locations in well-connected regions, where many large SEP events tend to originate.

4.The surface composition of six newly discovered chemically peculiar stars. Comparison to the HgMn stars $μ$ Lep and $β$ Scl and the superficially normal B star $ν$ Cap

Authors:Richard Monier, E. Niemczura, D. W. Kurtz, S. Rappaport, D. M. Bowman, Simon J. Murphy, Yveline Lebreton, Remko Stuik, Morgan Deal, Thibault Merle, Tolgahan Kılıçoğlu, Marwan Gebran, Ewen Le Ster

Abstract: We report on a detailed abundance study of six bright, mostly southern, slowly rotating late B stars: HD~1279 (B8III), HD~99803 (B9V), HD~123445 (B9V), HD~147550 (B9V), HD~171961 (B8III) and HD~202671 (B5II/III), hitherto reported as normal stars. We compare them to the two classical HgMn stars $\mu$ Lep and $\beta$ Scl and to the superficially normal star, $\nu$ Cap. In the spectra of the six stars, the \ion{Hg}{2} line at 3984 \AA\ line is clearly seen and numerous lines of P, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ga, Sr, Y, and Zr appear to be strong absorbers. A comparison of newly acquired and archival spectra of these objects with a grid of synthetic spectra for selected unblended lines reveals large overabundances of P, Ti, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pt and Hg and underabundances of He, Mg, Sc and Ni. The effective temperatures, surface gravities, low projected rotational velocities and the peculiar abundance patterns of the six investigated stars show that they are new chemically peculiar stars, mostly new HgMn stars, and are reclassified as such. The evolutionary status of these stars has been inferred and their ages and masses estimated. The two most massive objects, HD~1279 and HD~202671, might have evolved away from the main-sequence recently, the other stars are main-sequence objects. HD~99803A is a sharp lined HgMn star with grazing eclipses; from TESS and MASCARA photometry we determine an orbital period of $P_{\rm orb} = 26.12022 \pm 0.00004$\,d.

5.Impacts of the $^{12}\rm{C}\left(α,γ\right)^{16}\!\rm{O}$ reaction rate on $^{56}{\rm Ni}$ nucleosynthesis in pair-instability supernovae

Authors:Hiroki Kawashimo, Ryo Sawada, Yudai Suwa, Takashi J. Moriya, Ataru Tanikawa, Nozomu Tominaga

Abstract: Nuclear reactions are key to our understanding of stellar evolution, particularly the $^{12}\rm{C}\left({\alpha},{\gamma}\right)^{16}\!\rm{O}$ rate, which is known to significantly influence the lower and upper ends of the black hole (BH) mass distribution due to pair-instability supernovae (PISNe). However, these reaction rates have not been sufficiently determined. We use the $\texttt{MESA}$ stellar evolution code to explore the impact of uncertainty in the $^{12}\rm{C}\left({\alpha},{\gamma}\right)^{16}\!\rm{O}$ rate on PISN explosions, focusing on nucleosynthesis and explosion energy by considering the high resolution of the initial mass. Our findings show that the mass of synthesized radioactive nickel ($^{56}{\rm Ni}$) and the explosion energy increase with $^{12}\rm{C}\left({\alpha},{\gamma}\right)^{16}\!\rm{O}$ rate for the same initial mass, except in the high-mass edge region. With a high (about twice the $\texttt{STARLIB}$ standard value) rate, the maximum amount of nickel produced falls below 70 $M_\odot$, while with a low rate (about half of the standard value) it increases up to 83.7 $M_\odot$. These results highlight that carbon burning plays a crucial role in PISNe by determining when a star initiates expansion. The initiation of expansion competes with collapse caused by helium photodisintegration, and the maximum mass that can lead to an explosion depends on the $^{12}\rm{C}\left({\alpha},{\gamma}\right)^{16}\!\rm{O}$ reaction rate.

1.Post-outburst evolution of bonafide FUor V2493 Cyg: A Spectro-photometric monitoring

Authors:Arpan Ghosh, Saurabh Sharma, Joe P. Ninan, Devendra K. Ojha, Bhuwan C. Bhatt, D. K. Sahu, Tapas Baug, R. K. Yadav, Puji Irawati, A. S. Gour, Neelam Panwar, Rakesh Pandey, Tirthendu Sinha, Aayushi Verma

Abstract: We present here the results of eight years of our near-simultaneous optical/near-infrared spectro-photometric monitoring of bonafide FUor candidate `V2493 Cyg' starting from 2013 September to 2021 June. During our optical monitoring period (between October 16, 2015 and December 30, 2019), the V2493 Cyg is slowly dimming with an average dimming rate of $\sim$26.6 $\pm$ 5.6 mmag/yr in V band. Our optical photometric colors show a significant reddening of the source post the second outburst pointing towards a gradual expansion of the emitting region post the second outburst. The mid infra-red colors, on the contrary, exhibits a blueing trend which can be attributed to the brightening of the disc due to the outburst. Our spectroscopic monitoring shows a dramatic variation of the H$\alpha$ line as it transitioned from absorption feature to the emission feature and back. Such transition can possibly be explained by the variation in the wind structure in combination with accretion. Combining our time evolution spectra of the Ca II infra-red triplet lines with the previously published spectra of V2493 Cyg, we find that the accretion region has stabilised compared to the early days of the outburst. The evolution of the O I $\lambda$7773 \AA~ line also points towards the stabilization of the circumstellar disc post the second outburst.

2.Active Stars in the Spectroscopic Survey of Mid-to-Late M Dwarfs Within 15pc

Authors:Emily K Pass, Jennifer G Winters, David Charbonneau, Jonathan M Irwin, Amber A Medina

Abstract: We present results from the volume-complete spectroscopic survey of 0.1-0.3M$_\odot$ M dwarfs within 15pc. This work discusses the active sample without close binary companions, providing a comprehensive picture of these 123 stars with H${\alpha}$ emission stronger than -1$\unicode{xC5}$. Our analysis includes rotation periods (including 31 new measurements), H${\alpha}$ equivalent widths, rotational broadening, inclinations, and radial velocities, determined using high-resolution, multi-epoch spectroscopic data from the TRES and CHIRON spectrographs supplemented by photometry from TESS and MEarth. Using this volume-complete sample, we establish that the majority of active, low-mass M dwarfs are very rapid rotators: specifically, 74$\pm$4% have rotation periods shorter than 2 days, while 19$\pm$4% have intermediate rotation periods of 2-20 days, and the remaining 8$\pm$3% have periods longer than 20 days. Among the latter group, we identify a population of stars with very high H${\alpha}$ emission, which we suggest is indicative of dramatic spindown as these stars transition from the rapidly to slowly rotating modes. We are unable to determine rotation periods for six stars and suggest that some of the stars without measured rotation periods may be viewed pole-on, as such stars are absent from the distribution of inclinations we measure; this lack notwithstanding, we recover the expected isotropic distribution of spin axes. Our spectroscopic and photometric data sets also allow us to investigate activity-induced radial-velocity variability, which we show can be estimated as the product of rotational broadening and the photometric amplitude of spot modulation.

3.Fine structures of radio bursts from flare star AD Leo with FAST observations

Authors:Jiale Zhang, Hui Tian, Philippe Zarka, Corentin K. Louis, Hongpeng Lu, Dongyang Gao, Xiaohui Sun, Sijie Yu, Bin Chen, Xin Cheng, Ke Wang

Abstract: Radio bursts from nearby active M-dwarfs have been frequently reported and extensively studied in solar or planetary paradigms. Whereas, their sub-structures or fine structures remain rarely explored despite their potential significance in diagnosing the plasma and magnetic field properties of the star. Such studies in the past have been limited by the sensitivity of radio telescopes. Here we report the inspiring results from the high time-resolution observations of a known flare star AD Leo with the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST). We detected many radio bursts in the two days of observations with fine structures in the form of numerous millisecond-scale sub-bursts. Sub-bursts on the first day display stripe-like shapes with nearly uniform frequency drift rates, which are possibly stellar analogs to Jovian S-bursts. Sub-bursts on the second day, however, reveal a different blob-like shape with random occurrence patterns and are akin to solar radio spikes. The new observational results suggest that the intense emission from AD Leo is driven by electron cyclotron maser instability which may be related to stellar flares or interactions with a planetary companion.

1.Theoretical mass estimates for the Mira-type variable R Hydrae

Authors:Yuri A. Fadeyev

Abstract: Calculations of stellar evolution at initial abundances of helium $Y=0.28$ and heavier elements $Z=0.014$ were done for stars with masses on the main sequence $1.7M_\odot\le M_\textrm{ZAMS}\le 5.2M_\odot$. Evolutionary sequences corresponding to the AGB stage were used for modelling the pulsation period decrease observed for almost two centuries in the Mira--type variable R Hya. Diminution of the period from $\Pi\approx$ 495 d in the second half of the eighteenth century to $\Pi\approx 380$ d in the 1950s is due stellar radius decrease accompanying dissipation of the radiation--diffusion wave generated by the helium flash. For all the history of its observations R Hya was the fundamental mode pulsator. The best agreement with observations is obtained for eight evolutionary models with initial mass $M_\textrm{ZAMS}=4.8M_\odot$ and the mass loss rate parameter of the Bl\"ocker formula $0.03\le\eta_\mathrm{B}\le 0.07$. Theoretical mass estimates of R Hya are in the range $4.44M_\odot\le M\le 4.63M_\odot$, whereas the mean stellar radius ($421R_\odot\le \bar R \le 445R_\odot$) corresponding to the pulsation period $\Pi\approx 380$ agrees well with measurements of the angular diameter by methods of the optical interferometric imaging.

2.Expulsion of counter Evershed flows from sunspot penumbrae

Authors:J. S. Castellanos Durán, A. Korpi-Lagg, S. K. Solanki

Abstract: In addition to the Evershed flow directed from the umbra towards the outer boundary of the sunspot, under special circumstances, a counter Evershed flow (CEF) in the opposite direction also occurs. We aim to characterize the proper motions and evolution of three CEFs observed by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Japanese Hinode spacecraft and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We use state-of-the-art inversions of the radiative transfer equation of polarized light applied to spectropolarimetric observations of the Fe I line pair around 630 nm. The three CEFs appeared within the penumbra. Two of the CEF structures, as part of their decay process, were found to move radially outwards through the penumbra parallel to the penumbral filaments with speeds, deduced from their proper motions, ranging between 65 and 117 m/s. In these two cases, a new spot appeared in the moat of the main sunspot after the CEFs reached the outer part of the penumbra. Meanwhile, the CEFs moved away from the umbra, and their magnetic field strengths decreased. The expulsion of these two CEFs seems to be related to the normal Evershed flow. The third CEF appeared to be dragged by the rotation of a satellite spot. Chromospheric brightenings were found to be associated with the CEFs, and those CEFs that reached the umbra-penumbra boundary showed enhanced chromospheric activity. The two CEFs, for which line-of-sight velocity maps were available during their formation phase, appear as intrusions into the penumbra. They may be associated with magnetic flux emergence.

3.Prevalence of non-stationarity in quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) associated with M- and X-class solar flares

Authors:Tishtrya Mehta, Anne-Marie Broomhall, Laura Hayes

Abstract: Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are frequently observed in solar and stellar flare emission, with recent studies suggesting that an increasing instantaneous period is a common characteristic of QPPs. Determining the prevalence of non-stationarity in QPPs contributes to a better understanding of which mechanisms are responsible in QPP generation. We obtain the rate of period evolution from QPPs in 98 M- and X-class flares from Solar Cycle 24 with average periods between 8-130s and investigate the prevalence of QPP non-stationarity. We also investigate whether the presence of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) impacts the period evolution of QPPs. We analyse soft X-ray lightcurves obtained from GOES' X-Ray Sensor (XRS) and assess the dominant periods in the impulsive and decay phases of the flares using the Fast Fourier Transform. We relate the rate of period evolution to flare duration, peak flare energy, and average QPP period. We find evidence of non-stationarity in 81% of the flares assessed, with most QPPs exhibiting a period evolution of less than 10s between the impulsive and decay phases, of which 66% exhibited an apparent period growth and 14% showed an apparent period shrinkage. We find a positive correlation between the absolute magnitude of period evolution and the duration of the flare and no correlation between the period evolution of the QPPs and flare energy or CME presence. Furthermore, we conclude that non-stationarity is common in solar QPPs and must be accounted for in flare analysis.

4.Solar Cycle Observations

Authors:Aimee Norton, Rachel Howe, Lisa Upton, Ilya Usoskin

Abstract: We describe the defining observations of the solar cycle that provide constraints for the dynamo processes operating within the Sun. Specifically, we report on the following topics: historical sunspot numbers and revisions; active region (AR) flux ranges and lifetimes; tilt angles; Hale and Joy's law; the impact of rogue ARs on cycle progression; the spatio-temporal emergence of ARs that creates the butterfly diagram; polar fields; large-scale flows including zonal, meridional, and AR in-flows; short-term cycle variability; and helioseismic results including mode parameter changes.

5.Effects of partial ionization on magnetic flux emergence in the Sun

Authors:Georgios Chouliaras, P. Syntelis, V. Archontis

Abstract: We have performed 3-D numerical simulations to investigate the effect of partial ionization on the process of magnetic flux emergence. In our study, we have modified the single-fluid MHD equations to include the presence of neutrals and have performed two basic experiments: one that assumes a fully ionized plasma (FI case) and one that assumes a partially ionized plasma (PI case). We find that the PI case brings less dense plasma to and above the solar surface. Furthermore, we find that partial ionization alters the emerging magnetic field structure, leading to a different shape of the polarities in the emerged bipolar regions compared to the FI case. The amount of emerging flux into the solar atmosphere is larger in the PI case, which has the same initial plasma beta as the FI case, but a larger initial magnetic field strength. The expansion of the field above the photosphere occurs relatively earlier in the PI case, and we confirm that the inclusion of partial ionization reduces cooling due to adiabatic expansion. However, it does not appear to work as a heating mechanism for the atmospheric plasma. The performance of these experiments in three dimensions shows that PI does not prevent the formation of unstable magnetic structures, which erupt into the outer solar atmosphere.

6.The ESO UVES/FEROS Large Programs of TESS OB pulsators. I. Global stellar parameters from high-resolution spectroscopy

Authors:Nadya Serebriakova, Andrew Tkachenko, Sarah Gebruers, Dominic M. Bowman, Timothy Van Reeth, Laurent Mahy, Siemen Burssens, Luc IJspeert, Hugues Sana, Conny Aerts

Abstract: Modern stellar structure and evolution theory experiences a lack of observational calibrations for the interior physics of intermediate- and high-mass stars. This leads to discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observed phenomena mostly related to angular momentum and element transport. Analyses of large samples of massive stars connecting state-of-the-art spectroscopy to asteroseismology may provide clues on how to improve our understanding of their interior structure. We aim to deliver a sample of O- and B-type stars at metallicity regimes of the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) galaxies with accurate atmospheric parameters from high-resolution spectroscopy, along with a detailed investigation of line-profile broadening, for future asteroseismic studies. After describing the general aims of our two Large Programs, we develop dedicated methodology to fit spectral lines and deduce accurate global stellar parameters from high-resolution multi-epoch UVES and FEROS spectroscopy. We use the best available atmosphere models for three regimes covered by our global sample, given its breadth in terms of mass, effective temperature, and evolutionary stage. Aside from accurate atmospheric parameters and locations in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, we deliver detailed analyses of macroturbulent line broadening, including estimation of the radial and tangential components. We find that these two components are difficult to disentangle from spectra with signal-to-noise ratios below 250. Future asteroseismic modelling of the deep interior physics of the most promising stars in our sample will improve the existing dearth of such knowledge for large samples of OB stars, including those of low metallicity in the LMC.

1.Implications of time-dependent molecular chemistry in metal-poor dwarf stars

Authors:S. A. Deshmukh, H. -G. Ludwig

Abstract: Binary molecules such as CO, OH, CH, CN, and C$_2$ are often used as abundance indicators in stars. These species are usually assumed to be formed in chemical equilibrium. The time-dependent effects of hydrodynamics can affect the formation and dissociation of these species and may lead to deviations from chemical equilibrium. We aim to model departures from chemical equilibrium in dwarf stellar atmospheres by considering time-dependent chemical kinetics alongside hydrodynamics and radiation transfer. We examine the effects of a decreasing metallicity and an altered C/O ratio on the chemistry when compared to the equilibrium state. We used the radiation-(magneto)hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD, and its own chemical solver to solve for the chemistry of 15 species and 83 reactions. The species were treated as passive tracers and were advected by the velocity field. The steady-state chemistry was also computed to isolate the effects of hydrodynamics. In most of the photospheres in the models we present, the mean deviations are smaller than $0.2$ dex, and they generally appear above $\log{\tau} = -2$. The deviations increase with height because the chemical timescales become longer with decreasing density and temperature. A reduced metallicity similarly results in longer chemical timescales and in a reduction in yield that is proportional to the drop in metallicity; a decrease by a factor $100$ in metallicity loosely corresponds to an increase by factor $100$ in chemical timescales. As both CH and OH are formed along reaction pathways to CO, the C/O ratio means that the more abundant element gives faster timescales to the constituent molecular species. Overall, the carbon enhancement phenomenon seen in very metal-poor stars is not a result of an improper treatment of molecular chemistry for stars up to a metallicity as low as [Fe/H] = $-3.0$.

2.A comparative study of resistivity models for simulations of magnetic reconnection in the solar atmosphere

Authors:Øystein Håvard Færder, Daniel Nóbrega-Siverio, Mats Carlsson

Abstract: Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental mechanism in astrophysics. A common challenge in mimicking this process numerically in particular for the Sun is that the solar electrical resistivity is small compared to the diffusive effects caused by the discrete nature of codes. We aim to study different anomalous resistivity models and their respective effects on simulations related to magnetic reconnection in the Sun. We used the Bifrost code to perform a 2D numerical reconnection experiment in the corona that is driven by converging opposite polarities at the solar surface. This experiment was run with three different commonly used resistivity models: 1) the hyper-diffusion model originally implemented in Bifrost, 2) a resistivity proportional to the current density, and 3) a resistivity proportional to the square of the electron drift velocity. The study was complemented with a 1D experiment of a Harris current sheet with the same resistivity models. The 2D experiment shows that the three resistivity models are capable of producing results in satisfactory agreement with each other in terms of the current sheet length, inflow velocity, and Poynting influx. Even though Petschek-like reconnection occurred with the current density-proportional resistivity while the other two cases mainly followed plasmoid-mediated reconnection, the large-scale evolution of thermodynamical quantities such as temperature and density are quite similar between the three cases. For the 1D experiment, some recalibration of the diffusion parameters is needed to obtain comparable results. Specifically the hyper-diffusion and the drift velocity-dependent resistivity model needed only minor adjustments, while the current density-proportional model needed a rescaling of several orders of magnitude.

3.PENELLOPE IV. A comparison between optical forbidden lines and $\rm H_2$ UV lines in the Orion OB1b and $σ$-Ori associations

Authors:M. Gangi, B. Nisini, C. F. Manara, K. France, S. Antoniucci, K. Biazzo, T. Giannini, G. J. Herczeg, J. M. Alcalá, A. Frasca, K. Maucó, J. Campbell-White, M. Siwak, L. Venuti, P. C. Schneider, Á. Kóspál, A. Caratti o Garatti, E. Fiorellino, E. Rigliaco, R. K. Yadav

Abstract: Observing the spatial distribution and excitation processes of atomic and molecular gas in the inner regions (< 20 au) of young (< 10 Myr) protoplanetary disks helps us to understand the conditions for the formation and evolution of planetary systems. In the framework of the PENELLOPE and ULLYSES projects, we aim to characterize the atomic and molecular component of protoplanetary disks in a sample of 11 Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTs) of the Orion OB1 and $\sigma$-Orionis associations. We analyzed the flux-calibrated optical-forbidden lines and the fluorescent ultraviolet $\rm H_2$ progressions using spectra acquired with ESPRESSO at VLT, UVES at VLT and HST-COS. Line morphologies were characterized through Gaussian decomposition. We then focused on the properties of the narrow low-velocity (FWHM < 40 $km$ $s^{-1}$ and |$v_p$| < 30 $km$ $s^{-1}$) component (NLVC) of the [OI] 630 nm line, compared with the properties of the UV-$\rm H_2$ lines. We found that the [OI]630 NLVC and the UV-$\rm H_2$ lines are strongly correlated in terms of peak velocities, full width at half maximum, and luminosity. The luminosities of the [OI]630 NLVC and UV-$\rm H_2$ correlate with the accretion luminosity with a similar slope, as well as with the luminosity of the CIV 154.8, 155 nm doublet. We discuss such correlations in the framework of the currently suggested excitation processes for the [OI]630 NLVC. Our results can be interpreted in a scenario in which the [OI]630 NLVC and UV-$\rm H_2$ have a common disk origin with a partially overlapped radial extension. We also suggest that the excitation of the [OI] NLVC is mainly induced by stellar FUV continuum photons more than being of thermal origin. This study demonstrates the potential of contemporaneous wide-band high-resolution spectroscopy in linking different tracers of protoplanetary disks.

4.Type II radio bursts and their association with coronal mass ejections in solar cycles 23 and 24

Authors:Anshu Kumari, Diana E. Morosan, E. K. J. Kilpua, F. Daei

Abstract: Metre wavelength type II solar radio bursts are believed to be the signatures of shock-accelerated electrons in the corona. Studying these bursts can give information about the initial kinematics, dynamics and energetics of CMEs in the absence of white-light observations. In this study, we investigate the occurrence of type II bursts in solar cycles 23 and 24 and their association with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We also explore the possibility of occurrence of type II bursts in the absence of a CME. We performed statistical analysis of type II bursts that occurred between 200 - 25 MHz in solar cycle 23 and 24 and found the temporal association of these radio bursts with CMEs. We categorised the CMEs based on their linear speed and angular width, and studied the distribution of type II bursts with `fast' ($speed ~\geq 500 km/s$), `slow' ($speed ~< 500 km/s$), `wide' ($width ~\geq 60^o$) and `narrow' ($width ~< 60^o$) CMEs. We explored the type II bursts occurrence dependency with solar cycle phases. Our results suggest that type II bursts dominate at heights $\approx 1.7 - 2.3 \pm 0.3 ~R_{\odot}$ with a clear majority having an onset height around 1.7 $\pm 0.3~R_{\odot}$ assuming the four-fold Newkirk model. The results indicate that most of the type II bursts had a white-light CME counterpart, however there were a few type II which did not have a clear CME association. There were more CMEs in cycle 24 than cycle 24. However, the number of type II radio bursts were less in cycle 24 compared to cycle 23. The onset heights of type IIs and their association with wide CMEs reported in this study indicate that the early CME lateral expansion may play a key role in the generation of these radio bursts.

1.Protoplanetary disks around young stellar and substellar objects in the $σ$ Orionis cluster

Authors:Belinda Damian, Jessy Jose, Beth Biller, KT Paul

Abstract: Understanding the evolution and dissipation of protoplanetary disks are crucial in star and planet formation studies. We report the protoplanetary disk population in the nearby young $\sigma$ Orionis cluster (d$\sim$408 pc; age$\sim$1.8 Myr) and analyse the disk properties such as dependence on stellar mass and disk evolution. We utilise the comprehensive census of 170 spectroscopic members of the region refined using astrometry from Gaia DR3 for a wide mass range of $\sim$19-0.004 M$_\odot$. Using the near infrared (2MASS) and mid infrared (WISE) photometry we classify the sources based on the spectral index into class I, class II, flat spectrum and class III young stellar objects. The frequency of sources hosting a disk with stellar mass $<$2 M$_\odot$ in this region is 41$\pm$7% which is consistent with the disk fraction estimated in previous studies. We see that there is no significant dependence of disk fraction on stellar mass among T Tauri stars ($<$2 M$_\odot$), but we propose rapid disk depletion around higher mass stars ($>$2 M$_\odot$). Furthermore we find the lowest mass of a disk bearing object to be $\sim$ 20 M$_\mathrm{Jup}$ and the pronounced disk fraction among the brown dwarf population hints at the formation scenario that brown dwarfs form similar to low-mass stars.

2.Evidence of a Quasi-periodic Global-scale Oscillation in the Near-Surface Shear Layer of the Sun

Authors:Richard S. Bogart, Charles S. Baldner, Sarbani Basu, Rachel Howe, Maria Cristina Rabello Soares

Abstract: We present evidence of hitherto undiscovered global-scale oscillations in the near-surface shear layer of the Sun. These oscillations are seen as large scale variations of radial shear in both the zonal and meridional flows relative to their mean values. The variations cover all or most of a visible hemisphere, and reverse with a timescale on the order of a solar rotation. A large annual variation in the meridional shear anomaly is understandable in terms of the tilt of the rotation axis, but the rapid oscillations of the shear anomalies in both zonal and the meridional directions appear to be modulated in a more complex, not-quite annual way, although the latter are also strongly modulated by the projected rotational axis angle. Small-scale anomalies in the neighborhood of active regions lend support to their solar origin and physical interpretation. These results were obtained by analyzing ring-diagram fits of low-order modes in high-resolution Doppler data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

1.Evolution of solar and stellar dynamo theory

Authors:Paul Charbonneau, Dmitry Sokoloff

Abstract: In this paper, written as a general historical and technical introduction to the various review papers collected in the special issue ``Solar and Stellar Dynamo: A New Era'', we review the evolution and current state of dynamo theory and modelling, with emphasis on the solar dynamo. Starting with a historical survey, we then focus on a set of ``tension points'' that are still left unresolved despite the remarkable progress of the past century. In our discussion of these tension points we touch upon the physical well-posedness of mean-field electrodynamics; constraints imposed by magnetic helicity conservation; the troublesome role of differential rotation; meridional flows and flux transpost dynamos; competing inductive mechanisms and Babcock-Leighton dynamos; the ambiguous precursor properties of the solar dipole; cycle amplitude regulation and fluctuation through nonlinear backreaction and stochastic forcing, including Grand Minima; and the promises and puzzles offered by global magnethydrodynamical numerical simulations of convection and dynamo action. We close by considering the potential bridges to be constructed between solar dynamo theory and modelling, and observations of magnetic activity in late-type stars.

2.Asteroseismic investigation on KIC 10526294 to probe convective core overshoot mixing

Authors:Qian-Sheng Zhang, Li Yan, Wu Tao, Jiang Chen

Abstract: In the overshoot mixing model with an exponentially decreasing diffusion coefficient, the initial value of the diffusion coefficient plays a crucial role. According to the turbulent convective mixing model, the characteristic length of convection in the convection zone differs from that in the overshoot region, resulting in a rapid decrease of the diffusion coefficient near the convective boundary. To investigate this quick decrease, we conducted an asteroseismic study on the intermediate-mass SPB star KIC 10526294. We generated stellar models with varied input parameters, including the overshoot parameters, and compared the resulting stellar oscillation periods with observations. To mitigate the potential issue arising from large steps in the stellar parameters and stellar age, we employed a comprehensive interpolation scheme for the stellar oscillatory frequencies, considering all stellar parameters and stellar age. Our analysis revealed that the quick decreasing of the diffusion coefficient has discernible effects on the stellar oscillations and a quick decrease with 4 magnitude orders shows the best oscillatory frequencies compared with the observations. This provides weak evidence in support of the prediction made by the turbulent convective mixing model. Furthermore, we examined the residuals of the oscillation periods and discovered a potential association between abundance anomalies in the buoyancy frequency profile and the oscillation-like patterns observed in the residuals.

3.Aluminium-26 from massive binary stars III. Binary stars up to core-collapse and their impact on the early Solar System

Authors:Hannah E. Brinkman Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Graduate School of Physics, University of Szeged, Hungary Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, C. L. Doherty School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Australia, M. Pignatari Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences E. A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, United Kingdom NuGrid Collaboration, O. R. Pols {Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, M. Lugaro Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Australia ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, Budapest, Hungary

Abstract: Many of the short-lived radioactive nuclei that were present in the early Solar System can be produced in massive stars. In the first paper in this series (Brinkman et al. 2019), we focused on the production of $^{26}$Al in massive binaries. In our second paper (Brinkman et al. 2021), we considered rotating single stars, two more short-lived radioactive nuclei, $^{36}$Cl and $^{41}$Ca, and the comparison to the early Solar System data. In this work, we update our previous conclusions by further considering the impact of binary interactions. We used the MESA stellar evolution code with an extended nuclear network to compute massive (10-80 M$ _{\odot} $), binary stars at various initial periods and solar metallicity (Z=0.014), up to the onset of core collapse. The early Solar System abundances of $^{26}$Al and $^{41}$Ca can be matched self-consistently by models with initial masses $\geq$25 M$_{\odot}$, while models with initial primary masses $\geq$35 M$_{\odot}$ can also match $^{36}$Cl. Almost none of the models provide positive net yields for $^{19}$F, while for $^{22}$Ne the net yields are positive from 30 M$_{\odot}$ and higher. This leads to an increase by a factor of approximately 4 in the amount of $^{22}$Ne produced by a stellar population of binary stars, relative to single stars. Also, besides the impact on the stellar yields, our 10 M$_{\odot}$ primary star undergoing Case A mass-transfer ends its life as a white dwarf instead of as a core-collapse supernova. This demonstrates that binary interactions can also strongly impact the evolution of stars close to the supernova boundary.

4.Simulations of solar and stellar dynamos and their theoretical interpretation

Authors:Petri J. Käpylä, Matthew K. Browning, Allan Sacha Brun, Gustavo Guerrero, Jörn Warnecke

Abstract: We review the state of the art of three dimensional numerical simulations of solar and stellar dynamos. We summarize fundamental constraints of numerical modelling and the techniques to alleviate these restrictions. Brief summary of the relevant observations that the simulations seek to capture is given. We survey the current progress of simulations of solar convection and the resulting large-scale dynamo. We continue to studies that model the Sun at different ages and to studies of stars of different masses and evolutionary stages. Both simulations and observations indicate that rotation, measured by the Rossby number which is the ratio of rotation period and convective turnover time, is a key ingredient in setting the overall level and characteristics of magnetic activity. Finally, efforts to understand global 3D simulations in terms of mean-field dynamo theory are discussed.

5.New insights into the rotational evolution of near-solar age stars from the open cluster M67

Authors:D. Gruner, S. A. Barnes, J. Weingrill

Abstract: Gyrochronology allows the derivation of ages for cool main sequence stars from their observed rotation periods and masses, or a suitable proxy of the latter. It is increasingly well explored for FGK stars, but requires further measurements for older ages and K-M-type stars. Recent work has shown that the behavior of stellar spindown differs significantly from prior expectations for late-type stars. We study the 4Gyr-old benchmark open cluster M67 to explore this behavior further. We combined a Gaia DR3 sample with the Kepler K2 superstamp of Campaign 5 around M67 and created new light curves from aperture photometry. The light curves are subjected to an extensive correction process to remove instrumental systematics and trending, followed by period analysis to measure stellar rotation. We identify periodic signals in 136 light curves, 47 of which are from the rotation of effectively single main-sequence stars that span from early-G to mid-M type. These results connect well to prior work on M67 and extend it to much later spectral types. We find that the rotation periods of single stars of age 4Gyr define a tight relationship with color, ranging from spectral types F through M. The corresponding surface of rotation period against age and mass is therefore well-defined to an older age than was previously known. However, the deviations from prior expectations of the stellar spindown behavior are even more pronounced at 4Gyr. The binary cluster members do not follow the single star relationship. The majority are widely scattered below the single star sequence. Consequently, they do not seem to be suitable for gyrochronology at present.

6.How the modeling of mixing and nuclear energy production impacts the extent of convective cores

Authors:Anthony Noll, Sébastien Deheuvels

Abstract: Convective cores are the hydrogen reservoirs of main sequence stars that are more massive than around 1.2 solar masses. The characteristics of the cores have a strong impact on the evolution and structure of the star. However, such results rely on stellar evolution codes in which simplistic assumptions are often made on the physics in the core. Indeed, the mixing is commonly considered to be instantaneous and the most basic nuclear networks assume beryllium at its equilibrium abundance. Those assumptions lead to significant differences in the central composition of the elements for which the timescale to reach nuclear equilibrium is lower than the convective timescale. In this work, we show that those discrepancies impact the nuclear energy production and therefore the size of convective cores in models computed with overshoot. We find that cores computed with instantaneous mixing are up to 30% bigger than those computed with diffusive mixing. Similar differences are found when using basic nuclear networks. Additionally, we observe an extension of the duration of the main sequence due to those core size differences. We then investigate the impact of those structural differences on the seismic modeling of solar-like oscillators. Modeling two stars observed by Kepler, we find that the overshoot parameter of the best models computed with a basic nuclear network is significantly lower compared to models computed with a full nuclear network. This work is a necessary step for a better modeling of convective cores which is key to determine accurate ages in the framework of future space missions such as Plato.

7.Models for the long-term variations of solar activity

Authors:Bidya Binay Karak

Abstract: One obvious feature of the solar cycle is its variation from one cycle to another. In this article, we review the dynamo models for the long-term variations of the solar cycle. By long-term variations, we mean the cycle modulations beyond the 11-year periodicity and these include, the Gnevyshev-Ohl/Even-Odd rule, grand minima, grand maxima, Gleissberg cycle, and Suess cycles. After a brief review of the observed data, we present the dynamo models for the solar cycle. By carefully analyzing the dynamo models and the observed data, we identify the following broad causes for the modulation: (i) magnetic feedback on the flow, (ii) stochastic forcing, and (iii) time delays in various processes of the dynamo. To demonstrate each of these causes, we present the results from some illustrative models for the cycle modulations and discuss their strengths and weakness. We also discuss a few critical issues and their current trends. The article ends with a discussion of our current state of ignorance about comparing detailed features of the magnetic cycle and the large-scale velocity from the dynamo models with robust observations.

8.High-precision broadband linear polarimetry of early-type binaries IV. Binary system of DH Cephei in the open cluster of NGC 7380

Authors:Yasir Abdul Qadir, Andrei V. Berdyugin, Vilppu Piirola, Takeshi Sakanoi, Masato Kagitani

Abstract: DH~Cephei is a well known massive O+O-type binary system on the northern sky, residing in the young open cluster NGC~7380. Our high-precision multi-band polarimetry has clearly revealed that variations of linear polarizations in this system are synchronous with the phase of the orbital period. We have used the observed variations of Stokes parameters $q$ and $u$ to derive the orbital inclination $i$, orientation $\Omega$, and the direction of rotation. In order to determine the contribution from interstellar polarization, we have carried out new observations of polarization of field stars with precisely measured parallaxes. The variations of Stokes parameters in all three $B$, $V$, and $R$ passbands clearly exhibit an unambiguous periodic signal at 1.055 d with the amplitude of variations $\sim$$0.2\%$ which corresponds to half of known orbital period of 2.11 d. This type of polarization variability is expected for a binary system with light scattering material distributed symmetrically with respect to the orbital plane. Even though most of the observed polarization ($\sim$2$\%$) is of interstellar origin, about one third of it is due to the intrinsic component. In addition to the regular polarization variability, there is a non-periodic component, strongest in the $B$ passband. We obtained in the $V$ passband our most reliable values for the orbital inclination $i = 46^{\circ}+11^{\circ}/-46^{\circ}$ and the orientation of the orbit on the sky $\Omega = 105^{\circ} \pm 55^{\circ}$, with 1$\sigma$ confidence intervals. The direction of the binary system rotation on the plane of the sky is clockwise.

1.The star in RNO 54 -- a post-FUor with short faint jet?

Authors:T. Yu. Magakian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, NAS RA, T. A. Movsessian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, NAS RA, H. R. Andreasyan Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, NAS RA, A. V. Moiseev Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS, R. I. Uklein Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS

Abstract: The aim of the present study was the spectral analysis of an unusual pre-main-sequence star in the cometary nebula RNO 54, which was suspected by several researchers as a FUori-like object. We performed long-slit spectroscopy of the star on the 6-m telescope with the SCORPIO-2 multi-mode focal reducer. We discover a short ($\sim4$ arcsec or $\sim6000$ AU) and faint emission shock-excited jet from this star, probably oriented toward the long axis of the nebular ellipse. The spectral type of the star is estimated as G0-2 II; the split of absorption Li I line which is a typical sign indicating the FUori-like spectrum, is confirmed. The analysis of the available data shows virtual absence of the photometric variability, for at least the last 20 years. The lower limit of the bolometric luminosity of the star is estimated as 300 Lsun. Our study supports the classification of RNO 54 star as a FUor-like object in the long-after-outburst stage.

2.Effects of optimisation parameters on data-driven magnetofrictional modelling of active regions

Authors:A. Kumari, D. J. Price, F. Daei, J. Pomoell, E. K. J. Kilpua

Abstract: Data-driven time-dependent magnetofrictional modelling (TMFM) of active region magnetic fields has been proven to be a useful tool to study the corona. The input to the model is the photospheric electric field that is inverted from a time series of the photospheric magnetic field. Constraining the complete electric field, that is, including the non-inductive component, is critical for capturing the eruption dynamics. We present a detailed study of the effects of optimisation of the non-inductive electric field on the TMFM of AR12473. We aim to study the effects of varying the non-inductive electric field on the data-driven coronal simulations, for two alternative parametrisations. By varying parameters controlling the strength of the non-inductive electric field, we wish to explore the changes in flux rope formation and their early evolution and other parameters, for instance, axial flux and magnetic field magnitude.The non-inductive electric field component in the photosphere is critical for energising and introducing twist to the coronal magnetic field, thereby allowing unstable configurations to be formed. We estimated this component using an approach based on optimising the injection of magnetic energy. However, the flux rope formation, evolution and eruption time varies depending on the values of the optimisation parameters. The flux rope is formed and has overall similar evolution and properties with a large range of non-inductive electric fields needed to determine the non-inductive electric field component that is critical for energising and introducing twist to the coronal magnetic field. This study shows that irrespective of non-inductive electric field values, flux ropes are formed and erupted, which indicates that data-driven TMFM can be used to estimate flux rope properties early in their evolution without employing a lengthy optimisation process.

3.Physical and kinematical characteristics of Wolf-Rayet central stars and their host planetary nebulae

Authors:Zainab Awad, Alaa Ali

Abstract: We addressed the physical and kinematical properties of Wolf -- Rayet [WR] central stars (CSs) and their hosting planetary nebulae (PNe). The studied sample comprises all [WR] CSs that are currently known. The analysis is based on recent observations of the parallax, proper motion, and color index of [WR] CSs from the Gaia space mission's early third release (eDR3) catalog, as well as common nebular characteristics. The results revealed an evolutionary sequence, in terms of decreasing T$_{\text{eff}}$, from the early hot [WO 1] to the late cold [WC 12] stars. This evolutionary sequence extends beyond [WR] CS temperature and luminosity to additional CS and nebular characteristics. The statistical analysis showed that the mean final stellar mass and evolutionary age of the [WR] CS sample are 0.595 $\pm$ 0.13\,M$_{\odot}$ and 9449 $\pm$ 2437\,yr, respectively, with a mean nebular dynamical age of 7270 $\pm$ 1380\,yr. In addition, we recognized that the color of the majority ($\sim$ 85\%) of [WR] CSs tends to be red rather than their genuine blue color. The analysis showed that two-thirds of the apparent red color of most [WR]s is attributed to the interstellar extinction whereas the other one-third is due to the PN self-extinction effect.

4.Spectroscopic survey of faint planetary-nebula nuclei. II. The subdwarf O central star of Fr 2-30

Authors:Howard E. Bond Penn State Univ Space Telescope Science Institute, Klaus Werner IAAT, Tuebingen, Germany, Gregory R. Zeimann McDonald Observatory, Jonathan Talbot Stark Bayou Observatory

Abstract: Fr 2-30 = PN? G126.8-15.5 is a faint emission nebula, hosting a 14th-mag central star that we identify here for the first time. Deep Halpha and [O III] images reveal a roughly elliptical nebula with dimensions of at least 22'x14', fading into a surrounding network of even fainter emission. Optical spectrograms of the central star show it to have a subdwarf O spectral type, with a Gaia parallax distance of 890 pc. A model-atmosphere analysis gives parameters of Teff = 60,000 K, log g = 6.0, and a low helium content of nHe/nH = 0.0017. The location of the central star in the log g -- Teff plane is inconsistent with a post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary status. Two alternatives are that it is a helium-burning post-extreme-horizontal-branch object, or a hydrogen-burning post-red-giant-branch star. In either case the evolutionary ages are so long that a detectable planetary nebula (PN) should not be present. We find evidence for a variable radial velocity (RV), suggesting that the star is a close binary. However, there are no photometric variations, and the spectral-energy distribution rules out a companion earlier than M2 V. The RVs of the star and surrounding nebula are discordant, and the nebula lacks typical PN morphology. We suggest that Fr 2-30 is a "PN mimic" -- the result of a chance encounter between the hot sdO star and an interstellar cloud. However, we note the puzzling fact that there are several nuclei of genuine PNe that are known to be in evolutionary states similar to that of the Fr 2-30 central star.

5.Discovery of two rotational modulation periods from a young hierarchical triple system

Authors:Yu-Tao Chen, Hai-Jun Tian, Min Fang, Xiao-Xiong Zuo, Sarah A. Bird, Di Liu, Xin-Yu Zhu, Peng Zhang, Gao-Chao Liu, Sheng Cui

Abstract: GW~Ori is a young hierarchical triple system located in $\lambda$ Orionis, consisting of a binary (GW~Ori\,A and B), a tertiary star (GW~Ori\,C) and a rare circumtriple disk. Due to the limited data with poor accuracy, several short-period signals were detected in this system, but the values from different studies are not fully consistent. As one of the most successful transiting surveys, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to make a comprehensive periodic analysis of GW~Ori. In this work we discover two significant modulation signals by analyzing the light curves of GW~Ori's four observations from TESS, i.e., 3.02 $\pm$ 0.15\,d and 1.92 $\pm$ 0.06\,d, which are very likely to be the rotational periods caused by starspot modulation on the primary and secondary components, respectively. We calculate the inclinations of GW~Ori\,A and B according to the two rotational periods. The results suggest that the rotational plane of GW~Ori\,A and B and the orbital plane of the binary are almost coplanar. We also discuss the aperiodic features in the light curves; these may be related to unstable accretion. The light curves of GW~Ori also include a third (possible) modulation signal with a period of 2.51$\pm$0.09\,d, but the third is neither quite stable nor statistically significant.

6.Simulations of dynamo action in slowly rotating M dwarfs: Dependence on dimensionless parameters

Authors:C. A. Ortiz-Rodríguez, P. J. Käpylä, F. H. Navarrete, D. R. G Schleicher, R. E. Mennickent, J. P. Hidalgo, B. Toro

Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore the magnetic and flow properties of fully convective M dwarfs as a function of rotation period Prot and magnetic Reynolds ReM and Prandlt numbers PrM. We performed three-dimensional simulations of fully convective stars using a star-in-a-box setup. This setup allows global dynamo simulations in a sphere embedded in a Cartesian cube. The equations of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics were solved with the Pencil Code. We used the stellar parameters of an M5 dwarf with 0.21M_odot at three rotation rates corresponding to rotation periods (Prot): 43, 61 and 90 days, and varied the magnetic Prandtl number in the range from 0.1 to 10. We found systematic differences in the behaviour of the large-scale magnetic field as functions of rotation and PrM. For the simulations with Prot = 43 days and PrM <= 2, we found cyclic large-scale magnetic fields. For PrM > 2 the cycles vanish and field shows irregular reversals. In simulations with Prot = 61 days for PrM <= 2 the cycles are less clear and the reversal are less periodic. In the higher-PrM cases, the axisymmetric mean field shows irregular variations. For the slowest rotation case with Prot = 90 days, the field has an important dipolar component for PrM <= 5. For the highest PrM the large-scale magnetic field is predominantly irregular at mid-latitudes, with quasi-stationary fields near the poles. For the simulations with cycles, the cycle period length slightly increases with increasing ReM.

1.Exploring the effects of numerical methods and slope limiters in heliospheric modeling

Authors:Tinatin Baratashvili, Christine Verbeke, Rony Keppens, Stefaan Poedts

Abstract: Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions close to the solar surface, where plasma is ejected outwards into space at large speeds. When directed towards Earth, they interfere with Earth's magnetic fields and cause strong geo-effective storms. In order to mitigate the potential damage, forecasting tools are implemented. Recently, a novel heliospheric modelling tool, Icarus, has been implemented, which exploits the open-source framework MPI-AMRVAC as its core MHD solver. This new model efficiently performs 3D MHD simulations of the solar wind and the evolution of interplanetary CMEs with the help of advanced techniques, such as adaptive mesh refinement and gradual radial grid stretching. The numerical methods applied in the simulations can have significant effects on the simulation results and on the efficiency of the model. In this study, the effect of different combinations of numerical schemes and slope limiters, for reconstructing edge-based variabes used in fluxes, is considered. We explore frequently exploited combinations from the available numerical schemes in MPI-AMRVAC: TVDLF, HLL and HLLC along with the slope limiters 'woodward', 'minmod', 'vanleer', and 'koren'. For analysis purposes, we selected one particular solar wind configuration and studied the influence on variables at 1 AU in the equatorial plane. The goal is to find the optimal combination to produce accurate results fast and in a robust way so that the model can be reliable for day-to-day use by space weather scientists. As a conclusion, the best result assessed with these two criteria is the combination of the TVDLF scheme with the 'woodward' limiter.

2.The First AGILE Solar Flare Catalog

Authors:Alessandro Ursi, Nicolò Parmiggiani, Mauro Messerotti, Alberto Pellizzoni, Carlotta Pittori, Francesco Longo, Francesco Verrecchia, Andrea Argan, Andrea Bulgarelli, Marco Tavani, Patrizio Tempesta, Fabio D'Amico

Abstract: We report the Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Immagini LEggero (AGILE) observations of solar flares, detected by the on board anticoincidence system in the 80-200 keV energy range, from 2007 May 1st to 2022 August 31st. In more than 15 yr, AGILE detected 5003 X-ray, minute-lasting transients, compatible with a solar origin. A cross-correlation of these transients with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) official solar flare database allowed to associate an intensity class (i.e., B, C, M, or X) to 3572 of them, for which we investigated the main temporal and intensity parameters. The AGILE data clearly revealed the solar activity covering the last stages of the 23rd cycle, the whole 24th cycle, and the beginning of the current 25th cycle. In order to compare our results with other space missions operating in the high-energy range, we also analyzed the public lists of solar flares reported by RHESSI and Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor. This catalog reports 1424 events not contained in the GOES official dataset, which, after statistical comparisons, are compatible with low-intensity, short-duration solar flares. Besides providing a further dataset of solar flares detected in the hard X-ray range, this study allowed to point out two main features: a longer persistence of the decay phase in the high-energy regime, with respect to the soft X-rays, and a tendency of the flare maximum to be reached earlier in the soft X-rays with respect to the hard X-rays. Both these aspects support a two-phase acceleration mechanism of electrons in the solar atmosphere.

3.Complete X-ray census of Mdwarfs in the solar Neighborhood I. GJ 745 AB: Coronal-hole Stars in the 10 pc Sample

Authors:M. Caramazza, B. Stelzer, E. Magaudda, St. Raetz, M. Güdel, S. Orlando, K. Poppenhäger

Abstract: We have embarked in a systematic study of the X-ray emission in a volume-limited sample of M dwarf stars, in order to explore the full range of activity levels present in their coronae and, thus, to understand the conditions in their outer atmospheres and their possible impact on the circumstellar environment. We identify in a recent catalog of the Gaia objects within 10 pc from the Sun all the stars with spectral type between M0 and M4, and search systematically for X-ray measurements of this sample. To this end, we use both archival data (from ROSAT, XMM-Newton, and from the ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA) onboard the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission) and our own dedicated XMM-Newton observations. To make inferences on the properties of the M dwarf corona we compare the range of their observed X-ray emission levels to the flux radiated by the Sun from different types of magnetic structures: coronal holes, background corona, active regions and cores of active regions. At the current state of our project, with more than 90\% of the 10pc M dwarf sample observed in X-rays, only GJ 745 A has no detection. With an upper limit luminosity of log Lx [erg/s] < 25.4 and an X-ray surface flux of log FX,SURF [erg/cm^2/s] < 3.6 GJ 745 A defines the lower boundary of the X-ray emission level of M dwarfs. Together with its companion GJ 745 B, GJ 745 A it is the only star in this volume-complete sample located in the range of FX,SURF that corresponds to the faintest solar coronal structures, the coronal holes. The ultra-low X-ray emission level of GJ 745 B (log Lx [erg/s] = 25.6 and log FX,SURF [erg/cm^2/s] = 3.8) is entirely attributed to flaring activity, indicating that, while its corona is dominated by coronal holes, at least one magnetically active structure is present and determines the total X-ray brightness and the coronal temperature of the star.

4.An Atypical Plateau-like Extreme-ultraviolet Late-phase Solar Flare Driven by the Non-radial Eruption of a Magnetic Flux Rope

Authors:Yuehong Chen, Yu Dai, Mingde Ding

Abstract: Recent observations in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths reveal an EUV late phase in some solar flares, which is characterized by a second peak in the warm coronal emissions (about 3 MK) occurring several tens of minutes to a few hours after the corresponding main flare peak. We aim to clarify the physical origin of an atypical plateau-like EUV late phase in an X1.8-class solar flare occurring on 2011 September 7 from active region (AR) 11283. We first characterize the plateau-like late phase using EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) full-disk integrated irradiance observations and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) spatially-resolved imaging observations on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Then we perform a nonlinear force-free-field (NLFFF) extrapolation, from which a filament-hosting magnetic flux rope (MFR) is revealed. The eruption of the MFR is tracked both in the plane of the sky (POS) and along the line of sight (LOS) through visual inspection and spectral fitting, respectively. Finally, we carry out differential emission measure (DEM) analysis to explore the thermodynamics of the late-phase loops. The MFR shows a non-radial eruption from a fan-spine magnetic structure. The eruption of the MFR and its interaction with overlying arcades invoke multiple magnetic reconnections, which are responsible for the production of different groups of late-phase loops. Afterwards, the late-phase loops enter a long-lasting cooling stage, appearing sequentially in AIA passbands of decreasing response temperatures. Due to their different lengths, the different groups of late-phase loops cool down at different cooling rates, which makes their warm coronal emission peaks temporally separated from each other. Combing the emissions from all late-phase loops together, an elongated plateau-like late phase is formed.

5.Study of the long-term $BVR_{c}I_{c}$ photometric variability of eight PMS stars in the young open cluster Trumpler 37

Authors:Sunay Ibryamov, Gabriela Zidarova, Evgeni Semkov, Stoyanka Peneva

Abstract: This paper reports results from our long-term $BV(RI)_{c}$ photometric CCD observations of eight pre-main-sequence stars collected from June 2008 to October 2022. These stars are located in the young open cluster Trumpler 37, in the field of GM Cephei. The observational data indicate that all stars from our study exhibit variability in all-optical passbands, typical for young stars. In this paper, we describe and discuss the photometric behavior of the stars and the possible reasons for their variability. For two of the objects, we identified periodicity in their light variation.

6.Beyond the disk: EUV coronagraphic observations of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on board Solar Orbiter

Authors:Auchère, F., Berghmans, D., Dumesnil, C., Halain, J. -P., Mercier, R., Rochus, P., Delmotte, F., François, S., Hermans, A., Hervier, V., Kraaikamp, E., Meltchakov, E., Morinaud, G., Philippon, A., Smith, P. J., Stegen, K., Verbeeck, C., Zhang, X. Y., Andretta, V., Abbo, L., Buchlin, E., Frassati, F., Gissot, S., Gyo, M., Harra, L., Jerse, G., Landini, F., Mierla, M., Nicula, B., Parenti, S., Renotte, E., Romoli, M., Russano, G., Sasso, C., Schühle, U., Schmutz, W., Soubrié, E., Susino, R., Teriaca, L., West, M., Zhukov, A. N

Abstract: Most observations of the solar corona beyond 2 Rs consist of broadband visible light imagery from coronagraphs. The associated diagnostics mainly consist of kinematics and derivations of the electron number density. While the measurement of the properties of emission lines can provide crucial additional diagnostics of the coronal plasma (temperatures, velocities, abundances, etc.), these observations are comparatively rare. In visible wavelengths, observations at these heights are limited to total eclipses. In the VUV range, very few additional observations have been achieved since the pioneering results of UVCS. One of the objectives of the Full Sun Imager (FSI) channel of the EUI telescope on board the Solar Orbiter mission has been to provide very wide field-of-view EUV diagnostics of the morphology and dynamics of the solar atmosphere in temperature regimes that are typical of the lower transition region and of the corona. FSI carries out observations in two narrowbands of the EUV spectrum centered on 17.4 nm and 30.4 nm that are dominated, respectively, by lines of Fe IX/X (formed in the corona around 1 MK) and by the resonance line of He II (formed around 80 kK in the lower transition region). Unlike previous EUV imagers, FSI includes a moveable occulting disk that can be inserted in the optical path to reduce the amount of instrumental stray light to a minimum. FSI detects signals at 17.4 nm up to the edge of its FOV (7~Rs), which is about twice further than was previously possible. Comparisons with observations by the LASCO and Metis coronagraphs confirm the presence of morphological similarities and differences between the broadband visible light and EUV emissions, as documented on the basis of prior eclipse and space-based observations. The very-wide-field observations of FSI are paving the way for future dedicated instruments.

1.Long-lasting high state of the high-field polar AR UMa

Authors:Taichi Kato Kyoto U

Abstract: Using ASAS-SN Sky Patrol Photometic Database and Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) data, I found that the high-field polar AR UMa entered a long-lasting high state in 2022 October. This object is renowned for its small duty cycle, and short-lived high states have only been occasionally seen since the discovery. It appears that the present long-lasting high state is the first recorded one at least in the last 30 years and probably even more. Before entering the current long-lasting high state, this object showed three short-lived high states, which might have been precursors to the current state. Before these short-lived high states, the object had been in a low state for 8 years and probably more. I refined the orbital period to be 0.08050066(1) d. The object is still bright and current phenomenon provides a unique opportunity to study accretion processes onto a strongly magnetized white dwarf and to study the mechanism of maintaining the long-lasting high state.

2.3D stellar evolution: hydrodynamic simulations of a complete burning phase in a massive star

Authors:F. Rizzuti, R. Hirschi, W. D. Arnett, C. Georgy, C. Meakin, A. StJ. Murphy, T. Rauscher, V. Varma

Abstract: Our knowledge of stellar evolution is driven by one-dimensional (1D) simulations. 1D models, however, are severely limited by uncertainties on the exact behaviour of many multi-dimensional phenomena occurring inside stars, affecting their structure and evolution. Recent advances in computing resources have allowed small sections of a star to be reproduced with multi-D hydrodynamic models, with an unprecedented degree of detail and realism. In this work, we present a set of 3D simulations of a convective neon-burning shell in a 20 M$_\odot$ star run for the first time continuously from its early development through to complete fuel exhaustion, using unaltered input conditions from a 321D-guided 1D stellar model. These simulations help answer some open questions in stellar physics. In particular, they show that convective regions do not grow indefinitely due to entrainment of fresh material, but fuel consumption prevails over entrainment, so when fuel is exhausted convection also starts decaying. Our results show convergence between the multi-D simulations and the new 321D-guided 1D model, concerning the amount of convective boundary mixing to include in stellar models. The size of the convective zones in a star strongly affects its structure and evolution, thus revising their modelling in 1D will have important implications for the life and fate of stars. This will thus affect theoretical predictions related to nucleosynthesis, supernova explosions and compact remnants.

3.MoBiDICT: new 3D static models of close, synchronized binaries in hydrostatic equilibrium

Authors:L. Fellay, M. -A. Dupret

Abstract: In close binary systems, tidal interactions and rotational effects can strongly influence stellar evolution as a result of mass-transfer, common envelope phases, ... All these aspects can only be treated following improvements of theoretical models, taking into account the breaking of spherical symmetry occurring in close binaries. Current models of binary stars are relying either on the so-called "Roche model" or the perturbative approach that in each case results on several assumptions concerning the gravitational, tidal and centrifugal potentials.We developed a new non-perturbative method to compute precise structural deformation of binary system in three dimensions that is valid even in the most distorted cases. We then compared our new method to the Roche and perturbative models for different orbital separations and binary components. We found that in the most distorted cases both Roche and perturbative models are significantly underestimating the deformation of binaries. The effective gravity and the overall structural deformations are also noticeably different in the most distorted cases leading, for the interpretation of observations, to modifications of the usual gravity darkening generally obtained through the Roche model. Moreover we found that the dipolar term of the gravitational potential, usually neglected by the perturbative theory, has the same order of magnitude than the leading tidal term in the most distorted cases. We developed a new method that is capable of precisely computing the deformations of binary system composed of any type of stars, even compact objects. For all stars studied the differences in deformation with respect to the Roche or perturbative models are significant in the most distorted cases impacting both the interpretation of observations and the theoretical structural depiction of these distorted bodies.

4.The Z Camelopardalis-type star AY Piscium: stellar and accretion disk parameters

Authors:Jan Kára, Sergey Zharikov, Marek Wolf, Ainash Amantayeva, Gulnur Subebekova, Serik Khokhlov, Aldiyar Agishev, Jaroslav Merc

Abstract: We present a new study of the Z~Cam-type eclipsing cataclysmic variable AY~Piscium with the aim of determining the fundamental parameters of the system and the structure of the accretion flow therein. We use time-resolved photometric observations supplemented by spectroscopy in the standstill, to which we applied our light-curve modeling techniques and the Doppler tomography method, to update system parameters. We found that the system has a massive white dwarf $M_{\rm WD}=0.90(4)$ \ms, a mass ratio $q=0.50(3)$, and the effective temperature of a secondary $T_2 = 4100(50)$~K. The system inclination is $i=74.^{\circ}8(7)$. The orbital period of the system $P_{\mathrm{orb}}=0.217320523(8)\;\mathrm{d}$ is continuously increasing with the rate of $\dot{P}_{\mathrm{orb}} = +7.6(5)\times10^{-9}$ d year$^{-1}$. The mass transfer rate varies between 2.4$\times$10$^{-10}$ M$_\odot$ year$^{-1}$ in quiescence up to 1.36$\times$10$^{-8}$ M$_\odot$ year$^{-1}$ in outburst. The accretion disk transitions from the cooler, flared, steady-state disk to a warmer state with a practically constant and relatively high disk height. The mass transfer rate is about 1.6$\times$10$^{-9}$ M$_\odot$ year$^{-1}$ in the standstill. The Balmer emission lines show a multi-component structure similar to that observed in long-orbital-period nova-like systems. Out of standstill, the system exhibits outburst bimodality, with long outbursts being more prominent. We conclude that the Balmer emission lines in AY~Psc are formed by the combination of radiation from the irradiated surface of the secondary, from the outflow zone, and from winds originating in the bright spot and the disk's inner part.

5.A partially stripped massive star in a Be binary at low metallicity: A missing link towards Be X-ray binaries and double neutron star mergers

Authors:V. Ramachandran, J. Klencki, A. A. C. Sander, D. Pauli, T. Shenar, L. M. Oskinova, W. -R. Hamann

Abstract: Standard binary evolutionary models predict a significant population of core helium-burning stars that lost their hydrogen-rich envelope after mass transfer via Roche-lobe overflow. However, there is a scarcity of observations of such stripped stars in the intermediate mass regime (~1.5 - 8$ M_{\odot}$), which are thought to be prominent progenitors of SN Ib/c. Especially at low metallicity, a significant fraction of these stars is expected to be only partially stripped, retaining a significant amount of hydrogen on their surfaces. For the first time, we discovered a partially stripped massive star in a binary with a Be-type companion located in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using a detailed spectroscopic analysis. The stripped-star nature of the primary is revealed by the extreme CNO abundance pattern and very high luminosity-to-mass ratio, which suggest that the primary is likely shell-hydrogen burning. Our target SMCSGS-FS 69 is the most luminous and most massive system among the known stripped star + Be binaries, with Mstripped ~3$ M_{\odot}$ and MBe ~17$ M_{\odot}$. Binary evolutionary tracks suggest an initial mass of Mini $\gtrsim 12 M_{\odot}$ for the stripped star and predict it to be in a transition phase towards a hot compact He star, which will eventually produce a stripped-envelope supernova. Our target marks the first representative of a so-far missing evolutionary stage in the formation pathway of Be X-ray binaries and double neutron star mergers.

6.Evolution of the Radial Size and Expansion of Coronal Mass Ejections Investigated by Combining Remote and In-Situ Observations

Authors:Bin Zhuang, Noé Lugaz, Nada Al-Haddad, Réka M. Winslow, Camilla Scolini, Charles J. Farrugia, Antoinette B. Galvin

Abstract: A fundamental property of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is their radial expansion, which determines the increase in the CME radial size and the decrease in the CME magnetic field strength as the CME propagates. CME radial expansion can be investigated either by using remote observations or by in-situ measurements based on multiple spacecraft in radial conjunction. However, there have been only few case studies combining both remote and in-situ observations. It is therefore unknown if the radial expansion estimated remotely in the corona is consistent with that estimated locally in the heliosphere. To address this question, we first select 22 CME events between the years 2010 and 2013, which were well observed by coronagraphs and by two or three spacecraft in radial conjunction. We use the graduated cylindrical shell model to estimate the radial size, radial expansion speed, and a measure of the dimensionless expansion parameter of CMEs in the corona. The same parameters and two additional measures of the radial-size increase and magnetic-field-strength decrease with heliocentric distance of CMEs based on in-situ measurements are also calculated. For most of the events, the CME radial size estimated by remote observations is inconsistent with the in-situ estimates. We further statistically analyze the correlations of these expansion parameters estimated using remote and in-situ observations, and discuss the potential reasons for the inconsistencies and their implications for the CME space weather forecasting.

1.Revisiting the orbital motion of WR 138

Authors:Gregor Rauw Liege University, Belgium, Yaël Nazé Liege University, Belgium FNRS, Belgium, Eric Gosset Liege University, Belgium FNRS, Belgium

Abstract: The optical spectrum of WR 138 exhibits emission lines typical of a WN6o star and absorption lines from a rapidly-rotating OB star. Using a large set of spectroscopic data, we establish a new orbital solution of the WN6o star based on the radial velocities of highly-ionized nitrogen lines. We show that the WN6o star moves on a 4.3 yr orbit with a comparatively low eccentricity of 0.16. The radial velocities of the OB star display considerable scatter. Our best estimates of the velocities of He I absorption lines result in a mass-ratio of $m_{\rm WN6o}/m_{\rm OB} = 0.53 \pm 0.09$. We disentangle the spectra of the two stars and derive a projected rotational velocity of $v\,\sin{i} = 350 \pm 10$ km s$^{-1}$ for the OB star. Our best orbital parameters, combined with the Gaia parallax of WR 138, are at odds with a previous interferometric detection of the companion, suggesting that there is either a bias in this detection or that WR 138 is actually a triple system.

2.[C I] and [C II] emission in the circumstellar envelope of IRC +10216 I. Observational data and NLTE modeling of the [C I] emission

Authors:Manali Jeste, Helmut Wiesemeyer, Karl M. Menten, Friedrich Wyrowski

Abstract: Aims: The study at hand aims to describe the distribution of atomic carbon, C0, throughout the envelope, in support of an improved understanding of its photo-chemistry. Additionally, we also briefly discuss the observation of [CII] emission towards the star. Methods: We obtain spectra of the [CI] $\mathrm{^3P_1} \rightarrow \mathrm{^3P_0}$ fine structure line at projected distances of up to 78" from the star. The line profiles are characterized by both direct fitting of Gaussian components, and by modeling the observed line of the [CI] triplet. We also report the detection of the $\mathrm{^2P_{3/2}} \rightarrow \mathrm{^2P_{1/2}}$ line from the C+ fine structure singlet at the central position and at 32" from the star. Results: The overall picture of the [CI] emission from IRC +10216 agrees with more limited previous studies. The satisfying agreement between the observed and modeled line profiles, with emission at the systemic velocity appearing beyond one beam from the star, rules out that the C0 is located in a thin shell. Given that the bond energy of CO falls only 0.1 eV below the ionization threshold of C0, the absence of observable [CII] emission from sightlines beyond a projected distance of $\sim 10^{17}$ cm from the star (adopting a distance of 130 pc) does not contradict a scenario where the bulk of C0 is located between that of CO and C+, as expected for an external FUV radiation field. This conjecture is also corroborated by a model in which the C0 shell is located farther outside, failing to reproduce the [CI] line profiles at intermediate sky-plane distances from the star. Comparing a photo-chemical model adopted from literature with the simplifying assumption of a constant C0 abundance with respect to the $\mathrm{H}_2$ density, we constrain the inner boundary of the [CI] emitting shell, located at $\sim 10^{16}$ cm from the star.

3.Impact of Anomalous Active Regions on the Large-scale Magnetic Field of the Sun

Authors:Shaonwita Pal, Prantika Bhowmik, Sushant S. Mahajan, Dibyendu Nandy

Abstract: One of the major sources of perturbation in the solar cycle amplitude is believed to be the emergence of anomalous active regions which do not obey Hale's polarity law and Joy's law of tilt angles. Anomalous regions containing high magnetic flux that disproportionately impact the polar field are sometimes referred to as "rogue regions". In this study -- utilizing a surface flux transport model -- we analyze the large-scale dipole moment build-up due to the emergence of anomalous active regions on the solar surface. Although these active regions comprise a small fraction of the total sunspot number, they can substantially influence the magnetic dipole moment build-up and subsequent solar cycle amplitude. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the impact of "Anti-Joy" regions on the solar cycle is similar to those of "Anti-Hale" regions. We also find that the emergence time, emergence latitude, relative number and flux distribution of anomalous regions influence the large-scale magnetic field dynamics in diverse ways. We establish that the results of our numerical study are consistent with the algebraic (analytic) approach to explaining the Sun's dipole moment evolution. Our results are relevant for understanding how anomalous active regions modulate the Sun's large-scale dipole moment build-up and its reversal timing within the framework of the Babcock-Leighton dynamo mechanism -- now believed to be the primary source of solar cycle variations.

4.Eta Carinae: the dissipating occulter is an extended structure

Authors:Theodore R. Gull, Henrik Hartman, Mairan Teodoro, D. John Hillier, Michael F. Corcoran, Augusto Damineli, Kenji Hamaguchi, Thomas Madura, Anthony F. J. Moffat, Patrick Morris, Noel D. Richardson, Ian R. Stevens, Gerd Weigelt

Abstract: Previous STIS long-slit observations of Eta Carinae identified numerous absorption features in both the stellar spectrum, and in the adjacent nebular spectra, along our line-of-sight. The absorption features became temporarily stronger when the ionizing FUV radiation field was reduced by the periastron passage of the secondary star. Subsequently, dissipation of a dusty structure in our LOS has led to a long-term increase in the apparent magnitude of \ec, an increase in the ionizing UV radiation, and the disappearance of absorptions from multiple velocity-separated shells extending across the foreground Homunculus lobe. We use HST/STIS spectro-images, coupled with published infrared and radio observations, to locate this intervening dusty structure. Velocity and spatial information indicate the occulter is ~1000 au in front of Eta Carinae. The Homunculus is a transient structure composed of dusty, partially-ionized ejecta that eventually will disappear due to the relentless rain of ionizing radiation and wind from the current binary system along with dissipation and mixing with the ISM. This evolving complex continues to provide an astrophysical laboratory that changes on human timescales.

5.Winking filaments due to cyclic evaporation-condensation

Authors:Yuhao Zhou, Xiaohong Li, Jie Hong, Rony Keppens

Abstract: Observations have shown that some filaments appear and disappear in the H$\alpha$ line wing images periodically. There have been no attempts to model these "winking filaments" thus far. The evaporation--condensation mechanism is widely used to explain the formation of solar filaments. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, how multi-dimensional evaporation--condensation in an arcade setup invariably causes a stretching of the magnetic topology. We aim to check whether this magnetic stretching during cyclic evaporation--condensation could reproduce a winking filament. We used our open-source code MPI-AMRVAC to carry out 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulations based on a quadrupolar configuration. A periodic localized heating, which modulates the evaporation--condensation process, was imposed before, during, and after the formation of the filament. Synthetic H$\alpha$ and 304 \r{A}, images were produced to compare the results with observations. For the first time, we noticed the winking filament phenomenon in a simulation of the formation of on-disk solar filaments, which was in good agreement with observations. Typically, the period of the winking is different from the period of the impulsive heating. A forced oscillator model explains this difference and fits the results well. A parameter survey is also done to look into details of the magnetic stretching phenomenon. We found that the stronger the heating or the higher the layer where the heating occurs, the more significant the winking effect appears.

1.A type II solar radio burst without a coronal mass ejection

Authors:D. E. Morosan, J. Pomoell, A. Kumari, E. K. J. Kilpua, R. Vainio

Abstract: The Sun produces the most powerful explosions in the solar system, solar flares, that can also be accompanied by large eruptions of magnetised plasma, coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These processes can accelerate electron beams up to relativistic energies through magnetic reconnection processes during solar flares and CME-driven shocks. Energetic electron beams can in turn generate radio bursts through the plasma emission mechanism. CME shocks, in particular, are usually associated with type II solar radio bursts. However, on a few occasions, type II bursts have been reported to occur either in the absence of CMEs or shown to be more likely related with the flaring process. It is currently an open question how a shock generating type II bursts forms without the occurrence of a CME eruption. Here, we aim to determine the physical mechanism responsible for a type II burst which occurs in the absence a CME. By using radio imaging from the Nan{\c c}ay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we investigate the origin of a type II radio burst that appears to have no temporal association with a white-light CME. We identify a typical type II radio burst with band-split structure that is associated with a C-class solar flare. The type II burst source is located above the flaring active region and ahead of disturbed coronal loops observed in extreme ultraviolet images. The type II is also preceded by type III radio bursts, some of which are in fact J-bursts indicating that accelerated electron beams do not all escape along open field lines. The type II sources show single-frequency movement towards the flaring active region. The type II is located ahead of a faint extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) front propagating through the corona.

2.Properties and Asteroseismological analysis of a new ZZ ceti discovered by TMTS

Authors:Jincheng Guo, Yanhui Chen, Xiaofeng Wang, Jie Lin, Gaobo Xi, Jun Mo, Alexei V. Filippenko, Thomas Brink, Xiao-Yu Ma, Weikai Zong, Yong Yang, Jingkun Zhao, Xiangyun Zeng, Zhihao Chen, Ali Esamdin, Fangzhou Guo, Abdusamatjan Iskandar, Xiaojun Jiang, Wenxiong Li, Cheng Liu, Jianrong Shi, Xuan Song, Letian Wang, Danfeng Xiang, Shengyu Yan, Jicheng Zhang, Yonghui Yang

Abstract: Tsinghua university-Ma Huateng Telescope for Survey (TMTS) aims to discover rapidly evolving transients by monitoring the northern sky. The TMTS catalog is cross-matched with the white dwarf (WD) catalog of Gaia EDR3, and light curves of more than a thousand WD candidates are obtained so far. Among them, the WD TMTS J23450729+5813146 (hereafter J2345) is one interesting common source. Based on the light curves from the TMTS and follow-up photometric observations, periods of 967.113 s, 973.734 s, 881.525 s, 843.458 s, 806.916 s and 678.273 s are identified. In addition, the TESS observations suggest a 3.39 h period but this can be attributed to the rotation of a comoving M dwarf located within 3". The spectroscopic observation indicates that this WD is DA type with Teff = 11778+/-617K,log g = 8.38+/-0.31,mass=0.84+/-0.20Msun and age=0.704+/-0.377 Gyrs. Asteroseismological analysis reveals a global best-fit solution of Teff =12110+/-10K and mass=0.760+/-0.005Msun,consistent with the spectral fitting results, and Oxygen and Carbon abundances in the core center are 0.73 and 0.27, respectively. The distance derived from the intrinsic luminosity given by asteroseismology is 93 parsec, which is in agreement with the distance of 98 parsec from Gaia DR3. Additionally, kinematic study shows that this WD is likely a thick disk star. The mass of its zero-age main-sequence mass is estimated to be 3.08 Msun and has a main-sequence plus cooling age of roughly 900 Myrs.

3.Sapaki: Galactic O3If* star possibly born in isolation

Authors:M. S. Zarricueta Plaza, A. Roman-Lopes, D. Sanmartim

Abstract: Context: The study of high-mass stars found to be isolated in the field of the Milky Way may help to probe the feasibility of the core-accretion mechanism in the case of massive star formation. The existence of truly isolated stars may efficiently probe the possibility that individual massive stars can be born in isolation. Aims: We observed WR67a (hereafter Sapaki), an O3If* star that appears to be isolated close to the center of a well-developed giant cavity that is aptly traced by 8.0 $\mu$m hot dust emission. Methods: We acquired medium-resolution ($R=4100$) and moderate signal-to-noise ($S/N = 95$ at 4500 \r{A}) spectra for Sapaki in the range of 3800-10500 \r{A} with the Magellan Echellette (MagE) at Las Campanas Observatory. We computed the line-of-sight total extinctions. Additionally, we restricted its heliocentric distance by using a range of different estimators. Moreover, we measured its radial velocity from several lines in its spectrum. Finally, we analyzed its proper motions from Gaia to examine its possible runaway status. Results: The star has been classified as having the spectral type O3If* given its resemblance to standard examples of the class. In addition, we found that Sapaki is highly obscured, reaching a line-of-sight extinction value of $A_{V} = 7.87$. We estimated the heliocentric distance to be in the range of $d = 4-7$ kpc. We also estimated its radial velocity to be $V_{r} = -34.2 \pm 15.6$ km/s. We may also discard its runaway status solely based on its 2D kinematics. Furthermore, by analyzing proper motions and parallaxes provided by Gaia, we found only one other star with compatible measurements. Conclusions: Given its apparent non-runaway status and the absence of clustering, Sapaki appears to be a solid candidate for isolated high-mass star formation in the Milky Way.

4.CN and CO Features: Key Indicators of Red Giant Evolutionary Phase in Moderate-Resolution X-Shooter Spectra

Authors:Kirsten A. Banks, Chantel Y. Y. Ho, Sarah L. Martell, Sven Buder, Dennis Stello, Sanjib Sharma, James Priest, Anaïs Gonneau, Keith Hawkins

Abstract: Data-driven analysis methods can help to infer physical properties of red giant stars where "gold-standard" asteroseismic data are not available. The study of optical and infrared spectra of red giant stars with data-driven analyses has revealed that differences in oscillation frequencies and their separations are imprinted in said spectra. This makes it possible to confidently differentiate core-helium burning red clump stars (RC) from those that are still on their first ascent of the red giant branch (RGB). We extend these studies to a tenfold larger wavelength range of 0.33 to 2.5 microns with the moderate-resolution VLT/X-shooter spectrograph. Our analysis of 49 stars with asteroseismic data from the K2 mission confirms that CN, CO and CH features are indeed the primary carriers of spectroscopic information on the evolutionary stages of red giant stars. We report 215 informative features for differentiating the RC from the RGB within the range of 0.33 to 2.5 microns. This makes it possible for existing and future spectroscopic surveys to optimize their wavelength regions to deliver both a large variety of elemental abundances and reliable age estimates of luminous red giant stars.

5.Hall effect on the magnetic reconnections during the evolution of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope

Authors:Kamlesh Bora, Satyam Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar, Ramit Bhattacharyya

Abstract: We present a novel Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) numerical simulation of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic flux rope (MFR) -- generated by magnetic reconnections from an initial 3D bipolar sheared field. Magnetic reconnections during the HMHD evolution are compared with the MHD. In both simulations, the MFRs generate as a consequence of the magnetic reconnection at null points which has not been realized in contemporary simulations. Interestingly, the evolution is faster and more intricate in the HMHD simulation. Repetitive development of the twisted magnetic field lines (MFL) in the vicinity of 3D nulls (reconnection site) is unique to the HMHD evolution of the MFR. The dynamical evolution of magnetic field lines around the reconnection site being affected by the Hall forcing, correspondingly affects the large-scale structures.

6.Radiation-Driven Wind Hydrodynamics of Massive Stars: A Review

Authors:Michel Cure, Ignacio Araya

Abstract: Mass loss from massive stars plays a determining role in their evolution through the upper Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The hydrodynamic theory that describes their steady-state winds is the line-driven wind theory (m-CAK). From this theory, the mass loss rate and the velocity profile of the wind can be derived, and estimating these properly will have a profound impact on quantitative spectroscopy analyses from the spectra of these objects. Currently, the so-called beta-law, which is an approximation for the fast solution, is widely used instead of m-CAK hydrodynamics, and when the derived value is beta greater than 1.2, there is no hydrodynamic justification for these values. This review focuses on (1) a detailed topological analysis of the equation of motion (EoM), (2) solving the EoM numerically for all three different (fast and two slow) wind solutions, (3) deriving analytical approximations for the velocity profile via the LambertW function and (4) presenting a discussion of the applicability of the slow solutions.

7.A New LBV Candidate in M33

Authors:John C. Martin, Roberta M. Humphreys, Kerstin Weis, Dominik J. Bohmans

Abstract: The evolutionary relationships and mechanisms governing the behavior of the wide variety of luminous stars populating the upper H-R diagram are not well established. Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are particularly rare, with only a few dozen identified in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Since 2012, the Barber Observatory Luminous Stars Survey has monitored more than 100 luminous targets in M33, including M33C-4119 which has recently undergone photometric and spectroscopic changes consistent with an S Doradus eruption of an LBV.

8.EUV fine structure and variability associated with coronal rain revealed by Solar Orbiter/EUI HRIEUV and SPICE

Authors:P. Antolin, A. Dolliou, F. Auchère, L. P. Chitta, S. Parenti, D. Berghmans, R. Aznar Cuadrado, K. Barczynski, S. Gissot, L. Harra, Z. Huang, M. Janvier, E. Kraaikamp, D. M. Long, S. Mandal, H. Peter, L. Rodriguez, U. Schühle, P. J. Smith, S. K. Solanki, K. Stegen, L. Teriaca, C. Verbeeck, M. J. West, A. N. Zhukov, T. Appourchaux, G. Aulanier, E. Buchlin, F. Delmotte, J. M. Gilles, M. Haberreiter, J. -P. Halain, K. Heerlein, J. -F. Hochedez, M. Gyo, S. Poedts, P. Rochus

Abstract: Coronal rain is the most dramatic cooling phenomenon of the solar corona and an essential diagnostic tool for the coronal heating properties. A puzzling feature of the solar corona, besides the heating, is its EUV filamentary structure and variability. We aim to identify observable features of the TNE-TI scenario underlying coronal rain at small and large spatial scales, to understand the role it plays in the solar corona. We use EUV datasets at unprecedented spatial resolution of ~240 km from EUI/HRIEUV and SPICE of Solar Orbiter from the spring 2022 perihelion. EUV absorption features produced by coronal rain are detected at scales as small as 260 km. As the rain falls, heating and compression is produced immediately downstream, leading to a small EUV brightening accompanying the fall and producing a "fireball" phenomenon. Just prior to impact, a flash-like EUV brightening downstream of the rain, lasting a few minutes is observed for the fastest events. For the first time, we detect the atmospheric response to the rain's impact on the chromosphere and consists of upward propagating rebound shocks and flows partly reheating the loop. The observed widths of the rain clumps are 500 +- 200 km. They exhibit a broad velocity distribution of 10 - 150 km s^-1, peaking below 50 km s^-1. Coronal strands of similar widths are observed along the same loops co-spatial with cool filamentary structure, which we interpret as the CCTR. Matching with the expected cooling, prior to the rain appearance sequential loop brightenings are detected in gradually cooler lines from corona to chromospheric temperatures. Despite the large rain showers, most cannot be detected in AIA 171 in quadrature, indicating that LOS effects play a major role in coronal rain visibility. Still, AIA 304 and SPICE observations reveal that only a small fraction of the rain can be captured by HRIEUV.

9.Planet-disk-wind interaction: the magnetized fate of protoplanets

Authors:Gaylor Wafflard-Fernandez, Geoffroy Lesur

Abstract: Models of planet-disk interaction are mainly based on 2D and 3D viscous hydrodynamical simulations. Accretion is classically prescribed by an alpha parameter which characterizes the turbulent radial transport of angular momentum (AM) in the disk. This accretion scenario has been questioned for a few years and an alternative paradigm has been proposed that involves the vertical transport of AM by MHD winds. We revisit planet-disk interaction in such context, with a focus on the planet's ability to open a gap and produce meridional flows. Accretion, magnetic field and wind torque in the gap are also explored, as well as the gravitational torque exerted by the disk onto the planet. We carry out high-resolution 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations of a gaseous disk threaded by a large-scale vertical magnetic field harboring a planet in a fixed circular orbit using the GPU-accelerated code Idefix. We consider various planet masses and disk magnetizations. We find that gap-opening always occurs for sufficiently massive planets, with deeper gaps when the planet mass increases and when the initial magnetization decreases. We propose a gap opening criterion when accretion is dominated by MHD winds. We show that accretion is unsteady and comes from surface layers in the outer disk, bringing material directly towards the planet poles. A planet gap is a privileged region for magnetic field accumulation, leading to nearly sonic accretion stream through the gap. For massive planets, the wind torque induces an asymmetric gap, both in depth and in width, that gradually erodes the outer gap edge, reducing the outer Lindblad torque and potentially reversing the migration direction of Jovian planets in magnetized disks after a few hundreds of orbits. For low-mass planets, we find strongly fluctuating gravitational torques that are mostly positive on average, indicating a stochastic outward migration.

10.Element Abundances in Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

Authors:J. Martin Laming, Natsuha Kuroda

Abstract: We outline and discuss a model for the enhanced abundances of trans-Fe elements in impulsive Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, where large mass dependent abundance enhancements are frequently seen. It comes about as a variation of the ponderomotive force model for the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect, i.e. the increase in coronal abundance of elements like Fe, Mg, and Si that are ionized in the solar chromosphere relative to those that are neutral. In this way, the fractionation region is placed in the chromosphere, and is connected to the solar envelope allowing the huge abundance variations to occur, that might otherwise be problematic with a coronal fractionation site. The principal mechanism behind the mass-independent FIP fractionation becoming the mass dependent impulsive SEP fractionation is the suppression of acoustic waves in the chromosphere. The ponderomotive force causing the fractionation must be due to torsional Alfven waves, which couple much less effectively to slow modes than do shear waves, and upward propagating acoustic waves deriving from photospheric convection must be effectively mode converted to fast modes at the chromospheric layer where Alfven and sound speeds are equal, and subsequently totally internally reflected. We further discuss observations of the environments thought to be the source of impulsive SEPs, and the extent to which the real Sun might meet these conditions.

11.Constraints on star formation in Orion A from Gaia

Authors:Jairo A. Alzate, Gustavo Bruzual, Marina Kounkel, Gladis Magris, Lee Hartmann, Nuria Calvet, Lyra Cao

Abstract: We develop statistical methods within a Bayesian framework to infer the star formation history from photometric surveys of pre-main sequence populations. Our procedures include correcting for biases due to extinction in magnitude-limited surveys, and using distributions from subsets of stars with individual extinction measurements. We also make modest corrections for unresolved binaries. We apply our methods to samples of populations with Gaia photometry in the Orion A molecular cloud. Using two well-established sets of evolutionary tracks, we find that, although our sample is incomplete at youngest ages due to extinction, star formation has proceeded in Orion A at a relatively constant rate between ages of about 0.3 and 5 Myr, in contrast to other studies suggesting multiple epochs of star formation. Similar results are obtained for a set of tracks that attempt to take the effects of strong magnetic fields into account. We also find no evidence for a well-constrained "birthline" that would result from low-mass stars appearing first along the deuterium-burning main sequence, especially using the magnetic evolutionary tracks. While our methods have been developed to deal with Gaia data, they may be useful for analyzing other photometric surveys of star-forming regions.

1.The Pristine Inner Galaxy Survey (PIGS) VII: a discovery of the first inner Galaxy CEMP-r/s star

Authors:L. Mashonkina, A. Arentsen, D. S. Aguado, A. Smogorzhevskii, M. Hampel, A. Karakas, F. Sestito, N. F. Martin, K. A. Venn, J. I. González Hernández

Abstract: Well-studied very metal-poor (VMP, [Fe/H] < -2 ) stars in the inner Galaxy are few in number, and they are of special interest because they are expected to be among the oldest stars in the MilkyWay. We present high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up of the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star Pristine_184237.56-260624.5 (hereafter Pr184237) identified in the Pristine Inner Galaxy Survey. This star has an apocentre of about 2 kpc. Its atmospheric parameters (Teff = 5100 K, log g = 2.0, [Fe/H] = -2.60) were derived based on the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation. We determined abundances for 32 elements, including 15 heavy elements beyond the iron group. The NLTE abundances were calculated for 13 elements from Na to Pb. Pr184237 is strongly enhanced in C, N, O, and both s- and r-process elements from Ba to Pb; it reveals a low carbon isotope ratio of 12C/13C = 7. The element abundance pattern in the Na-Zn range is typical of halo stars. With [Ba/Eu] = 0.32, Pr184237 is the first star of the CEMP-r/s subclass identified in the inner Galaxy. Variations in radial velocity suggest binarity. We tested whether a pollution by the s- or i-process material produced in the more massive and evolved companion can form the observed abundance pattern and find that an i-process in the asymptotic giant branch star with a progenitor mass of 1.0-2.0 Msun can be the solution.

2.Temporal and Latitudinal Variation in Penumbra-Umbra Ratios of the Sunspots: Analyses of RGO, Kodaikanal and Debrecen Databases

Authors:Takalo Jouni Juhani

Abstract: We study the latitudinal distribution and temporal evolution of the sunspot penumbra-umbra ratio (q) for the even and odd Solar Cycles 12-24 of RGO sunspot groups, SC21-SC24 of Debrecen sunspot groups and Kodaikanal sunspot dataset for SC16-SC24. We find that RGO even (odd) Cycles have q-values 5.20 (4.75), Kodaikanal even (odd) cycles have q-values 5.27 (5.43), and Debrecen cycles has q-value 5.74 on the average. We also show that q is at lowest around the Equator of the Sun and increases towards higher latitudes having maximum values at about 10-25 degrees. This is understandable, because smaller sunspots and groups locate nearer to Equator and have smaller q-values than larger sunspots and groups, which maximize at about 10-20 degrees at both hemispheres. The error limits are very wide and thus the confidence of this result is somewhat vague. For Debrecen dataset we find a deep valley in the temporal q-values before the middle of the cycle. We show that this exists simultaneously with the Gnevyshev gap (GG) in the graph of the total and umbral areas of the large sunspot groups. Other databases do not show GG in their q-graphs, although GG exists in their temporal total area and umbral area.

3.Automated detection and analysis of coronal active region structures across Solar Cycle 24

Authors:Daniel Gordon Gass, Robert William Walsh

Abstract: Observations from the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were employed to investigate targeted physical properties of coronal active region structures across the entirety of Solar Cycle 24 (dates). This is the largest consistent study to date which analyses emergent trends in structural width, location, and occurrence rate by performing an automatic and long-term examination of observable coronal limb features within equatorial active region belts across four extreme ultraviolet wavelengths (171, 193, 211, and 304 angstroms). This has resulted in over thirty thousand observed coronal structures and hence allows for the production of spatial and temporal distributions focused upon the rise, peak and decay activity phases of Solar Cycle 24. Employing a self-organized-criticality approach as a descriptor of coronal structure formation, power law slopes of structural widths versus frequency are determined, ranging from -1.6 to -3.3 with variations of up to 0.7 found between differing periods of the solar cycle, compared to a predicted Fractal Diffusive Self Organized Criticality (FD-SOC) value of -1.5. The North-South hemispheric asymmetry of these structures was also examined with the northern hemisphere exhibiting activity that is peaking earlier and decaying slower than the southern hemisphere, with a characteristic "butterfly" pattern of coronal structures detected. This represents the first survey of coronal structures performed across an entire solar cycle, demonstrating new techniques available to examine the composition of the corona by latitude in varying wavelengths at selected altitudes.

1.Physics-driven machine learning for the prediction of coronal mass ejections' travel times

Authors:Sabrina Guastavino, Valentina Candiani, Alessandro Bemporad, Francesco Marchetti, Federico Benvenuto, Anna Maria Massone, Roberto Susino, Daniele Telloni, Silvano Fineschi, Michele Piana

Abstract: Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) correspond to dramatic expulsions of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona into the heliosphere. CMEs are scientifically relevant because they are involved in the physical mechanisms characterizing the active Sun. However, more recently CMEs have attracted attention for their impact on space weather, as they are correlated to geomagnetic storms and may induce the generation of Solar Energetic Particles streams. In this space weather framework, the present paper introduces a physics-driven artificial intelligence (AI) approach to the prediction of CMEs travel time, in which the deterministic drag-based model is exploited to improve the training phase of a cascade of two neural networks fed with both remote sensing and in-situ data. This study shows that the use of physical information in the AI architecture significantly improves both the accuracy and the robustness of the travel time prediction.

1.Estimation of Stellar Parameters and Mass Accretion Rate of Classical T Tauri Stars from LAMOST DR6

Authors:Nidhi Sabu, Blesson Mathew, Shridharan Bhaskaran, Suman Bhattacharyya, Edwin Das, Sreeja S Kartha

Abstract: Classical T Tauri stars are low-mass pre-main sequence stars with an active circumstellar environment. In this work we present the identification and study of 260 Classical T Tauri stars using LAMOST Data Release 6, among which 104 stars are newly identified. We distinguish Classical T Tauri stars from Giants and main-sequence dwarfs based on the log g values and the presence of H (alpha) emission line and infrared excess that arises from the circumstellar accretion disk. We estimated the mass and age of 210 stars using the Gaia color-magnitude diagram. The age is from 0.1 to 20 Myr, where 90% of the stars have age below 10 Myr and the mass ranges between 0.11 to 1.9 M(solar). From the measured H(alpha) equivalent widths, we homogeneously estimated the mass accretion rates for 172 stars, with most values ranging from 10^-7 to 10^-10 M(solar) yr^-1. The mass accretion rates are found to follow a power law distribution with the mass of the star, having a relation of the form Macc proportional to M(star)^1.43 +/- 0.26, in agreement with previous studies.

2.S-type stars from LAMOST DR10: classification of intrinsic and extrinsic stars

Authors:Jing Chen, Yin-Bi Li, A-Li Luo, Xiao-Xiao Ma, Shuo Li

Abstract: In this paper, we found 2939 S-type stars from LAMOST Data Release 10 using two machine-learning methods, and 2306 of them were reported for the first time. The main purpose of this work is to study how to divide S-type stars into intrinsic and extrinsic stars with photometric data and LAMOST spectra. Using infrared photometric data, we adopted two methods to distinguish S-type stars, i.e., XGBoost algorithm and color-color diagrams. We trained XGBoost model with 15 input features consisting of colors and absolute magnitudes of Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), AllWISE, AKARI, and IRAS, and found that the model trained by input features with 2MASS, AKARI, and IRAS data has the highest accuracy of 95.52%. Furthermore, using this XGBoost model, we found four color-color diagrams with six infrared color criteria to divide S-type stars, which has an accuracy of about 90%. Applying the two methods to the 2939 S-type stars, 381 (XGBoost)/336 (color-color diagrams) intrinsic and 495 (XGBoost)/82 (color-color diagrams) extrinsic stars were classified, respectively. Using these photometrically classified intrinsic and extrinsic stars, we retrained XGBoost model with their blue and red medium-resolution spectra, and the 2939 stars were divided into 855 intrinsic and 2056 extrinsic stars from spectra with an accuracy of 94.82%. In addition, we also found four spectral regions of Zr I (6451.6A), Ne II (6539.6A), H{\alpha} (6564.5A), and Fe I (6609.1A) and C I (6611.4A) are the most important features, which can reach an accuracy of 92.1% when using them to classify S-type stars.

3.Improved Type III solar radio burst detection using congruent deep learning models

Authors:Jeremiah Scully, Ronan Flynn, Peter Gallagher, Eoin Carley, Mark Daly

Abstract: Solar flares are energetic events in the solar atmosphere that are often linked with solar radio bursts (SRBs). SRBs are observed at metric to decametric wavelengths and are classified into five spectral classes (Type I--V) based on their signature in dynamic spectra. The automatic detection and classification of SRBs is a challenge due to their heterogeneous form. Near-realtime detection and classification of SRBs has become a necessity in recent years due to large data rates generated by advanced radio telescopes such as the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR). In this study, we implement congruent deep learning models to automatically detect and classify Type III SRBs. We generated simulated Type III SRBs, which were comparable to Type IIIs seen in real observations, using a deep learning method known as Generative Adversarial Network (GAN). This simulated data was combined with observations from LOFAR to produce a training set that was used to train an object detection model known as YOLOv2 (You Only Look Once). Using this congruent deep learning model system, we can accurately detect Type III SRBs at a mean Average Precision (mAP) value of 77.71%.

4.New Near-Infrared Period-Luminosity-Metallicity Relations for Galactic RR Lyrae Stars Based on Gaia EDR3 Parallaxes

Authors:Bartłomiej Zgirski, Grzegorz Pietrzyński, Marek Górski, Wolfgang Gieren, Piotr Wielgórski, Paulina Karczmarek, Gergely Hajdu, Megan Lewis, Rolf Chini, Dariusz Graczyk, Mikołaj Kałuszyński, Weronika Narloch, Bogumił Pilecki, Gonzalo Rojas García, Ksenia Suchomska, Mónica Taormina

Abstract: We present new period-luminosity and period-luminosity-metallicity relations for Galactic RR Lyrae stars based on a sample of 28 pulsators located at distances up to $1.5$ kpc from the Sun. Near-infrared photometry was obtained at the Cerro Armazones Observatory and parallaxes were taken from the Gaia Early Data Release 3. Relations were determined for the 2MASS $JHK_s$ bands and the $W_{JK}$ Wesenheit index. We compare our results with other calibrations available in the literature and obtain very good agreement with the photometry of RR Lyraes from the Large Magellanic Cloud anchored using the distance to the Cloud, which based on detached eclipsing binaries. We find that the dependence of absolute magnitudes on metallicity of $0.070\pm 0.042$ mag/dex ($J-$ band) to $0.087 \pm 0.031$ mag/dex ($W_{JK}$ index) for the population of fundamental pulsators (RRab) that is in agreement with previously published phenomenological works. We perform a refined determination of distance to the LMC based on our new calibration and photometry from Szewczyk et al. (2008). We study the dependence of the fitted parameters of fiducial relations and the LMC distance on the systematic parallax offset.

5.Fullerenes in the circumstellar medium of Herbig Ae/Be stars: Insights from the Spitzer mid-infrared spectral catalog

Authors:R. Arun, Blesson Mathew, P. Manoj, G. Maheswar, B. Shridharan, Sreeja S. Kartha, Mayank Narang

Abstract: This study presents the largest mid-infrared spectral catalog of Herbig Ae/Be stars to date, containing the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 126 stars. Based on the catalog analysis, two prominent infrared vibrational modes of C\textsubscript{60} bands at 17.4 $\mu m$ and 18.9 $\mu m$ are detected in the spectra of nine sources, while 7.0 $\mu m$ feature is identified in the spectra of HD 319896. The spectral index analysis and the comparison of the known sources with C\textsubscript{60} features indicated that there exist two different types of emission classes among the sample of stars. The infrared spectra of six Herbig Ae/Be stars in this study resemble that of reflection nebulae, and their association with previously known reflection nebulae is confirmed. In the case of three Herbig Ae/Be stars we report the tentative evidence of C\textsubscript{60} emission features originating from the circumstellar disk or nearby diffused emission region. The detection fraction of C\textsubscript{60} in the total HAeBe star sample is $\sim$ 7\%, whereas the detection fraction is 30\% for HAeBe stars associated with nebulosity. In the catalog, C\textsubscript{60} is exclusively present in the circumstellar regions of B type Herbig Ae/Be stars, with no evidence of its presence detected in stars with later spectral types. The present study has increased the number of young stellar objects and reflection nebulae detected with C\textsubscript{60} multifold, which can help in understanding the excitation and formation pathway of the species.

6.Solar Active Region Magnetogram Image Dataset for Studies of Space Weather

Authors:Laura E. Boucheron, Ty Vincent, Jeremy A. Grajeda, Ellery Wuest

Abstract: In this dataset we provide a comprehensive collection of magnetograms (images quantifying the strength of the magnetic field) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The dataset incorporates data from three sources and provides SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms of solar active regions (regions of large magnetic flux, generally the source of eruptive events) as well as labels of corresponding flaring activity. This dataset will be useful for image analysis or solar physics research related to magnetic structure, its evolution over time, and its relation to solar flares. The dataset will be of interest to those researchers investigating automated solar flare prediction methods, including supervised and unsupervised machine learning (classical and deep), binary and multi-class classification, and regression. This dataset is a minimally processed, user configurable dataset of consistently sized images of solar active regions that can serve as a benchmark dataset for solar flare prediction research.

7.On the feasibility of structure inversions for gravity-mode pulsators

Authors:Vincent Vanlaer, Conny Aerts, Earl P. Bellinger, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard

Abstract: Gravity-mode asteroseismology has significantly improved our understanding of mixing in intermediate mass stars. However, theoretical pulsation periods of stellar models remain in tension with observations, and it is often unclear how the models of these stars should be further improved. Inversions provide a path forward by directly probing the internal structure of these stars from their pulsation periods, quantifying which parts of the model are in need of improvement. This method has been used for solar-like pulsators, but has not yet been applied to main-sequence gravity-mode pulsators. Our aim is to determine whether structure inversions for gravity-mode pulsators are feasible. We focus on the case of slowly rotating SPB stars. We computed and analyzed dipole mode kernels for three variables pairs: $(\rho,c), (N^2,c)$, and $(N^2,\rho)$. We assessed the potential of these kernels by predicting the oscillation frequencies of a model after perturbing its structure. We then tested two inversion methods, RLS and SOLA, using a model grid computed with MESA and GYRE. We find that changing the stellar structure affects the oscillation frequencies in a nonlinear way. The oscillation modes for which this nonlinear dependency is the strongest are in resonance with the near-core peak in the buoyancy frequency. The near core region of the star can be probed with SOLA, while RLS requires fine tuning to obtain accurate results. Both RLS and SOLA are strongly affected by the nonlinear dependencies on the structure differences, as these methods are based on a first-order approximation. These inversion methods need to be modified for meaningful applications of inversions to SPB stars. Our results show that inversions of gravity-mode pulsators are possible in principle, but that the typical inversion methods developed for solar-like oscillators are not applicable. [abridged]

1.Sunspot positions from observations by Flaugergues in the Dalton Minimum

Authors:Egor Illarionov, Rainer Arlt

Abstract: French astronomer Honor\'e Flaugergues compiled astronomical observations in a series of hand-written notebooks for 1782$\unicode{x2013}$1830, which are preserved at Paris Observatory. We reviewed these manuscripts and encoded the records that contain sunspot measurements into a numerical table for further analysis. All measurements are timings and we found three types of measurements allowing the reconstruction of heliographic coordinates. In the first case, the Sun and sunspots cross vertical and horizontal wires, in the second case, one vertical and two mirror-symmetric oblique wires, and in the third case, a rhombus-shaped set of wires. Additionally, timings of two solar eclipses also provided a few sunspot coordinates. As a result, we present the time--latitude (butterfly) diagram of the reconstructed sunspot coordinates, which covers the period of the Dalton Minimum and confirms consistency with those of Derfflinger and Prantner. We identify four solar cycles in this diagram and discuss the observed peculiarities as well as the data reliability.

2.The Radial Distribution of Ion-scale Waves in the Inner Heliosphere

Authors:Wen Liu, Jinsong Zhao, Tieyan Wang, Xiangcheng Dong, Justin C. Kasper, Stuart D. Bale, Chen Shi, Dejin Wu

Abstract: Determining the mechanism responsible for the plasma heating and particle acceleration is a fundamental problem in the study of the heliosphere. Due to efficient wave-particle interactions of ion-scale waves with charged particles, these waves are widely believed to be a major contributor to ion energization, and their contribution considerably depends on the wave occurrence rate. By analyzing the radial distribution of quasi-monochromatic ion-scale waves observed by the Parker Solar Probe, this work shows that the wave occurrence rate is significantly enhanced in the near-Sun solar wind, specifically 21%$-$29% below 0.3 au, in comparison to 6%$-$14% beyond 0.3 au. The radial decrease of the wave occurrence rate is not only induced by the sampling effect of a single spacecraft detection, but also by the physics relating to the wave excitation, such as the enhanced ion beam instability in the near-Sun solar wind. This work also shows that the wave normal angle $\theta$, the absolute value of ellipticity $\epsilon$, the wave frequency $f$ normalized by the proton cyclotron frequency $f_{\mathrm{cp}}$, and the wave amplitude $\delta B$ normalized by the local background magnetic field $B_0$ slightly vary with the radial distance. The median values of $\theta$, $|\epsilon|$, $f$, and $\delta B$ are about $9^\circ$, $0.73$, $3f_{\mathrm{cp}}$, and $0.01B_0$, respectively. Furthermore, this study proposes that the wave mode nature of the observed left-handed and right-handed polarized waves corresponds to the Alfv\'en ion cyclotron mode wave and the fast-magnetosonic whistler mode wave, respectively.

3.Fast rotating Blue Stragglers prefer loose clusters

Authors:Francesco R. Ferraro, Alessio Mucciarelli, Barbara Lanzoni, Cristina Pallanca, Mario Cadelano, Alex Billi, Alison Sills, Enrico Vesperini, Emanuele Dalessandro, Giacomo Beccari, Lorenzo Monaco, Mario Mateo

Abstract: Blue stragglers are anomalously luminous core hydrogen-burning stars formed through mass-transfer in binary/triple systems and stellar collisions. Their physical and evolutionary properties are largely unknown and unconstrained. Here we analyze 320 high-resolution spectra of blue stragglers collected in eight galactic globular clusters with different structural characteristics and show evidence that the fraction of fast rotating blue stragglers (with rotational velocities larger than 40 km/s) increases for decreasing central density of the host system. This trend suggests that fast spinning blue stragglers prefer low-density environments and promises to open an unexplored route towards understanding the evolutionary processes of these stars. Since large rotation rates are expected in the early stages of both formation channels, our results provide direct evidence for recent blue straggler formation activity in low-density environments and put strong constraints on the timescale of the collisional blue straggler slow-down processes.

4.Full velocities and propagation directions of coronal mass ejections inferred from simultaneous full-disk imaging and Sun-as-a-star spectroscopic observations

Authors:Hong-peng Lu, Hui Tian, He-chao Chen, Yu Xu, Zhen-yong Hou, Xian-yong Bai, Guang-yu Tan, Zi-hao Yang, Jie Ren

Abstract: Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are violent ejections of magnetized plasma from the Sun, which can trigger geomagnetic storms, endanger satellite operations and destroy electrical infrastructures on the Earth. After systematically searching Sun-as-a-star spectra observed by the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) from May 2010 to May 2022, we identified eight CMEs associated with flares and filament eruptions by analyzing the blue-wing asymmetry of the O III 52.58 nm line profiles. Combined with images simultaneously taken by the 30.4 nm channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard SDO, the full velocity and propagation direction for each of the eight CMEs are derived. We find a strong correlation between geomagnetic indices (Kp and Dst) and the angle between the CME propagation direction and the Sun-Earth line, suggesting that Sun-as-a-star spectroscopic observations at EUV wavelengths can potentially help to improve the prediction accuracy of the geoeffectiveness of CMEs. Moreover, an analysis of synthesized long-exposure Sun-as-a-star spectra implies that it is possible to detect CMEs from other stars through blue-wing asymmetries or blueshifts of spectral lines.

5.Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Quiescent Coronal Rain over an Active Region

Authors:Seray Şahin, Patrick Antolin, Clara Froment, Thomas A. Schad

Abstract: The solar corona produces coronal rain, hundreds of times colder and denser material than the surroundings. Coronal rain is known to be deeply linked to coronal heating, but its origin, dynamics, and morphology are still not well understood. The leading theory for its origin is thermal instability (TI) occurring in coronal loops in a state of thermal non-equilibrium (TNE), the TNE-TI scenario. Under steady heating conditions, TNE-TI repeats in cycles, leading to long-period EUV intensity pulsations and periodic coronal rain. In this study, we investigate coronal rain on the large spatial scales of an active region (AR) and over the long temporal scales of EUV intensity pulsations to elucidate its distribution at such scales. We conduct a statistical study of coronal rain observed over an AR off-limb with IRIS and SDO imaging data, spanning chromospheric to transition region (TR) temperatures. The rain is widespread across the AR, irrespective of the loop inclination, and with minimal variation over the 5.45-hour duration of the observation. Most rain has a downward ($87.5\%$) trajectory; however, upward motions ($12.5\%$) are also ubiquitous. The rain dynamics are similar over the observed temperature range, suggesting that the TR and chromospheric emission are co-located on average. The average clump widths and lengths are similar in the SJI channels and wider in the AIA 304 channel. We find ubiquitous long-period EUV intensity pulsations in the AR. Short-term periodicity is found (16 min) linked to the rain appearance, which constitutes a challenge to explain under the TNE-TI scenario.

6.The Puzzling Structure of Solar Convection: Window into the Dynamo

Authors:Nicholas A. Featherstone, Kyle C. Augustson, Jonathan M. Aurnou, Catherine Blume, Benjamin P. Brown, Nicholas Brummell, Keaton J. Burns, Michael A. Calkins, Maria Camisassa, Mausumi Dikpati, Yuhong Fan, J. R. Fuentes, Gustavo Guerrero, Bradley W. Hindman, Keith Julien, Irina N. Kitiashvili, Lydia Korre, Daniel Lecoanet, Bhishek Manek, Loren Matilsky, Mark Miesch, Nicholas J. Nelson, Jeffrey S. Oishi, Whitney T. Powers, Matthias Rempel, Krista Soderlund, Andrey M. Stejko, Geoffrey M. Vasil

Abstract: The operation of the solar dynamo, with all of its remarkable spatio-temporal ordering, remains an outstanding problem of modern solar physics. A number of mechanisms that might plausibly contribute to its operation have been proposed, but the relative role played by each remains unclear. This uncertainty stems from continuing questions concerning the speed and structure of deep-seated convective flows. Those flows are in-turn thought to sustain both the Sun's turbulent EMF and the large-scale flows of differential rotation and meridional circulation suspected of influencing the dynamo's organization and timing. Continued progress in this area is complicated by (i) inconsistencies between helioseismic measurements of convective and meridional flow made with different techniques and instruments, and (ii) a lack of high-latitude data for convection, differential rotation, and meridional flow. We suggest that the path forward to resolving these difficulties is twofold. First, the acquisition of long-term helioseismic and emissivity measurements obtained from a polar vantage point is vital to complete our picture of the Sun's outer convection zone. Second, sustained and expanded investment in theory-oriented and combined theory/observational research initiatives will be crucial to fully exploit these new observations and to resolve inconsistencies between existing measurements.

7.TOI-1994b: A Low Mass Eccentric Brown Dwarf Transiting A Subgiant Star

Authors:Emma Page, Joshua Pepper, Duncan Wright, Joseph E. Rodriguez, Robert A. Wittenmyer, Stephen R. Kane, Brett Addison, Timothy Bedding, Brendan P. Bowler, Thomas Barclay, Karen A. Collins, Phil Evans, Jonathan Horner, Eric L. N. Jensen, Marshall C. Johnson, John Kielkopf, Ismael Mireles, Peter Plavchan, Samuel N. Quinn, S. Seager, Keivan G. Stassun, Stephanie Striegel, Joshua N. Winn, George Zhou, Carl Ziegler

Abstract: We present the discovery of TOI-1994b, a low-mass brown dwarf transiting a hot subgiant star on a moderately eccentric orbit. TOI-1994 has an effective temperature of $7700^{+720}_{-410}$ K, V magnitude of 10.51 mag and log(g) of $3.982^{+0.067}_{-0.065}$. The brown dwarf has a mass of $22.1^{+2.6}_{-2.5}$ $M_J$, a period of 4.034 days, an eccentricity of $0.341^{+0.054}_{-0.059}$, and a radius of $1.220^{+0.082}_{-0.071}$ $R_J$. TOI-1994b is more eccentric than other transiting brown dwarfs with similar masses and periods. The population of low mass brown dwarfs may have properties similar to planetary systems if they were formed in the same way, but the short orbital period and high eccentricity of TOI-1994b may contrast this theory. An evolved host provides a valuable opportunity to understand the influence stellar evolution has on the substellar companion's fundamental properties. With precise age, mass, and radius, the global analysis and characterization of TOI-1994b augments the small number of transiting brown dwarfs and allows the testing of substellar evolution models.

1.Observational predictions for Thorne-Żytkow objects

Authors:R. Farmer, M. Renzo, Y. Götberg, E. Bellinger, S. Justham, S. E de Mink

Abstract: Thorne-$\.Z$ytkow objects (T$\.Z$O) are potential end products of the merger of a neutron star with a non-degenerate star. In this work, we have computed the first grid of evolutionary models of T$\.Z$Os with the MESA stellar evolution code. With these models, we predict several observational properties of T$\.Z$Os, including their surface temperatures and luminosities, pulsation periods, and nucleosynthetic products. We expand the range of possible T$\.Z$O solutions to cover $3.45 \lesssim \log \left(T/K\right) \lesssim 3.65$ and $4.85 \lesssim \log \left(L/L_{\odot}\right) \lesssim 5.5$. Due to the much higher densities our T$\.Z$Os reach compared to previous models, if T$\.Z$Os form we expect them to be stable over a larger mass range than previously predicted, without exhibiting a gap in their mass distribution. Using the GYRE stellar pulsation code we show that T$\.Z$Os should have fundamental pulsation periods of 1000--2000 days, and period ratios of $\approx$0.2--0.3. Models computed with a large 399 isotope fully-coupled nuclear network show a nucleosynthetic signal that is different to previously predicted. We propose a new nucleosynthetic signal to determine a star's status as a T$\.Z$O: the isotopologues $^{44}\rm{Ti} \rm{O}_2$ and $^{44}\rm{Ti} \rm{O}$, which will have a shift in their spectral features as compared to stable titanium-containing molecules. We find that in the local Universe (~SMC metallicities and above) T$\.Z$Os show little heavy metal enrichment, potentially explaining the difficulty in finding T$\.Z$Os to-date.

2.Zeeman Doppler Imaging of ksi Boo A and B

Authors:K. G. Strassmeier, T. A. Carroll, I. V. Ilyin

Abstract: We present a magnetic-field surface map for both stellar components of the young visual binary ksi Boo AB (A: G8V, B: K5V). Employed are high resolution Stokes-V spectra obtained with the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Stokes V line profiles are inverted with our iMAP software and compared to previous inversions. We employed an iterative regularization scheme without the need of a penalty function and incorporated a three-component description of the surface magnetic-field vector. The spectral resolution of our data is 130,000 (0.040-0.055A) and have signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of up to three thousand per pixel depending on wavelength. A singular-value decomposition (SVD) of a total of 1811 spectral lines is employed for averaging Stokes-V profiles. Our mapping is accompanied by a residual bootstrap error analysis. Magnetic flux densities of the radial field component of up to plus/minus 115 +/- 5 G were reconstructed for ksi Boo A while up to plus/minus 55 +/- 3G were reconstructed for ksi Boo B. ksi Boo A's magnetic morphology is characterized by a very high latitude, nearly polar, spot of negative polarity and three low-to-mid latitude spots of positive polarity while ksi Boo B's morphology is characterized by four low-to-mid latitude spots of mixed polarity. No polar magnetic field is reconstructed for the cooler ksi Boo B star. Both our maps are dominated by the radial field component, containing 86 and 89 percent of the magnetic energy of ksi Boo A and B, respectively. We found only weak azimuthal and meridional field densities on both stars (plus/minus 15-30 G), about a factor two weaker than what was seen previously for ksi Boo A. The phase averaged longitudinal field component and dispersion is +4.5 +/- 1.5G for ksi Boo A and -5.0 +/- 3.0 G for ksi Boo B.

3.On collective nature of nonlinear torsional Alfvén waves

Authors:S. A. Belov, D. I. Riashchikov, D. Y. Kolotkov, S. Vasheghani Farahani, N. E. Molevich, V. V. Bezrukovs

Abstract: Torsional Alfv\'en waves in coronal plasma loops are usually considered to be non-collective, i.e. consist of cylindrical surfaces evolving independently, which significantly complicates their detection in observations. This non-collective nature, however, can get modified in the nonlinear regime. To address this question, the propagation of nonlinear torsional Alfv\'en waves in straight magnetic flux tubes has been investigated numerically using the astrophysical MHD code Athena++ and analytically, to support numerical results, using the perturbation theory up to the second order. Numerical results have revealed that there is radially uniform induced density perturbation whose uniformity does not depend on the radial structure of the mother Alfv\'en wave. Our analysis showed that the ponderomotive force leads to the induction of the radial and axial velocity perturbations, while the mechanism for the density perturbation is provided by a non-equal elasticity of a magnetic flux tube in the radial and axial directions. The latter can be qualitatively understood by the interplay between the Alfv\'en wave perturbations, external medium, and the flux tube boundary conditions. The amplitude of these nonlinearly induced density perturbations is found to be determined by the amplitude of the Alfv\'en driver squared and the plasma parameter $\beta$. The existence of the collective and radially uniform density perturbation accompanying nonlinear torsional Alfv\'en waves could be considered as an additional observational signature of Alfv\'en waves in the upper layers of the solar atmosphere.

4.All-Sky Faint DA White Dwarf Spectrophotometric Standards for Astrophysical Observatories: The Complete Sample

Authors:Tim Axelrod, Abhijit Saha, Thomas Matheson, Edward W. Olszewski, Ralph C. Bohlin, Annalisa Calamida, Jenna Claver, Susana Deustua, Jay B. Holberg, Ivan Hubeny, John W. Mackenty, Konstantin Malanchev, Gautham Narayan, Sean Points, Armin Rest, Elena Sabbi, Christopher W. Stubbs

Abstract: Hot DA white dwarfs have fully radiative pure hydrogen atmospheres that are the least complicated to model. Pulsationally stable, they are fully characterized by their effective temperature Teff, and surface gravity log g, which can be deduced from their optical spectra and used in model atmospheres to predict their spectral energy distribution (SED). Based on this, three bright DAWDs have defined the spectrophotometric flux scale of the CALSPEC system of HST. In this paper we add 32 new fainter (16.5 < V < 19.5) DAWDs spread over the whole sky and within the dynamic range of large telescopes. Using ground based spectra and panchromatic photometry with HST/WFC3, a new hierarchical analysis process demonstrates consistency between model and observed fluxes above the terrestrial atmosphere to < 0.004 mag rms from 2700 {\AA} to 7750 {\AA} and to 0.008 mag rms at 1.6{\mu}m for the total set of 35 DAWDs. These DAWDs are thus established as spectrophotometric standards with unprecedented accuracy from the near ultraviolet to the near-infrared, suitable for both ground and space based observatories. They are embedded in existing surveys like SDSS, PanSTARRS and GAIA, and will be naturally included in the LSST survey by Rubin Observatory. With additional data and analysis to extend the validity of their SEDs further into the IR, these spectrophotometric standard stars could be used for JWST, as well as for the Roman and Euclid observatories.

5.Improving the Understanding of Subsurface Structure and Dynamics of Solar Active Regions (A white paper submitted to the decadal survey for solar and space Physics (Heliophysics) -- SSPH 2024-2033)

Authors:S. C. Tripathy, K. Jain, D. Braun, P. Cally, M. Dikpati, T. Felipe, R. Jain, S. Kholikov, E. Khomenko, R. Komm, J. Leibacher, V. Martinez-Pillet, A. Pevtsov, S. P. Rajaguru, M. Roth, H. Uitenbroek, J. Zhao

Abstract: The goal of helioseismology is to provide accurate information about the Sun's interior from the observations of the wave field at its surface. In the last three decades, both global and local helioseismology studies have made significant advances and breakthroughs in solar physics. However, 3-d mapping of the structure and dynamics of sunspots and active regions below the surface has been a challenging task and are among the longest standing and intriguing puzzles of solar physics due to the complexity of the turbulent and dynamic nature of sunspots. Thus the key problems that need to be addressed during the next decade are: (i) Understanding the wave excitation mechanisms in the quiet Sun and magnetic regions, (ii) Characterizing the wave propagation and transformation in strong and inclined magnetic field regions and understanding the magnetic portals in the chromosphere, (iii) Improving helioseismology techniques and investigating the whole life cycle of active regions, from magnetic flux emergence to dissipation, and (iv) Detecting helioseismic signature of the magnetic flux of active regions before it becomes visible on the surface so as to provide warnings several days before the emergence. For a transformative progress on these problems require full disk, simultaneous Doppler and vector magnetic field measurements of the photosphere up to the chromosphere with a spatial resolution of about 2 arc-sec as well as large-scale radiative MHD simulations of the plasma dynamics from the sub-photosphere to the chromosphere.

1.Probable brown dwarf companions detected in binary microlensing events during the 2018-2020 seasons of the KMTNet survey

Authors:Cheongho Han, Youn Kil Jung, Doeon Kim, Andrew Gould, Valerio Bozza, Ian A. Bond, Sun-Ju Chung, Michael D. Albrow, Kyu-Ha Hwang, Yoon-Hyun Ryu, In-Gu Shin, Yossi Shvartzvald, Hongjing Yang, Weicheng Zang, Sang-Mok Cha, Dong-Jin Kim, Hyoun-Woo Kim, Seung-Lee Kim, Chung-Uk Lee, Dong-Joo Lee, Jennifer C. Yee, Yongseok Lee, Byeong-Gon Park, Richard W. Pogge, Fumio Abe, Richard Barry, David P. Bennett, Aparna Bhattacharya, Hirosame Fujii, Akihiko Fukui, Yuki Hirao, Stela Ishitani Silva, Rintaro Kirikawa, Iona Kondo, Naoki Koshimoto, Yutaka Matsubara, Sho Matsumoto, Shota Miyazaki, Yasushi Muraki, Arisa Okamura, Greg Olmschenk, Clément Ranc, Nicholas J. Rattenbury, Yuki Satoh, Takahiro Sumi, Daisuke Suzuki, Taiga Toda, Paul J. Tristram, Aikaterini Vandorou, Hibiki Yama, Yoshitaka Itow

Abstract: We inspect the microlensing data of the KMTNet survey collected during the 2018--2020 seasons in order to find lensing events produced by binaries with brown-dwarf companions. In order to pick out binary-lens events with candidate BD lens companions, we conduct systematic analyses of all anomalous lensing events observed during the seasons. By applying the selection criterion with mass ratio between the lens components of $0.03\lesssim q\lesssim 0.1$, we identify four binary-lens events with candidate BD companions, including KMT-2018-BLG-0321, KMT-2018-BLG-0885, KMT-2019-BLG-0297, and KMT-2019-BLG-0335. For the individual events, we present the interpretations of the lens systems and measure the observables that can constrain the physical lens parameters. The masses of the lens companions estimated from the Bayesian analyses based on the measured observables indicate that the probabilities for the lens companions to be in the brown-dwarf mass regime are high: 59\%, 68\%, 66\%, and 66\% for the four events respectively.

2.Semi-Analytical Expression of G-Mode Period Spacing: The Case of Brunt-Väisälä Frequency with Not a Jump But a Ramp

Authors:Yoshiki Hatta

Abstract: To decipher complex patterns of gravity-mode period spacings observed for intermediate-mass main-sequence stars is an important step toward the better understanding of the structure and dynamics in the deep radiative region of the stars. In this study, we apply JWKB approximation to derive a semi-analytical expression of the g-mode period spacing pattern, for which the gradient in the Brunt-V\"ais\"al\"a frequency is taken into account. The formulation includes a term $P^{-1} B_{\star}$, where $P$ and $B_{\star}$ represent the g-mode period and degree of the structural variation, the latter of which especially is related to the steepness of the gradient of the Brunt-V\"ais\"al\"a frequency. Tests with 1-dimensional stellar models show that the semi-analytical expression derived in this study is useful for inferring the degree of the structural variation $B_{\star}$ with accuracy of $\sim 10\,\%$ in the case of relatively massive intermediate-mass models with the mass $M$ larger than $3 \,M_{\odot}$. The newly formulated expression will possibly allow us to put further constraints on, e.g., mixing processes inside intermediate-mass main-sequence g-mode pulsators such as $\beta$ Cep, SPB, and $\gamma$ Dor stars that have been principal targets in asteroseismology.

3.Merger Conditions of Population III Protostar Binaries

Authors:Takanobu Kirihara, Hajime Susa, Takashi Hosokawa, Tomoya Kinugawa

Abstract: Massive close binary stars with extremely small separations have been observed, and they are possible progenitors of gravitational-wave sources. The evolution of massive binaries in the protostellar accretion stage is key to understanding their formation process. We, therefore, investigate how close the protostars, consisting of a high-density core and a vast low-density envelope, can approach each other but not coalesce. To investigate the coalescence conditions, we conduct smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations following the evolution of equal-mass binaries with different initial separations. Since Population (Pop) I and III protostars have similar interior structures, we adopt a specific Pop~III model with the mass and radius of $7.75\;M_{\odot}$ and $61.1\;R_{\odot}$ obtained by the stellar evolution calculations. Our results show that the binary separation decreases due to the transport of the orbital angular momentum to spin angular momentum. If the initial separation is less than about 80 per~cent of the sum of the protostellar radius, the binary coalesces in a time shorter than the tidal lock timescale. The mass loss up to the merging is $\lesssim 3$ per~cent. After coalescence, the star rotates rapidly, and its interior structure is independent of the initial separation. We conclude that there must be some orbital shrinking mechanism after the protostars contract to enter the zero-age main-sequence stage.

4.Determination of small-scale magnetic fields on Sun-like stars in the near-infrared using CRIRES$^+$

Authors:A. Hahlin, O. Kochukhov, A. D. Rains, A. Lavail, A. Hatzes, N. Piskunov, A. Reiners, U. Seemann, L. Boldt-Christmas, E. W. Guenther, U. Heiter, L. Nortmann, F. Yan, D. Shulyak, J. V. Smoker, F. Rodler, P. Bristow, R. J. Dorn, Y. Jung, T. Marquart, E. Stempels

Abstract: We aim to characterise the small-scale magnetic fields for a sample of 16 Sun-like stars and investigate the capabilities of the newly upgraded near-infrared (NIR) instrument CRIRES$^+$ at the VLT in the context of small-scale magnetic field studies. Our targets also had their magnetic fields studied in the optical, which allows us to compare magnetic field properties at different spatial scales on the stellar surface and to contrast small-scale magnetic field measurements at different wavelengths. We analyse the Zeeman broadening signature for six magnetically sensitive and insensitive \ion{Fe}{I} lines in the H-band to measure small-scale magnetic fields on the stellar surface. We use polarised radiative transfer modelling and NLTE departure coefficients in combination with MCMC to determine magnetic field characteristics together with non-magnetic stellar parameters. We use two different approaches to describe small-scale magnetic fields. The first is a two-component model with a single magnetic region and a free magnetic field strength. The second model contains multiple magnetic components with fixed magnetic field strengths. We find average magnetic field strengths ranging from $\sim 0.4$ kG down to $<0.1$ kG. The results align closely with other results from high resolution NIR spectrographs such as SPIRou. We find that the small-scale fields correlate with the large-scale fields and that the small-scale fields are at least 10 times stronger than the large-scale fields inferred with Zeeman Doppler imaging. The two- and multi-component models produce systematically different results as the strong fields from the multi-component model increase the obtained mean magnetic field strength. When comparing our results with the optical measurements of small-scale fields we find a systematic offset of 2--3 times stronger fields in the optical.

5.Rotation and interaction of the September 8 and 10, 2014 CMEs tested with EUHFORIA

Authors:Anwesha Maharana, Camilla Scolini, Brigitte Schmieder, Stefaan Poedts

Abstract: Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can catch up and interact with preceding CMEs and solar wind structures to undergo rotation and deflection during their propagation. We aim to show how interactions undergone by a CME in the corona and heliosphere can play a significant role in altering its geoeffectiveness predicted at the time of its eruption. We consider a case study of two successive CMEs launched from the active region NOAA 12158 in early September 2014. The second CME was predicted to be extensively geoeffective based on the remote-sensing observations of the source region. However, in situ measurements at 1~au recorded only a short-lasting weak negative Bz component followed by a prolonged positive Bz component. The EUropean Heliosphere FORecasting Information Asset (EUHFORIA) is used to perform a self-consistent 3D MHD simulation of the two CMEs in the heliosphere. The initial conditions of the CMEs are determined by combining observational insights near the Sun, fine-tuned to match the in situ observations near 1~au, and additional numerical experiments of each individual CME. By introducing CME1 before CME2 in the EUHFORIA simulation, we modelled the negative Bz component in the sheath region ahead of CME2 whose formation can be attributed to the interaction between CME1 and CME2. To reproduce the positive Bz component in the magnetic ejecta of CME2, we had to initialise CME2 with an orientation determined at 0.1~au and consistent with the orientation interpreted at 1~au, instead of the orientation observed during its eruption. EUHFORIA simulations suggest the possibility of a significant rotation of CME2 in the low corona in order to explain the in situ observations at 1~au. Coherent magnetic field rotations, potentially geoeffective, can be formed in the sheath region as a result of CME-CME interactions in the heliosphere even if the individual CMEs are not geoeffective.

6.New Evidence on the Origin of Solar Wind Microstreams/Switchbacks

Authors:Pankaj Kumar, Judith T. Karpen, Vadim M. Uritsky, Craig E. Deforest, Nour E. Raouafi, C. Richard DeVore, Spiro K. Antiochos

Abstract: Microstreams are fluctuations in the solar wind speed and density associated with polarity-reversing folds in the magnetic field (also denoted switchbacks). Despite their long heritage, the origin of these microstreams/switchbacks remains poorly understood. For the first time, we investigated periodicities in microstreams during Parker Solar Probe (PSP) Encounter 10 to understand their origin. Our analysis was focused on the inbound corotation interval on 2021 November 19-21, while the spacecraft dove toward a small area within a coronal hole (CH). Solar Dynamics Observatory remote-sensing observations provide rich context for understanding the PSP in-situ data. Extreme ultraviolet images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly reveal numerous recurrent jets occurring within the region that was magnetically connected to PSP during intervals that contained microstreams. The periods derived from the fluctuating radial velocities in the microstreams (approximately 3, 5, 10, and 20 minutes) are consistent with the periods measured in the emission intensity of the jetlets at the base of the CH plumes, as well as in larger coronal jets and in the plume fine structures. Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager magnetograms reveal the presence of myriad embedded bipoles, which are known sources of reconnection-driven jets on all scales. Simultaneous enhancements in the PSP proton flux and ionic ($^3$He, $^4$He, Fe, O) composition during the microstreams further support the connection with jetlets and jets. In keeping with prior observational and numerical studies of impulsive coronal activity, we conclude that quasiperiodic jets generated by interchange/breakout reconnection at CH bright points and plume bases are the most likely sources of the microstreams/switchbacks observed in the solar wind.

7.XUV emission of the young planet-hosting star V1298\,Tau from coordinated observations with XMM-Newton and HST

Authors:A. Maggio, I. Pillitteri, C. Argiroffi, S. Benatti, J. Sanz-Forcada, V. D'Orazi, K. Biazzo, F. Borsa, L. Cabona, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, D. Locci, D. Nardiello, L. Mancini, G. Micela, M. Rainer, R. Spinelli, A. Bignamini, M. Damasso

Abstract: Atmospheric mass loss plays a major role in the evolution of exoplanets. This process is driven by the stellar high-energy irradiation, especially in the first hundreds of millions of years after dissipation of the proto-planetary disk. A major source of uncertainty in modeling atmospheric photo-evaporation and photo-chemistry is due to the lack of direct measurements of the stellar flux at EUV wavelengths. Several empirical relationships have been proposed in the past to link EUV fluxes to emission levels in X-rays, but stellar samples employed for this aim are heterogeneous, and available scaling laws provide significantly different predictions, especially for very active stars. We present new UV and X-ray observations of V1298 Tau with HST/COS and XMM-Newton, aimed to determine more accurately the XUV emission of this solar-mass pre-Main Sequence star, which hosts four exoplanets. Spectroscopic data were employed to derive the plasma emission measure distribution vs.\ temperature, from the chromosphere to the corona, and the possible variability of this irradiation on short and year-long time scales, due to magnetic activity. As a side result, we have also measured the chemical abundances of several elements in the outer atmosphere of V1298 Tau. We employ our results as a new benchmark point for the calibration of the X-ray to EUV scaling laws, and hence to predict the time evolution of the irradiation in the EUV band, and its effect on the evaporation of exo-atmospheres.

1.Temperature and density dependence of line profiles of sodium perturbed by helium

Authors:N. F. Allard, K. Myneni, J. N. Blakely, G. Guillon

Abstract: Ultracool stellar atmospheres show absorption by alkali resonance lines severely broadened by collisions with neutral perturbers. In the coolest and densest atmospheres, such as those of T dwarfs, Na I and K I broadened by molecular hydrogen and helium can come to dominate the entire optical spectrum. The effects of NaHe collision broadening are also central to understanding the opacity of cool DZ white dwarf stars. In order to be able to construct synthetic spectra of brown dwarfs and cool DZ white dwarfs, where helium density can reach several 10^21~cm-3 NaHe line profiles of the resonance lines have been computed over a wide range of densities and temperatures. Unified line profiles that are valid from the core to the far wings at high densities are calculated in the semiclassical approach using up-to-date molecular data including in particular electronic spin-orbit coupling from the sodium atom. We present a comprehensive study of Na-He collisional profiles at high density, and temperatures from 5000~K, the temperature prevailing in the atmosphere of ultra-cool DZ white dwarf stars, down to 1~K, the temperature in liquid helium clusters. Collision broadening and shift parameters within the impact approximation obtained in the semiclassical and quantum theory using our new accurate molecular data are presented.

2.The Merging of a Coronal Dimming and the Southern Polar Coronal Hole

Authors:Nawin Ngampoopun, David M. Long, Deborah Baker, Lucie M. Green, Stephanie L. Yardley, Alexander W. James, Andy S. H. To

Abstract: We report on the merging between the southern polar coronal hole and an adjacent coronal dimming induced by a coronal mass ejection on 2022 March 18, resulting in the merged region persisting for at least 72 hrs. We use remote sensing data from multiple co-observing spacecraft to understand the physical processes during this merging event. The evolution of the merger is examined using Extreme-UltraViolet (EUV) images obtained from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory and Extreme Ultraviolet Imager onboard the Solar Orbiter spacecraft. The plasma dynamics are quantified using spectroscopic data obtained from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer onboard Hinode. The photospheric magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager are used to derive magnetic field properties. To our knowledge, this work is the first spectroscopical analysis of the merging of two open-field structures. We find that the coronal hole and the coronal dimming become indistinguishable after the merging. The upflow speeds inside the coronal dimming become more similar to that of a coronal hole, with a mixture of plasma upflows and downflows observable after the merging. The brightening of bright points and the appearance of coronal jets inside the merged region further imply ongoing reconnection processes. We propose that component reconnection between the coronal hole and coronal dimming fields plays an important role during this merging event, as the footpoint switching resulting from the reconnection allows the coronal dimming to intrude onto the boundary of the southern polar coronal hole.

3.Quantifying Uncertainties on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch Method

Authors:Barry F. Madore, Wendy L. Freedman Kayla A. Owens, In Sung Jang

Abstract: We present an extensive grid of numerical simulations quantifying the uncertainties in measurements of the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB). These simulations incorporate a luminosity function composed of 2 magnitudes of red giant branch (RGB) stars leading up to the tip, with asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars contributing exclusively to the luminosity function for at least a magnitude above the RGB tip. We quantify the sensitivity of the TRGB detection and measurement to three important error sources: (1) the sample size of stars near the tip, (2) the photometric measurement uncertainties at the tip, and (3) the degree of self-crowding of the RGB population. The self-crowding creates a population of supra-TRGB stars due to the blending of one or more RGB stars just below the tip. This last population is ultimately difficult, though still possible, to disentangle from true AGB stars. In the analysis given here, the precepts and general methodology as used in the Chicago-Carnegie Hubble Program (CCHP) has been followed. However, in the Appendix, we introduce and test a set of new tip detection kernels which internally incorporate self-consistent smoothing. These are generalizations of the two-step model used by the CCHP (smoothing followed by Sobel-filter tip detection), where the new kernels are based on successive binomial-coefficient approximations to the Derivative-of-a-Gaussian (DoG) edge detector, as is commonly used in modern digital image processing.

1.AREPO White Dwarf merger simulations resulting in edge-lit detonation and run-away hypervelocity companion

Authors:Uri Pierre Burmester, Lilia Ferrario, Rüdiger Pakmor, Ivo R. Seitenzahl, Ashley J. Ruiter, Matthew Hole

Abstract: We present a series of high-resolution simulations generated with the moving-mesh code AREPO to model the merger of a $1.1 \, \mathrm{M_\odot}$ carbon-oxygen primary white dwarf with an outer helium layer and a $0.35\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$ secondary helium white dwarf. Our simulations lead to detonations that are consistent with the edge-lit scenario, where a helium detonation is ignited at the base of the helium layer of the primary WD, which triggers an off-centre carbon detonation. This produces an asymmetric ejecta pattern and differences in line-of-sight observables (e.g. mean atomic weight). The ejecta that are flung into space are dominated by $^{56}\mathrm{Ni}$, $^{4}\mathrm{He}$, $^{28}\mathrm{Si}$, and $^{32}\mathrm{S}$. Our simulations result in a surviving degenerate companion of mass $0.22-0.25$ $\mathrm{M_\odot}$ moving at $>1\,700$ $\mathrm{km}\,\mathrm{s}^{-1}$, consistent with the observational findings of hypervelocity WDs. The secondary's surface layers are enriched by heavy metals, with $^{56}\mathrm{Ni}$ making up approximately $0.8 \%$ of the remaining mass. We also analyse the sensitivity of the outcome on simulation parameters, including the "inspiral time", which defines a period of accelerated angular momentum loss. We find that the choice of "inspiral time" qualitatively influences the simulation result, including the survival of the secondary. We argue that the shorter inspiral cases result in qualitatively and quantitatively similar outcomes. We also investigate the sensitivity of our results on the primary's chemical profile by comparing simulations using isothermal, constant composition models with the same mass and central composition and characterised by either a bare carbon-oxygen core (no helium) or a carbon-oxygen core enveloped by a thick helium layer.

2.ZZ Ceti stars of the southern ecliptic hemisphere re-observed by TESS

Authors:Zs. Bognár, Á. Sódor, I. R. Clark, S. D. Kawaler

Abstract: Context. In 2020, a publication presented the first-light results for 18 known ZZ Ceti stars observed by the TESS space telescope during the first survey observations of the southern ecliptic hemisphere. However, in the meantime, new measurements have become available from this field, in many cases with the new, 20s ultrashort cadence mode. Aims. We investigated the similarities and differences in the pulsational behaviour of the observed stars between the two observational seasons, and searched for new pulsation modes for asteroseismology. Methods. We performed Fourier analysis of the light curves using the standard pre-whitening process, and compared the results with frequencies obtained from the earlier data. Utilising the 2018 version of the White Dwarf Evolution Code, we also performed an asteroseismic analysis of the different stars. We searched for models with seismic distances in the vicinity of the Gaia geometric distances. Results. We detected several new possible pulsation modes of the studied pulsators. In the case of HE 0532-5605, we found a similar brightening phase to the one presented in the 2020 first-light paper, which means this phenomenon is recurring. Therefore, HE 0532-5605 appears to be a new outbursting DAV star. We also detected a lower-amplitude brightening phase in the star WD J0925+0509. However, this case has proven to be the result of the passage of a Solar System object in the foreground. We accept asteroseismic model solutions for six stars.

3.EPIC 206197016: A very hot white dwarf orbited by a strongly irradiated red dwarf

Authors:J. Krticka, A. Kawka, Z. Mikulasek, L. Fossati, I. Krtickova, M. Prvak, J. Janik, R. Liptaj, M. Zejda, E. Paunzen

Abstract: Very precise satellite photometry has revealed a large number of variable stars whose variability is caused either by surface spots or by binarity. Detailed studies of such variables provide insights into the physics of these objects. We study the nature of the periodic light variability of the white dwarf EPIC 206197016 that was observed by the K2 mission. We obtain phase-resolved medium-resolution spectroscopy of EPIC 206197016 using XSHOOTER spectrograph at VLT to understand the nature of the white dwarf variability. We use NLTE model atmospheres to determine stellar parameters at individual phases. EPIC 206197016 is a hot DA white dwarf with $T_\text{eff}=78\,$kK. The analysis of the spectra reveals periodic radial velocity variations that can result from gravitational interaction with an invisible secondary whose mass corresponds to a red dwarf. The close proximity of the two stars where the semimajor axis is about $3\,R_\odot$ results in the irradiation of the companion with temperatures more than twice as high on the illuminated side compared to the nonilluminated hemisphere. This effect can explain the observed light variations. The spectra of the white dwarf show a particular feature of the Balmer lines called the Balmer line problem, where the observed cores of the lower Balmer lines are deeper than predicted. This can be attributed to either weak pollution of hydrogen in the white dwarf atmosphere by heavy elements or to the presence of a circumstellar cloud or disk.

4.On the onset delays of solar energetic electrons and protons: Evidence for a common accelerator

Authors:R. D. Strauss, N. Dresing, I. G. Richardson, J. P. van den Berg, P. J. Steyn

Abstract: The processes responsible for the acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are still not well understood, including whether SEP electrons and protons are accelerated by common or separate processes. Using a numerical particle transport model that includes both pitch-angle and perpendicular spatial diffusion, we simulate, amongst other quantities, the onset delay for MeV electrons and protons and compare the results to observations of SEPs from widely-separated spacecraft. Such observations have previously been interpreted, in a simple scenario assuming no perpendicular diffusion, as evidence for different electron and proton sources. We show that, by assuming a common particle source together with perpendicular diffusion, we are able to simultaneously reproduce the onset delays for both electrons and protons. We argue that this points towards a common accelerator for these particles. Moreover, a relatively broad particle source is required in the model to correctly describe the observations. This is suggestive of diffusive shock acceleration occurring at large shock structures playing a significant role in the acceleration of these SEPs.

5.Solar Cycle Variation of 0.3-1.29 MeV/nucleon Heavy Ion Composition during Quiet Times near 1 AU in Solar Cycles 23 and 24

Authors:B. L. Alterman, Mihir I. Desai, Maher A. Dayeh, G. M. Mason, George Ho

Abstract: We report on the annual variation of quiet-time suprathermal ion composition for C through Fe using Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)/Ultra-Low Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ULEIS) data over the energy range 0.3 MeV/nuc to 1.28 MeV/nuc from 1998 through 2019, covering solar cycle 23's rising phase through Solar Cycle 24's declining phase. Our findings are (1) quiet time suprathermal abundances resemble CIR-associated particles during solar minima; (2) quiet time suprathermals are M/Q fractionated in a manner that is consistent with M/Q fractionation in large gradual solar energetic particle events (GSEP) during solar maxima; and (3) variability within the quiet time suprathermal pool increases as a function of M/Q and is consistent with the analogous variability in GSEP events. From these observations, we infer that quiet time suprathermal ions are remnants of CIRs in solar minima and GSEP events in solar maxima. Coincident with these results, we also unexpectedly show that S behaves like a low FIP ion in the suprathermal regime and therefore drawn from low FIP solar sources.

6.Understanding Sun-as-a-star variability of solar Balmer lines

Authors:Serena Criscuoli, Sergey Marchenko, Matthew DeLand, Debi Choudhary, Greg Kopp

Abstract: Precise, high-cadence, long-term records of stellar spectral variability at different temporal scales lead to better understanding of a wide variety of phenomena including stellar atmospheres and dynamos, convective motions, and rotational periods. Here, we investigate the variability of solar Balmer lines (H-$\alpha$, -$\beta$, -$\gamma$, -$\delta$) observed by space-borne radiometers (OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2), combining these precise, long-term observations with high-resolution data from the ground-based NSO/ISS spectrograph. We relate the detected variability to the appearance of magnetic features on the solar disk. We find that on solar-rotational timescales (about 1 month), the Balmer line activity indices (defined as line-core to line-wing ratios) closely follow variations in the total solar irradiance (which is predominantly photospheric), thus frequently (specifically, during passages of sunspot groups) deviating from behavior of activity indices that track chromospheric activity levels. On longer timescales, the correlation with chromospheric indices increases, with periods of low- or even anti-correlation found at intermediate timescales. Comparison of these observations with estimates from semi-empirical irradiance reconstructions helps quantify the contributions of different magnetic and quiet features. We conclude that both the lower sensitivity to network and in part the higher sensitivity to filaments and prominences, may result in complex, time-dependent relationships between Balmer and other chromospheric indices observed for the Sun and solar-like stars. The fact that core and wings contribute in similar manner to the variability, and current knowledge of Balmer-lines formation in stellar atmospheres, support the notion that Balmer lines core-to-wing ratios indices behave more like photospheric rather than chromospheric indices.

1.NGTS clusters survey $-$ V: Rotation in the Orion Star-forming Complex

Authors:Gareth D. Smith, Edward Gillen, Simon T. Hodgkin, Douglas R. Alves, David R. Anderson, Matthew P. Battley, Matthew R. Burleigh, Sarah L. Casewell, Samuel Gill, Michael R. Goad, Beth A. Henderson, James S. Jenkins, Alicia Kendall, Maximiliano Moyano, Gavin Ramsay, Rosanna H. Tilbrook, Jose I. Vines, Richard G. West, Peter J. Wheatley

Abstract: We present a study of rotation across 30 square degrees of the Orion Star-forming Complex, following a $\sim$200 d photometric monitoring campaign by the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS). From 5749 light curves of Orion members, we report periodic signatures for 2268 objects and analyse rotation period distributions as a function of colour for 1789 stars with spectral types F0$-$M5. We select candidate members of Orion using $\textit{Gaia}$ data and assign our targets to kinematic sub-groups. We correct for interstellar extinction on a star-by-star basis and determine stellar and cluster ages using magnetic and non-magnetic stellar evolutionary models. Rotation periods generally lie in the range 1$-$10 d, with only 1.5 per cent of classical T Tauri stars or Class I/II young stellar objects rotating with periods shorter than 1.8 d, compared with 14 per cent of weak-line T Tauri stars or Class III objects. In period$-$colour space, the rotation period distribution moves towards shorter periods among low-mass (>M2) stars of age 3$-$6 Myr, compared with those at 1$-$3 Myr, with no periods longer than 10 d for stars later than M3.5. This could reflect a mass-dependence for the dispersal of circumstellar discs. Finally, we suggest that the turnover (from increasing to decreasing periods) in the period$-$colour distributions may occur at lower mass for the older-aged population: $\sim$K5 spectral type at 1$-$3 Myr shifting to $\sim$M1 at 3$-$6 Myr.

2.Magnetic Fields of New CP Stars Discovered with Kepler Mission Data

Authors:I. A. Yakunin, E. A. Semenko, I. I. Romanyuk, A. V. Moiseeva, V. N. Aitov

Abstract: The paper presents the first results of the ongoing spectropolarimetric monitoring of magnetic fields of stars, whose chemically peculiar nature has been previously revealed with the 1-m SAO RAS telescope. We selected the sample candidates using the photometric data of the Kepler and TESS space missions. The efficiency of the method of searching for new CP stars based on photometric light curves has been confirmed. We present the magnetic field measurements and estimate the atmospheric parameters of the objects under study.

3.On the nature of the planet-powered transient event ZTF SLRN-2020

Authors:Noam Soker Technion, Israel

Abstract: The Red Nova ZTF SLRN-2020 is the third transient event with properties that are compatible with the merger of a planet with a main sequence (or close to) star on a dynamical timescale. While the two first transient events occurred in young systems, ZTF SLRN-2020 occurred in an old system. Nonetheless, I show that the three star-planet intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs, also termed Red Novae) occupy the same area in the energy-time diagram of ILOTs. Based on models for ILOTs that are power by stellar binary interaction I suggest that the planet in ZTF SLRN-2020 launched jets at about its escape speed before it was engulfed by the star. Interestingly, the escape speed from the planet is similar to the orbital speed of the planet. This leads to an outflow with a very low terminal velocity, much below the escape velocity from the star, and in concentration around ~45 degrees to the equatorial plane. As well, the planet might have lost back some of the accreted mass just before engulfment, forming an accretion disk around the star. This disk might have launched jets during the main outburst of the event. The jets form a bipolar expanding nebula.

1.The first massive compact companion in a wide orbit around a hot subdwarf star

Authors:S. Geier, M. Dorsch, H. Dawson, I. Pelisoli, J. Munday, T. R. Marsh, V. Schaffenroth, U. Heber

Abstract: We report the discovery of the first hot subdwarf B (sdB) star with a massive compact companion in a wide ($P=892.5\pm60.2\,{\rm d}$) binary system. It was discovered based on an astrometric binary solution provided by the Gaia mission Data Release 3. We performed detailed analyses of the spectral energy distribution (SED) as well as spectroscopic follow-up observations and confirm the nature of the visible component as a sdB star. The companion is invisible despite of its high mass of $M_{\rm comp}=1.50_{-0.45}^{+0.37}\,M_{\rm \odot}$. A main sequence star of this mass would significantly contribute to the SED and can be excluded. The companion must be a compact object, either a massive white dwarf or a neutron star. Stable Roche lobe overflow to the companion likely led to the stripping of a red giant and the formation of the sdB, the hot and exposed helium core of the giant. Based on very preliminary data, we estimate that $\sim9\%$ of the sdBs might be formed through this new channel. This binary might also be the prototype for a new progenitor class of supernovae type Ia, which has been predicted by theory.

2.V618 Sgr: Galactic eclipsing symbiotic nova detected in repeated outbursts

Authors:J. Merc, R. Gális, P. Velez, S. Charbonnel, O. Garde, P. Le Dû, L. Mulato, T. Petit, T. Bohlsen, S. Curry, T. Love, H. Barker

Abstract: V618 Sgr was previously classified as an R CrB-type variable and later as a possible symbiotic star. Our study aims to analyse the nature of this target, which is currently undergoing significant brightening in properties similar to those of known symbiotic novae. We analyse literature information, photometric observations, and 35 new optical spectra. Our findings strongly suggest that V618 Sgr is an eclipsing symbiotic nova currently in outburst. Additionally, since the star has demonstrated at least two similar brightenings in the past, we propose that V618 Sgr could be the first known galactic symbiotic nova observed in repeated outbursts of this type and may host a relatively massive white dwarf.

3.Compressible Turbulence in the Near-Sun Solar Wind: Parker Solar Probe's First Eight Perihelia

Authors:Manuel Enrique Cuesta, Rohit Chhiber, Xiangrong Fu, Senbei Du, Yan Yang, Francesco Pecora, William H. Matthaeus, Hui Li, John Steinberg, Fan Guo, Zhaoming Gan, Emma Conrad, Diana Swanson

Abstract: Many questions remain about the compressibility of solar wind turbulence with respect to its origins and properties. Low plasma beta (ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) environments allow for the easier generation of compressible turbulence, enabling study of the relationship between density fluctuations and turbulent Mach number. Utilizing Parker Solar Probe plasma data, we examine the normalized proton density fluctuations $\langle \delta n_p^2 \rangle ^{1/2}/\langle n_p\rangle = \delta {n_p}_{rms}/\langle n_p\rangle$ as a function of turbulent Mach number $M_t$ conditioned on plasma beta and cross helicity. With consideration of statistical error in the parameters computed from in-situ data, we find a general result that $\delta {n_p}_{rms}/\langle n_p\rangle \sim M_t^{1.18 \pm 0.04}$, consistent with both linear-wave theory, and nearly-incompressible turbulence in an inhomogeneous background field. We compare observational results conditioned on plasma beta and cross helicity with 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and observe rather significant similarities with respect to how those parameters affect the proportionality between density fluctuations and turbulent Mach number. This study further investigates the complexity of compressible turbulence as viewed by the density scaling relationship, and may help better understand the compressible environment of the near-Sun solar wind.

4.The surprising evolution of the shadow on the TW Hya disk

Authors:J. Debes, R. Nealon, R. Alexander, A. J. Weinberger, S. G. Wolff, D. Hines, J. Kastner, H. Jang-Condell, C. Pinte, P. Plavchan, L. Pueyo

Abstract: We report new total intensity visible light high contrast imaging of the TW Hya disk taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This represents the first published images of the disk with STIS since 2016, when a moving shadow on the disk surface was reported. We continue to see the shadow moving in a counter-clockwise fashion, but in these new images the shadow has evolved into two separate shadows, implying a change in behavior for the occulting structure. Based on radiative transfer models of optically thick disk structures casting shadows, we infer that a plausible explanation for the change is that there are now two misaligned components of the inner disk. The first of these disks is located between 5-6au with an inclination of 5.5\arcdeg and PA of 170\arcdeg, the second between 6-7au with and inclination of 7\arcdeg and PA of 50\arcdeg. Finally, we speculate on the implications of the new shadow structure and determine that additional observations are needed to disentangle the nature of TW Hya's inner disk architecture.

5.Influence of the Lower Atmosphere on Wave Heating and Evaporation in Solar Coronal Loops

Authors:Mingzhe Guo, Timothy Duckenfield, Tom Van Doorsselaere, Konstantinos Karampelas, Gabriel Pelouze, Yuhang gao

Abstract: We model a coronal loop as a three-dimensional magnetic cylinder in a realistic solar atmosphere that extends from the chromosphere to the corona. Kink oscillations, believed ubiquitous in the solar corona, are launched in the loop. Heating is expected due to the dissipation of wave energy at small structures that develop from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability induced by kink oscillations. Increases in temperature and internal energy can be observed in the coronal counterpart of the driven loop. With the presence of thermal conduction, chromospheric evaporation can also be seen. Although the volume averaged temperature and density changes seem slight ($\sim4\%$ relative to a non-driven loop), the enthalpy flow from the lower atmosphere redistributes the density and temperature in the vertical direction, thus enhancing the dissipation of wave energy in the corona. The efficient heating in the coronal counterpart of the loop can complement the thermal conductive losses shown in the current model and thus maintain the internal energy in the corona.

1.On the propagation of gravity waves in the lower solar atmosphere in different magnetic configurations

Authors:Hirdesh Kumar, Brajesh Kumar, S. P. Rajaguru

Abstract: Gravity waves are generated by turbulent subsurface convection overshooting or penetrating locally into a stably stratified medium. While propagating energy upwards, their characteristic negative phase shift over height is a well-recognized observational signature. Since their first detailed observational detection and estimates of energy content, a number of studies have explored their propagation characteristics and interaction with magnetic fields and other wave modes in the solar atmosphere. Here, we present a study of the atmospheric gravity wave dispersion diagrams utilizing intensity observations that cover photospheric to chromospheric heights over different magnetic configurations of quiet-Sun (magnetic network regions), a plage, and a sunspot as well as velocity observations within the photospheric layer over a quiet and a sunspot region. In order to investigate the propagation characteristics, we construct two-height intensity - intensity and velocity-velocity cross-spectra and study phase and coherence signals in the wavenumber-frequency dispersion diagrams and their association with background magnetic fields. We find signatures of association between magnetic fields and much reduced coherence and phase shifts over height from intensity-intensity and velocity-velocity phase and coherence diagrams, both indicating suppression/scattering of gravity waves by the magnetic fields. Our results are consistent with the earlier numerical simulations, which indicate that gravity waves are suppressed or scattered and reflected back into the lower solar atmosphere in the presence of magnetic fields.

2.Small-scale dynamos: From idealized models to solar and stellar applications

Authors:Matthias Rempel, Tanayveer Bhatia, Luis Bellot Rubio, Maarit J. Korpi-Lagg

Abstract: In this article we review small-scale dynamo processes that are responsible for magnetic field generation on scales comparable to and smaller than the energy carrying scales of turbulence. We provide a review of critical observation of quiet Sun magnetism, which have provided strong support for the operation of a small-scale dynamo in the solar photosphere and convection zone. After a review of basic concepts we focus on numerical studies of kinematic growth and non-linear saturation in idealized setups, with special emphasis on the role of the magnetic Prandtl number for dynamo onset and saturation. Moving towards astrophysical applications we review convective dynamo setups that focus on the deep convection zone and the photospheres of solar-like stars. We review the critical ingredients for stellar convection setups and discuss their application to the Sun and solar-like stars including comparison against available observations.

3.Carbon dredge-up required to explain the Gaia white dwarf colour-magnitude bifurcation

Authors:Simon Blouin, Antoine Bédard, Pier-Emmanuel Tremblay

Abstract: The Gaia colour-magnitude diagram reveals a striking separation between hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs and their helium-atmosphere counterparts throughout a significant portion of the white dwarf cooling track. However, pure-helium atmospheres have Gaia magnitudes that are too close to the pure-hydrogen case to explain this bifurcation. To reproduce the observed split in the cooling sequence, it has been shown that trace amounts of hydrogen and/or metals must be present in the helium-dominated atmospheres of hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs. Yet, a complete explanation of the Gaia bifurcation that takes into account known constraints on the spectral evolution of white dwarfs has thus far not been proposed. In this work, we attempt to provide such a holistic explanation by performing population synthesis simulations coupled with state-of-the-art model atmospheres and evolutionary calculations that account for element transport in the envelopes of white dwarfs. By relying on empirically grounded assumptions, these simulations successfully reproduce the bifurcation. We show that the convective dredge-up of optically invisible traces of carbon from the deep interior is crucial to account for the observations. Neither the convective dilution/mixing of residual hydrogen nor the accretion of hydrogen or metals can be the dominant drivers of the bifurcation. Finally, we emphasize the importance of improving the equation of state of partially ionized carbon in warm dense helium, a key input for our predictions of the amount of dredged-up carbon.

1.Accuracy analysis of the on-board data reduction pipeline for the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager on the Solar Orbiter mission

Authors:Kinga Albert, Johann Hirzberger, J. Sebastián Castellanos Durán, David Orozco Suárez, Joachim Woch, Harald Michalik, Sami K. Solanki

Abstract: Scientific data reduction on-board deep space missions is a powerful approach to maximise science return, in the absence of wide telemetry bandwidths. The Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI) on-board the Solar Orbiter (SO) is the first solar spectropolarimeter that opted for this solution, and provides the scientific community with science-ready data directly from orbit. This is the first instance of full solar spectropolarimetric data reduction on a spacecraft. In this paper, we analyse the accuracy achieved by the on-board data reduction, which is determined by the trade-offs taken to reduce computational demands and to ensure the autonomous operation of the instrument during the data reduction process. We look at the magnitude and nature of errors introduced in the different pipeline steps of the processing. We use an MHD sunspot simulation to isolate the data processing from other sources of inaccuracy. We process the data set with calibration data obtained from SO/PHI in orbit, and compare results calculated on a representative SO/PHI model on ground with a reference implementation of the same pipeline, without the on-board processing trade-offs. Our investigation shows that the accuracy in the Stokes vectors, achieved by the data processing, is at least two orders of magnitude better than what the instrument was designed to achieve. We also found that the errors in the physical parameters are within the accuracy of typical RTE inversions with Milne-Eddington approximation of the atmosphere. This paper demonstrates that the on-board data reduction of the data from SO/PHI does not compromise the accuracy of the processing. This places on-board data processing as a viable alternative for future scientific instruments that would need more telemetry than many missions are able to provide, in particular those in deep space.

2.Self-consistent propagation of flux ropes in realistic coronal simulations

Authors:L. Linan, F. Regnault, B. Perri, M. Brchnelova, B. Kuzma, A. Lani, S. Poedts, B. Schmieder

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the possible use of the new coronal model COCONUT to compute a detailed representation of a numerical CME at 0.1~AU, after its injection at the solar surface and propagation in a realistic solar wind, as derived from observed magnetograms. We present the implementation and propagation of modified Titov-D\'emoulin (TDm) flux ropes in the COCONUT 3D MHD coronal model. The background solar wind is reconstructed in order to model two opposite configurations representing a solar activity maximum and minimum respectively. Both were derived from magnetograms which were obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) satellite. We track the propagation of 24 flux ropes, which differ only by their initial magnetic flux. We especially investigate the geometry of the flux rope during the early stages of the propagation as well as the influence of its initial parameters and solar wind configuration on 1D profiles derived at 0.1~AU. At the beginning of the propagation, the shape of the flux ropes varies between simulations during low and high solar activity. We find dynamics that are consistent with the standard CME model, such as the pinching of the legs and the appearance of post-flare loops. Despite the differences in geometry, the synthetic density and magnetic field time profiles at 0.1~AU are very similar in both solar wind configurations. These profiles are similar to those observed further in the heliosphere and suggest the presence of a magnetic ejecta composed of the initially implemented flux rope and a sheath ahead of it. Finally, we uncover relationships between the properties of the magnetic ejecta, such as density or speed and the initial magnetic flux of our flux ropes.

3.A hidden population of white dwarfs with atmospheric carbon traces in the Gaia bifurcation

Authors:Maria Camisassa, Santiago Torres, Mark Hollands, Detlev Koester, Roberto Raddi, Leandro G. Althaus, Alberto Rebassa-Mansergas

Abstract: The ESA Gaia space mission has revealed a bifurcation of the white dwarf (WD) sequence on the color magnitude diagram in two branches: A and B. While the A branch consists mostly of WDs with H-rich atmospheres, the B branch is not completely understood. Although invoked to be populated mainly by He-rich WDs, the B branch overlaps a $\sim 0.8M_\odot$ evolutionary track with a pure He envelope, fact that would imply an unexpected peak in the WD mass distribution. In cold He-rich WDs, it is expected that the outer convective zone penetrates into deep C-rich layers, thus leading to a slight C contamination in their surfaces at $\sim 10,000$K. Here we aim at studying the Gaia bifurcation as the natural consequence of C dredge-up by convection in cold He-dominated WDs. Relying on accurate atmosphere models, we provide a new set of evolutionary models for He-rich WDs employing different prescriptions for the C enrichment. On the basis of these models, we made a population synthesis study of the Gaia 100pc WD sample to constrain the models that best fit the bifurcation. Our study shows that He-rich WD models with a slight C contamination below the optical detection limit can accurately reproduce the Gaia bifurcation. We refer to these stars as stealth DQ WDs because they do not exhibit detectable C signatures in their optical spectra, but the presence of C in their atmosphere produces a continuum absorption favouring the emission in bluer wavelengths, thereby creating the B branch of the bifurcation. Also, we show that the mass distribution for He-rich WDs obtained when a stealth C contamination is considered is consistent with the mass distribution for H-rich WDs and with the standard evolutionary channels for their formation. We conclude that stealth DQ WDs can account for the lower branch in the Gaia bifurcation. The C signatures of these stars could be detectable in Ultra-Violet spectra.

4.Observationally guided models for the solar dynamo and the role of the surface field

Authors:Robert Cameron, Manfred Schüssler

Abstract: Theoretical models for the solar dynamo range from simple low-dimensional ``toy models'' to complex 3D-MHD simulations. Here we mainly discuss appproaches that are motivated and guided by solar (and stellar) observations. We give a brief overview of the evolution of solar dynamo models since 1950s, focussing upon the development of the Babcock-Leighton approach between its introduction in the 1960s and its revival in the 1990s after being long overshadowed by mean-field turbulent dynamo theory. We summarize observations and simple theoretical deliberations that demonstrate the crucial role of the surface fields in the dynamo process and and give quantitative analyses of the generation and loss of toroidal flux in the convection zone as well as of the production of poloidal field resulting from flux emergence at the surface. Furthermore, we discuss possible nonlinearities in the dynamo process suggested by observational results and present models for the long-term variability of solar activity motivated by observations of magnetically active stars and the inherent randomness of the dynamo process.

5.Reconnection generated plasma flows in the quasi-separatrix layer in localised solar corona

Authors:Sripan Mondal, A. K. Srivastava, Sudheer K. Mishra, K. Sangal, Pradeep Kayshap, Yang Guo, David I. Pontin, Vadim M. Uritsky, Leon Ofman, T. -J. Wang, Ding Yuan

Abstract: Multiwavelength observations of the propagating disturbances (PDs), discovered by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), are analyzed to determine its driving mechanism and physical nature. Two magnetic strands in the localised corona are observed to approach and merge with each other followed by the generation of brightening, which further propagates in a cusp-shaped magnetic channel. Differential emission measure analysis shows an occurrence of heating in this region-of-interest (ROI). We extrapolate potential magnetic field lines at coronal heights from observed Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetogram via Green's function method using MPI-AMRVAC. We analyze the field to locate magnetic nulls and quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) which are preferential locations for magnetic reconnection. Dominant QSLs including a magnetic null are found to exist and match the geometry followed by PDs, therefore, it provides conclusive evidence of magnetic reconnection. In addition, spectroscopic analysis of Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Si IV 1393.77 {\AA} line profiles show a rise of line-width in the same time range depicting presence of mass motion in the observed cusp-shaped region. PDs are observed to exhibit periodicities of around four minutes. The speeds of PDs measured by Surfing Transform Technique are almost close to each other in four different SDO/AIA bandpasses, i.e., 304, 171, 193 and 131 {\AA} excluding the interpretation of PDs in terms of slow magnetoacoustic waves. We describe comprehensively the observed PDs as quasi-periodic plasma flows generated due to periodic reconnection in vicinity of a coronal magnetic null.

6.Evidence for multiple nucleosynthetic processes from carbon enhanced metal-poor stars in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy

Authors:T. T. Hansen, J. D. Simon, T. S. Li, A. Frebel, I. Thompson, S. Shectman

Abstract: Context: Carbon Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars ($\mathrm{[C/Fe]} > 0.7$) are known to exist in large numbers at low metallicity in the Milky Way halo and are important tracers of early Galactic chemical evolution. However, very few such stars have been identified in the classical dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, and detailed abundances, including neutron-capture element abundances, have only been reported for 12 stars. Aims: We aim to derive detailed abundances of six CEMP stars identified in the Carina dSph and compare the abundances to CEMP stars in other dSph galaxies and the Milky Way halo. This is the largest sample of CEMP stars in a dSph galaxy analysed to date. Methods: 1D LTE elemental abundances are derived via equivalent width and spectral synthesis using high-resolution spectra of the six stars obtained with the MIKE spectrograph at Las Campanas Observatory. Results: Abundances or upper limits are derived for up to 27 elements from C to Os in the six stars. The analysis reveals one of the stars to be a CEMP-no star with very low neutron-capture element abundances. In contrast, the other five stars all show enhancements in neutron-capture elements in addition to their carbon enhancement, classifying them as CEMP-$s$ and -$r/s$ stars. The six stars have similar $\alpha$ and iron-peak element abundances as other stars in Carina, except for the CEMP-no star, which shows enhancement in Na, Mg, and Si. We explore the absolute carbon abundances ($A(\rm C)$) of CEMP stars in dSph galaxies and find similar behaviour as is seen for Milky Way halo CEMP stars, but highlight that CEMP-$r/s$ stars primarily have very high $A(\rm C)$ values. We also compare the neutron-capture element abundances of the CEMP-$r/s$ stars in our sample to recent $i$-process yields, which provide a good match to the derived abundances.

1.Structural Analysis of Open Cluster Bochum 2

Authors:Harmeen Kaur, Saurabh Sharma, Alok Durgapal, Lokesh K Dewangan, Aayushi Verma, Neelam Panwar, Rakesh Pandey, Arpan Ghosh

Abstract: We present the results from our deep optical photometric observations of Bochum 2 (Boc2) star cluster obtained using the $1.3$m Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope along with archival photometric data from Pan-STARRS2/2MASS/UKIDSS surveys. We also used high-quality parallax and proper motion data from the $Gaia$ Data Release 3. We found that the Boc2 cluster has a small size ($\sim$1.1 pc) and circular morphology. Using $Gaia$ parallax of member stars and isochrone fitting method, the distance of this cluster is estimated as $3.8\pm0.4$ kpc. We have found that this cluster holds young ($\sim5$ Myr) and massive (O$7-$O$9$) stars as well as an older population of low mass stars. We found that the massive stars have formed in the inner region of the Boc2 cluster in a recent epoch of star formation. We have derived mass function slope ($\Gamma$) in the cluster region as $-2.42\pm0.13$ in the mass range $\sim0.72<$M/M$_{\odot}<2.8$. The tidal radius of the Boc2 cluster ($\sim7-9$) is much more than its observed radius ($\sim1.1$ pc). This suggests that most of the low-mass stars in this cluster are the remains of an older population of stars formed via an earlier epoch of star formation.

2.Effects of the centrifugal force on stellar dynamo simulations

Authors:Felipe H. Navarrete, Petri J. Käpylä, Dominik R. G. Schleicher, Robi Banerjee

Abstract: The centrifugal force is often omitted in simulations of stellar convection. This force might be important in rapidly rotating stars such as solar analogues due to its $\Omega^2$ scaling, where $\Omega$ is the rotation rate of the star. We study the effects of the centrifugal force in a set of 21 semi-global stellar dynamo simulations with varying rotation rates. Among these, we include three control runs aimed at distinguishing the effects of the centrifugal force from the nonlinear evolution of the solutions. We solve the 3D MHD equations with the Pencil Code in a solar-like convective zone in a spherical wedge setup with a $2\pi$ azimuthal extent. We decompose the magnetic field in spherical harmonics and study the migration of azimuthal dynamo waves (ADWs), energy of different large-scale magnetic modes, and differential rotation. In the regime with the lowest rotation rates, $\Omega = 5-10\Omega_\odot$, where $\Omega_\odot$ is the rotation rate of the Sun, we see no marked changes in neither the differential rotation nor the magnetic field properties. For intermediate rotation with $\Omega = 20-25\Omega_\odot$ we identify an increase of the differential rotation as a function of centrifugal force. The axisymmetric magnetic energy tends to decrease with centrifugal force while the non-axisymmetric one increases. The ADWs are also affected, especially the propagation direction. In the most rapidly rotating set with $\Omega=30\Omega_\odot$, these changes are more pronounced and in one case the propagation direction of the ADW changes from prograde to retrograde. Control runs suggest that the results are a consequence of the centrifugal force and not due to the details of the initial conditions or the history of the run. We find that the differential rotation and properties of the ADWs change as a function of the centrifugal force only when rotation is rapid enough.

3.Massive pre-main-sequence stars in M17: $1^{\rm st}$ and $2^{\rm nd}$ overtone CO bandhead emission and the thermal infrared

Authors:J. Poorta, M. C. Ramírez-Tannus, A. de Koter, F. Backs, A. Derkink, A. Bik, L. Kaper

Abstract: Recently much progress has been made in probing the embedded stages of massive star formation, pointing to formation scenarios akin to a scaled up version of low-mass star formation. However, the latest stages of massive star formation have rarely been observed. Using 1st and 2nd overtone CO bandhead emission and near- to mid-infrared photometry we aim to characterize the remnant formation disks around 5 unique pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars with masses $6-12~\rm M_{\odot}$, that have constrained stellar parameters thanks to their detectable photospheres. We seek to understand this emission and the disks it originates from in the context of the evolutionary stage of the studied sources. We use an analytic LTE disk model to fit the CO bandhead and the dust emission, found to originate in different disk regions. For the first time we modeled the 2nd overtone emission. Furthermore, we fit continuum normalized bandheads and show the importance of this in constraining the emission region. We also include $^{13}\rm CO$ in our models as an additional probe of the young nature of the studied objects. We find that the CO emission originates in a narrow region close to the star (<1 AU) and under very similar disk conditions (temperatures and densities) for the different objects. This is consistent with previous modeling of this emission in a diverse range of young stellar objects. We discuss these results in the context of the positions of these PMS stars in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram and the CO emission's association with early age and high accretion rates in (massive) young stellar objects. We conclude that, considering their mass range and for the fact that their photospheres are detected, the M17 PMS stars are observed in a relatively early formation stage. They are therefore excellent candidates for longer wavelength studies to further constrain the end stages of massive star formation.

4.Analytical and Numerical Analysis of Circumbinary Disk Dynamics -- I: Coplanar Systems

Authors:Siddharth Mahesh, Sean T. McWilliams, Michal Pirog

Abstract: We present an analytical and numerical study of a system composed of a stellar binary pair and a massless, locally isothermal viscous accretion disk that is coplanar to the binary orbital plane. Analytically, we study the effect of the binary's gravitational potential over short timescales through the study of stability for epicyclic orbits, and over long timescales by revisiting the concept of resonant torques. Numerically, we perform two-dimensional Newtonian numerical simulations of the disk-binary system over a range of binary mass ratios. We find that the results of our simulations are consistent with previous numerical studies. We additionally show, by comparison of the analytical and numerical results, that the circumbinary gap is maintained on the orbital timescale through the driving of epicyclic instabilities, and does not depend on resonant torquing, contrary to standard lore. While our results are applicable to any disk-binary system, we highlight the importance of this result in the search for electromagnetic and gravitational-wave signatures from supermassive black-hole binaries.

5.Direct assessment of SDO/HMI helioseismology of active regions on the Sun's far side using SO/PHI magnetograms

Authors:D. Yang, L. Gizon, H. Barucq, J. Hirzberger, D. Orozco Suárez, K. Albert, N. Albelo Jorge, T. Appourchaux, A. Alvarez-Herrero, J. Blanco Rodríguez, A. Gandorfer, D. Germerott, L. Guerrero, P. Gutierrez-Marques, F. Kahil, M. Kolleck, S. K. Solanki, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, R. Volkmer, J. Woch, I. Pérez-Grande, E. Sanchis Kilders, M. Balaguer Jiménez, L. R. Bellot Rubio, D. Calchetti, M. Carmona, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, G. Fernandez-Rico, A. Fernández-Medina, P. García Parejo, J. L. Gasent Blesa, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, A. Korpi-Lagg, T. Lange, A. López Jiménez, T. Maue, R. Meller, A. Moreno Vacas, R. Müller, E. Nakai, W. Schmidt, J. Schou, U. Schühle, J. Sinjan, J. Staub, H. Strecker, I. Torralbo, G. Valori

Abstract: Earth-side observations of solar p modes can be used to image and monitor magnetic activity on the Sun's far side. Here we use magnetograms of the far side obtained by the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI) onboard Solar Orbiter (SO) to directly assess -- for the first time -- the validity of far-side helioseismic holography. We wish to co-locate the positions of active regions in helioseismic images and magnetograms, and to calibrate the helioseismic measurements in terms of magnetic field strength. We identify three magnetograms on 18 November 2020, 3 October 2021, and 3 February 2022 displaying a total of six active regions on the far side. The first two dates are from SO's cruise phase, the third from the beginning of the nominal operation phase. We compute contemporaneous seismic phase maps for these three dates using helioseismic holography applied to time series of Dopplergrams from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Among the six active regions seen in SO/PHI magnetograms, five active regions are identified on the seismic maps at almost the same positions as on the magnetograms. One region is too weak to be detected above the seismic noise. To calibrate the seismic maps, we fit a linear relationship between the seismic phase shifts and the unsigned line-of-sight magnetic field averaged over the active region areas extracted from the SO/PHI magnetograms. SO/PHI provides the strongest evidence so far that helioseismic imaging provides reliable information about active regions on the far side, including their positions, areas, and mean unsigned magnetic field.

6.Theoretical tidal evolution constants for stellar models from the pre-main sequence to the white dwarf stage Apsidal motion constants, moment of inertia, and gravitational potential energy

Authors:A. Claret

Abstract: One of the most reliable means of studying the stellar interior is through the apsidal motion in double line eclipsing binary systems since these systems present errors in masses, radii, and effective temperatures of only a few per cent. On the other hand, the theoretical values of the apsidal motion to be compared with the observed values depend on the stellar masses of the components and more strongly on their radii (fifth power).The main objective of this work is to make available grids of evolutionary stellar models that, in addition to the traditional parameters (e.g. age, mass, log g, T$_{\rm eff}$), also contain the necessary parameters for the theoretical study of apsidal motion and tidal evolution. This information is useful for the study of the apsidal motion in eclipsing binaries and their tidal evolution, and can also be used for the same purpose in exoplanetary systems. All models were computed using the MESA package. We consider core overshooting for models with masses $\ge$ 1.2 M$_\odot$. For the amount of core overshooting we adopted a recent relationship for mass $\times$ core overshooting. We adopted for the mixing-length parameter $\alpha_{\rm MLT}$ the value 1.84 (the solar-calibrated value). Mass loss was taken into account in two evolutionary phases. The models were followed from the pre-main sequence phase to the white dwarf (WD) stage.The evolutionary models containing age,luminosity, log g, and Teff, as well as the first three harmonics of the internal stellar structure (k$_2$, k$_3$, and k$_4$), the radius of gyration $\beta$ y, and the dimensionless variable $\alpha$, related to gravitational potential energy, are presented in 69 tables covering three chemical compositions: [Fe/H] = -0.50, 0.00, and 0.50. Additional models with different input physics are available.

1.The Effelsberg survey of FU~Orionis and EX~Lupi objects II. -- H$_2$O maser observations

Authors:Zs. M. Szabó, Y. Gong, W. Yang, K. M. Menten, O. S. Bayandina, C. J. Cyganowski, Á. Kóspál, P. Ábrahám, A. Belloche, F. Wyrowski

Abstract: FU Orionis (FUor) and EX Lupi (EXor) type objects are two groups of peculiar and rare pre-main sequence low-mass stars that are undergoing powerful accretion outbursts during their early stellar evolution. Water masers are widespread in star forming regions and are powerful probes of mass accretion and ejection, but little is known about the prevalence of them toward FUors/EXors. We perform the first systematic search for the 22.2 GHz water maser line in FUors/EXors to determine its overall incidence to perform follow-up high angular resolution observations. We used the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope to observe the 22.2 GHz H2O maser toward a sample of 51 objects. We detect 5 water masers; 3 are associated with eruptive stars, resulting in a 6% detection rate for eruptive sources. These detections include one EXor, V512 Per (also known as SVS 13 or SVS 13A), and two FUors, Z CMa and HH 354 IRS. This is the first reported detection of water maser emission towards HH 354 IRS. We detect water maser emission in our pointing towards the FUor binary RNO 1B/1C, which most likely originates from the nearby deeply embedded source IRAS 00338+6312 (~4'', from RNO 1B/1C). Emission was also detected from H$_2$O(B) (also known as SVS 13C), a Class 0 source ~30'', from the EXor V512 Per. The peak flux density of H$_2$O(B) in our observations, 498.7 Jy, is the highest observed to date. In addition to the two non-eruptive Class 0 sources (IRAS 00338+6312 and H$_2$O(B) /SVS 13C), we detect maser emission towards one Class 0/I (HH 354 IRS) and two Class I (V512 Per and Z CMa) eruptive stars. We demonstrate the presence of 22.2 GHz water maser emission in FUor/EXor systems, opening the way to radio interferometric observations to study these eruptive stars on small scales. Comparing our data with historical observations suggest that multiple water maser flares have occurred in both V512 Per and H$_2$O(B).

2.Limitations and biases in the retrieval of the polar magnetic field I: the role of the magnetic filling factor in Milne-Eddington inversions of simulated Hinode/SP data

Authors:Rebecca Centeno, Ivan Milić, Matthias Rempel, Nariaki V. Nitta, Xudong Sun

Abstract: We study the extent to which Milne-Eddington inversions are able to retrieve and characterize the magnetic landscape of the solar poles from observations by the spectropolarimeter onboard Hinode. In particular, we evaluate whether a variable magnetic filling factor is an adequate modeling technique for retrieving the intrinsic magnetic properties from every pixel in the polar field of view. We first generate synthetic spectra emerging from a numerical simulation of a "plage" region at an inclined line of sight of 65$^{\circ}$, and degrade the data to emulate real observations. Then, we invert the synthetic spectra with two Milne-Eddington inversion codes that feature different treatments of the magnetic filling factor, and relate the retrieved magnetic quantities back to their original values in the simulation cube. We find that while the apparent retrieved magnetic properties map well the spatially-degraded simulation, the intrinsic magnetic quantities bear little relation to the magnetic field at the native resolution of the simulation. We discuss the systematic biases caused by line-of-sight foreshortening, spatial degradation, photon noise and modeling assumptions embedded in the inversion algorithm.

1.A dynamical model for IRAS 00500+6713: the remnant of a type Iax supernova SN 1181 hosting a double degenerate merger product WD J005311

Authors:Takatoshi Ko, Hiromasa Suzuki, Kazumi Kashiyama, Hiroyuki Uchida, Takaaki Tanaka, Daichi Tsuna, Kotaro Fujisawa, Aya Bamba, Toshikazu Shigeyama

Abstract: IRAS 00500+6713 is a hypothesized remnant of a type Iax supernova SN 1181. Multi-wavelength observations have revealed its complicated morphology; a dusty infrared ring is sandwiched by the inner and outer X-ray nebulae. We analyze the archival X-ray data taken by XMM-Newton and Chandra to constrain the angular size, mass, and metal abundance of the X-ray nebulae, and construct a theoretical model describing the dynamical evolution of IRAS 00500+6713, including the effects of the interaction between the SN ejecta and the intense wind enriched with carbon burning ashes from the central white dwarf (WD) J005311. We show that the inner X-ray nebula corresponds to the wind termination shock while the outer X-ray nebula to the shocked interface between the SN ejecta and the interstellar matter. The observed X-ray properties can be explained by our model with an SN explosion energy of $E_\mathrm{ej} = (0.77 \mbox{--} 1.1)\times 10^{48}$~erg, an SN ejecta mass of $M_\mathrm{ej} = 0.18\mbox{--}0.53~M_\odot$, if the currently observed wind from WD J005311 started to blow $t_\mathrm{w} \gtrsim 810$ yr after the explosion, i.e., approximately after A.D. 1990. The inferred SN properties are compatible with those of Type Iax SNe and the timing of the wind launch may correspond to the Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction of the oxygen-neon core of WD J005311 that triggered a surface carbon burning. Our analysis supports that IRAS 00500+6713 is the remnant of SN Iax 1181 produced by a double degenerate merger of oxygen-neon and carbon-oxygen WDs, and WD J005311 is the surviving merger product.

2.Solar wind parameters in rising phase of solar cycle 25

Authors:Yuri I. Yermolaev, Irina G. Lodkina, Alexander A. Khokhlachev, Michael Yu. Yermolaev, Maria O. Riazantseva, Liudmila S. Rakhmanova, Natalia L. Borodkova, Olga V. Sapunova, Anastasiia V. Moskaleva

Abstract: Solar activity and solar wind parameters decreased significantly in solar cycles (SCs) 23-24. In this paper, we analyze solar wind measurements at the rising phase of SC 25 and compare them with similar data from the previous cycles. For this purpose, we simultaneously selected the OMNI database data for 1976-2022, both by phases of the 11-year solar cycle and by large-scale solar wind types (in accordance with IKI's catalog, see ), and calculated the mean values of the parameters for the selected datasets. The obtained results testify in favor of the hypothesis that the continuation of this cycle will be similar to the previous cycle 24, i.e. SC 25 will be weaker than SCs 21 and 22.

3.A heat-wave of accretion energy traced by masers in the G358-MM1 high-mass protostar

Authors:R. A. Burns, K. Sugiyama, T. Hirota, Kee-Tae Kim, A. M. Sobolev, B. Stecklum, G. C. MacLeod, Y. Yonekura, M. Olech, G. Orosz, S. P. Ellingsen, L. Hyland, A. Caratti o Garatti, C. Brogan, T. R. Hunter, C. Phillips, S. P. van den Heever, J. Eislöffel, H. Linz, G. Surcis, J. O. Chibueze, W. Baan, B. Kramer

Abstract: High-mass stars are thought to accumulate much of their mass via short, infrequent bursts of disk-aided accretion. Such accretion events are rare and difficult to observe directly but are known to drive enhanced maser emission. In this Letter we report high-resolution, multi-epoch methanol maser observations toward G358.93-0.03 which reveal an interesting phenomenon; the sub-luminal propagation of a thermal radiation "heat-wave" emanating from an accreting high-mass proto-star. The extreme transformation of the maser emission implies a sudden intensification of thermal infrared radiation from within the inner (40 mas, 270 au) region. Subsequently, methanol masers trace the radial passage of thermal radiation through the environment at $\geq$ 4-8\% the speed of light. Such a high translocation rate contrasts with the $\leq$ 10 km s$^{-1}$ physical gas motions of methanol masers typically observed using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). The observed scenario can readily be attributed to an accretion event in the high-mass proto-star G358.93-0.03-MM1. While being the third case in its class, G358.93-0.03-MM1 exhibits unique attributes hinting at a possible `zoo' of accretion burst types. These results promote the advantages of maser observations in understanding high-mass star formation, both through single-dish maser monitoring campaigns and via their international cooperation as VLBI arrays.

4.A Keplerian disk with a four-arm spiral birthing an episodically accreting high-mass protostar

Authors:R. A. Burns, Y. Uno, N. Sakai, J. Blanchard, Z. Rosli, G. Orosz, Y. Yonekura, Y. Tanabe, K. Sugiyama, T. Hirota, Kee-Tae Kim, A. Aberfelds, A. E. Volvach, A. Bartkiewicz, A. Caratti o Garatti, A. M. Sobolev, B. Stecklum, C. Brogan, C. Phillips, D. A. Ladeyschikov, D. Johnstone, G. Surcis, G. C. MacLeod, H. Linz, J. O. Chibueze, J. Brand, J. Eislöffel, L. Hyland, L. Uscanga, M. Olech, M. Durjasz, O. Bayandina, S. Breen, S. P. Ellingsen, S. P. van den Heever, T. R. Hunter, X. Chen

Abstract: High-mass protostars (M$_{\star} >$ 8 M$_{\odot}$) are thought to gain the majority of their mass via short, intense bursts of growth. This episodic accretion is thought to be facilitated by gravitationally unstable and subsequently inhomogeneous accretion disks. Limitations of observational capabilities, paired with a lack of observed accretion burst events has withheld affirmative confirmation of the association between disk accretion, instability and the accretion burst phenomenon in high-mass protostars. Following its 2019 accretion burst, a heat-wave driven by a burst of radiation propagated outward from the high-mass protostar G358.93-0.03-MM1. Six VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) observations of the raditively pumped 6.7 GHz methanol maser were conducted during this period, tracing ever increasing disk radii as the heat-wave propagated outward. Concatenating the VLBI maps provided a sparsely sampled, milliarcsecond view of the spatio-kinematics of the accretion disk covering a physical range of $\sim$ 50 - 900 AU. We term this observational approach `heat-wave mapping'. We report the discovery of a Keplerian accretion disk with a spatially resolved four-arm spiral pattern around G358.93-0.03-MM1. This result positively implicates disk accretion and spiral arm instabilities into the episodic accretion high-mass star formation paradigm.

5.Rotation and activity in late-type members of the young cluster ASCC 123

Authors:A. Frasca, J. Alonso-Santiago, G. Catanzaro, A. Bragaglia

Abstract: ASCC 123 is a little-studied young and dispersed open cluster. Recently, we conducted the first research devoted to it. In this paper, we complement our previous work with TESS photometry for the 55 likely members of the cluster. We pay special attention to seven of these high-probability members, all with FGK spectral types, for which we have high-resolution spectra from our preceding work. By studying the TESS light curves of the cluster members we determine the rotational period and the amplitude of the rotational modulation for 29 objects. The analysis of the distribution of the periods allows us to estimate a gyrochronogical age for ASCC 123 similar to that of the Pleiades, confirming the value obtained in our previous investigation. A young cluster age is also suggested by the distribution of variation amplitudes. In addition, for those stars with spectroscopic data we calculate the inclination of their rotation axis. These values appear to follow a random distribution, as already observed in young clusters, with no indication of spin alignment. However, our sample is too small to confirm this on more solid statistical grounds. Finally, for these seven stars we study the level of magnetic activity from the H$\alpha$ and CaII H&K lines. Despite the small number of data points, we find a correlation of the H$\alpha$ and CaII flux with Rossby number. The position of these stars in flux--flux diagrams follows the general trends observed in other active late-type stars.

6.A runaway T-Tauri star leaving an extended trail

Authors:Josep Martí, Pedro L. Luque-Escamilla, Estrella Sánchez-Ayaso

Abstract: Aims. We address the problem of young stellar objects that are found too far away from possible star formation sites. Different mechanisms have been proposed before to explain this unexpected circumstance. The idea of high-velocity protostars is one of these mechanisms, although observational support is not always easy to obtain. We aim to shed light on this issue after the serendipitous discovery of a related stellar system. Methods. Following the inspection of archival infrared data, a peculiar anonymous star was found that apparently heads a long tail that resembles a wake-like feature. We conducted a multiwavelength analysis including photometry, astrometry, and spectroscopy. Together with theoretical physical considerations, this approach provided a reasonable knowledge of the stellar age and kinematic properties, together with compelling indications that the extended feature is indeed the signature of a high-velocity, or runaway, newborn star. Results. Our main result is the discovery of a low-mass young stellar object that fits the concept of a runaway T-Tauri star that was hypothesized several decades ago. In this peculiar star, nicknamed UJT-1, the interaction of the stellar wind with the surrounding medium becomes extreme. Under reasonable assumptions, this unusual degree of interaction has the potential to encode the mass-loss history of the star on timescales of several $10^5$ years

7.Cyclic Variability in Brightness of the Young Solar Analog BE Ceti

Authors:N. I. Bondar', M. M. Katsova

Abstract: BE Cet is a young solar analog with an age of 0.6 Gyr and a rotation period of 7.655 days. According to chromospheric and photospheric indices, its activity is higher than the solar one. An analysis of photometric data on the time interval between 1977 and 2019 shows the presence of only 6.76 yr cyclic variations in the mean brightness with an amplitude of 0.02 mag. The obtained cycle is 1-2 yr shorter in comparison with the chromospheric cycle determined earlier, whose length was estimated to be 9 or 7.6 yr. Parameters of the cycle, its amplitude and duration change slightly in different epochs. The short-term light variations due to rotational modulation occur with an increase in amplitude up to 0.05 mag near the activity cycle minimum and a decrease in its maximum. Some events of a rapid increase in brightness of 0.2-0.6 mag may be considered as flares.

8.How negative feedback and the ambient environment limit the influence of recombination in common envelope evolution

Authors:Luke Chamandy, Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, Eric G. Blackman, Adam Frank, Yisheng Tu, Baowei Liu, Yangyuxin Zou, Jason Nordhaus

Abstract: We perform 3D hydrodynamical simulations to study recombination and ionization during the common envelope (CE) phase of binary evolution, and develop techniques to track the ionic transitions in time and space. We simulate the interaction of a $2\,M_\odot$ red giant branch primary and a $1\,M_\odot$ companion modeled as a particle. We compare a run employing a tabulated equation of state (EOS) that accounts for ionization and recombination, with a run employing an ideal gas EOS. During the first half of the simulations, $\sim15$ per cent more mass is unbound in the tabulated EOS run due to the release of recombination energy, but by simulation end the difference has become negligible. We explain this as being a consequence of (i) the tabulated EOS run experiences a shallower inspiral and hence smaller orbital energy release at late times because recombination energy release expands the envelope and reduces drag, and (ii) collision and mixing between expanding envelope gas, ejecta and circumstellar ambient gas assists in unbinding the envelope, but does so less efficiently in the tabulated EOS run where some of the energy transferred to bound envelope gas is used for ionization. The rate of mass unbinding is approximately constant in the last half of the simulations and the orbital separation steadily decreases at late times. A simple linear extrapolation predicts a CE phase duration of $\sim2\,\mathrm{yr}$, after which the envelope would be unbound.

9.The "canonical" White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of M5

Authors:Jianxing Chen, Francesco R. Ferraro, Maurizio Salaris, Mario Cadelano, Barbara Lanzoni, Cristina Pallanca, Leandro G. Althaus, Santi Cassisi

Abstract: Recently, a new class of white dwarfs (dubbed ``slowly cooling WDs'') has been identified in two globular clusters (namely M13 and NGC 6752) showing a horizontal branch (HB) morphology with an extended blue tail. The cooling rate of these WDs is reduced by stable thermonuclear hydrogen burning in their residual envelope, and they are thought to be originated by stars that populate the blue tail of the HB and then skip the asymptotic giant branch phase. Consistently, no evidence of such kind of WDs has been found in M3, a similar cluster with no blue extension of the HB. To further explore this phenomenon, we took advantage of deep photometric data acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope in the near-ultraviolet and investigate the bright portion of the WD cooling sequence in M5, another Galactic globular cluster with HB morphology similar to M3. The normalized WD luminosity function derived in M5 turns out to be impressively similar to that observed in M3, in agreement with the fact that the stellar mass distribution along the HB of these two systems is almost identical. The comparison with theoretical predictions is consistent with the fact that the cooling sequence in this cluster is populated by canonical (fast cooling) WDs. Thus, the results presented in this paper provide further support to the scenario proposing a direct causal connection between the slow cooling WD phenomenon and the horizontal branch morphology of the host stellar cluster.

10.Why "solar tsunamis" rarely leave their imprints in the chromosphere

Authors:Ruisheng Zheng, Yihan Liu, Wenlong Liu, Bing Wang, Zhenyong Hou, Shiwei Feng, Xiangliang Kong, Zhenghua Huang, Hongqiang Song, Hui Tian, Pengfei Chen, Robertus Erdélyi, Yao Chen

Abstract: Solar coronal waves frequently appear as bright disturbances that propagate globally from the eruption center in the solar atmosphere, just like the tsunamis in the ocean on Earth. Theoretically, coronal waves can sweep over the underlying chromosphere and leave an imprint in the form of Moreton wave, due to the enhanced pressure beneath their coronal wavefront. Despite the frequent observations of coronal waves, their counterparts in the chromosphere are rarely detected. Why the chromosphere rarely bears the imprints of solar tsunamis remained a mystery since their discovery three decades ago. To resolve this question, all coronal waves and associated Moreton waves in the last decade have been initially surveyed, though the detection of Moreton waves could be hampered by utilising the low-quality H$\alpha$ data from Global Oscillations Network Group. Here, we present 8 cases (including 5 in Appendix) of the coexistence of coronal and Moreton waves in inclined eruptions where it is argued that the extreme inclination is key to providing an answer to address the question. For all these events, the lowest part of the coronal wavefront near the solar surface appears very bright, and the simultaneous disturbances in the solar transition region and the chromosphere predominantly occur beneath the bright segment. Therefore, evidenced by observations, we propose a scenario for the excitation mechanism of the coronal-Moreton waves in highly inclined eruptions, in which the lowest part of a coronal wave can effectively disturb the chromosphere even for a weak (e.g., B-class) solar flare.

11.An extreme ultraviolet wave associated with the possible expansion of sheared arcades

Authors:Yihan Liu, Ruisheng Zheng, Liang Zhang, Hengyuan Wei, Ze Zhong, Shuhong Yang, Yao Chen

Abstract: Context. Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves are propagating disturbances in the corona, and they usually accompany with various solar eruptions, from large-scale coronal mass ejections to small-scale coronal jets. Aims. Generally, it is believed that EUV waves are driven by the rapid expansion of coronal loops overlying the erupting cores. In this Letter, we present an exception of EUV wave that was not triggered by the expansion of coronal loops overlying the erupting core. Methods. Combining the multiwavelength observations from multiple instruments, we studied the event in detail. Results. The eruption was restricted in the active region (AR) and disturbed the nearby sheared arcades (SAs) connecting the source AR to a remote AR. Interestingly, following the disturbance, an EUV wave formed close to the SAs, but far away from the eruption source. Conclusions. All the results showed that the EUV wave had a closer temporal and spatial relationship with the disappearing part of SAs than the confined eruption. Hence, we suggest that the EUV wave was likely triggered by the expansion of some strands of SAs, rather than the expansion of erupting loops. It can be a possible complement for the driving mechanisms of EUV waves.

1.Magnetic Field Line Separation by Random Ballistic Decorrelation in Transverse Magnetic Turbulence

Authors:Chutima Yannawa, Peera Pongkitiwanichakul, David Ruffolo, Piyanate Chuychai, Wirin Sonsrettee

Abstract: The statistics of the magnetic field line separation provide insight into how a bundle of field lines spreads out and the dispersion of non-thermal particles in a turbulent environment, which underlies various astrophysical phenomena. Its diffusive character depends on the distance along the field line, the initial separation, and the characteristics of the magnetic turbulence. This work considers the separation of two magnetic field lines in general transverse turbulence in terms of the magnetic power spectrum in three-dimensional wavenumber space. We apply non-perturbative methods using Corrsin's hypothesis and assume random ballistic decorrelation to calculate the ensemble average field line separation for general transverse magnetic turbulence. For 2D+slab power spectra, our analytic formulae and computer simulations give similar results, especially at low slab fraction. Our analytical expression also demonstrates several features of field line separation that are verified by computer simulations.

2.Spectropolarimetric investigation of magnetohydrodynamic wave modes in the photosphere: First results from PHI on board Solar Orbiter

Authors:D. Calchetti, M. Stangalini, S. Jafarzadeh, G. Valori, K. Albert, N. Albelo Jorge, A. Alvarez-Herrero, T. Appourchaux, M. Balaguer Jiménez, L. R. Bellot Rubio, J. Blanco Rodríguez, A. Feller, A. Gandorfer, D. Germerott, L. Gizon, L. Guerrero, P. Gutierrez-Marques, J. Hirzberger, F. Kahil, M. Kolleck, A. Korpi-Lagg, A. Moreno Vacas, D. Orozco Suárez, I. Pérez-Grande, E. Sanchis Kilders, J. Schou, U. Schühle, J. Sinjan, S. K. Solanki, J. Staub, H. Strecker, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, R. Volkmer, J. Woch

Abstract: In November 2021, Solar Orbiter started its nominal mission phase. The remote-sensing instruments on board the spacecraft acquired scientific data during three observing windows surrounding the perihelion of the first orbit of this phase. The aim of the analysis is the detection of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave modes in an active region by exploiting the capabilities of spectropolarimetric measurements. The High Resolution Telescope (HRT) of the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (SO/PHI) on board the Solar Orbiter acquired a high-cadence data set of an active region. This is studied in the paper. B-$\omega$ and phase-difference analyses are applied on line-of-sight velocity and circular polarization maps and other averaged quantities. We find that several MHD modes at different frequencies are excited in all analysed structures. The leading sunspot shows a linear dependence of the phase lag on the angle between the magnetic field and the line of sight of the observer in its penumbra. The magnetic pore exhibits global resonances at several frequencies, which are also excited by different wave modes. The SO/PHI measurements clearly confirm the presence of magnetic and velocity oscillations that are compatible with one or more MHD wave modes in pores and a sunspot. Improvements in modelling are still necessary to interpret the relation between the fluctuations of different diagnostics.

3.Tidal Forcing on the Sun and the 11-year Solar Activity Cycle

Authors:Rodolfo G. Cionco, Sergey M. Kudryavtsev, Willie Soon

Abstract: The hypothesis that tidal forces on the Sun are related to the modulations of the solar-activity cycle has gained increasing attention. The works proposing physical mechanisms of planetary action via tidal forcing have in common that quasi-alignments between Venus, Earth, and Jupiter (V-E-J configurations) would provide a basic periodicity of $\approx 11.0$ years able to synchronize the operation of solar dynamo with these planetary configurations. Nevertheless, the evidence behind this particular tidal forcing is still controversial. In this context we develop, for the first time, the complete Sun's tide-generating potential (STGP) in terms of a harmonic series, where the effects of different planets on the STGP are clearly separated and identified. We use a modification of the spectral analysis method devised by Kudryavtsev (J. Geodesy. 77, 829, 2004; Astron. Astrophys. 471, 1069, 2007b) that permits to expand any function of planetary coordinates to a harmonic series over long time intervals. We build a catalog of 713 harmonic terms able to represent the STGP with a high degree of precision. We look for tidal forcings related to V-E-J configurations and specifically the existence of periodicities around $11.0$ years. Although the obtained tidal periods range from $\approx$ 1000 years to 1 week, we do not find any $\approx$ 11.0 years period. The V-E-J configurations do not produce any significant tidal term at this or other periods. The Venus tidal interaction is absent in the 11-year spectral band, which is dominated by Jupiter's orbital motion. The planet that contributes the most to the STGP in three planets configurations, along with Venus and Earth, is Saturn. An $\approx 11.0$ years tidal period with a direct physical relevance on the 11-year-like solar-activity cycle is highly improbable.

4.Stellar variability in Gaia DR3. I. Three-band photometric dispersions for 145 million sources

Authors:J. Maíz Apellániz, G. Holgado, M. Pantaleoni González, J. A. Caballero

Abstract: CONTEXT: The unparalleled characteristics of Gaia photometry make it an excellent choice to study stellar variability. AIMS: To measure the phot. dispersion in G+G_BP+G_RP of the 145 677 450 Gaia DR3 5-parameter sources with G <= 17 mag and G_BP-G_RP with -1.0 to 8.0 mag. To use that unbiased sample to analyze stellar variability in the Milky Way, LMC, and SMC. METHODS: We convert from magnitude uncertainties to the observed phot. dispersions, calculate the instrumental component as a function of apparent magnitude and color, and use it to transform the observed dispersions into the astrophysical ones. We give variability indices in the three bands for the whole sample. We use the subsample of Rimoldini et al. that includes light curves and variability types to calibrate our results and establish their limitations. RESULTS: We use information from the MW, LMC, and SMC CAMDs to discuss variability across the HRD. Most WDs and sdBs are variable and follow a distribution in s_G peaking around 12 mmag but variability decreases for the former with age. The MS region in the Gaia CAMD has an s_G distribution peaks at low values (~1-2 mmag) and has a large tail dominated by EBs, RR Lyr stars, and YSOs. RC stars are characterized by little variability, with their s_G distribution peaking at 1 mmag or less. The stars in the PMS region are highly variable, with a power law distribution in s_G with slope 2.75 and a cutoff for values lower than 7 mmag. The luminous red stars region of the Gaia CAMD has the highest variability, with its extreme dominated by AGB stars and with a power law in s_G with a slope of ~2.2 that extends from there to a cutoff of 7 mmag. We show that our method can be used to search for LMC Cepheids. We analyze four stellar clusters with O stars and detect a strong difference in s_G between stars that are already in the MS and those that are still in the PMS. [ABRIDGED]

1.SDSS J094002.56+274942.0: an SU UMa star with an orbital period of 3.92 hours and an apparently unevolved secondary

Authors:Taichi Kato Kyoto U, Tonny Vanmunster CBA Belgium

Abstract: We found that SDSS J094002.56+274942.0 underwent a superoutburst in 2019 February based on our observations and Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) data. This object showed shallow eclipses during this superoutburst and we established the orbital period to be 0.1635015(1) d in combination with the ZTF and Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) data in quiescence. Superhumps apparently started to develop soon after the object reached the plateau phase and fully grown superhumps were recorded within the initial 6 d of the plateau phase. Using the superhump and orbital periods, we obtained a mass ratio (q) of 0.39(3) and obtained an inclination of 70.5(5) deg by eclipse modeling. These values reproduced the quiescent ellipsoidal variations very well. Using the Gaia parallax and 2MASS observations, we confirmed that the secondary is indistinguishable from an unevolved main-sequence star. The resultant mass ratio and orbital period were the highest among SU UMa stars, and this provided a proof that the 3:1 resonance can develop in less than 6 d even in q=0.39(3). The superoutburst faded relatively rapidly and was followed by a rebrightening, suggesting that the tidal effect in a large-q system was insufficient to maintain a long superoutburst and the remnant matter caused a rebrightening. The presence of such a system among dwarf novae is against the conventional idea that outbursts in dwarf novae are not long enough to develop superhumps, in contrast to novalike variables, under a weak tidal effect. The present observation also supports that the 3:1 resonance is the cause of a long outburst, and not its consequence, even under extreme q. The rapid growth of the 3:1 resonance in a high-q system challenges the generally accepted results of hydrodynamic simulations.

2.Simulations of Protoplanetary Disk Dispersal: Stellar Mass Dependence of the Disk Lifetime

Authors:A. Komaki, S. Fukuhara, T. K. Suzuki, N. Yoshida

Abstract: Recent infrared and submillimeter observations suggest that the protoplanetary disk lifetime depends on the central stellar mass. The disk dispersal is thought to be driven by viscous accretion, magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) winds, and photoevaporation by the central star. We perform a set of one-dimensional simulations of long-term disk evolution that include all the three processes. We vary the stellar mass in the range of 0.5-7M$_{\odot}$, and study the mass dependence of the disk evolution. We show that a significant fraction of the disk gas is lost by MHD winds in the early stage, but the later disk evolution is mainly governed by photoevaporation. The disk radius decreases as photoevaporation clears out the gas in the outer disk efficiently. The qualitative evolutionary trends of the disk mass are remarkably similar for the wide range of the central stellar mass we consider, and the time evolution of the disk mass can be well fitted by a simple function. The dispersal time is approximately ten million years for low mass stars with weak mass dependence, but gets as short as two million years around a 7M$_{\odot}$ star. In the latter case, a prominent inner hole is formed by the combined effect of accretion and MHD winds within about one million years. The strength of the MHD wind and viscous accretion controls the overall mass-loss rate, but does not alter the dependence of the dispersal timescale on the central stellar mass.

3.Which Component of Solar Magnetic Field Drives the Evolution of Interplanetary Magnetic Field over Solar Cycle?

Authors:Minami Yoshida, Toshifumi Shimizu, Shin Toriumi

Abstract: The solar magnetic structure changes over the solar cycle. It has a dipole structure during solar minimum, where the open flux extends mainly from the polar regions into the interplanetary space. During maximum, a complex structure is formed with low-latitude active regions and weakened polar fields, resulting in spread open field regions. However, the components of the solar magnetic field that is responsible for long-term variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) are not clear, and the IMF strength estimated based on the solar magnetic field is known to be underestimated by a factor of 3 to 4 against the actual in-situ observations (the open flux problem). To this end, we decomposed the coronal magnetic field into the components of the spherical harmonic function of degree and order $(\ell, m)$ using the potential field source surface model with synoptic maps from SDO/HMI for 2010 to 2021. As a result, we found that the IMF rapidly increased in December 2014 (seven months after the solar maximum), which coincided with the increase in the equatorial dipole, $(\ell, m)=(1, \pm1)$, corresponding to the diffusion of active regions toward the poles and in the longitudinal direction. The IMF gradually decreased until December 2019 (solar minimum) and its variation corresponded to that of the non-dipole component $\ell\geq2$. Our results suggest that the understanding of the open flux problem may be improved by focusing on the equatorial dipole and the non-dipole component and that the influence of the polar magnetic field is less significant.

4.FU Orionis disk outburst: evidence for a gravitational instability scenario triggered in a magnetically dead zone

Authors:G. Bourdarot, J-P. Berger, G. Lesur, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, R. Millan-Gabet, J-B. Le Bouquin, R. Garcia-Lopez, J. D. Monnier, A. Labdon, S. Kraus, L. Labadie, A. Aarnio

Abstract: Context: FUors outbursts are a crucial stage of accretion in young stars. However a complete mechanism at the origin of the outburst still remains missing. Aims: We aim at constraining the instability mechanism in FU Orionis star itself, by directly probing the size and the evolution in time of the outburst region with near-infrared interferometry, and to confront it to physical models of this region. Methods: FU Orionis has been a regular target of near-infrared interferometry. In this paper, we analyze more than 20 years of interferometric observations to perform a temporal monitoring of the region of the outburst, and compare it to the spatial structure deduced from 1D MHD simulations. Results: We measure from the interferometric observations that the size variation of the outburst region is compatible with a constant or slightly decreasing size over time in the H and K band. The temporal variation and the mean sizes are consistently reproduced by our 1D MHD simulations. We find that the most compatible scenario is a model of an outburst occurring in a magnetically layered disk, where a Magneto-Rotational Instability (MRI) is triggered by a Gravitational Instability (GI) at the outer edge of a dead-zone. The scenario of a pure Thermal Instability (TI) fails to reproduce our interferometric sizes since it can only be sustained in a very compact zone of the disk <0.1 AU. The scenario of MRI-GI could be compatible with an external perturbation enhancing the GI, such as tidal interactions with a stellar companion, or a planet at the outer edge of the dead-zone. Conclusions: The layered disk model driven by MRI turbulence is favored to interpret the spatial structure and temporal evolution of FU Orionis outburst region. Understanding this phase gives a crucial link between the early phase of disk evolution and the process of planet formation in the first inner AUs.

5.A study of the propagation of magnetoacoustic waves in small-scale magnetic fields using solar photospheric and chromospheric Dopplergrams: HMI/SDO and MAST observations

Authors:Hirdesh Kumar, Brajesh Kumar, S. P. Rajaguru, Shibu K. Mathew, Ankala Raja Bayanna

Abstract: In this work, we present a study of the propagation of low-frequency magneto-acoustic waves into the solar chromosphere within small-scale inclined magnetic fields over a quiet-magnetic network region utilizing near-simultaneous photospheric and chromospheric Dopplergrams obtained from the HMI instrument onboard SDO spacecraft and the Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) operational at the Udaipur Solar Observatory, respectively. Acoustic waves are stochastically excited inside the convection zone of the Sun and intermittently interact with the background magnetic fields resulting into episodic signals. In order to detect these episodic signals, we apply the wavelet transform technique to the photospheric and chromospheric velocity oscillations in magnetic network regions. The wavelet power spectrum over photospheric and chromospheric velocity signals show a one-to-one correspondence between the presence of power in the 2.5-4 mHz band. Further, we notice that power in the 2.5-4 mHz band is not consistently present in the chromospheric wavelet power spectrum despite its presence in the photospheric wavelet power spectrum. This indicates that leakage of photospheric oscillations (2.5-4 mHz band) into the higher atmosphere is not a continuous process. The average phase and coherence spectra estimated from these photospheric and chromospheric velocity oscillations illustrate the propagation of photospheric oscillations (2.5-4 mHz) into the solar chromosphere along the inclined magnetic fields. Additionally, chromospheric power maps estimated from the MAST Dopplergrams also show the presence of high-frequency acoustic halos around relatively high magnetic concentrations, depicting the refraction of high-frequency fast mode waves around vA ~ vs layer in the solar atmosphere.

6.Infrared spectroscopy of the 2022 eruption of the recurrent nova U Sco

Authors:A. Evans Astrophysics Group, Keele University, UK, D. P. K. Banerjee Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India, C. E. Woodward Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, T. R. Gemini Observatory/NSF's NOIRLab, Geballe Gemini Observatory/NSF's NOIRLab, R. D. Gehrz Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, K. L. Page School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, UK, S. Starrfield School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University

Abstract: We present near-infrared spectroscopy of the 2022 eruption of the recurrent nova U Sco, over the period from 5.2 to 45.4 days after outburst. This is the most intensive infrared study of this nova. Our observations started early after the outburst and extended almost to the end of the ``Super Soft'' X-ray phase. A major find is the presence of coronal lines from day 9.41, one of the earliest appearances of these in any nova, classical or recurrent. The temperature of the coronal gas is $7\times10^5$ K. There is also evidence for the presence of much cooler ($\lesssim2.5\times10^4$ K) gas. Remarkable changes are seen in the HeI $1.083\mu$m line, the strength of which declines, then recovers, in anti-correlation with the X-ray behaviour. We conclude that shock ionisation is the dominant excitation mechanism for the coronal line emission. There is evidence in the infrared spectra for the presence of black body emission at $\sim20000$ K, which we tentatively identify with the irradiated secondary, and for free-free/free-bound emission. For the previously determined binary inclination of $82.7$ degrees, the implied ejection velocities are as high as 22000 km s$^{-1}$. These velocities appear unprecedented in nova outflows, and are comparable to those seen in supernovae, thereby marking U Sco as a truly remarkable object.

7.A Statistical Investigation of Decayless Oscillations in Small-scale Coronal Loops Observed by Solar Orbiter/EUI

Authors:Arpit Kumar Shrivastav, Vaibhav Pant, David Berghmans, Andrei N. Zhukov, Tom Van Doorsselaere, Elena Petrova, Dipankar Banerjee, Daye Lim, Cis Verbeeck

Abstract: Decayless kink oscillations are omnipresent in the solar atmosphere and a viable candidate for coronal heating. Though there have been extensive studies of decayless oscillations in coronal loops with a few hundred Mm lengths, the properties of these oscillations in small-scale ($\sim$10 Mm) loops are yet to be explored. In this study, we present the properties of decayless oscillations in small loops embedded in the quiet corona and coronal holes. We use high resolution observations from the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager onboard Solar Orbiter with pixel scales of 210 km and 5 s cadence or better. We find 42 oscillations in 33 coronal loops with loop lengths varying between 3 to 23 Mm. The average displacement amplitude is found to be 136 km. The oscillations period has a range of 27 to 276 s, and the velocity amplitudes range from 2.2 to 19.3 km s$^{-1}$. The observed kink speeds are lower than those observed in active region coronal loops. The variation of loop length with the period does not indicate a strong correlation. Coronal seismology technique indicated an average magnetic field value of 2.1 G. We estimate the energy flux with a broad range of 0.6-314 W m$^{-2}$. Moreover, we note that the short-period decayless oscillations are not prevalent in the quiet Sun and coronal holes. Therefore, our study suggests that decayless oscillations in small-scale coronal loops are unlikely to provide enough energy to heat the quiet Sun and accelerate solar wind in the coronal holes.

8.An enigma of Przybylski's star: is there promethium on its surface?

Authors:Sergei M. Andrievsky, Sergey A. Korotin, Klaus Werner, Valery V. Kovtyukh

Abstract: We carried out a new attempt to check for the presence promethium lines in the spectrum of HD101065 (Przybylski's star). The neutron capture element promethium does not have stable isotopes and the maximum half-life time is about 18 years. Thus its presence in this peculiar star would indicate an ongoing process of irradiation of its surface layers with free neutrons. Unfortunately, almost all promethium lines are heavily blended with lines of other neutron capture elements and other species. We selected and analysed three lines of promethium (Pm I and Pm II) and came to the conclusion that at present it is impossible to definitely claim the presence of this element in Przybylski's star atmosphere.

9.A low-metallicity massive contact binary undergoing slow Case A mass transfer: A detailed spectroscopic and orbital analysis of SSN 7 in NGC 346 in the SMC

Authors:M. J. Rickard, D. Pauli

Abstract: Most massive stars are believed to be born in close binary systems where they can exchange mass, which impacts the evolution of both binary components. Their evolution is of great interest in the search for the progenitors of gravitational waves. However, there are unknowns in the physics of mass transfer as observational examples are rare, especially at low metallicity. Nearby low-metallicity environments are particularly interesting hunting grounds for interacting systems as they act as the closest proxy for the early universe where we can resolve individual stars. Using multi-epoch spectroscopic data, we complete a consistent spectral and orbital analysis of the early-type massive binary SSN~7 hosting a ON3\,If$^\ast$+O5.5\,V((f)) star. Using these detailed results, we constrain an evolutionary scenario that can help us to understand binary evolution in low metallicity.} We were able to derive reliable radial velocities of the two components from the multi-epoch data, which were used to constrain the orbital parameters. The spectroscopic data covers the UV, optical, and near-IR, allowing a consistent analysis with the stellar atmosphere code, PoWR. Given the stellar and orbital parameters, we interpreted the results using binary evolutionary models. The two stars in the system have comparable luminosities of ${\log (L_1/L_{\odot}) = 5.75}$ and ${\log (L_2/L_{\odot}) = 5.78}$ for the primary and secondary, respectively, but have different temperatures (${T_1=43.6\,\mathrm{kK}}$ and ${T_2=38.7\,\mathrm{kK}}$). The primary ($32\,M_{\odot}$) is less massive than the secondary ($55\,M_{\odot}$), suggesting mass exchange. The mass estimates are confirmed by the orbital analysis. The revisited orbital period is $3\,\mathrm{d}$. Our evolutionary models also predict mass exchange. Currently, the system is a contact binary undergoing a slow Case A phase, making it the most massive [Abridged]

1.Variable stars detection in the field of open cluster NGC 188

Authors:Fang-Fang Song, Hu-Biao Niu, Ali Esamdin, Yu Zhang, Xiang-Yun Zeng

Abstract: This work presents the charge-coupled device (CCD) photometric survey of the old open cluster NGC 188. Time-series V-band photometric observations were conducted for ten nights in January 2017 using the Nanshan One-meter Wide-field Telescope (NOWT) to search for variable stars in the field of the cluster field. A total of 25 variable stars, including one new variable star, were detected in the target field. Among the detected variables, 16 are cluster member stars, and the others are identified as field stars. The periods, radial velocities, effective temperatures, and classifications of the detected variables are discussed in this work. Most of the stars' effective temperatures are between 4200 K and 6600 K, indicating their spectral types are G or K. The newly discovered variable is probably a W UMa system. In this study, a known cluster variable star (V21 = V0769 Cep) is classified as an EA-type variable star based on the presence of an 0.5 magnitude eclipse in its light curve.

2.An evolutionary model for V404 Cyg system

Authors:L. Bartolomeo Koninckx, M. A. De Vito, O. G. Benvenuto

Abstract: V404 Cyg is a Low Mass X-Ray Binary (LMXB) system that has undergone outbursts in 1938, 1989, and 2015. During these events, it has been possible to determine relevant data of the system; such as the masses of the compact object (a black hole, BH) and its companion, the orbital period, the companion spectral type, and luminosity class, among others. Remarkably, the companion star has a metallicity appreciably higher than solar. All these data allow us to construct theoretical models to account for its structure, looking for its initial configuration and predicting its final fate. Assuming that the BH is already formed when the primary star reaches the Zero Age Main Sequence, we used our binary evolution code for such a purpose. We obtained that the present characteristics of the system are nicely accounted for by a model with initial masses of 9 solar masses for the BH, 1.5 solar masses for the companion star, an initial orbital period of 1.5 d and considering that at most 30% of the mass transferred by the donor is accreted by the BH. The metallicity of the donor for our best fit was Z = 0.028 (twice solar metallicity). We also studied the evolution of the BH spin parameter assuming that initially, it is not rotating. Remarkably, the spin of the BHs in our models is far from reaching the available observational determination. This may indicate that the BH in V404 Cyg is initially spinning, a result that may be relevant for understanding the formation BHs in the context of LMXB systems.

3.Unambiguous Detection of Doubly-Ionized Thorium in the Extreme Ap Star CPD-62 2717

Authors:S. Drew Chojnowski, Swetlana Hubrig, David L. Nidever, Ewa Niemczura, Jonathan Labadie-Bartz, Gautier Mathys, Sten Hasselquist

Abstract: Despite the universe containing primordial thorium (Th) of sufficient abundance to appear in stellar spectra, detection of Th has to date been tentative and based on just a few weak and blended lines. Here, we present convincing evidence not only for the first Th detection in a magnetic chemically peculiar Ap star but also for the first detection of Th III in a stellar spectrum. CPD-62 2717 was initially recognized as a highly-magnetized Ap star thanks to resolved magnetically split lines captured in $H$-band spectra from the SDSS/APOGEE survey. The star was subsequently pinpointed as extraordinarily peculiar when careful inspection of the $H$-band line content revealed the presence of five lines of Th III, none of which are detected in the other $\sim1500$ APOGEE-observed Ap stars. Follow-up with the VLT+UVES confirmed a similarly peculiar optical spectrum featuring dozens of Th III lines, among other peculiarities. Unlike past claims of Th detection, and owing to high-resolution observations of the strong ($\sim$8$-$12$\,$kG) magnetic field of CPD-62 2717, the detection of Th III can in this case be supported by matches between the observed and theoretical magnetic splitting patterns. Comparison of CPD-62 2717 to stars for which Th overabundances have been previously reported (e.g., Przybylski's Star) indicate that only for CPD-62 2717 is the Th detection certain. Along with the focus on Th III, we use time series measurements of the magnetic field modulus to constrain the rotation period of CPD-62 2717 to $\sim$4.8 years, thus establishing it as a new example of a super-slowly-rotating Ap star.

4.Testing angular momentum transport processes with asteroseismology of solar-type main-sequence stars

Authors:Jérôme Bétrisey, Patrick Eggenberger, Gaël Buldgen, Othman Benomar, Michaël Bazot

Abstract: Asteroseismology has become a powerful tool to study the internal rotation of stars, and its study allows to constrain the internal AM transport processes and better understand their physical nature. In this context, we compared the rotation rates predicted by asteroseismology and by starspots measurements for four main-sequence stars from the Kepler LEGACY sample, considering different AM transport prescriptions, and investigated if some of these prescriptions could be ruled out. We decoupled the modelling of the structure and of the rotational profile, respectively obtained by an asteroseismic characterization and by using rotating models including a detailed treatment of the AM transport. We then compared the mean asteroseismic rotation rate with the surface rotation rate from starspots measurements for each of the AM transport prescriptions. In the hotter part of the HRD (M > ~ 1.2Msun), combining asteroseismic constraints from splittings of pressure modes and surface rotation rates does not allow to conclude on the need for an efficient AM transport in addition to the sole transport by meridional circulation and shear instability. Both prescriptions are indeed consistent with the quasi-solid rotation measured by Benomar et al. (2015) and Nielsen et al. (2017). In the colder part of the HRD, the situation is different due to the efficient braking of the stellar surface by magnetised winds. We find a clear disagreement between the rotational properties of models including only hydrodynamic processes and asteroseismic constraints, while models with magnetic fields correctly reproduce the observations, similarly to the solar case. This shows the existence of a mass regime corresponding to main-sequence stars around ~ 6000 - 6200 K for which it is difficult to constrain the AM transport processes, unlike for hotter, Gamma Dor stars or colder, less massive solar analogs.

5.Study of the bipolar jet of the YSO Th 28 with VLT/SINFONI: Jet morphology and H$_2$ emission

Authors:S. Yu. Melnikov, P. A. Boley, N. S. Nikonova, A. Caratti o Garatti, R. Garcia Lopez, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, G. Weigelt

Abstract: $Context.$ The YSO Th 28 possesses a highly collimated jet, which clearly exhibits an asymmetric brightness of its jet lobes at optical and NIR wavelengths. There may be asymmetry in the jet plasma parameters in opposite jet lobes (e.g. electron density, temperature, and outflow velocity). $Aims.$ We examined the Th 28 jet in a 3"x3" where the jet material is collimated and accelerated. Our goal is to map the morphology and determine its physical parameters to determine the physical origin of such asymmetries. $Methods.$ We present $JHK$-spectra of Th 28 obtained with the SINFONI on the (VLT, ESO) in June-July 2015. $Results.$ The [Fe II] emission originates in collimated jet lobes. Two new axial knots are detected at 1" in the blue lobe and 1".2 in the red lobe. The H$_2$ radiation is emitted from an extended region with a radius of $\gtrsim270$ au, which is perpendicular to the jet. The PV diagrams of the bright H$_2$ lines reveal faint H$_2$ emission along both jet lobes as well. The compact and faint H I emission (Pa$\beta$ and Br$\gamma$) comes from two regions, namely from a spherical region around the star and from the jet lobes. The size of the jet launching region is derived as 0".015 ($\sim$3 au at 185 pc), and the initial opening angle of the Th 28 jet is $\sim28^0$, which makes this jet substantially less collimated than most jets from other CTTs. $Conclusions.$ The emission in [Fe II], H$_2$, and H I lines suggests a morphology in which the ionised gas in the disc appears to be disrupted by the jet. The resolved disc-like H$_2$ emission most likely arises in the disc atmosphere from shocks caused by a radial uncollimated wind. The asymmetry of the [Fe II] photocentre shifts with respect to the jet source arises in the immediate vicinity of the driving source of Th28 and suggests that the observed brightness asymmetry is intrinsic as well.

1.Transition disc nature of post-AGB binary systems confirmed by mid-infrared interferometry

Authors:A. Corporaal, J. Kluska, H. Van Winckel, K. Andrych, N. Cuello, D. Kamath, A. Merand

Abstract: Circumbinary discs around evolved post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) binary systems show many similar properties to protoplanetary discs around young stars. Deficits of near-infrared (near-IR) flux in the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of such systems hints towards large dust-free cavities, reminiscent of transition discs as commonly observed around young stars. We aim to assess the inner rim size of 6 post-AGB binary systems with such a lack in near-IR using resolved mid-IR high-angular resolution observations of VLTI/MATISSE and VLTI/MIDI. The inner rim of only one such system was previously resolved. We compare these inner rim sizes to 5 systems with available MATISSE data that were identified to host a disc starting at the dust sublimation radius. We used geometric ring models to estimate the inner rim sizes, the relative flux contributions of the star, the ring, and an over-resolved emission, the orientation of the ring, and the spectral dependencies of the components. We find that the dust inner rims of the targets with a lack of near-IR excess in their SEDs are 2.5 to 7.5 times larger than the theoretical dust sublimation radii while the systems that do not show such a deficit have inner rim sizes similar to their dust sublimation radii. Physical radii of the inner rims of these transition discs around post-AGB binaries are 3-25 au, which are larger than the disc sizes inferred for transition discs around young stars with VLTI/MIDI. This is due to the higher stellar luminosities of post-AGB systems compared to young stars, implying larger dust sublimation radii and thus larger physical transition disc inner radii. With mid-IR interferometric data we directly confirm the transition disc nature of six discs around post-AGB binary systems. Future observational and modelling efforts are needed to progress on the structure, origin, and evolution of these transition discs.

2.Thermodynamic properties of small flares in the quiet Sun observed by H$α$ and EUV: plasma motion of the chromosphere and time evolution of temperature/emission measure

Authors:Yuji Kotani, Takako T. Ishii, Daiki Yamasaki, Kenichi Otsuji, Kiyoshi Ichimoto, Ayumi Asai, Kazunari Shibata

Abstract: Small flares frequently occur in the quiet Sun. Previous studies have noted that they share many common characteristics with typical solar flares in active regions. However, their similarities and differences are not fully understood, especially their thermal properties. In this study, we performed imaging spectroscopic observations in the H$\alpha$ line taken with the Solar Dynamics Doppler Imager on the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART/SDDI) at the Hida Observatory and imaging observations with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA). We analysed 25 cases of small flares in the quiet Sun over the thermal energy range of $10^{24}-10^{27}\,\mathrm{erg}$, paying particular attention to their thermal properties. Our main results are as follows: (1) We observe a redshift together with line centre brightening in the H$\alpha$ line associated with more than half of the small flares. (2) We employ differential emission measure analysis using AIA multi-temperature (channel) observations to obtain the emission measure and temperature of the small flares. The results are consistent with the Shibata & Yokoyama (1999, 2002) scaling law. From the scaling law, we estimated the coronal magnetic field strength of small flares to be 5 --15 G. (3) The temporal evolution of the temperature and the density shows that the temperature peaks precede the density peaks in more than half of the events. These results suggest that chromospheric evaporations/condensations play an essential role in the thermal properties of some of the small flares in the quiet Sun, as does for large flares.

3.Confinedness of an X3.1 class solar flare occurred in NOAA 12192: Analysis from multi-instruments observations

Authors:N. Vasantharaju, F. Zuccarello, F. Ferrente, S. L. Guglielmino

Abstract: The non-association of coronal mass ejections with high energetic flares is sparse. For this reason, the magnetic conditions required for the confinedness of major flares is a topic of active research. Using multi-instrument observations, we investigated the evolution and effects of confinedness in an X3.1 flare, which occurred in active region (AR) 12192. The decrease of net fluxes in the brightening regions, near the footpoints of the multi-sigmoidal AR in photosphere and chromosphere, indicative of flux cancellation favouring tether-cutting reconnection (TCR), is observed using the magnetic field observations of HMI/SDO and SOT/Hinode, respectively. The analysis of spectropolarimetric data obtained by the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer over the brightening regions suggests untwisting of field lines, which further supports TCR. Filaments near polarity inversion line region, resulted from TCR of low lying sheared loops, undergo merging and form an elongated filament. The temperature and density differences between footpoints of the merged filament, revealed by DEM analysis, caused streaming and counter-streaming of plasma flow along the filament and unloads at its footpoints with an average velocity of $\approx$ 40 km s$^{-1}$. This results in decrease of mass of the filament (density decreased by $>50\%$), leading to its rise and expansion outwards. However, due to strong strapping flux, the filament separates itself instead of erupting. Further, the evolution of non-potential parameters describes the characteristics of confinedness of the flare. Our study suggests that the sigmoid-filament system exhibits upward catastrophe due to mass unloading, but gets suppressed by strong confinement of external poloidal field.

4.The Gaia-ESO Survey: Empirical estimates of stellar ages from lithium equivalent widths (EAGLES)

Authors:R. D. Jeffries, R. J. Jackson, Nicholas J. Wright, G. Weaver, G. Gilmore, S. Randich, A. Bragaglia, A. J. Korn, R. Smiljanic, K. Biazzo, A. R. Casey, A. Frasca, A. Gonneau, G. Guiglion, L. Morbidelli, L. Prisinzano, G. G. Sacco, G. Tautvaišienė, C. C. Worley, S. Zaggia

Abstract: We present an empirical model of age-dependent photospheric lithium depletion, calibrated using a large, homogeneously-analysed sample of 6200 stars in 52 open clusters, with ages from 2--6000 Myr and $-0.3<{\rm [Fe/H}]<0.2$, observed in the Gaia-ESO spectroscopic survey. The model is used to obtain age estimates and posterior age probability distributions from measurements of the Li I 6708A equivalent width for individual (pre) main sequence stars with $3000 < T_{\rm eff}/{\rm K} <6500$, a domain where age determination from the HR diagram is either insensitive or highly model-dependent. In the best cases, precisions of 0.1 dex in log age are achievable; even higher precision can be obtained for coeval groups and associations where the individual age probabilities of their members can be combined. The method is validated on a sample of exoplanet-hosting young stars, finding agreement with claimed young ages for some, but not others. We obtain better than 10 per cent precision in age, and excellent agreement with published ages, for seven well-studied young moving groups. The derived ages for young clusters ($<1$ Gyr) in our sample are also in good agreement with their training ages, and consistent with several published, model-insensitive lithium depletion boundary ages. For older clusters there remain systematic age errors that could be as large as a factor of two. There is no evidence to link these errors to any strong systematic metallicity dependence of (pre) main sequence lithium depletion, at least in the range $-0.29 < {\rm [Fe/H]} < 0.18$. Our methods and model are provided as software -- "Empirical AGes from Lithium Equivalent widthS" (EAGLES).

1.VLBI Astrometry of Radio Stars to Link Radio and Optical Celestial Reference Frames. I. HD 199178 and AR Lacertae

Authors:Wen Chen, Bo Zhang, Jingdong Zhang, Jun Yang, Shuangjing Xu, Yan Sun, Xiaofeng Mai, Fengchun Shu, Min Wang

Abstract: To accurately link the radio and optical Celestial Reference Frames (CRFs) at optical bright end, i.e., with Gaia G band magnitude < 13, increasing number and improving sky distribution of radio stars with accurate astrometric parameters from both Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Gaia measurements are mandatory. We selected two radio stars HD 199178 and AR Lacertae as the target for a pilot program for the frame link, using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 15 GHz at six epochs spanning about 1 year, to measure their astrometric parameters. The measured parallax of HD 199178 is $8.949 \pm 0.059$ mas and the proper motion is $\mu_\alpha cos \delta = 26.393 \pm 0.093$, $\mu_\delta = -0.950 \pm 0.083~mas~yr^{-1}$, while the parallax of AR Lac is $23.459 \pm 0.094$ mas and the proper motion is $\mu_\alpha cos \delta = -51.906 \pm 0.138$, $\mu_\delta = 46.732 \pm 0.131~mas~yr^{-1}$. Our VLBI measured astrometric parameters have accuracies about 4-5 times better than the corresponding historic VLBI measurements and comparable accuracies with those from Gaia, validating the feasibility of frame link using radio stars. With the updated astrometric parameters for these two stars, there is a 25% reduction of the uncertainties on the Y axis for both orientation and spin parameters.

1.A large bubble around the AGB star R Dor detected in the UV

Authors:Roberto Ortiz, Martin A Guerrero

Abstract: Many asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and supergiant stars exhibit extended detached shells in the far-infrared, resembling rings or arcs. These structures have long been interpreted as the bow shock formed in the interface between the stellar wind and the interstellar medium, the astrosphere. To date, only a few AGB stars have been observed showing an extended shell in the ultraviolet: the cometary tail drifting away from $o$ Ceti, and a bubble around IRC+10216, CIT6, and U Hya. This paper describes a search of UV extended shells around AGB stars using archival GALEX far-UV images. After inspecting visually 282 GALEX images, we identified the fourth discovery of a UV bubble around the AGB star R Dor. The bubble is seen as a 26'x29' ring, corresponding to an actual diameter of 0.41x0.46 parsec$^2$. The mass of the thin UV bubble is estimated to be $\simeq$0.003 $M_{\odot}$. The morphological asymmetry (less than $\sim 20$\%) and brightness variations of this shell are uncorrelated with the stellar proper motion and thus they can rather be ascribed to inhomogeneities in the ISM. Archival \emph{IRAS} 60 and 100$\mu$m images reveal that the bubble is filled with cold (i.e. < 32 K) dust. All UV bubbles known to date are limited to be within a distance < 350 pc and at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 35 degree), which suggests that their detection is hampered in most cases by the strong UV interstellar extinction.

2.WD J004917.14$-$252556.81, the Most Massive Pulsating White Dwarf

Authors:Mukremin Kilic, Alejandro H. Córsico, Adam G. Moss, Gracyn Jewett, Francisco C. De Gerónimo, Leandro G. Althaus

Abstract: We present APO and Gemini time-series photometry of WD J004917.14$-$252556.81, an ultramassive DA white dwarf with $T_{\rm eff} = 13020$ K and $\log{g} = 9.34$. We detect variability at two significant frequencies, making J0049$-$2525 the most massive pulsating white dwarf currently known with $M_\star=1.31~M_{\odot}$ (for a CO core) or $1.26~M_{\odot}$ (for an ONe core). J0049$-$2525 does not display any of the signatures of binary mergers, there is no evidence of magnetism, large tangential velocity, or rapid rotation. Hence, it likely formed through single star evolution and is likely to have an ONe core. Evolutionary models indicate that its interior is $\gtrsim99$% crystallized. Asteroseismology offers an unprecedented opportunity to probe its interior structure. However, the relatively few pulsation modes detected limit our ability to obtain robust seismic solutions. Instead, we provide several representative solutions that could explain the observed properties of this star. Extensive follow-up time-series photometry of this unique target has the potential to discover a significant number of additional pulsation modes that would help overcome the degeneracies in the asteroseismic fits, and enable us to probe the interior of an $\approx1.3~M_{\odot}$ crystallized white dwarf.

3.3D hydrodynamic simulations of massive main-sequence stars. III. The effect of radiation pressure and diffusion leading to a 1D equilibrium model

Authors:Huaqing Mao, Paul Woodward, Falk Herwig, Pavel A. Denissenkov, Simon Blouin, William Thompson

Abstract: We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of core convection with a stably stratified envelope of a 25 $\mathrm{M}_\odot$ star in the early phase of the main-sequence. We use the explicit gas-dynamics code $\texttt{PPMstar}$ which tracks two fluids and includes radiation pressure and radiative diffusion. Multiple series of simulations with different luminosities and radiative thermal conductivities are presented. The entrainment rate at the convective boundary, internal gravity waves in and above the boundary region, and the approach to dynamical equilibrium shortly after a few convective turnovers are investigated. From the results of these simulations we extrapolate to find the entrainment rate at the nominal heating rate and thermal diffusion given by the $\texttt{MESA}$ stellar evolution model on which the 3D stratification is based. Further, to study the effect of radiative diffusion on the thermal timescale, we perform very long simulations accelerated by 10000 times their nominal luminosities. In these simulations the growing penetrative convection reduces the initially unrealistically large entrainment. This reduction is enabled by a spatial separation that develops between the entropy gradient and the composition gradient. The convective boundary moves outward much more slowly at the end of these simulations. Finally, we present a method to predict the extent and character of penetrative convection beyond the Schwarzschild boundary. This method is intended to be ultimately deployed in 1D stellar evolution calculations and is based on the properties of penetrative convection in our simulations carried forward through the local thermal timescale.

4.Accurate mass-radius ratios for Hyades white dwarfs

Authors:L. Pasquini, A. F. Pala, M. Salaris, H. G. Ludwig, I. Leao, A. Weiss, J. R. de Medeiros

Abstract: We use the ESPRESSO spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope to measure velocity shifts and gravitational redshifts of eight bona fide Hyades white dwarfs, with an accuracy better than 1.5 percent. By comparing the gravitational redshift measurements of the mass-to-radius ratio with the same ratios derived by fitting the \textit{Gaia} photometry with theoretical models, we find an agreement to better than one per cent. It is possible to reproduce the observed white dwarf cooling sequence and the trend of the mass-to-radius ratios as a function of colour using isochrones with ages between 725 and 800 Myr, tuned for the Hyades. One star, EGGR\,29, consistently stands out in all diagrams, indicating that it is possibly the remnant of a blue straggler. We also computed mass-to-radius ratios from published gravities and masses, determined from spectroscopy. The comparison between photometric and spectroscopic stellar parameters reveals that spectroscopic effective temperature and gravity are systematically larger than the photometric values. Spectroscopic mass-to-radius ratios disagree with those measured from gravitational redshift, indicating the presence of systematics affecting the white dwarf parameters derived from the spectroscopic analysis.

1.Slow Solar Wind Connection Science during Solar Orbiter's First Close Perihelion Passage

Authors:Stephanie L. Yardley, Christopher J. Owen, David M. Long, Deborah Baker, David H. Brooks, Vanessa Polito, Lucie M. Green, Sarah Matthews, Mathew Owens, Mike Lockwood, David Stansby, Alexander W. James, Gherado Valori, Alessandra Giunta, Miho Janvier, Nawin Ngampoopun, Teodora Mihailescu, Andy S. H. To, Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, Pascal Demoulin, Raffaella D'Amicis, Ryan J. French, Gabriel H. H. Suen, Alexis P. Roulliard, Rui F. Pinto, Victor Reville, Christopher J. Watson, Andrew P. Walsh, Anik De Groof, David R. Williams, Ioannis Zouganelis, Daniel Muller, David Berghmans, Frederic Auchere, Louise Harra, Udo Scheuhle, Krysztof Barczynski, Eric Buchlin, Regina Aznar Cuadrado, Emil Kraaikamp, Sudip Mandal, Susanna Parenti, Hardi Peter, Luciano Rodriguez, Conrad Schwanitz, Phil Smith, Luca Teriaca, Cis Verbeeck, Andrei N. Zhukov, Bart De Pontieu, Tim Horbury, Sami K. Solanki, Jose Carlos del Toro Iniesta, Joachim Woch, Achim Gandorfer, Johann Hirzberger, David Orozco Suarez, Thierry Appourchaux, Daniele Calchetti, Jonas Sinjan, Fatima Kahil, Kinga Albert, Reiner Volkmer, Mats Carlsson, Andrzej Fludra, Don Hassler, Martin Caldwell, Terje Fredvik, Tim Grundy, Steve Guest, Margit Haberreiter, Sarah Leeks, Gabriel Pelouze, Joseph Plowman, Werner Schmutz, Sunil Sidher, William T. Thompson, Philippe Louarn, Andrei Federov

Abstract: The Slow Solar Wind Connection Solar Orbiter Observing Plan (Slow Wind SOOP) was developed to utilise the extensive suite of remote sensing and in situ instruments on board the ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter mission to answer significant outstanding questions regarding the origin and formation of the slow solar wind. The Slow Wind SOOP was designed to link remote sensing and in situ measurements of slow wind originating at open-closed field boundaries. The SOOP ran just prior to Solar Orbiter's first close perihelion passage during two remote sensing windows (RSW1 and RSW2) between 2022 March 3-6 and 2022 March 17-22, while Solar Orbiter was at a heliocentric distance of 0.55-0.51 and 0.38-0.34 au from the Sun, respectively. Coordinated observation campaigns were also conducted by Hinode and IRIS. The magnetic connectivity tool was used, along with low latency in situ data, and full-disk remote sensing observations, to guide the target pointing of Solar Orbiter. Solar Orbiter targeted an active region complex during RSW1, the boundary of a coronal hole, and the periphery of a decayed active region during RSW2. Post-observation analysis using the magnetic connectivity tool along with in situ measurements from MAG and SWA/PAS, show that slow solar wind, with velocities between 210 and 600 km/s, arrived at the spacecraft originating from two out of the three of the target regions. The Slow Wind SOOP, despite presenting many challenges, was very successful, providing a blueprint for planning future observation campaigns that rely on the magnetic connectivity of Solar Orbiter.

2.The magnetic field and multiple planets of the young dwarf AU~Mic

Authors:Donati JF, Cristofari PI, Finociety B, Klein B, Moutou C, Gaidos E, Cadieux C, Artigau E, Correia ACM, Boué G, Cook N, Carmona A, Lehmann LT, Bouvier J, Martioli E, Morin J, Fouqué P, Delfosse X, Royon R, Hébrard G, Alencar SHP, Laskar J, Arnold L, Petit P, Kospal A, Vidotto A, Folsom CP, the SLS collaboration

Abstract: In this paper we present an analysis of near-infrared spectropolarimetric and velocimetric data of the young M dwarf AU Mic, collected with SPIRou at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope from 2019 to 2022, mostly within the SPIRou Legacy Survey. With these data, we study the large- and small-scale magnetic field of AU Mic, detected through the unpolarized and circularly-polarized Zeeman signatures of spectral lines. We find that both are modulated with the stellar rotation period (4.86 d), and evolve on a timescale of months under differential rotation and intrinsic variability. The small-scale field, estimated from the broadening of spectral lines, reaches $2.61\pm0.05$ kG. The large-scale field, inferred with Zeeman-Doppler imaging from Least-Squares Deconvolved profiles of circularly-polarized and unpolarized spectral lines, is mostly poloidal and axisymmetric, with an average intensity of $550\pm30$ G. We also find that surface differential rotation, as derived from the large-scale field, is $\simeq$30% weaker than that of the Sun. We detect the radial velocity (RV) signatures of transiting planets b and c, although dwarfed by activity, and put an upper limit on that of candidate planet d, putatively causing the transit-timing variations of b and c. We also report the detection of the RV signature of a new candidate planet (e) orbiting further out with a period of $33.39\pm0.10$ d, i.e., near the 4:1 resonance with b. The RV signature of e is detected at 6.5$\sigma$ while those of b and c show up at $\simeq$4$\sigma$, yielding masses of $10.2^{+3.9}_{-2.7}$ and $14.2^{+4.8}_{-3.5}$ Earth masses for b and c, and a minimum mass of $35.2^{+6.7}_{-5.4}$ Earth masses for e.

3.3D simulations of AGB stellar winds -- II. Ray-tracer implementation and impact of radiation on the outflow morphology

Authors:Mats Esseldeurs, Lionel Siess, Frederik De Ceuster, Ward Homan, Jolien Malfait, Silke Maes, Thomas Konings, Thomas Ceulemans, Leen Decin

Abstract: Stars with an initial mass below ~ 8 Msun evolve through the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase, during which they develop strong stellar winds. Recent observations have revealed significant morphological complexities in their outflows, most likely caused by a companion. We study the impact of the radiation force on such companion-perturbed AGB outflows. We present the implementation of a ray tracer for radiative transfer in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and compared four different descriptions of radiative transfer: the free-wind, the geometrical, the Lucy, and the attenuation approximation. For both low and high mass-loss rates, the velocity profile of the outflow is modified when going from the free-wind to the geometrical approximation, also resulting in a different morphology. In the case of a low mass-loss rate, the effect of the Lucy and attenuation approximation is negligible due to the low densities but morphological differences appear in the high mass-loss rate regime. By comparing the radiative equilibrium temperature and radiation force to full 3D radiative transfer, we show that the Lucy approximation works best. Although, close to the companion, artificial heating occurs and it fails to simulate the shadow cast by the companion. The attenuation approximation produces a lower equilibrium temperature and weaker radiation force, but it produces the shadow cast by the companion. From the predictions of the 3D radiative transfer, we also conclude that a radially directed radiation force is a reasonable assumption. The radiation force thus plays a critical role in dust-driven AGB winds, impacting the velocity profile and morphological structures. For low mass-loss rates, the geometrical approximation suffices, while high mass-loss rates require a more rigorous method, where the Lucy approximation provides the most accurate results although not accounting for all effects.

4.The SunPy Project: An Interoperable Ecosystem for Solar Data Analysis

Authors:The SunPy Community, Will Barnes, Steven Christe, Nabil Freij, Laura Hayes, David Stansby, Jack Ireland, Stuart Mumford, Daniel Ryan, Albert Shih

Abstract: The SunPy Project is a community of scientists and software developers creating an ecosystem of Python packages for solar physics. The project includes the sunpy core package as well as a set of affiliated packages. The sunpy core package provides general purpose tools to access data from different providers, read image and time series data, and transform between commonly used coordinate systems. Affiliated packages perform more specialized tasks that do not fall within the more general scope of the sunpy core package. In this article, we give a high-level overview of the SunPy Project, how it is broader than the sunpy core package, and how the project curates and fosters the affiliated package system. We demonstrate how components of the SunPy ecosystem, including sunpy and several affiliated packages, work together to enable multi-instrument data analysis workflows. We also describe members of the SunPy Project and how the project interacts with the wider solar physics and scientific Python communities. Finally, we discuss the future direction and priorities of the SunPy Project.

5.ASASSN-18aan revisited

Authors:Roberto Nesci INAF/IAPS, Antonio Vagnozzi MPC589 Observatory, Stefano Valentini

Abstract: The light curve of the cataclismic variable ASASSN-18aan is studied using recent observations of the MC589 Observatory, giving an orbital Period and Epoch fully consistent with the data obtained after the discovery flare in 2018. Archival data from ASASSN, ZTF and Gaia were used to check if its flares have a quasi-periodic behaviour. A recurrency time scale of about 11 months is found, confirming a previous tentative result using the historic plate archive of the Asiago Observatory. The next outbursts are expected by April 2023 and March 2024.

1.The progenitors of Type Ia supernovae with asymptotic giant branch donors

Authors:Luhan Li, Dongdong Liu, Bo Wang

Abstract: Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are among the most energetic events in the Universe. They are excellent cosmological distance indicators due to the remarkable homogeneity of their light curves. However, the nature of the progenitors of SNe Ia is still not well understood. In the single-degenerate model, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) could grow its mass by accreting material from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star, leading to the formation of SNe Ia when the mass of the WD approaches to the Chandrasekhar-mass limit, known as the AGB donor channel. In this channel, previous studies mainly concentrate on the wind-accretion pathway for the mass-increase of the WDs. In the present work, we employed an integrated mass-transfer prescription for the semidetached WD+AGB systems, and evolved a number of WD+AGB systems for the formation of SNe Ia through the Roche-lobe overflow process or the wind-accretion process. We provided the initial and final parameter spaces of WD+AGB systems for producing SNe Ia. We also obtained the density distribution of circumstellar matter at the moment when the WD mass reaches the Chandrasekhar-mass limit. Moreover, we found that the massive WD+AGB sample AT 2019qyl can be covered by the final parameter space for producing SNe Ia, indicating that AT 2019qyl is a strong progenitor candidate of SNe Ia with AGB donors.

2.A Sun-like star orbiting a boson star

Authors:Alexandre M. Pombo, Ippocratis D. Saltas

Abstract: The high-precision astrometric mission GAIA recently reported the remarkable discovery of a Sun-like star closely orbiting a dark object, with a semi-major axis and period of $1.4\, \rm{AU}$ and $187.8$ days respectively. While the plausible expectation for the central dark object is a black hole, the evolutionary mechanism leading to the formation of such a two-body system is highly challenging. Here, we challenge the scenario of a central black hole and show that the observed orbital dynamics can be explained under fairly general assumptions if the central dark object is a stable clump of bosonic particles of spin-0, or spin-1, known as a boson star. We further explain how future astrometric measurements of similar systems will provide an exciting opportunity to probe the fundamental nature of compact objects and test compact alternatives to black holes.

1.The Stellar Spectra Factory (SSF) Based On SLAM

Authors:Wei Ji, Chao Liu, Bo Zhang

Abstract: In this work, we present Stellar Spectra Factory (SSF), a tool to generate empirical-based stellar spectra from arbitrary stellar atmospheric parameters. The relative flux-calibrated empirical spectra can be predicted by SSF given arbitrary effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. SSF constructs the interpolation approach based on the SLAM, using ATLAS-A library as the training dataset. SSF is composed of 4 data-driven sub-models to predict empirical stellar spectra. SSF-N can generate spectra from A to K type and some M giant stars, covering 3700 < Teff < 8700 K, 0 < logg < 6 dex, and -1.5 < [M/H] < 0.5 dex. SSF-gM is mainly used to predict M giant spectra with 3520 < Teff < 4000K and -1.5 < [M/H] < 0.4 dex. SSF-dM is for generating M dwarf spectra with 3295 < Teff < 4040K, -1.0 < [M/H] < 0.1 dex. And SSF-B can predict B-type spectra with 9000 < Teff < 24000K and -5.2< MG < 1.5 mag. The accuracy of the predicted spectra is validated by comparing the flux of predicted spectra to those with same stellar parameters selected from the known spectral libraries, MILES and MaStar. The averaged difference of flux over optical wavelength between the predicted spectra and the corresponding ones in MILES and MaStar is less than 5%. More verification is conducted between the magnitudes calculated from the integration of the predicted spectra and the observations in PS1 and APASS bands with the same stellar parameters. No significant systematic difference is found between the predicted spectra and the photomatric observations. The uncertainty is 0.08mag in r band for SSF-gM when comparing with the stars with the same stellar parameters selected from PS1. And the uncertainty becomes 0.31mag in i band for SSF-dM when comparing with the stars with the same stellar parameters selected from APASS.

2.New variable sources revealed by DECam toward the LMC: the first 15 deg2

Authors:A. Franco, A. A. Nucita, F. De Paolis, F. Strafella, S. Sacquegna

Abstract: The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) is a sensitive, wide field instrument mounted at the prime focus of the 4 m V. Blanco Telescope in Chile. Beside its main objectives, i.e. understanding the growth and evolution of structures in the Universe, the camera offers the opportunity to observe a 3 deg2 field of view in one single pointing and, with an adequate cadence, to identify the variable sources contained. In this paper, we present the result of a DECam observational campaign toward the LMC and give a catalogue of the observed variable sources. We considered all the available DECam observations of the LMC, acquired during 32 nights over a period of two years (from February 2018 to January 2020), and set up a specific pipeline for detecting and characterizing variable sources in the observed fields. Here, we report on the first 15 deg2 in and around the LMC as observed by DECam, testing the capabilities of our pipeline. Since many of the observed fields cover a rather crowded region of the sky, we adopted the ISIS subtraction package which, even in these conditions, can detect variables at a very low signal to noise ratio. All the potentially identified variable sources were then analyzed and each light curve tested for periodicity by using the Lomb-Scargle and Schwarzenberg-Czerny algorithms. Furthermore, we classified the identified sources by using the UPSILoN neural network. This analysis allowed us to find 70 981 variable stars, 1266 of which were previously unknown. We estimated the period of the variables and compared it with the available values in the catalogues. Moreover, for the 1266 newly detected objects, an attempted classification based on light curve analysis is presented.

3.Probing the solar interior with lensed gravitational waves from known pulsars

Authors:Ryuichi Takahashi, Soichiro Morisaki, Teruaki Suyama

Abstract: When gravitational waves (GWs) from a spinning neutron star arrive from behind the Sun, they are subjected to gravitational lensing that imprints a frequency-dependent modulation on the waveform. This modulation traces the projected solar density and gravitational potential along the path as the Sun passes in front of the neutron star. We calculate how accurately the solar density profile can be extracted from the lensed GWs using a Fisher analysis. For this purpose, we selected three promising candidates (the highly spinning pulsars J1022+1001, J1730-2304, and J1745-23) from the pulsar catalog of the Australia Telescope National Facility. The lensing signature can be measured with $3 \sigma$ confidence when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the GW detection reaches $100 \, (f/300 {\rm Hz})^{-1}$ over a one-year observation period (where $f$ is the GW frequency). The solar density profile can be plotted as a function of radius when the SNR improves to $\gtrsim 10^4$.

4.Mapping the distribution of OB stars and associations in Auriga

Authors:Alexis L. Quintana, Nicholas J. Wright, Robin D. Jeffries

Abstract: OB associations are important probes of recent star formation and Galactic structure. In this study, we focus on the Auriga constellation, an important region of star formation due to its numerous young stars, star-forming regions and open clusters. We show using \textit{Gaia} data that its two previously documented OB associations, Aur OB1 and OB2, are too extended in proper motion and distance to be genuine associations, encouraging us to revisit the census of OB associations in Auriga with modern techniques. We identify 5617 candidate OB stars across the region using photometry, astrometry and our SED fitting code, grouping these into 5 high-confidence OB associations using HDBSCAN. Three of these are replacements to the historical pair of associations - Aur OB2 is divided between a foreground and a background association - while the other two associations are completely new. We connect these OB associations to the surrounding open clusters and star-forming regions, analyse them physically and kinematically, constraining their ages through a combination of 3D kinematic traceback, the position of their members in the HR diagram and their connection to clusters of known age. Four of these OB associations are expanding, with kinematic ages up to a few tens of Myr. Finally, we identify an age gradient in the region spanning several associations that coincides with the motion of the Perseus spiral arm over the last $\sim$20 Myr across the field of view.

5.Variable stars in the residual light curves of OGLE-IV eclipsing binaries towards the Galactic Bulge

Authors:Rozália Z. Ádám, Tamás Hajdu, Attila Bódi, Róbert Hajdu, Tamás Szklenár, László Molnár

Abstract: Context. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) observed around 450,000 eclipsing binaries (EBs) towards the Galactic Bulge. Decade-long photometric observations such as these provide an exceptional opportunity to thoroughly examine the targets. However, observing dense stellar fields such as the Bulge may result in blends and contamination by close objects. Aims. We searched for periodic variations in the residual light curves of EBs in OGLE-IV and created a new catalogue for the EBs that contain `background' signals after the investigation of the source of the signal. Methods. From the about half a million EB systems, we selected those that contain more than 4000 data points. We fitted the EB signal with a simple model and subtracted it. To identify periodical signals in the residuals, we used a GPU-based phase dispersion minimisation python algorithm called cuvarbase and validated the found periods with Lomb-Scargle periodograms. We tested the reliability of our method with artificial light curves. Results. We identified 354 systems where short-period background variation was significant. In these cases, we determined whether it is a new variable or just the result of contamination by an already catalogued nearby one. We classified 292 newly found variables into EB, $\delta$ Scuti, or RR Lyrae categories, or their sub-classes, and collected them in a catalogue. We also discovered four new doubly eclipsing systems and one eclipsing multiple system with a $\delta$ Scuti variable, and modelled the outer orbits of the components.

6.Spectral classification of young stars using conditional invertible neural networks I. Introducing and validating the method

Authors:Da Eun Kang, Victor F. Ksoll, Dominika Itrich, Leonardo Testi, Ralf S. Klessen, Patrick Hennebelle, Sergio Molinari

Abstract: Aims. We introduce a new deep learning tool that estimates stellar parameters (such as effective temperature, surface gravity, and extinction) of young low-mass stars by coupling the Phoenix stellar atmosphere model with a conditional invertible neural network (cINN). Our networks allow us to infer the posterior distribution of each stellar parameter from the optical spectrum. Methods. We discuss cINNs trained on three different Phoenix grids: Settl, NextGen, and Dusty. We evaluate the performance of these cINNs on unlearned Phoenix synthetic spectra and on the spectra of 36 Class III template stars with well-characterised stellar parameters. Results. We confirm that the cINNs estimate the considered stellar parameters almost perfectly when tested on unlearned Phoenix synthetic spectra. Applying our networks to Class III stars, we find good agreement with deviations of at most 5--10 per cent. The cINNs perform slightly better for earlier-type stars than for later-type stars like late M-type stars, but we conclude that estimations of effective temperature and surface gravity are reliable for all spectral types within the network's training range. Conclusions. Our networks are time-efficient tools applicable to large amounts of observations. Among the three networks, we recommend using the cINN trained on the Settl library (Settl-Net), as it provides the best performance across the largest range of temperature and gravity.

7.A statistical model of stellar variability. I. FENRIR: a physics-based model of stellar activity, and its fast Gaussian process approximation

Authors:Nathan C. Hara, Jean-Baptiste Delisle

Abstract: The detection of terrestrial planets by radial velocity and photometry is hindered by the presence of stellar signals. Those are often modeled as stationary Gaussian processes, whose kernels are based on qualitative considerations, which do not fully leverage the existing physical understanding of stars. Our aim is to build a formalism which allows to transfer the knowledge of stellar activity into practical data analysis methods. In particular, we aim at obtaining kernels with physical parameters. This has two purposes: better modelling signals of stellar origin to find smaller exoplanets, and extracting information about the star from the statistical properties of the data. We consider several observational channels such as photometry, radial velocity, activity indicators, and build a model called FENRIR to represent their stochastic variations due to stellar surface inhomogeneities. We compute analytically the covariance of this multi-channel stochastic process, and implement it in the S+LEAF framework to reduce the cost of likelihood evaluations from $O(N^3)$ to $O(N)$. We also compute analytically higher order cumulants of our FENRIR model, which quantify its non-Gaussianity. We obtain a fast Gaussian process framework with physical parameters, which we apply to the HARPS-N and SORCE observations of the Sun, and constrain a solar inclination compatible with the viewing geometry. We then discuss the application of our formalism to granulation. We exhibit non-Gaussianity in solar HARPS radial velocities, and argue that information is lost when stellar activity signals are assumed to be Gaussian. We finally discuss the origin of phase shifts between RVs and indicators, and how to build relevant activity indicators. We provide an open-source implementation of the FENRIR Gaussian process model with a Python interface.

1.A benchmark study of atomic models for the transition region against quiet Sun observations

Authors:Roger Dufresne, Giulio Del Zanna, Helen Mason

Abstract: The use of the coronal approximation to model line emission from the solar transition region has led to discrepancies with observations over many years, particularly for Li- and Na-like ions. Studies have shown that a number of atomic processes are required to improve the modelling for this region, including the effects of high densities, solar radiation and charge transfer on ion formation. Other non-equilibrium processes, such as time dependent ionisation and radiative transfer, are also expected to play a role. A set of models which include the three relevant atomic processes listed above in ionisation equilibrium has recently been built. These new results cover the main elements observed in the transition region. To assess the effectiveness of the results, the present work predicts spectral line intensities using differential emission measure modelling. Although limited in some respects, this differential emission measure modelling does give a good indication of the impact of the new atomic calculations. The results are compared to predictions of the coronal approximation and to observations of the average, quiet Sun from published literature. Significant improvements are seen for the line emission from Li- and Na-like ions, inter-combination lines and many other lines. From this study, an assessment is made of how far down into the solar atmosphere the coronal approximation can be applied, and the range over which the new atomic models are valid.

2.Photometric activity of CQ Tau on the time interval of 125 years

Authors:V. P. Grinin, L. V. Tambovtseva, O. Yu. Barsunova, D. N. Shakhovskoy

Abstract: The star CQ Tau belongs to the family of UX Ori type stars. It has very complex photometric behavior and complex structure of the circumstellar environment. In our paper we constructed the historical 125 years light curve of this star basing on the published photometric observations. It follows that besides a random component characteristic of UX Ori type stars, the large amplitude periodic component with the 10 year period is also present. Its existence was suspected earlier in [11]. New observations confirm its reality. It points to an existence of the second component close to the star. The density waves and matter flows caused by the companion motion lead to periodic changes in the circumstellar extinction and brightness of the star. This result is discussed in context of the recent observations of CQ Tau with high angular resolution.

3.Investigating Gaia EDR3 parallax systematics using asteroseismology of Cool Giant Stars observed by Kepler, K2, and TESS I. Asteroseismic distances to 12,500 red-giant stars

Authors:Saniya Khan, Andrea Miglio, Emma Willett, Benoît Mosser, Yvonne P. Elsworth, Richard I. Anderson, Leo Girardi, Kévin Belkacem, Anthony G. A. Brown, Tristan Cantat-Gaudin, Luca Casagrande, Gisella Clementini, Antonella Vallenari

Abstract: Gaia EDR3 has provided unprecedented data that generate a lot of interest in the astrophysical community, despite the fact that systematics affect the reported parallaxes at the level of ~ 10 muas. Independent distance measurements are available from asteroseismology of red-giant stars with measurable parallaxes, whose magnitude and colour ranges more closely reflect those of other stars of interest. In this paper, we determine distances to nearly 12,500 red-giant branch and red clump stars observed by Kepler, K2, and TESS. This is done via a grid-based modelling method, where global asteroseismic observables, constraints on the photospheric chemical composition, and on the unreddened photometry are used as observational inputs. This large catalogue of asteroseismic distances allows us to provide a first comparison with Gaia EDR3 parallaxes. Offset values estimated with asteroseismology show no clear trend with ecliptic latitude or magnitude, and the trend whereby they increase (in absolute terms) as we move towards redder colours is dominated by the brightest stars. The correction model proposed by Lindegren et al. (2021) is not suitable for all the fields considered in this study. We find a good agreement between asteroseismic results and model predictions of the red clump magnitude. We discuss possible trends with the Gaia scan law statistics, and show that two magnitude regimes exist where either asteroseismology or Gaia provides the best precision in parallax.

4.Solar P-angle Alignment in GONG Dopplergrams

Authors:Anna L. H. Hughes, Irene Gonzalez-Hernandez, Sean G. McManus, Kiran Jain, Sushanta C. Tripathy

Abstract: In helioseismic studies, an observational parameter of primary concern is the P-angle, the angle along which lies the solar axis of rotation for a given image. For the six observing sites employed by The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), this angle acts additionally as a marker of relative image orientation, allowing concurrent images to be precisely aligned and merged to provide the highest possible quality data. In this report, we present and investigate two methods of determining the P-angle via the rotational signature embedded in solar Dopplergram images by examining the large-scale structure of the observed velocity field. As with other studies, we find that the Dopplergram produces a time-varying 'P-angle' signature according to the presentation of various physical phenomena across the solar surface, but with the potential for sub-degree identification of the axis of rotation. However, close agreement between separate P-angle-finding techniques also reveals current limitations to P-angle determination that are imposed by the calibration state of the GONG-site Dopplergrams, leaving these P-angle-finding methods for GONG with errors on the scale of less than a degree between two site.

5.Diffusion Coefficients of $^{56}$Fe in C-O and O-Ne White Dwarfs

Authors:Matthew E. Caplan

Abstract: The diffusion coefficients of neutron rich nuclei in crystallizing white dwarf (WD) stars are essential microphysics input for modeling the evolution of the composition profile. Recently, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to compute diffusion coefficients for realistic mixtures of C-O and O-Ne WDs with many trace nuclides that could be important sedimentary heat sources such as $^{22}$Ne, $^{23}$Na, $^{25}$Mg, and $^{27}$Mg. In this brief note, I repeat these simulations but now include $^{56}$Fe. I find that for the large charge ratios involved in these mixtures the empirical law developed in our earlier work tends to under-predict diffusion coefficients in the moderately coupled regime by 30 to 40 percent. As this formalism is presently implemented in the stellar evolution code MESA, it is important for authors studying mixtures containing heavy nuclides like $^{56}$Fe to be aware of these systematics. However, the impact on astrophysics is expected to be small.