arXiv daily: Information Theory

arXiv daily: Information Theory (cs.IT)

1.Generalised Impedance Model of Wireless Links Assisted by Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Authors:Keisuke Konno, Sergio Terranova, Qiang Chen, Gabriele Gradoni

Abstract: We devise an end-to-end communication channel model that describes the performance of RIS-assisted MIMO wireless links. The model borrows the impedance (interaction) matrix formalism from the Method of Moments and provides a physics-based communication model. In configurations where the transmit and receive antenna arrays are distant from the RIS beyond a wavelength, a reduced model provides accurate results for arbitrary RIS unit cell geometry. Importantly, the simplified model configures as a cascaded channel transfer matrix whose mathematical structure is compliant with widely accepted, but less accurate, system level RIS models. A numerical validation of the communication model is presented for the design of binary RIS structures with scatterers of canonical geometry. Attained results are consistent with path-loss models: For obstructed line-of-sight between transmitter and receiver, the channel capacity of the (optimised) RIS-assisted link scales as $R^{-2}$, with $R$ RIS-receiver distance at fixed transmitter position. Our results shows that the applicability of communication models based on mutual impedance matrices is not restricted to canonical minimum scattering RIS unit cells.

2.Destination Scheduling for Secure Pinhole-Based Power-Line Communication

Authors:Chinmoy Kundu, Ankit Dubey, Andrea M. Tonello, Arumugam Nallanathan, Mark F. Flanagan

Abstract: We propose an optimal destination scheduling scheme to improve the physical layer security (PLS) of a power-line communication (PLC) based Internet-of-Things system in the presence of an eavesdropper. We consider a pinhole (PH) architecture for a multi-node PLC network to capture the keyhole effect in PLC. The transmitter-to-PH link is shared between the destinations and an eavesdropper which correlates all end-to-end links. The individual channel gains are assumed to follow independent log-normal statistics. Furthermore, the additive impulsive noise at each node is modeled by an independent Bernoulli-Gaussian process. Exact computable expressions for the average secrecy capacity (ASC) and the probability of intercept (POI) performance over many different networks are derived. Approximate closed-form expressions for the asymptotic ASC and POI are also provided. We find that the asymptotic ASC saturates to a constant level as transmit power increases. We observe that the PH has an adverse effect on the ASC. Although the shared link affects the ASC, it has no effect on the POI. We show that by artificially controlling the impulsive to background noise power ratio and its arrival rate at the receivers, the secrecy performance can be improved.

1.Low-Latency SCL Bit-Flipping Decoding of Polar Codes

Authors:Wei Zhang, Xiaofu Wu

Abstract: Bit flipping can be used as a postprocessing technique to further improve the performance for successive cancellation list (SCL) decoding of polar codes. However, the number of bit-flipping trials could increase the decoding latency significantly, which is not welcome in practice. In this paper, we propose a low latency SCL bit flipping decoding scheme, which is restricted to just single round of post-processing. The use of multiple votes for a more accurate estimation of path survival probability is proposed to locate the first error event of SCL decoding. Simulations show the sound improvement compared to the existing SCL bit-flipping decoding methods.

2.Learning-Based Rich Feedback HARQ for Energy-Efficient Short Packet Transmission

Authors:Martin Voigt Vejling, Federico Chiariotti, Anders Ellersgaard Kalør, Deniz Gündüz, Gianluigi Liva, Petar Popovski

Abstract: The trade-off between reliability, latency, and energy-efficiency is a central problem in communication systems. Advanced hybrid automated repeat request (HARQ) techniques can reduce the number of retransmissions required for reliable communication, but they have a significant computational cost. On the other hand, strict energy constraints apply mainly to devices, while the access point receiving their packets is usually connected to the electrical grid. Therefore, moving the computational complexity required for HARQ schemes from the transmitter to the receiver may provide a way to overcome this trade-off. To achieve this, we propose the Reinforcement-based Adaptive Feedback (RAF) scheme, in which the receiver adaptively learns how much additional redundancy it requires to decode a packet and sends rich feedback (i.e., more than a single bit), requesting the coded retransmission of specific symbols. Simulation results show that the RAF scheme achieves a better trade-off between energy-efficiency, reliability, and latency, compared to existing HARQ solutions and a fixed threshold-based policy. Our RAF scheme can easily adapt to different modulation schemes, and since it relies on the posterior probabilities of the codeword symbols at the decoder, it can generalize to different channel statistics.

3.Selection Combining over Log-Logistic Fading Channels with Applications to Underwater Optical Wireless Communications

Authors:Yazan H. Al-Badarneh, Mustafa K. Alshawaqfeh, Osamah S. Badarneh

Abstract: We study the performance of a selection combining (SC) receiver operating over independent but non-identically distributed log-logistic ($\mathcal{LL})$ fading channels. We first characterize the statistics of the output instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the SC receiver. Based on the SNR statistics, we derive exact analytical expressions, in terms of multivariate Fox H-functions, for the outage probability, the average bit error rate, and the ergodic capacity. We also derive exact expressions for such performance measures when all channels are independent and identically distributed, as a special case. Furthermore, we deduce simplified asymptotic expressions for these performance metrics assuming high values of average transmit SNR. To demonstrate the applicability of our theoretical analysis, we study the performance of an SC receiver in underwater optical wireless communication systems. Finally, we confirm the correctness of the derived analytical results using Monte Carlo Simulations.

4.Explicit Construction of q-ary 2-deletion Correcting Codes with Low Redundancy

Authors:Shu Liu, Ivan Tjuawinata, Chaoping Xing

Abstract: We consider the problem of efficient construction of q-ary 2-deletion correcting codes with low redundancy. We show that our construction requires less redundancy than any existing efficiently encodable q-ary 2-deletion correcting codes. Precisely speaking, we present an explicit construction of a q-ary 2-deletion correcting code with redundancy 5 log(n)+10log(log(n)) + 3 log(q)+O(1). Using a minor modification to the original construction, we obtain an efficiently encodable q-ary 2-deletion code that is efficiently list-decodable. Similarly, we show that our construction of list-decodable code requires a smaller redundancy compared to any existing list-decodable codes. To obtain our sketches, we transform a q-ary codeword to a binary string which can then be used as an input to the underlying base binary sketch. This is then complemented with additional q-ary sketches that the original q-ary codeword is required to satisfy. In other words, we build our codes via a binary 2-deletion code as a black-box. Finally we utilize the binary 2-deletion code proposed by Guruswami and Hastad to our construction to obtain the main result of this paper.

5.Integrated Sensing, Computation, and Communication for UAV-assisted Federated Edge Learning

Authors:Yao Tang, Guangxu Zhu, Wei Xu, Man Hon Cheung, Tat-Ming Lok, Shuguang Cui

Abstract: Federated edge learning (FEEL) enables privacy-preserving model training through periodic communication between edge devices and the server. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-mounted edge devices are particularly advantageous for FEEL due to their flexibility and mobility in efficient data collection. In UAV-assisted FEEL, sensing, computation, and communication are coupled and compete for limited onboard resources, and UAV deployment also affects sensing and communication performance. Therefore, the joint design of UAV deployment and resource allocation is crucial to achieving the optimal training performance. In this paper, we address the problem of joint UAV deployment design and resource allocation for FEEL via a concrete case study of human motion recognition based on wireless sensing. We first analyze the impact of UAV deployment on the sensing quality and identify a threshold value for the sensing elevation angle that guarantees a satisfactory quality of data samples. Due to the non-ideal sensing channels, we consider the probabilistic sensing model, where the successful sensing probability of each UAV is determined by its position. Then, we derive the upper bound of the FEEL training loss as a function of the sensing probability. Theoretical results suggest that the convergence rate can be improved if UAVs have a uniform successful sensing probability. Based on this analysis, we formulate a training time minimization problem by jointly optimizing UAV deployment, integrated sensing, computation, and communication (ISCC) resources under a desirable optimality gap constraint. To solve this challenging mixed-integer non-convex problem, we apply the alternating optimization technique, and propose the bandwidth, batch size, and position optimization (BBPO) scheme to optimize these three decision variables alternately.

6.Secrecy of Opportunistic User Scheduling in RIS-Aided Systems: A Comparison with NOMA Scheduling

Authors:Burhan Wafai, Sarbani Ghose, Chinmoy Kundu, Ankit Dubey, Mark F. Flanagan

Abstract: In this paper, we propose an opportunistic user scheduling scheme in a multi-user reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) aided wireless system to improve secrecy. We derive the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and its asymptotic expression in approximate closed form. The asymptotic analysis shows that the SOP does not depend on the transmitter-to-RIS distance and saturates to a fixed value depending on the ratio of the path loss of the RIS-to-destination and RIS-to-eavesdropper links and the number of users at high signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown that increasing the number of RIS elements leads to an exponential decrease in the SOP. We also compare our scheme with that of a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheduling scheme, which chooses a pair of users to schedule in each time slot. The comparison shows that the SOP of all of the NOMA users is compromised, and that our proposed scheduling scheme has better performance.

1.Energy-efficient Rate Splitting for MIMO STAR-RIS-assisted Broadcast Channels with I/Q Imbalance

Authors:Mohammad Soleymani, Ignacio Santamaria, Eduard Jorswieck

Abstract: This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheme for multicell multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) simultaneous transmit and reflect (STAR) reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS)-assisted broadcast channels by employing rate splitting (RS) and improper Gaussian signaling (IGS). Regular RISs can only reflect signals. Thus, a regular RIS can assist only when the transmitter and receiver are in the reflection space of the RIS. However, a STAR-RIS can simultaneously transmit and reflect, thus providing a 360-degrees coverage. In this paper, we assume that transceivers may suffer from I/Q imbalance (IQI). To compensate for IQI, we employ IGS. Moreover, we employ RS to manage intracell interference. We show that RIS can significantly improve the energy efficiency (EE) of the system when RIS components are carefully optimized. Additionally, we show that STAR-RIS can significantly outperform a regular RIS when the regular RIS cannot cover all the users. We also show that RS can highly increase the EE comparing to treating interference as noise.

2.Short rank-metric codes and scattered subspaces

Authors:Stefano Lia, Giovanni Longobardi, Giuseppe Marino, Rocco Trombetti

Abstract: By exploiting the connection between scattered $\mathbb{F}_q$-subspaces of $\mathbb{F}_{q^m}^3$ and minimal non degenerate $3$-dimensional rank metric codes of $\mathbb{F}_{q^m}^{n}$, $n \geq m+2$, described in \cite{AlfaranoBorelloNeriRavagnani2022JCTA}, we will exhibit a new class of codes with parameters $[m+2,3,m-2]_{q^m/q}$ for infinite values of $q$ and $m \geq 5$ odd. Moreover, by studying the geometric structures of these scattered subspaces, we determine the rank weight distribution of the associated codes.

3.Q-learning for distributed routing in LEO satellite constellations

Authors:Beatriz Soret, Israel Leyva-Mayorga, Federico Lozano-Cuadra, Mathias D. Thorsager

Abstract: End-to-end routing in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite constellations (LSatCs) is a complex and dynamic problem. The topology, of finite size, is dynamic and predictable, the traffic from/to Earth and transiting the space segment is highly imbalanced, and the delay is dominated by the propagation time in non-congested routes and by the queueing time at Inter-Satellite Links (ISLs) in congested routes. Traditional routing algorithms depend on excessive communication with ground or other satellites, and oversimplify the characterization of the path links towards the destination. We model the problem as a multi-agent Partially Observable Markov Decision Problem (POMDP) where the nodes (i.e., the satellites) interact only with nearby nodes. We propose a distributed Q-learning solution that leverages on the knowledge of the neighbours and the correlation of the routing decisions of each node. We compare our results to two centralized algorithms based on the shortest path: one aiming at using the highest data rate links and a second genie algorithm that knows the instantaneous queueing delays at all satellites. The results of our proposal are positive on every front: (1) it experiences delays that are comparable to the benchmarks in steady-state conditions; (2) it increases the supported traffic load without congestion; and (3) it can be easily implemented in a LSatC as it does not depend on the ground segment and minimizes the signaling overhead among satellites.

4.Matrix Inference in Growing Rank Regimes

Authors:Farzad Pourkamali, Jean Barbier, Nicolas Macris

Abstract: The inference of a large symmetric signal-matrix $\mathbf{S} \in \mathbb{R}^{N\times N}$ corrupted by additive Gaussian noise, is considered for two regimes of growth of the rank $M$ as a function of $N$. For sub-linear ranks $M=\Theta(N^\alpha)$ with $\alpha\in(0,1)$ the mutual information and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) are derived for two classes of signal-matrices: (a) $\mathbf{S}=\mathbf{X}\mathbf{X}^\intercal$ with entries of $\mathbf{X}\in\mathbb{R}^{N\times M}$ independent identically distributed; (b) $\mathbf{S}$ sampled from a rotationally invariant distribution. Surprisingly, the formulas match the rank-one case. Two efficient algorithms are explored and conjectured to saturate the MMSE when no statistical-to-computational gap is present: (1) Decimation Approximate Message Passing; (2) a spectral algorithm based on a Rotation Invariant Estimator. For linear ranks $M=\Theta(N)$ the mutual information is rigorously derived for signal-matrices from a rotationally invariant distribution. Close connections with scalar inference in free probability are uncovered, which allow to deduce a simple formula for the MMSE as an integral involving the limiting spectral measure of the data matrix only. An interesting issue is whether the known information theoretic phase transitions for rank-one, and hence also sub-linear-rank, still persist in linear-rank. Our analysis suggests that only a smoothed-out trace of the transitions persists. Furthermore, the change of behavior between low and truly high-rank regimes only happens at the linear scale $\alpha=1$.

5.Extremely large-scale Array Systems: Near-Filed Codebook Design and Performance Analysis

Authors:Feng Zheng

Abstract: Extremely large-scale Array (ELAA) promises to deliver ultra-high data rates with more antenna elements. Meanwhile, the increase of antenna elements leads to a wider realm of near-field, which challenges the traditional design of codebooks. In this paper, we propose novel codebook design schemes which provide better quantized correlation with limited overhead. First, we analyze the correlation between codewords and channel vectors uniform linear array (ULA) and uniform planar array (UPA). The correlation formula for the ULA channel can be expressed as an elliptic function, and the correlation formula for the UPA channel can be represented as an ellipsoid formula. Based on the analysis, we design a uniform sampling codebook to maximize the minimum quantized correlation and a dislocation ULA codebook to reduce the number of quantized bits further. Besides, we give a better sampling interval for the codebook of the UPA channel. Numerical results demonstrate the appealing advantages of the proposed codebook over existing methods in quantization bit number and quantization accuracy.

6.On the Coverage of Cognitive mmWave Networks with Directional Sensing and Communication

Authors:Shuchi Tripathi, Abhishek K. Gupta, SaiDhiraj Amuru

Abstract: Millimeter-waves' propagation characteristics create prospects for spatial and temporal spectrum sharing in a variety of contexts, including cognitive spectrum sharing (CSS). However, CSS along with omnidirectional sensing, is not efficient at mmWave frequencies due to their directional nature of transmission, as this limits secondary networks' ability to access the spectrum. This inspired us to create an analytical approach using stochastic geometry to examine the implications of directional cognitive sensing in mmWave networks. We explore a scenario where multiple secondary transmitter-receiver pairs coexist with a primary transmitter-receiver pair, forming a cognitive network. The positions of the secondary transmitters are modelled using a homogeneous Poisson point process (PPP) with corresponding secondary receivers located around them. A threshold on directional transmission is imposed on each secondary transmitter in order to limit its interference at the primary receiver. We derive the medium-access-probability of a secondary user along with the fraction of the secondary transmitters active at a time-instant. To understand cognition's feasibility, we derive the coverage probabilities of primary and secondary links. We provide various design insights via numerical results. For example, we investigate the interference-threshold's optimal value while ensuring coverage for both links and its dependence on various parameters. We find that directionality improves both links' performance as a key factor. Further, allowing location-aware secondary directionality can help achieve similar coverage for all secondary links.

1.Analytical Characterization of Coverage Regions for STAR-RIS-aided NOMA/OMA Communication Systems

Authors:Farshad Rostami Ghadi, F. Javier Lopez-Martinez, Kai-Kit Wong

Abstract: We provide an analytical characterization of the coverage region of simultaneously transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surface (STAR-RIS)-aided two-user downlink communication systems. The cases of orthogonal multiple access (OMA) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) are considered, under the energy-splitting (ES) protocol. Results confirm that the use of STAR-RISs is beneficial to extend the coverage region, and that the use of NOMA provides a better performance compared to the OMA counterpart.

2.Beamforming Design for IRS-and-UAV-aided Two-way Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks

Authors:Xuehui Wang, Feng Shu, Yuanyuan Wu, Shihao Yan, Yifan Zhao, Qiankun Cheng, Jiangzhou Wang

Abstract: As a promising solution to improve communication quality, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been widely integrated into wireless networks. In this paper, for the sake of enhancing the message exchange rate between User1 (U1) and User2 (U2), an intelligent reflective surface (IRS)-and-UAV- assisted two-way amplify-and-forward (AF) relay wireless system is proposed, where U1 and U2 can communicate each other via a UAV-mounted IRS and an AF relay. Besides, an optimization problem of maximizing minimum rate is casted, where the variables, namely AF relay beamforming matrix and IRS phase shifts of two time slots, need to be optimized. To achieve a maximum rate, a low-complexity alternately iterative (AI) scheme based on zero forcing and successive convex approximation (LC-ZF-SCA) algorithm is put forward, where the expression of AF relay beamforming matrix can be derived in semi-closed form by ZF method, and IRS phase shift vectors of two time slots can be respectively optimized by utilizing SCA algorithm. To obtain a significant rate enhancement, a high-performance AI method based on one step, semidefinite programming and penalty SCA (ONS-SDP-PSCA) is proposed, where the beamforming matrix at AF relay can be firstly solved by singular value decomposition and ONS method, IRS phase shift matrices of two time slots are optimized by SDP and PSCA algorithms. Simulation results present that the rate performance of the proposed LC-ZF-SCA and ONS-SDP-PSCA methods surpass those of random phase and only AF relay. In particular, when total transmit power is equal to 30dBm, the proposed two methods can harvest more than 68.5% rate gain compared to random phase and only AF relay. Meanwhile, the rate performance of ONS-SDP-PSCA method at cost of extremely high complexity is superior to that of LC-ZF-SCA method.

3.Efficient Near Maximum-Likelihood Efficient Near Maximum-Likelihood Reliability-Based Decoding for Short LDPC Codes

Authors:Weiyang Zhang, Chentao Yue, Yonghui Li, Branka Vucetic

Abstract: In this paper, we propose an efficient decoding algorithm for short low-density parity check (LDPC) codes by carefully combining the belief propagation (BP) decoding and order statistic decoding (OSD) algorithms. Specifically, a modified BP (mBP) algorithm is applied for a certain number of iterations prior to OSD to enhance the reliability of the received message, where an offset parameter is utilized in mBP to control the weight of the extrinsic information in message passing. By carefully selecting the offset parameter and the number of mBP iterations, the number of errors in the most reliable positions (MRPs) in OSD can be reduced, thereby significantly improving the overall decoding performance of error rate and complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can approach the maximum-likelihood decoding (MLD) for short LDPC codes with only a slight increase in complexity compared to BP and a significant decrease compared to OSD. Specifically, the order-(m-1) decoding of the proposed algorithm can achieve the performance of the order-m OSD.

4.Codebook Configuration for 1-bit RIS-aided Systems Based on Implicit Neural Representations

Authors:Yao Xiao, Zhijie Fan, Zenan Ling, Rujing Xiong, Tiebin Mi, Robert Caiming Qiu

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have become one of the key technologies in 6G wireless communications. By configuring the reflection beamforming codebooks, RIS focuses signals on target receivers. In this paper, we investigate the codebook configuration for 1-bit RIS-aided systems. We propose a novel learning-based method built upon the advanced methodology of implicit neural representations. The proposed model learns a continuous and differentiable coordinate-to-codebook representation from samplings. Our method only requires the information of the user's coordinate and avoids the assumption of channel models. Moreover, we propose an encoding-decoding strategy to reduce the dimension of codebooks, and thus improve the learning efficiency of the proposed method. Experimental results on simulation and measured data demonstrated the remarkable advantages of the proposed method.

5.Do not Interfere but Cooperate: A Fully Learnable Code Design for Multi-Access Channels with Feedback

Authors:Emre Ozfatura, Chenghong Bian, Deniz Gunduz

Abstract: Data-driven deep learning based code designs, including low-complexity neural decoders for existing codes, or end-to-end trainable auto-encoders have exhibited impressive results, particularly in scenarios for which we do not have high-performing structured code designs. However, the vast majority of existing data-driven solutions for channel coding focus on a point-to-point scenario. In this work, we consider a multiple access channel (MAC) with feedback and try to understand whether deep learning-based designs are capable of enabling coordination and cooperation among the encoders as well as allowing error correction. Simulation results show that the proposed multi-access block attention feedback (MBAF) code improves the upper bound of the achievable rate of MAC without feedback in finite block length regime.

6.From Babel to Boole: The Logical Organization of Information Decompositions

Authors:Aaron J. Gutknecht, Abdullah Makkeh, Michael Wibral

Abstract: The conventional approach to the general Partial Information Decomposition (PID) problem has been redundancy-based: specifying a measure of redundant information between collections of source variables induces a PID via Moebius-Inversion over the so called redundancy lattice. Despite the prevalence of this method, there has been ongoing interest in examining the problem through the lens of different base-concepts of information, such as synergy, unique information, or union information. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the logical organization of these different based-concepts and their associated PIDs remains elusive. In this work, we apply the mereological formulation of PID that we introduced in a recent paper to shed light on this problem. Within the mereological approach base-concepts can be expressed in terms of conditions phrased in formal logic on the specific parthood relations between the PID components and the different mutual information terms. We set forth a general pattern of these logical conditions of which all PID base-concepts in the literature are special cases and that also reveals novel base-concepts, in particular a concept we call ``vulnerable information''.

7.On the Capacity of Communication Channels with Memory and Sampled Additive Cyclostationary Gaussian Noise: Full Version with Detailed Proofs

Authors:Ron Dabora, Emeka Abakasanga

Abstract: In this work we study the capacity of interference-limited channels with memory. These channels model non-orthogonal communications scenarios, such as the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scenario and underlay cognitive communications, in which the interference from other communications signals is much stronger than the thermal noise. Interference-limited communications is expected to become a very common scenario in future wireless communications systems, such as 5G, WiFi6, and beyond. As communications signals are inherently cyclostationary in continuous time (CT), then after sampling at the receiver, the discrete-time (DT) received signal model contains the sampled desired information signal with additive sampled CT cyclostationary noise. The sampled noise can be modeled as either a DT cyclostationary process or a DT almost-cyclostationary process, where in the latter case the resulting channel is not information-stable. In a previous work we characterized the capacity of this model for the case in which the DT noise is memoryless. In the current work we come closer to practical scenarios by modelling the resulting DT noise as a finite-memory random process. The presence of memory requires the development of a new set of tools for analyzing the capacity of channels with additive non-stationary noise which has memory. Our results show, for the first time, the relationship between memory, sampling frequency synchronization and capacity, for interference-limited communications. The insights from our work provide a link between the analog and the digital time domains, which has been missing in most previous works on capacity analysis. Thus, our results can help improving spectral efficiency and suggest optimal transceiver designs for future communications paradigms.

1.A new generalization of Reed-Solomon codes

Authors:Chunlei Liu

Abstract: A new generalization of Reed-Solomon codes is given. Like Goppa codes, our codes also approach to the Gilbert bound. Nevertheless, decoding these new codes does not require us to know the roots of the minimal polynomial of the syndromes.

2.Confidential Signal Cancellation Phenomenon in Interference Alignment Networks: Cause and Cure

Authors:Lin Hu, Jiabing Fan, Hong Wen, Jie Tang, Qianbin Chen

Abstract: This paper investigates physical layer security (PLS) in wireless interference networks. Specifically, we consider confidential transmission from a legitimate transmitter (Alice) to a legitimate receiver (Bob), in the presence of non-colluding passive eavesdroppers (Eves), as well as multiple legitimate transceivers. To mitigate interference at legitimate receivers and enhance PLS, artificial noise (AN) aided interference alignment (IA) is explored. However, the conventional leakage minimization (LM) based IA may exhibit confidential signal cancellation phenomenon. We theoretically analyze the cause and then establish a condition under which this phenomenon will occur almost surely. Moreover, we propose a means of avoiding this phenomenon by integrating the max-eigenmode beamforming (MEB) into the traditional LM based IA. By assuming that only statistical channel state informations (CSIs) of Eves and local CSIs of legitimate users are available, we derive a closed form expression for the secrecy outage probability (SOP), and establish a condition under which positive secrecy rate is achievable. To enhance security performance, an SOP constrained secrecy rate maximization (SRM) problem is formulated and an efficient numerical method is developed for the optimal solution. Numerical results confirm the effectiveness and the usefulness of the proposed approach.

3.An Efficient Machine Learning-based Channel Prediction Technique for OFDM Sub-Bands

Authors:Pedro E. G. Silva, Jules M. Moualeu, Pedro H. Nardelli, Rausley A. A. de Souza

Abstract: The acquisition of accurate channel state information (CSI) is of utmost importance since it provides performance improvement of wireless communication systems. However, acquiring accurate CSI, which can be done through channel estimation or channel prediction, is an intricate task due to the complexity of the time-varying and frequency selectivity of the wireless environment. To this end, we propose an efficient machine learning (ML)-based technique for channel prediction in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) sub-bands. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the training of channel fading samples used to estimate future channel behaviour in selective fading.

4.Semantic-Functional Communications in Cyber-Physical Systems

Authors:Pedro E. Goria Silva, Pedro H. J. Nardelli, Arthur S. de Sena, Harun Siljak, Niko Nevaranta, Nicola Marchetti, Rausley A. A. de Souza

Abstract: This paper explores the use of semantic knowledge inherent in the cyber-physical system (CPS) under study in order to minimize the use of explicit communication, which refers to the use of physical radio resources to transmit potentially informative data. It is assumed that the acquired data have a function in the system, usually related to its state estimation, which may trigger control actions. We propose that a semantic-functional approach can leverage the semantic-enabled implicit communication while guaranteeing that the system maintains functionality under the required performance. We illustrate the potential of this proposal through simulations of a swarm of drones jointly performing remote sensing in a given area. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method offers the best design option regarding the ability to accomplish a previously established task -- remote sensing in the addressed case -- while minimising the use of radio resources by controlling the trade-offs that jointly determine the CPS performance and its effectiveness in the use of resources. In this sense, we establish a fundamental relationship between energy, communication, and functionality considering a given end application.

5.Low-Complexity Dynamic Directional Modulation: Vulnerability and Information Leakage

Authors:Pedro E. Gória Silva, Adam Narbudowicz, Nicola Marchetti, Pedro H. J. Nardelli, Rausley A. A. de Souza, Jules M. Moualeu

Abstract: In this paper, the privacy of wireless transmissions is improved through the use of an efficient technique termed dynamic directional modulation (DDM), and is subsequently assessed in terms of the measure of information leakage. Recently, a variation of DDM termed low-power dynamic directional modulation (LPDDM) has attracted significant attention as a prominent secure transmission method due to its ability to further improve the privacy of wireless communications. Roughly speaking, this modulation operates by randomly selecting the transmitting antenna from an antenna array whose radiation pattern is well known. Thereafter, the modulator adjusts the constellation phase so as to ensure that only the legitimate receiver recovers the information. To begin with, we highlight some privacy boundaries inherent to the underlying system. In addition, we propose features that the antenna array must meet in order to increase the privacy of a wireless communication system. Last, we adopt a uniform circular monopole antenna array with equiprobable transmitting antennas in order to assess the impact of DDM on the information leakage. It is shown that the bit error rate, while being a useful metric in the evaluation of wireless communication systems, does not provide the full information about the vulnerability of the underlying system.

6.Pareto Frontier for the Performance-Complexity Trade-off in Beyond Diagonal Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Authors:Matteo Nerini, Bruno Clerckx

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is an emerging technology allowing to control the propagation environment in wireless communications. Recently, beyond diagonal RIS (BD-RIS) has been proposed to reach higher performance than conventional RIS, at the expense of higher circuit complexity. Multiple BD-RIS architectures have been developed with the goal of reaching a favorable trade-off between performance and circuit complexity. However, the fundamental limits of this trade-off are still unexplored. In this paper, we fill this gap by deriving the expression of the Pareto frontier for the performance-complexity trade-off in BD-RIS. Additionally, we characterize the optimal BD-RIS architectures reaching this Pareto frontier.

7.On the Capacity of Secure $K$-user Product Computation over a Quantum MAC

Authors:Yuxiang Lu, Yuhang Yao, Syed A. Jafar

Abstract: Inspired by a recent study by Christensen and Popovski on secure $2$-user product computation for finite-fields of prime-order over a quantum multiple access channel (QMAC), the generalization to $K$ users and arbitrary finite fields is explored. Combining ideas of batch-processing, quantum $2$-sum protocol, a secure computation scheme of Feige, Killian and Naor (FKN), a field-group isomorphism and additive secret sharing, asymptotically optimal (capacity-achieving for large alphabet) schemes are proposed for secure $K$-user (any $K$) product computation over any finite field. The capacity of modulo-$d$ ($d\geq 2$) secure $K$-sum computation over the QMAC is found to be $2/K$ computations/qudit as a byproduct of the analysis.

1.Blind Beamforming for Intelligent Reflecting Surface in Fading Channels without CSI

Authors:Wenhai Lai, Wenyu Wang, Fan Xu, Xin Li, Shaobo Niu, Kaiming Shen

Abstract: This paper discusses how to optimize the phase shifts of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) to combat channel fading without any channel state information (CSI), namely blind beamforming. Differing from most previous works based on a two-stage paradigm of first estimating channels and then optimizing phase shifts, our approach is completely data-driven, only requiring a dataset of the received signal power at the user terminal. Thus, our method does not incur extra overhead costs for channel estimation, and does not entail collaboration from service provider, either. The main idea is to choose phase shifts at random and use the corresponding conditional sample mean of the received signal power to extract the main features of the wireless environment. This blind beamforming approach guarantees an $N^2$ boost of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), where $N$ is the number of reflective elements (REs) of IRS, regardless of whether the direct channel is line-of-sight (LoS) or not. Moreover, blind beamforming is extended to a double-IRS system with provable performance. Finally, prototype tests show that the proposed blind beamforming method can be readily incorporated into the existing communication systems in the real world; simulation tests further show that it works for a variety of fading channel models.

2.Hybrid Driven Learning for Channel Estimation in Intelligent Reflecting Surface Aided Millimeter Wave Communications

Authors:Shuntian Zheng, Sheng Wu, Chunxiao Jiang, Wei Zhang, Xiaojun Jing

Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRS) have been proposed in millimeter wave (mmWave) and terahertz (THz) systems to achieve both coverage and capacity enhancement, where the design of hybrid precoders, combiners, and the IRS typically relies on channel state information. In this paper, we address the problem of uplink wideband channel estimation for IRS aided multiuser multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems with hybrid architectures. Combining the structure of model driven and data driven deep learning approaches, a hybrid driven learning architecture is devised for joint estimation and learning the properties of the channels. For a passive IRS aided system, we propose a residual learned approximate message passing as a model driven network. A denoising and attention network in the data driven network is used to jointly learn spatial and frequency features. Furthermore, we design a flexible hybrid driven network in a hybrid passive and active IRS aided system. Specifically, the depthwise separable convolution is applied to the data driven network, leading to less network complexity and fewer parameters at the IRS side. Numerical results indicate that in both systems, the proposed hybrid driven channel estimation methods significantly outperform existing deep learning-based schemes and effectively reduce the pilot overhead by about 60% in IRS aided systems.

3.Non-linear MRD codes from cones over exterior sets

Authors:Nicola Durante, Giovanni Giuseppe Grimaldi, Giovanni Longobardi

Abstract: By using the notion of $d$-embedding $\Gamma$ of a (canonical) subgeometry $\Sigma$ and of exterior set with respect to the $h$-secant variety $\Omega_{h}(\mathcal{A})$ of a subset $\mathcal{A}$, $ 0 \leq h \leq n-1$, in the finite projective space $\mathrm{PG}(n-1,q^n)$, $n \geq 3$, in this article we construct a class of non-linear $(n,n,q;d)$-MRD codes for any $ 2 \leq d \leq n-1$. A code $\mathcal{C}_{\sigma,T}$ of this class, where $1\in T \subset \mathbb{F}_q^*$ and $\sigma$ is a generator of $\mathrm{Gal}(\mathbb{F}_{q^n}|\mathbb{F}_q)$, arises from a cone of $\mathrm{PG}(n-1,q^n)$ with vertex an $(n-d-2)$-dimensional subspace over a maximum exterior set $\mathcal{E}$ with respect to $\Omega_{d-2}(\Gamma)$. We prove that the codes introduced in [Cossidente, A., Marino, G., Pavese, F.: Non-linear maximum rank distance codes. Des. Codes Cryptogr. 79, 597--609 (2016); Durante, N., Siciliano, A.: Non-linear maximum rank distance codes in the cyclic model for the field reduction of finite geometries. Electron. J. Comb. (2017); Donati, G., Durante, N.: A generalization of the normal rational curve in $\mathrm{PG}(d,q^n)$ and its associated non-linear MRD codes. Des. Codes Cryptogr. 86, 1175--1184 (2018)] are appropriate punctured ones of $\mathcal{C}_{\sigma,T}$ and solve completely the inequivalence issue for this class showing that $\mathcal{C}_{\sigma,T}$ is neither equivalent nor adjointly equivalent to the non-linear MRD code $\mathcal{C}_{n,k,\sigma,I}$, $I \subseteq \mathbb{F}_q$, obtained in [Otal, K., \"Ozbudak, F.: Some new non-additive maximum rank distance codes. Finite Fields and Their Applications 50, 293--303 (2018).].

4.Space MIMO: Direct Unmodified Handheld to Multi-Satellite Communication

Authors:Yasaman Omid, Zohre Mashayekh Bakhsh, Farbod Kayhan, Yi Ma, Rahim Tafazolli

Abstract: This paper examines the uplink transmission of a single-antenna handsheld user to a cluster of satellites, with a focus on utilizing the inter-satellite links to enable cooperative signal detection. Two cases are studied: one with full CSI and the other with partial CSI between satellites. The two cases are compared in terms of capacity, overhead, and bit error rate. Additionally, the impact of channel estimation error is analyzed in both designs, and robust detection techniques are proposed to handle channel uncertainty up to a certain level. The performance of each case is demonstrated, and a comparison is made with conventional satellite communication schemes where only one satellite can connect to a user. The results of our study reveal that the proposed constellation with a total of 3168 satellites in orbit can enable a capacity of 800 Mbits/sec through cooperation of $12$ satellites with and occupied bandwidth of 500 MHz. In contrast, conventional satellite communication approaches with the same system parameters yield a significantly lower capacity of less than 150 Mbits/sec for the nearest satellite.

5.Optimal Geometries of Dual-Polarized Arrays for Large Point-to-Point MIMO Channels

Authors:Amna Irshad, Emil Björnson

Abstract: Traditional point-to-point line-of-sight channels have rank 1, irrespective of the number of antennas and array geometries, due to far-field propagation conditions. By contrast, recent papers in the holographic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) literature characterize the maximum channel rank that can be achieved between two continuous array apertures, which is much larger than 1 under near-field propagation conditions. In this paper, we maximize the channel capacity between two dual-polarized uniform rectangular arrays (URAs) with discrete antenna elements for a given propagation distance. In particular, we derive the antenna spacings that lead to an ideal MIMO channel where all singular values are as similar as possible. We utilize this analytic result to find the two array geometries that respectively minimize the aperture area and the aperture length.

1.The First and Second Order Asymptotics of Covert Communication over AWGN Channels

Authors:Xinchun Yu, Shuangqing Wei, Shao-Lun Huang, Xiao-Ping Zhang

Abstract: This paper investigates the asymptotics of the maximal throughput of communication over AWGN channels by $n$ channel uses under a covert constraint in terms of an upper bound $\delta$ of Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL divergence). It is shown that the first and second order asymptotics of the maximal throughput are $\sqrt{n\delta \log e}$ and $(2)^{1/2}(n\delta)^{1/4}(\log e)^{3/4}\cdot Q^{-1}(\epsilon)$, respectively. The technique we use in the achievability is quasi-$\varepsilon$-neighborhood notion from information geometry. We prove that if the generating distribution of the codebook is close to Dirac measure in the weak sense, then the corresponding output distribution at the adversary satisfies covert constraint in terms of most common divergences. This helps link the local differential geometry of the distribution of noise with covert constraint. For the converse, the optimality of Gaussian distribution for minimizing KL divergence under second order moment constraint is extended from dimension $1$ to dimension $n$. It helps to establish the upper bound on the average power of the code to satisfy the covert constraint, which further leads to the direct converse bound in terms of covert metric.

2.Computation Offloading for Edge Computing in RIS-Assisted Symbiotic Radio Systems

Authors:Bin Li, Zhen Qian, Lei Liu, Yuan Wu, Dapeng Lan, Celimuge Wu

Abstract: In the paper, we investigate the coordination process of sensing and computation offloading in a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-aided base station (BS)-centric symbiotic radio (SR) systems. Specifically, the Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices first sense data from environment and then tackle the data locally or offload the data to BS for remote computing, while RISs are leveraged to enhance the quality of blocked channels and also act as IoT devices to transmit its sensed data. To explore the mechanism of cooperative sensing and computation offloading in this system, we aim at maximizing the total completed sensed bits of all users and RISs by jointly optimizing the time allocation parameter, the passive beamforming at each RIS, the transmit beamforming at BS, and the energy partition parameters for all users subject to the size of sensed data, energy supply and given time cycle. The formulated nonconvex problem is tightly coupled by the time allocation parameter and involves the mathematical expectations, which cannot be solved straightly. We use Monte Carlo and fractional programming methods to transform the nonconvex objective function and then propose an alternating optimization-based algorithm to find an approximate solution with guaranteed convergence. Numerical results show that the RIS-aided SR system outperforms other benchmarks in sensing. Furthermore, with the aid of RIS, the channel and system performance can be significantly improved.

3.Integrated Sensing and Communication Complex CNN CSI Enhancer for 6G Networks

Authors:Xu Chen, Zhiyong Feng, J. Andrew Zhang, Xin Yuan, Ping Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) complex convolution neural network (CNN) CSI enhancer for 6G networks, which exploits the correlation between the sensing parameters, such as angle-of-arrival (AoA) and range, and the channel state information (CSI) to significantly improve the CSI estimation accuracy and further enhance the sensing accuracy. The ISAC complex CNN CSI enhancer uses the complex-value computation layers to form the CNN to better maintain the phase information of CSI. Furthermore, we incorporate the ISAC transform modules into the CNN enhancer to transform the CSI into the sparse angle-delay domain, which can be treated as images with prominent peaks and are suitable to be processed by CNN. Then, we further propose a novel biased FFT-based sensing scheme, where we actively add known phase bias terms to the original CSI to generate multiple estimation results using a simple FFT-based sensing method, and we finally calculate the average of all the debiased sensing results to obtain more accurate range estimates. The extensive simulation results show that the ISAC complex CNN CSI enhancer can converge within 30 training epochs. Its CSI estimation normalized mean square error (NMSE) is about 17 dB lower than the MMSE method, and the bit error rate (BER) of demodulation using the enhanced CSI approaches the perfect CSI. Finally, the range estimation MSE of the proposed biased FFT-based sensing method can approach the subspace-based method with much lower complexity.

4.Performance Analysis of Discrete-Phase-Shifter IRS-aided Amplify-and-Forward Relay Network

Authors:Rongen Dong, Zhongyi Xie, Feng Shu, Mengxing Huang, Jiangzhou Wang

Abstract: As a new technology to reconfigure wireless communication environment by signal reflection controlled by software, intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) has attracted lots of attention in recent years. Compared with conventional relay system, the relay system aided by IRS can effectively reduce the cost and energy consumption, and significantly enhance the system performance. However, the phase quantization error generated by IRS with discrete phase shifter may degrade the receiving performance of the receiver. To analyze the performance loss caused by IRS phase quantization error, based on the law of large numbers and Rayleigh distribution, the closed-form expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance loss and achievable rate of the IRS-aided amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network, which are related to the number of phase shifter quantization bits, are derived under the line-of-sight (LoS) channels and Rayleigh channels, respectively. Moreover, their approximate performance loss closed-form expressions are also derived based on the Taylor series expansion. Simulation results show that the performance losses of SNR and achievable rate decrease with the number of quantization bits increases gradually. When the number of quantization bits is larger than or equal to 3, the SNR performance loss of the system is smaller than 0.23dB, and the achievable rate loss is less than 0.04bits/s/Hz, regardless of the LoS channels or Rayleigh channels.

1.Computation of Reliability Statistics for Finite Samples of Success-Failure Experiments

Authors:Sanjay M. Joshi

Abstract: Computational method for statistical measures of reliability, confidence, and assurance are available for infinite population size. If the population size is finite and small compared to the number of samples tested, these computational methods need to be improved for a better representation of reality. This article discusses how to compute reliability, confidence, and assurance statistics for finite number of samples. Graphs and tables are provided as examples and can be used for low number of test sample sizes. Two open-source python libraries are provided for computing reliability, confidence, and assurance with both infinite and finite number of samples.

1.A Tutorial on Holographic MIMO Communications--Part I: Channel Modeling and Channel Estimation

Authors:Jiancheng An, Chau Yuen, Chongwen Huang, Merouane Debbah, H. Vincent Poor, Lajos Hanzo

Abstract: By integrating a nearly infinite number of reconfigurable elements into a finite space, a spatially continuous array aperture is formed for holographic multiple-input multiple-output (HMIMO) communications. This three-part tutorial aims for providing an overview of the latest advances in HMIMO communications. As Part I of the tutorial, this letter first introduces the fundamental concept of HMIMO and reviews the recent progress in HMIMO channel modeling, followed by a suite of efficient channel estimation approaches. Finally, numerical results are provided for demonstrating the statistical consistency of the new HMIMO channel model advocated with conventional ones and evaluating the performance of the channel estimators. Parts II and III of the tutorial will delve into the performance analysis and holographic beamforming, and detail the interplay of HMIMO with emerging technologies.

2.A Tutorial on Holographic MIMO Communications--Part II: Performance Analysis and Holographic Beamforming

Authors:Jiancheng An, Chau Yuen, Chongwen Huang, Merouane Debbah, H. Vincent Poor, Lajos Hanzo

Abstract: As Part II of a three-part tutorial on holographic multiple-input multiple-output (HMIMO), this Letter focuses on the state-of-the-art in performance analysis and on holographic beamforming for HMIMO communications. We commence by discussing the spatial degrees of freedom (DoF) and ergodic capacity of a point-to-point HMIMO system, based on the channel model presented in Part I. Additionally, we also consider the sum-rate analysis of multi-user HMIMO systems. Moreover, we review the recent progress in holographic beamforming techniques developed for various HMIMO scenarios. Finally, we evaluate both the spatial DoF and the channel capacity through numerical simulations.

3.A Tutorial on Holographic MIMO Communications--Part III: Open Opportunities and Challenges

Authors:Jiancheng An, Chau Yuen, Chongwen Huang, Merouane Debbah, H. Vincent Poor, Lajos Hanzo

Abstract: Holographic multiple-input multiple-output (HMIMO) technology, which uses spatially continuous surfaces for signal transmission and reception, is envisioned to be a promising solution for improving the data rate and coverage of wireless networks. In Parts I and II of this three-part tutorial on HMIMO communications, we provided an overview of channel modeling and highlighted the state-of-the-art in holographic beamforming. In this part, we will discuss the unique properties of HMIMO systems, highlighting the open challenges and opportunities that arise as the transceiver array apertures become denser and electromagnetically larger. Additionally, we explore the interplay between HMIMO and other emerging technologies in next-generation networks.

4.Power Allocation for Multi-Access Channel with Generalized Power Constraint

Authors:Prashant Narayanan, Lakshmi Narasimhan Theagarajan

Abstract: We study the problem of decentralized power allocation in a multi-access channel (MAC) with non-cooperative users, additive noise of arbitrary distribution and a generalized power constraint, i.e., the transmit power constraint is modeled by an upper bound on $\mathbb{E}[\phi(|S|)]$, where $S$ is the transmit signal and $\phi(.)$ is some non-negative, increasing and bounded function. The generalized power constraint captures the notion of power for different wireless signals such as RF, optical, acoustic, etc. We derive the optimal power allocation policy when there a large number of non-cooperative users in the MAC. Further, we show that, once the number of users in the MAC crosses a finite threshold, the proposed power allocation policy of all users is optimal and remains invariant irrespective of the actual number of users. We derive the above results under the condition that the entropy power of the MAC, $e^{2h(S)+c}$, is strictly convex, where $h(S)$ is the maximum achievable entropy of the transmit signal and $c$ is a finite constant corresponding to the entropy of the additive noise.

5.Flexible Spectrum Orchestration of Carrier Aggregation for 5G-Advanced

Authors:Xianghui Han, Chunli Liang, Ruiqi Liu, Xingguang Wei, Mengzhu Chen, Yu-Ngok Ruyue Li, Shi Jin

Abstract: With increasing availability of spectrum in the market due to new spectrum allocation and re-farming bands from previous cellular generation networks, a more flexible, efficient and green usage of the spectrum becomes an important topic in 5G-Advanced. In this article, we provide an overview on the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) work on flexible spectrum orchestration for carrier aggregation (CA). The configuration settings, requirements and potential specification impacts are analyzed. Some involved Release 18 techniques, such as multi-cell scheduling, transmitter switching and network energy saving, are also presented. Evaluation results show that clear performance gain can be achieved by these techniques.

6.Joint Precoding Design and Resource Allocation for C-RAN Wireless Fronthaul Systems

Authors:Peng Jiang, Jiafei Fu, Pengcheng Zhu, Jiamin Li, Xiaohu You

Abstract: This paper investigates the resource allocation problem combined with fronthaul precoding and access link sparse precoding design in cloud radio access network (C-RAN) wireless fronthaul systems.Multiple remote antenna units (RAUs) in C-RAN systems can collaborate in a cluster through centralized signal processing to realize distributed massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems and obtain performance gains such as spectrum efficiency and coverage.Wireless fronthaul is a flexible, low-cost way to implement C-RAN systems, however, compared with the fiber fronthaul network, the capacity of wireless fronthaul is extremely limited.Based on this problem, this paper first design the fronthaul and access link precoding to make the fronthaul capacity of RAUs match the access link demand.Then, combined with the precoding design problem, the allocation optimization of orthogonal resources is studied to further optimize the resource allocation between fronthaul link and access link to improve the performance of the system.Numerical results verify the effectiveness of the proposed precoding design and resource allocation optimization algorithm.

7.Grouping Method for mmWave Massive MIMO System: Exploitation of Angular Multiplexing Gain

Authors:Peng Jiang, Pengcheng Zhu, Jiamin Li, Dongming Wang

Abstract: A future millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) system may serve hundreds or thousands of users at the same time; thus, research on multiple access technology is particularly important.Moreover, due to the short-wavelength nature of a mmWave, large-scale arrays are easier to implement than microwaves, while their directivity and sparseness make the physical beamforming effect of precoding more prominent.In consideration of the mmWave angle division multiple access (ADMA) system based on precoding, this paper investigates the influence of the angle distribution on system performance, which is denoted as the angular multiplexing gain.Furthermore, inspired by the above research, we transform the ADMA user grouping problem to maximize the system sum-rate into the inter-user angular spacing equalization problem.Then, the form of the optimal solution for the approximate problem is derived, and the corresponding grouping algorithm is proposed.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than the comparison methods.Finally, a complexity analysis also shows that the proposed algorithm has extremely low complexity.

8.Resource Allocation in Cell-Free MU-MIMO Multicarrier System with Finite and Infinite Blocklength

Authors:Jiafei Fu, Pengcheng Zhu, Bo Ai, Jiangzhou Wang, Xiaohu You

Abstract: The explosive growth of data results in more scarce spectrum resources. It is important to optimize the system performance under limited resources. In this paper, we investigate how to achieve weighted throughput (WTP) maximization for cell-free (CF) multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO) multicarrier (MC) systems through resource allocation (RA), in the cases of finite blocklength (FBL) and infinite blocklength (INFBL) regimes. To ensure the quality of service (QoS) of each user, particularly for the block error rate (BLER) and latency in the FBL regime, the WTP gets maximized under the constraints of total power consumption and required QoS metrics. Since the channels vary in different subcarriers (SCs) and inter-user interference strengths, the WTP can be maximized by scheduling the best users in each time-frequency (TF) resource and advanced beamforming design, while the resources can be fully utilized. With this motivation, we propose a joint user scheduling (US) and beamforming design algorithm based on the successive convex approximation (SCA) and gene-aided (GA) algorithms, to address a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed RA outperforms the comparison schemes. And the CF system in our scenario is capable of achieving higher spectral efficiency than the centralized antenna systems (CAS).

9.CFMA for Gaussian MIMO Multiple Access Channels

Authors:Lanwei Zhang, Jamie Evans, Jingge Zhu

Abstract: Compute-forward multiple access (CFMA) is a multiple access transmission scheme based on Compute-and-Forward (CF) which allows the receiver to first decode linear combinations of the transmitted signals and then solve for individual messages. This paper extends the CFMA scheme to a two-user Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiple access channel (MAC). We first derive the expression of the achievable rate pair for MIMO MAC with CFMA. We prove a general condition under which CFMA can achieve the sum capacity of the channel. Furthermore, this result is specialized to SIMO and 2-by-2 diagonal MIMO multiple access channels, for which more explicit sum capacity-achieving conditions on power and channel matrices are derived. Numerical results are also provided for the performance of CFMA on general MIMO multiple access channels.

1.Directed Message Passing Based on Attention for Prediction of Molecular Properties

Authors:Chen Gong LJLL, Yvon Maday LJLL, IUF

Abstract: Molecular representation learning (MRL) has long been crucial in the fields of drug discovery and materials science, and it has made significant progress due to the development of natural language processing (NLP) and graph neural networks (GNNs). NLP treats the molecules as one dimensional sequential tokens while GNNs treat them as two dimensional topology graphs. Based on different message passing algorithms, GNNs have various performance on detecting chemical environments and predicting molecular properties. Herein, we propose Directed Graph Attention Networks (D-GATs): the expressive GNNs with directed bonds. The key to the success of our strategy is to treat the molecular graph as directed graph and update the bond states and atom states by scaled dot-product attention mechanism. This allows the model to better capture the sub-structure of molecular graph, i.e., functional groups. Compared to other GNNs or Message Passing Neural Networks (MPNNs), D-GATs outperform the state-of-the-art on 13 out of 15 important molecular property prediction benchmarks.

2.Segmented GRAND: Combining Sub-patterns in Near-ML Order

Authors:Mohammad Rowshan, Jinhong Yuan

Abstract: The recently introduced maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding scheme called guessing random additive noise decoding (GRAND) has demonstrated a remarkably low time complexity in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. However, the complexity is not as low at low SNR regimes and low code rates. To mitigate this concern, we propose a scheme for a near-ML variant of GRAND called ordered reliability bits GRAND (or ORBGRAND), which divides codewords into segments based on the properties of the underlying code, generates sub-patterns for each segment consistent with the syndrome (thus reducing the number of inconsistent error patterns generated), and combines them in a near-ML order using two-level integer partitions of logistic weight. The numerical evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme, called segmented ORBGRAND, significantly reduces the average number of queries at any SNR regime. Moreover, the segmented ORBGRAND with abandonment also improves the error correction performance.

3.UAV Trajectory Optimization and Tracking for User Localization in Wireless Networks

Authors:Omid Esrafilian, Rajeev Gangula, David Gesbert

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the problem of UAV-aided user localization in wireless networks. Unlike the existing works, we do not assume perfect knowledge of the UAV location, hence we not only need to localize the users but also to track the UAV location. To do so, we utilize the time-of-arrival along with received signal strength radio measurements collected from users using a UAV. A simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) framework building on the Expectation-Maximization-based least-squares method is proposed to classify measurements into line-of-sight or non-line-of-sight categories and learn the radio channel, and at the same, localize the users and track the UAV. This framework also allows us to exploit other types of measurements such as the rough estimate of the UAV location available from GPS, and the UAV velocity measured by an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on-board, to achieve better localization accuracy. Moreover, the trajectory of the UAV is optimized which brings considerable improvement to the localization performance. The simulations show the out-performance of the developed algorithm when compared to other approaches.

4.Towards Cyber Security for Low-Carbon Transportation: Overview, Challenges and Future Directions

Authors:Yue Cao, Sifan Li, Chenchen Lv, Di Wang, Hongjian Sun, Jing Jiang, Fanlin Meng, Lexi Xu, Xinzhou Cheng

Abstract: In recent years, low-carbon transportation has become an indispensable part as sustainable development strategies of various countries, and plays a very important responsibility in promoting low-carbon cities. However, the security of low-carbon transportation has been threatened from various ways. For example, denial of service attacks pose a great threat to the electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid networks. To minimize these threats, several methods have been proposed to defense against them. Yet, these methods are only for certain types of scenarios or attacks. Therefore, this review addresses security aspect from holistic view, provides the overview, challenges and future directions of cyber security technologies in low-carbon transportation. Firstly, based on the concept and importance of low-carbon transportation, this review positions the low-carbon transportation services. Then, with the perspective of network architecture and communication mode, this review classifies its typical attack risks. The corresponding defense technologies and relevant security suggestions are further reviewed from perspective of data security, network management security and network application security. Finally, in view of the long term development of low-carbon transportation, future research directions have been concerned.

5.Age of Information in Reservation Multi-Access Networks with Stochastic Arrivals: Analysis and Optimization

Authors:Qian Wang Henry, He Henry, Chen

Abstract: This paper analyzes and optimizes the average Age of Information (AAoI) of Frame Slotted ALOHA with Reservation and Data slots (FSA-RD) in a multi-access network, where multiple users transmit their randomly generated status updates to a common access point in a framed manner. Each frame consists of one reservation slot and several data slots. The reservation slot is further split into several mini-slots. In each reservation slot, users that want to transmit a status update will randomly send short reservation packets in one of the mini-slots to contend for data slots of the current frame. The reservation is successful only if one reservation packet is sent in a mini-slot. The data slots are then allocated to those users that succeed in the reservation slot. In the considered FSA-RD scheme, one user with a status update for transmission, termed active user, may need to perform multiple reservation attempts before successfully delivering it. As such, the number of active user(s) in different frames are dependent and thus the probability of making a successful reservation varies from frame to frame, making the AAoI analysis non-trivial. We manage to derive an analytical expression of AAoI for FSA-RD by characterizing the evolution of the number of active user(s) in each frame as a discrete-time Markov chain. We then consider the FSA-RD scheme with one reservation attempt per status update, termed FSA-RD-One. Thanks to the independent frame behaviors of FSA-RD-One, we attain a closed-form expression for its AAoI, which is further used to find the near-optimal reservation probability. Our analysis reveals the impact of key protocol parameters, such as frame size and reservation probability, on the AAoI. Simulation results validate our analysis and show that the optimized FSA-RD outperforms the optimized slotted ALOHA.

6.6G Enabled Advanced Transportation Systems

Authors:Ruiqi Liu, Meng Hua, Ke Guan, Xiping Wang, Leyi Zhang, Tianqi Mao, Di Zhang, Qingqing Wu, Abbas Jamalipour

Abstract: The 6th generation (6G) wireless communication network is envisaged to be able to change our lives drastically, including transportation. In this paper, two ways of interactions between 6G communication networks and transportation are introduced. With the new usage scenarios and capabilities 6G is going to support, passengers on all sorts of transportation systems will be able to get data more easily, even in the most remote areas on the planet. The quality of communication will also be improved significantly, thanks to the advanced capabilities of 6G. On top of providing seamless and ubiquitous connectivity to all forms of transportation, 6G will also transform the transportation systems to make them more intelligent, more efficient, and safer. Based on the latest research and standardization progresses, technical analysis on how 6G can empower advanced transportation systems are provided, as well as challenges and insights for a possible road ahead.

7.Generator polynomial matrices of the Galois hulls of multi-twisted codes

Authors:Ramy Taki Eldin, Patrick Sole

Abstract: In this study, we consider the Euclidean and Galois hulls of multi-twisted (MT) codes over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_{p^e}$ of characteristic $p$. Let $\mathbf{G}$ be a generator polynomial matrix (GPM) of a MT code $\mathcal{C}$. For any $0\le \kappa<e$, the $\kappa$-Galois hull of $\mathcal{C}$, denoted by $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$, is the intersection of $\mathcal{C}$ with its $\kappa$-Galois dual. The main result in this paper is that a GPM for $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$ has been obtained from $\mathbf{G}$. We start by associating a linear code $\mathcal{Q}_\mathbf{G}$ with $\mathbf{G}$. We show that $\mathcal{Q}_\mathbf{G}$ is quasi-cyclic. In addition, we prove that the dimension of $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$ is the difference between the dimension of $\mathcal{C}$ and that of $\mathcal{Q}_\mathbf{G}$. Thus the determinantal divisors are used to derive a formula for the dimension of $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$. Finally, we deduce a GPM formula for $h_\kappa\left(\mathcal{C}\right)$. In particular, we handle the cases of $\kappa$-Galois self-orthogonal and linear complementary dual MT codes; we establish equivalent conditions that characterize these cases. Equivalent results can be deduced immediately for the classes of cyclic, constacyclic, quasi-cyclic, generalized quasi-cyclic, and quasi-twisted codes, because they are all special cases of MT codes. Some numerical examples, containing optimal and maximum distance separable codes, are used to illustrate the theoretical results.

8.Greedy Poisson Rejection Sampling

Authors:Gergely Flamich

Abstract: One-shot channel simulation is a fundamental data compression problem concerned with encoding a single sample from a target distribution $Q$ using a coding distribution $P$ using as few bits as possible on average. Algorithms that solve this problem find applications in neural data compression and differential privacy and can serve as a more efficient alternative to quantization-based methods. Sadly, existing solutions are too slow or have limited applicability, preventing widespread adoption. In this paper, we conclusively solve one-shot channel simulation for one-dimensional problems where the target-proposal density ratio is unimodal by describing an algorithm with optimal runtime. We achieve this by constructing a rejection sampling procedure equivalent to greedily searching over the points of a Poisson process. Hence, we call our algorithm greedy Poisson rejection sampling (GPRS) and analyze the correctness and time complexity of several of its variants. Finally, we empirically verify our theorems, demonstrating that GPRS significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art method, A* coding.

9.Outage Tradeoff Analysis in a Downlink Integrated Sensing and Communication Network

Authors:Marziyeh Soltani, Mahtab Mirmohseni, Rahim Tafazolli

Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the stochastic performance of a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) system in a downlink scenario, where a base station (BS) transmits a dual-functional radar-communication (DFRC) signal matrix, serving the purpose of transmitting communication data to the user while simultaneously sensing the angular location of a target. The channel between the BS and the user is modeled as a random channel with Rayleigh fading distribution, and the azimuth angle of the target is assumed to follow a uniform distribution. We use a maximum ratio transmission (MRT) beamformer to share resource between sensing and communication (S \& C) and observe the trade-off between them. We derive the approximate probability density function (PDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both the user and the target. Subsequently, leveraging the obtained PDF, we derive the expressions for the user's rate outage probability (OP), as well as the OP for the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the angle of arrival (AOA). In our numerical results, we demonstrate the trade-off between S \& C, confirmed with simulations.

1.A Graph-Based Collision Resolution Scheme for Asynchronous Unsourced Random Access

Authors:Tianya Li, Yongpeng Wu, Wenjun Zhang, Xiang-Gen Xia, Chengshan Xiao

Abstract: This paper investigates the multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) massive unsourced random access in an asynchronous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system, with both timing and frequency offsets (TFO) and non-negligible user collisions. The proposed coding framework splits the data into two parts encoded by sparse regression code (SPARC) and low-density parity check (LDPC) code. Multistage orthogonal pilots are transmitted in the first part to reduce collision density. Unlike existing schemes requiring a quantization codebook with a large size for estimating TFO, we establish a \textit{graph-based channel reconstruction and collision resolution (GB-CR$^2$)} algorithm to iteratively reconstruct channels, resolve collisions, and compensate for TFO rotations on the formulated graph jointly among multiple stages. We further propose to leverage the geometric characteristics of signal constellations to correct TFO estimations. Exhaustive simulations demonstrate remarkable performance superiority in channel estimation and data recovery with substantial complexity reduction compared to state-of-the-art schemes.

2.Cross-Field Channel Estimation for Ultra Massive-MIMO THz Systems

Authors:Simon Tarboush, Anum Ali, Tareq Y. Al-Naffouri

Abstract: The large bandwidth combined with ultra-massive multiple-input multiple-output (UM-MIMO) arrays enables terahertz (THz) systems to achieve terabits-per-second throughput. The THz systems are expected to operate in the near, intermediate, as well as the far-field. As such, channel estimation strategies suitable for the near, intermediate, or far-field have been introduced in the literature. In this work, we propose a cross-field, i.e., able to operate in near, intermediate, and far-field, compressive channel estimation strategy. For an array-of-subarrays (AoSA) architecture, the proposed method compares the received signals across the arrays to determine whether a near, intermediate, or far-field channel estimation approach will be appropriate. Subsequently, compressed estimation is performed in which the proximity of multiple subarrays (SAs) at the transmitter and receiver is exploited to reduce computational complexity and increase estimation accuracy. Numerical results show that the proposed method can enhance channel estimation accuracy and complexity at all distances of interest.

3.Walsh Meets OAM in Holographic MIMO

Authors:Charles Vanwynsberghe, Jiguang He, Chongwen Huang, Merouane Debbah

Abstract: Holographic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is deemed as a promising technique beyond massive MIMO, unleashing near-field communications, localization, and sensing in the next-generation wireless networks. Semi-continuous surface with densely packed elements brings new opportunities for increased spatial degrees of freedom (DoFs) and spectrum efficiency (SE) even in the line-of-sight (LoS) condition. In this paper, we analyze holographic MIMO performance with disk-shaped large intelligent surfaces (LISs) according to different precoding designs. Beyond the well-known technique of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of radio waves, we propose a new design based on polar Walsh functions. Furthermore, we characterize the performance gap between the proposed scheme and the optimal case with singular value decomposition (SVD) alongside perfect channel state information (CSI) as well as other benchmark schemes in terms of channel capacity. It is verified that the proposed scheme marginally underperforms the OAM-based approach, while offering potential perspectives for reducing implementation complexity and expenditure.

4.Constructions of Constant Dimension Subspace Codes

Authors:Yun Li, Hongwei Liu, Sihem Mesnager

Abstract: Subspace codes have important applications in random network coding. It is interesting to construct subspace codes with both sizes, and the minimum distances are as large as possible. In particular, cyclic constant dimension subspaces codes have additional properties which can be used to make encoding and decoding more efficient. In this paper, we construct large cyclic constant dimension subspace codes with minimum distances $2k-2$ and $2k$. These codes are contained in $\mathcal{G}_q(n, k)$, where $\mathcal{G}_q(n, k)$ denotes the set of all $k$-dimensional subspaces of $\mathbb{F}_{q^n}$. Consequently, some results in \cite{FW}, \cite{NXG}, and \cite{ZT} are extended.

5.Integrated Sensing and Communication based Outdoor Multi-Target Detection, Tracking and Localization in Practical 5G Networks

Authors:Ruiqi Liu, Mengnan Jian, Dawei Chen, Xu Lin, Yichao Cheng, Wei Cheng, Shijun Chen

Abstract: The 6th generation (6G) wireless networks will likely to support a variety of capabilities beyond communication, such as sensing and localization, through the use of communication networks empowered by advanced technologies. Integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) has been recognized as a critical technology as well as an usage scenario for 6G, as widely agreed by leading global standardization bodies. ISAC utilizes communication infrastructure and devices to provide the capability of sensing the environment with high resolution, as well as tracking and localizing moving objects nearby. Meeting both the requirements for communication and sensing simultaneously, ISAC based approaches celebrate the advantages of higher spectral and energy efficiency compared to two separate systems to serve two purposes, and potentially lower costs and easy deployment. A key step towards the standardization and commercialization of ISAC is to carry out comprehensive field trials in practical networks, such as the 5th generation (5G) network, to demonstrate its true capacities in practical scenarios. In this paper, an ISAC based outdoor multi-target detection, tracking and localization approach is proposed and validated in 5G networks. The proposed system comprises of 5G base stations (BSs) which serve nearby mobile users normally, while accomplishing the task of detecting, tracking and localizing drones, vehicles and pedestrians simultaneously. Comprehensive trial results demonstrate the relatively high accuracy of the proposed method in practical outdoor environment when tracking and localizing single targets and multiple targets.

6.Jac-PCG Based Low-Complexity Precoding for Extremely Large-Scale MIMO Systems

Authors:Bokai Xu, Jiayi Zhang, Jiaxun Li, Huahua Xiao, Bo Ai

Abstract: Extremely large-scale multiple-input-multipleoutput (XL-MIMO) has been reviewed as a promising technology for future sixth-generation (6G) networks to achieve higher performance. In practice, various linear precoding schemes, such as zero-forcing (ZF) and regularized ZF (RZF) precoding, are sufficient to achieve near-optimal performance in traditional massive MIMO (mMIMO) systems. It is critical to note that in large-scale antenna arrays the operation of channel matrix inversion poses a significant computational challenge for these precoders. Therefore, we explore several iterative methods for determining the precoding matrix for XL-MIMO systems instead of direct matrix inversion. Taking into account small- and large-scale fading as well as spatial correlation between antennas, we study their computational complexity and convergence rate. Furthermore, we propose the Jacobi-Preconditioning Conjugate Gradient (Jac-PCG) iterative inversion method, which enjoys a faster convergence speed than the CG method. Besides, the closed-form expression of spectral efficiency (SE) considering the interference between subarrays in downlink XL-MIMO systems is derived. In the numerical results, it is shown that the complexity given by the Jac-PCG algorithm has about 54% reduction than the traditional RZF algorithm at basically the same SE performance.

7.Lightweight Channel Codes for ISI Mitigation in Molecular Communication between Bionanosensors

Authors:Dongliang Jing, Andrew W. Eckford

Abstract: Channel memory and inter-symbol interference (ISI) are harmful factors in diffusion-based molecular communication (DBMC) between bionanosensors. To tackle these problems, this paper proposes a lightweight ISI-mitigating coding scheme to improve the system performance by shaping the signal using a constrained code. To characterize the proposed coding scheme theoretically, we derive analytical expressions for the bit error rate (BER) and the achievable rate based on Central Limit Theorem. Computer simulations are conducted to verify the accuracy of the theoretical results and demonstrate the superiority of the proposed coding scheme compared with the existing coding schemes.

1.Optimization of RIS-aided SISO Systems Based on a Mutually Coupled Loaded Wire Dipole Model

Authors:Nemanja Stefan Perović, Le-Nam Tran, Marco Di Renzo, Mark F. Flanagan

Abstract: The electromagnetic (EM) features of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) fundamentally determine their operating principles and performance. Motivated by these considerations, we study a single-input single-output (SISO) system in the presence of an RIS, which is characterized by a circuit-based EM-compliant model. Specifically, we model the RIS as a collection of thin wire dipoles controlled by tunable load impedances, and we propose a gradient-based algorithm for calculating the optimal impedances of the scattering elements of the RIS in the presence of mutual coupling. Furthermore, we prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm and derive its computational complexity in terms of number of complex multiplications. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm provides better performance than a benchmark algorithm and that it converges in a shorter amount of time.

2.The Bicomplex Tensor Product, a Bicomplex Choi Theorem and Applications

Authors:Daniel Alpay, Antonino De Martino, Kamal Diki, Mihaela Vajiac

Abstract: In this paper we extend the concept of tensor product to the bicomplex case and use it to prove the bicomplex counterpart of the classical Choi theorem in the theory of complex matrices and operators. The concept of hyperbolic tensor product is also discussed, and we link these results to the theory of quantum channels in the bicomplex and hyperbolic case, as well as applications to bicomplex digital signal processing.

3.Finite Blocklength Regime Performance of Downlink Large Scale Networks

Authors:Nourhan Hesham, Anas Chaaban, Hesham ElSawy, Jahangir Hossain

Abstract: Some emerging 5G and beyond use-cases impose stringent latency constraints, which necessitates a paradigm shift towards finite blocklength performance analysis. In contrast to Shannon capacity-achieving codes, the codeword length in the finite blocklength regime (FBR) is a critical design parameter that imposes an intricate tradeoff between delay, reliability, and information coding rate. In this context, this paper presents a novel mathematical analysis to characterize the performance of large-scale downlink networks using short codewords. Theoretical achievable rates, outage probability, and reliability expressions are derived using the finite blocklength coding theory in conjunction with stochastic geometry, and compared to the performance in the asymptotic regime (AR). Achievable rates under practical modulation schemes as well as multilevel polar coded modulation (MLPCM) are investigated. Numerical results provide theoretical performance benchmarks, highlight the potential of MLPCM in achieving close to optimal performance with short codewords, and confirm the discrepancy between the performance in the FBR and that predicted by analysis in the AR. Finally, the meta distribution of the coding rate is derived, providing the percentiles of users that achieve a predefined target rate in a network.

4.STAR-RIS-UAV Aided Coordinated Multipoint Cellular System for Multi-user Networks

Authors:Baihua Shi, Yang Wang, Danqi Li, Wenlong Cai, Jinyong Lin, Shuo Zhang, Weiping Shi, Shihao Yan, Feng Shu

Abstract: Different with conventional reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS), simultaneous transmitting and reflecting RIS (STAR-RIS) can reflect and transmit the signals to the receiver. In this paper, to serve more ground users and increase the deployment flexibility, we investigate an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a STAR-RIS (STAR-RIS-UAV) aided wireless communications for multi-user networks. Energy splitting (ES) and mode switching (MS) protocols are considered to control the reflection and transmission coefficients of STAR-RIS elements. To maximize the sum rate of the STAR-RIS-UAV aided coordinated multipoint cellular system for multi-user networks, the corresponding beamforming vectors as well as transmitted and reflected coefficients matrices are optimized. Specifically, instead of adopting the alternating optimization, we design an iteration method to optimize all variables for both ES and MS protocols at the same time. Simulation results reveal that STAR-RIS-UAV aided wireless communication system has a much higher sum rate than the system with conventional RIS or without RIS. Furthermore, the proposed structure is more flexible than a fixed STAR-RIS and could greatly promote the sum rate.

5.Integrated Sensing, Navigation, and Communication for Secure UAV Networks with a Mobile Eavesdropper

Authors:Zhiqiang Wei, Fan Liu, Chang Liu, Zai Yang, Derrick Wing Kwan Ng, Robert Schober

Abstract: This paper proposes an integrated sensing, navigation, and communication (ISNC) framework for safeguarding unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-enabled wireless networks against a mobile eavesdropping UAV (E-UAV). To cope with the mobility of the E-UAV, the proposed framework advocates the dual use of artificial noise transmitted by the information UAV (I-UAV) for simultaneous jamming and sensing to facilitate navigation and secure communication. In particular, the I-UAV communicates with legitimate downlink ground users, while avoiding potential information leakage by emitting jamming signals, and estimates the state of the E-UAV with an extended Kalman filter based on the backscattered jamming signals. Exploiting the estimated state of the E-UAV in the previous time slot, the I-UAV determines its flight planning strategy, predicts the wiretap channel, and designs its communication resource allocation policy for the next time slot. To circumvent the severe coupling between these three tasks, a divide-and-conquer approach is adopted. The online navigation design has the objective to minimize the distance between the I-UAV and a pre-defined destination point considering kinematic and geometric constraints. Subsequently, given the predicted wiretap channel, the robust resource allocation design is formulated as an optimization problem to achieve the optimal trade-off between sensing and communication in the next time slot, while taking into account the wiretap channel prediction error and the quality-of-service (QoS) requirements of secure communication. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed design compared with baseline schemes and validate the benefits of integrating sensing and navigation into secure UAV communication systems.

6.On the capacity of TDMA downlink with a reconfigurable intelligent surface

Authors:Donatella Darsena, Francesco Verde

Abstract: We provide accurate approximations of the sum-rate capacity of a time-division multiple access (TDMA) down-link, when a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) assists the transmission from a single-antenna base station (BS) to K single-antenna user equipments (UEs). We consider the fading effects of both the direct (i.e., BS-to-UEs) and reflection (i.e, BS-to-RIS-to-UEs) links, by developing two approximations: the former one is based on hardening of the reflection channel for large values of the number Q of meta-atoms at the RIS; the latter one relies on the distribution of the sum of Nakagami variates and does not require channel hardening. Our derivations show the dependence of the sum-rate capacity as a function of both K and Q, as well as to establish a comparison with a TDMA downlink without an RIS. Numerical results corroborate the accuracy of the proposed approximations and the validity of the mathematical analysis.

7.Symbol-Level Noise-Guessing Decoding with Antenna Sorting for URLLC Massive MIMO

Authors:Sahar Allahkaram, Francisco A. Monteiro, Ioannis Chatzigeorgiou

Abstract: Providing ultra-reliable and low-latency transmission is a current issue in wireless communications (URLLC). While it is commonly known that channel coding with large codewords improves reliability, this usually necessitates using interleavers, which incur undesired latency. Using short codewords is a necessary adjustment that will eliminate the requirement for interleaving and reduce decoding latency. This paper suggests a coding and decoding system that, combined with the high spectral efficiency of spatial multiplexing, can provide URLLC over a fading wireless channel. Random linear codes (RLCs) are used over a block-fading massive multiple input-multiple-output (mMIMO) channel followed by zero-forcing (ZF) detection and guessing random additive noise decoding (GRAND). A variation of GRAND, called symbol-level GRAND, originally proposed for single-antenna systems, is generalized to spatial multiplexing. Symbol-level GRAND is much more computationally effective than bit-level GRAND as it takes advantage of the structure of the constellation of the modulation. The paper analyses the performance of symbol-level GRAND depending on the orthogonality defect (OD) of the underlying lattice. Symbol-level GRAND takes advantage of the a priori probability of each error pattern given a received symbol, and specifies the order in which error patterns are tested. The paper further proposes to make use of further side-information that comes from the mMIMO channel-state information (CSI) and its impacts on the reliability of each antenna. This induces an antenna sorting order that further reduces the decoding complexity by over 80 percent when comparing with bit-level GRAND.

8.The Rate-Distortion-Perception Trade-off with Side Information

Authors:Yassine Hamdi, Deniz Gündüz

Abstract: In image compression, with recent advances in generative modeling, the existence of a trade-off between the rate and the perceptual quality has been brought to light, where the perception is measured by the closeness of the output distribution to the source. This leads to the question: how does a perception constraint impact the trade-off between the rate and traditional distortion constraints, typically quantified by a single-letter distortion measure? We consider the compression of a memoryless source $X$ in the presence of memoryless side information $Z,$ studied by Wyner and Ziv, but elucidate the impact of a perfect realism constraint, which requires the output distribution to match the source distribution. We consider two cases: when $Z$ is available only at the decoder or at both the encoder and the decoder. The rate-distortion trade-off with perfect realism is characterized for sources on general alphabets when infinite common randomness is available between the encoder and the decoder. We show that, similarly to traditional source coding with side information, the two cases are equivalent when $X$ and $Z$ are jointly Gaussian under the squared error distortion measure. We also provide a general inner bound in the case of limited common randomness.

1.Semantic Filtering and Source Coding in Distributed Wireless Monitoring Systems

Authors:Pouya Agheli, Nikolaos Pappas, Marios Kountouris

Abstract: The problem of goal-oriented semantic filtering and timely source coding in multiuser communication systems is considered here. We study a distributed monitoring system in which multiple information sources, each observing a physical process, provide status update packets to multiple monitors having heterogeneous goals. Two semantic filtering schemes are first proposed as a means to admit or drop arrival packets based on their goal-dependent importance, which is a function of the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of information and the probability of occurrence of each realization. Admitted packets at each sensor are then encoded and transmitted over block fading wireless channels so that served monitors can timely fulfill their goals. A truncated error control scheme is derived, which allows transmitters to drop or retransmit undelivered packets based on their significance. Then, we formulate the timely source encoding optimization problem and analytically derive the optimal codeword lengths assigned to the admitted packets which maximize a weighted sum of semantic utility functions for all pairs of communicating sensors and monitors. Our analytical and numerical results provide the optimal design parameters for different arrival rates and highlight the improvement in timely status update delivery using the proposed semantic filtering, source coding, and error control schemes.

2.Channel Cycle Time: A New Measure of Short-term Fairness

Authors:Pengfei Shen, Yulin Shao, Haoyuan Pan, Lu Lu

Abstract: This paper puts forth a new metric, dubbed channel cycle time, to measure the short-term fairness of communication networks. Channel cycle time characterizes the average duration between two successful transmissions of a user, during which all other users have successfully accessed the channel at least once. Compared with existing short-term fairness measures, channel cycle time provides a comprehensive picture of the transient behavior of communication networks, and is a single real value that is easy to compute. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our new approach, we analytically characterize the channel cycle time of slotted Aloha and CSMA/CA. It is shown that CSMA/CA is a short-term fairer protocol than slotted Aloha. Channel cycle time can serve as a promising design principle for future communication networks, placing greater emphasis on optimizing short-term behaviors like fairness, delay, and jitter.

3.Some results on the antiprimitive BCH codes

Authors:Yanhui Zhang

Abstract: BCH codes are an important class of cyclic codes due to their efficient encoding and decoding algorithms, antiprimitive BCH codes have taken a lot of attention in recent years. In this paper, we mainly study a class of BCH codes of length $n=\frac{q^{m}+1}{\lambda}$, where $\lambda\mid (q+1)$ is an integer. We give several classes of BCH codes with good parameters in this paper, containing many optimal linear codes. We also present the first few largest coset leaders modulo $n$, so two conjectures about BCH codes are partially solved.

4.Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces for 6G: Nine Fundamental Issues and One Critical Problem

Authors:Zijian Zhang, Linglong Dai

Abstract: Thanks to the recent advances in metamaterials, reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) has emerged as a promising technology for future 6G wireless communications. Benefiting from its high array gain, low cost, and low power consumption, RISs are expected to greatly enlarge signal coverage, improve system capacity, and increase energy efficiency. In this article, we systematically overview the emerging RIS technology with the focus on its key basics, nine fundamental issues, and one critical problem. Specifically, we first explain the RIS basics, including its working principles, hardware structures, and potential benefits for communications. Based on these basics, nine fundamental issues of RISs, such as ``What's the differences between RISs and massive MIMO?'' and ``Is RIS really intelligent?'', are explicitly addressed to elaborate its technical features, distinguish it from existing technologies, and clarify some misunderstandings in the literature. Then, one critical problem of RISs is revealed that, due to the ``multiplicative fading'' effect, existing passive RISs can hardly achieve visible performance gains in many communication scenarios with strong direct links. To address this critical problem, a potential solution called active RISs is introduced, and its effectiveness is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

1.Bounds on Size of Homopolymer Free Codes

Authors:Krishna Gopal Benerjee, Adrish Banerjee

Abstract: For any given alphabet of size $q$, a Homopolymer Free code (HF code) refers to an $(n, M, d)_q$ code of length $n$, size $M$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$, where all the codewords are homopolymer free sequences. For any given alphabet, this work provides upper and lower bounds on the maximum size of any HF code using Sphere Packing bound and Gilbert-Varshamov bound. Further, upper and lower bounds on the maximum size of HF codes for various HF code families are calculated. Also, as a specific case, upper and lower bounds are obtained on the maximum size of homopolymer free DNA codes.

2.Joint BS Mode Selection and Beamforming Design for Cooperative Cell-Free ISAC Networks

Authors:Sifan Liu, Ming Li, Qian Liu

Abstract: Owing to the promising ability of saving hardware cost and spectrum resources, integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) is regarded as a revolutionary technology for future sixth-generation (6G) networks. The mono-static ISAC systems considered in most of existing works can only obtain limited sensing performance due to the single observation angle and easily blocked transmission links, which motivates researchers to investigate cooperative ISAC networks. In order to further improve the degrees of freedom (DoFs) of cooperative ISAC networks, the transmitter-receiver selection, i.e., BS mode selection problem, is meaningful to be studied. However, to our best knowledge, this crucial problem has not been extensively studied in existing works. In this paper, we consider the joint BS mode selection, transmit beamforming, and receive filter design for cooperative cell-free ISAC networks, where multi-base stations (BSs) cooperatively serve communication users and detect targets. We aim to maximize the sum of sensing signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) under the communication SINR requirements, total power budget, and constraints on the numbers of transmitters and receivers. An efficient joint beamforming design algorithm and three different heuristic BS mode selection methods are proposed to solve this non-convex NP-hard problem. Simulation results demonstrates the advantages of cooperative ISAC networks, the importance of BS mode selection, and the effectiveness of our proposed joint design algorithms.

3.Robust Hybrid Transceiver Designs for Linear Decentralized Estimation in mmWave MIMO IoT Networks in the Face of Imperfect CSI

Authors:Priyanka Maity, Kunwar Pritiraj Rajput, Suraj Srivastava, Naveen K. D. Venkategowda, Aditya K. Jagannatham, Lajos Hanzo

Abstract: Hybrid transceivers are designed for linear decentralized estimation (LDE) in a mmWave multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) IoT network (IoTNe). For a noiseless fusion center (FC), it is demonstrated that the MSE performance is determined by the number of RF chains used at each IoT node (IoTNo). Next, the minimum-MSE RF transmit precoders (TPCs) and receive combiner (RC) matrices are designed for this setup using the dominant array response vectors, and subsequently, a closed-form expression is obtained for the baseband (BB) TPC at each IoTNo using Cauchy's interlacing theorem. For a realistic noisy FC, it is shown that the resultant mean squared error (MSE) minimization problem is non-convex. To address this challenge, a block-coordinate descent-based iterative scheme is proposed to obtain the fully digital TPC and RC matrices followed by the simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (SOMP) technique for decomposing the fully-digital transceiver into its corresponding RF and BB components. A theoretical proof of the convergence is also presented for the proposed iterative design procedure. Furthermore, robust hybrid transceiver designs are also derived for a practical scenario in the face of channel state information (CSI) uncertainty. The centralized MMSE lower bound has also been derived that benchmarks the performance of the proposed LDE schemes. Finally, our numerical results characterize the performance of the proposed transceivers as well as corroborate our various analytical propositions.

4.Lyapunov-Driven Deep Reinforcement Learning for Edge Inference Empowered by Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Authors:Kyriakos Stylianopoulos, Mattia Merluzzi, Paolo Di Lorenzo, George C. Alexandropoulos

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for energy-efficient, low-latency, accurate inference at the wireless edge, in the context of 6G networks endowed with reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs). We consider a scenario where new data are continuously generated/collected by a set of devices and are handled through a dynamic queueing system. Building on the marriage between Lyapunov stochastic optimization and deep reinforcement learning (DRL), we devise a dynamic learning algorithm that jointly optimizes the data compression scheme, the allocation of radio resources (i.e., power, transmission precoding), the computation resources (i.e., CPU cycles), and the RIS reflectivity parameters (i.e., phase shifts), with the aim of performing energy-efficient edge classification with end-to-end (E2E) delay and inference accuracy constraints. The proposed strategy enables dynamic control of the system and of the wireless propagation environment, performing a low-complexity optimization on a per-slot basis while dealing with time-varying radio channels and task arrivals, whose statistics are unknown. Numerical results assess the performance of the proposed RIS-empowered edge inference strategy in terms of trade-off between energy, delay, and accuracy of a classification task.

5.Near-Field 3D Localization via MIMO Radar: Cramér-Rao Bound and Estimator Design

Authors:Haocheng Hua, Jie Xu

Abstract: Future sixth-generation (6G) networks are envisioned to provide both sensing and communications functionalities by using densely deployed base stations (BSs) with massive antennas operating in millimeter wave (mmWave) and terahertz (THz). Due to the large number of antennas and the high frequency band, the sensing and communications will operate within the near-field region, thus making the conventional designs based on the far-field channel models inapplicable. This paper studies a near-field multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radar sensing system, in which the transceivers with massive antennas aim to localize multiple near-field targets in the three-dimensional (3D) space. In particular, we adopt a general wavefront propagation model by considering the exact spherical wavefront with both channel phase and amplitude variations over different antennas. Besides, we consider the general transmit signal waveforms and also consider the unknown cluttered environments. Under this setup, the unknown parameters to estimate include the 3D coordinates and the complex reflection coefficients of the multiple targets, as well as the noise and interference covariance matrix. Accordingly, we derive the Cram\'er-Rao bound (CRB) for estimating the target coordinates and reflection coefficients. Next, to facilitate practical localization, we propose an efficient estimator based on the 3D approximate cyclic optimization (3D-ACO), which is obtained following the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion. Finally, numerical results show that considering the exact antenna-varying channel amplitudes achieves more accurate CRB as compared to prior works based on constant channel amplitudes across antennas, especially when the targets are close to the transceivers. It is also shown that the proposed estimator achieves localization performance close to the derived CRB, thus validating its superior performance.

6.Convergence Analysis of Over-the-Air FL with Compression and Power Control via Clipping

Authors:Haifeng Wen, Hong Xing, Osvaldo Simeone

Abstract: One of the key challenges towards the deployment of over-the-air federated learning (AirFL) is the design of mechanisms that can comply with the power and bandwidth constraints of the shared channel, while causing minimum deterioration to the learning performance as compared to baseline noiseless implementations. For additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels with instantaneous per-device power constraints, prior work has demonstrated the optimality of a power control mechanism based on norm clipping. This was done through the minimization of an upper bound on the optimality gap for smooth learning objectives satisfying the Polyak-{\L}ojasiewicz (PL) condition. In this paper, we make two contributions to the development of AirFL based on norm clipping, which we refer to as AirFL-Clip. First, we provide a convergence bound for AirFLClip that applies to general smooth and non-convex learning objectives. Unlike existing results, the derived bound is free from run-specific parameters, thus supporting an offline evaluation. Second, we extend AirFL-Clip to include Top-k sparsification and linear compression. For this generalized protocol, referred to as AirFL-Clip-Comp, we derive a convergence bound for general smooth and non-convex learning objectives. We argue, and demonstrate via experiments, that the only time-varying quantities present in the bound can be efficiently estimated offline by leveraging the well-studied properties of sparse recovery algorithms.

1."Low Complexity Detection of Spatial Modulation Aided OTFS in Doubly-Selective Channels"

Authors:Zeping Sui, Hongming Zhang, Yu Xin, Tong Bao, Lie-Liang Yang, Lajos Hanzo

Abstract: A spatial modulation-aided orthogonal time frequency space (SM-OTFS) scheme is proposed for high-Doppler scenarios, which relies on a low-complexity distance-based detection algorithm. We first derive the delay-Doppler (DD) domain input-output relationship of our SM-OTFS system by exploiting an SM mapper, followed by characterizing the doubly-selective channels considered. Then we propose a distance-based ordering subspace check detector (DOSCD) exploiting the \emph{a priori} information of the transmit symbol vector. Moreover, we derive the discrete-input continuous-output memoryless channel (DCMC) capacity of the system. Finally, our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SM-OTFS system outperforms the conventional single-input-multiple-output (SIMO)-OTFS system, and that the DOSCD conceived is capable of striking an attractive bit error ratio (BER) vs. complexity trade-off.

2.Asynchronous Grant-Free Random Access: Receiver Design with Partially Uni-Directional Message Passing and Interference Suppression Analysis

Authors:Zhaoji Zhang, Yuhao Chi, Qinghua Guo, Ying Li, Guanghui Song, Chongwen Huang

Abstract: Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) features a massive number of low-cost user equipments (UEs) with sparse activity. Tailor-made for these features, grant-free random access (GF-RA) serves as an efficient access solution for mMTC. However, most existing GF-RA schemes rely on strict synchronization, which incurs excessive coordination burden for the low-cost UEs. In this work, we propose a receiver design for asynchronous GF-RA, and address the joint user activity detection (UAD) and channel estimation (CE) problem in the presence of asynchronization-induced inter-symbol interference. Specifically, the delay profile is exploited at the receiver to distinguish different UEs. However, a sample correlation problem in this receiver design impedes the factorization of the joint likelihood function, which complicates the UAD and CE problem. To address this correlation problem, we design a partially uni-directional (PUD) factor graph representation for the joint likelihood function. Building on this PUD factor graph, we further propose a PUD message passing based sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) algorithm for asynchronous UAD and CE (PUDMP-SBL-aUADCE). Our theoretical analysis shows that the PUDMP-SBL-aUADCE algorithm exhibits higher signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) in the asynchronous case than in the synchronous case, i.e., the proposed receiver design can exploit asynchronization to suppress multi-user interference. In addition, considering potential timing error from the low-cost UEs, we investigate the impacts of imperfect delay profile, and reveal the advantages of adopting the SBL method in this case. Finally, extensive simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the PUDMP-SBL-aUADCE algorithm.

3.Over-the-Air Federated Learning in MIMO Cloud-RAN Systems

Authors:Haoming Ma, Xiaojun Yuan, Zhi Ding

Abstract: To address the limitations of traditional over-the-air federated learning (OA-FL) such as limited server coverage and low resource utilization, we propose an OA-FL in MIMO cloud radio access network (MIMO Cloud-RAN) framework, where edge devices upload (or download) model parameters to the cloud server (CS) through access points (APs). Specifically, in every training round, there are three stages: edge aggregation; global aggregation; and model updating and broadcasting. To better utilize the correlation among APs, called inter-AP correlation, we propose modeling the global aggregation stage as a lossy distributed source coding (L-DSC) problem to make analysis from the perspective of rate-distortion theory. We further analyze the performance of the proposed OA-FL in MIMO Cloud-RAN framework. Based on the analysis, we formulate a communication-learning optimization problem to improve the system performance by considering the inter-AP correlation. To solve this problem, we develop an algorithm by using alternating optimization (AO) and majorization-minimization (MM), which effectively improves the FL learning performance. Furthermore, we propose a practical design that demonstrates the utilization of inter-AP correlation. The numerical results show that the proposed practical design effectively leverages inter-AP correlation, and outperforms other baseline schemes.

4.Optimized Joint Beamforming for Wireless Powered Over-the-Air Computation

Authors:Siyao Zhang, Xinmin Li, Yin Long, Jie Xu, Shuguang Cui

Abstract: This correspondence studies the wireless powered over-the-air computation (AirComp) for achieving sustainable wireless data aggregation (WDA) by integrating AirComp and wireless power transfer (WPT) into a joint design. In particular, we consider that a multi-antenna hybrid access point (HAP) employs the transmit energy beamforming to charge multiple single-antenna low-power wireless devices (WDs) in the downlink, and the WDs use the harvested energy to simultaneously send their messages to the HAP for AirComp in the uplink. Under this setup, we minimize the computation mean square error (MSE), by jointly optimizing the transmit energy beamforming and the receive AirComp beamforming at the HAP, as well as the transmit power at the WDs, subject to the maximum transmit power constraint at the HAP and the wireless energy harvesting constraints at individual WDs. To tackle the non-convex computation MSE minimization problem, we present an efficient algorithm to find a converged high-quality solution by using the alternating optimization technique. Numerical results show that the proposed joint WPT-AirComp approach significantly reduces the computation MSE, as compared to other benchmark schemes.

5.Stronger Polarization for the Deletion Channel

Authors:Dar Arava, Ido Tal

Abstract: In this paper we show a polar coding scheme for the deletion channel with a probability of error that decays roughly like $2^{-\sqrt{\Lambda}}$, where $\Lambda$ is the length of the codeword. That is, the same decay rate as that of seminal polar codes for memoryless channels. This is stronger than prior art in which the square root is replaced by a cube root. Our coding scheme is similar yet distinct from prior art. The main differences are: 1) Guard-bands are placed in almost all polarization levels; 2) Trellis decoding is applied to the whole received word, and not to segments of it. As before, the scheme is capacity-achieving. The price we pay for this improvement is a higher decoding complexity, which is nonetheless still polynomial, $O(\Lambda^4)$.

6.Error-Correcting Codes for Nanopore Sequencing

Authors:Anisha Banerjee, Yonatan Yehezkeally, Antonia Wachter-Zeh, Eitan Yaakobi

Abstract: Nanopore sequencers, being superior to other sequencing technologies for DNA storage in multiple aspects, have attracted considerable attention in recent times. Their high error rates however demand thorough research on practical and efficient coding schemes to enable accurate recovery of stored data. To this end, we consider a simplified model of a nanopore sequencer inspired by Mao \emph{et al.}, that incorporates intersymbol interference and measurement noise. Essentially, our channel model passes a sliding window of length $\ell$ over an input sequence, that outputs the $L_1$-weight of the enclosed $\ell$ bits and shifts by $\delta$ positions with each time step. The resulting $(\ell+1)$-ary vector, termed the \emph{read vector}, may also be corrupted by $t$ substitution errors. By employing graph-theoretic techniques, we deduce that for $\delta=1$, at least $\log \log n$ bits of redundancy are required to correct a single ($t=1$) substitution. Finally for $\ell \geq 3$, we exploit some inherent characteristics of read vectors to arrive at an error-correcting code that is optimal up to an additive constant for this setting.

7.To Re-transmit or Not to Re-transmit for Freshness

Authors:Subhankar Banerjee, Sennur Ulukus, Anthony Ephremides

Abstract: We consider a time slotted communication network with a base station (BS) and a user. At each time slot a fresh update packet arrives at the BS with probability $p>0$. When the BS transmits an update packet for the first time, it goes through with a success probability of $q_1$. In all subsequent re-transmissions, the packet goes through with a success probability of $q_2$ where $q_2>q_1$, due to the accumulation of observations at the receiver used to decode the packet. When the packet goes through the first time, the age of the user drops to 1, while when the packet goes through in subsequent transmissions, the age of the user drops to the age of the packet since its generation. Thus, when the BS is in the process of re-transmitting an old packet, if it receives a new packet, it has to decide whether to re-transmit the old packet with higher probability of successful transmission but resulting in higher age, or to transmit the new packet which will result in a lower age upon successful reception but this will happen with lower probability. In this paper, we provide an optimal algorithm to solve this problem.

8.$\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$-skew cyclic codes and their application to quantum codes

Authors:Om Prakash, Shikha Patel, Habibul Islam

Abstract: Let $p$ be a prime and $\mathbb{F}_q$ be the finite field of order $q=p^m$. In this paper, we study $\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$-skew cyclic codes where $\mathcal{R}=\mathbb{F}_q+u\mathbb{F}_q$ with $u^2=u$. To characterize $\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$-skew cyclic codes, we first establish their algebraic structure and then discuss the dual-containing properties by considering a non-degenerate inner product. Further, we define a Gray map over $\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$ and obtain their $\mathbb{F}_q$-Gray images. As an application, we apply the CSS (Calderbank-Shor-Steane) construction on Gray images of dual containing $\mathbb{F}_q\mathcal{R}$-skew cyclic codes and obtain many quantum codes with better parameters than the best-known codes available in the literature.

1.Information Energy Ratio of XOR Logic Gate at Mesoscopic Scale

Authors:Xiaohu Ge, Muyao Ruan, Xiaoxuan Peng, Yong Xiao, Yang Yang

Abstract: As the size of transistors approaches the mesoscopic scale, existing energy consumption analysis methods exhibit various limits, especially when being applied to describe the non-equilibrium information processing of transistors at ultra-low voltages. The stochastic thermodynamics offers a theoretic tool to analyze the energy consumption of transistor during the non-equilibrium information processing. Based on this theory, an information energy ratio of XOR gate composed of single-electron transistors is proposed at the mesoscopic scale, which can be used to quantify the exchange between the information and energy at XOR gates. Furthermore, the energy efficiency of the parity check circuit is proposed to analyze the energy consumption of digital signal processing systems. Compared with the energy efficiency of parity check circuit adopting the 7 nm semiconductor process supply voltage, simulation results show that the energy efficiency of the parity check circuit is improved by 266% when the supply voltage is chosen at a specified value.

2.Component Training of Turbo Autoencoders

Authors:Jannis Clausius, Marvin Geiselhart, Stephan ten Brink

Abstract: Isolated training with Gaussian priors (TGP) of the component autoencoders of turbo-autoencoder architectures enables faster, more consistent training and better generalization to arbitrary decoding iterations than training based on deep unfolding. We propose fitting the components via extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts to a desired behavior which enables scaling to larger message lengths ($k \approx 1000$) while retaining competitive performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first autoencoder that performs close to classical codes in this regime. Although the binary cross-entropy (BCE) loss function optimizes the bit error rate (BER) of the components, the design via EXIT charts enables to focus on the block error rate (BLER). In serially concatenated systems the component-wise TGP approach is well known for inner components with a fixed outer binary interface, e.g., a learned inner code or equalizer, with an outer binary error correcting code. In this paper we extend the component training to structures with an inner and outer autoencoder, where we propose a new 1-bit quantization strategy for the encoder outputs based on the underlying communication problem. Finally, we discuss the model complexity of the learned components during design time (training) and inference and show that the number of weights in the encoder can be reduced by 99.96 %.

3.Impact Analysis of Antenna Array Geometry on Performance of Semi-blind Structured Channel Estimation for massive MIMO-OFDM systems

Authors:Do Hai Son, Tran Thi Thuy Quynh

Abstract: Channel estimation is always implemented in communication systems to overcome the effect of interference and noise. Especially, in wireless communications, this task is more challenging to improve system performance while saving resources. This paper focuses on investigating the impact of geometries of antenna arrays on the performance of structured channel estimation in massive MIMO-OFDM systems. We use Cram'er Rao Bound to analyze errors in two methods, i.e., training-based and semi-blind-based channel estimations. The simulation results show that the latter gets significantly better performance than the former. Besides, the system with Uniform Cylindrical Array outperforms the traditional Uniform Linear Array one in both estimation methods.

4.Age of Incorrect Information in Semantic Communications for NOMA Aided XR Applications

Authors:Jianrui Chen, Jingjing Wang, Chunxiao Jiang, Jiaxing Wang

Abstract: As an evolving successor to the mobile Internet, the extended reality (XR) devices can generate a fully digital immersive environment similar to the real world, integrating integrating virtual and real-world elements. However, in addition to the difficulties encountered in traditional communications, there emerge a range of new challenges such as ultra-massive access, real-time synchronization as well as unprecedented amount of multi-modal data transmission and processing. To address these challenges, semantic communications might be harnessed in support of XR applications, whereas it lacks a practical and effective performance metric. For broadening a new path for evaluating semantic communications, in this paper, we construct a multi-user uplink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system to analyze its transmission performance by harnessing a novel metric called age of incorrect information (AoII). First, we derive the average semantic similarity of all the users based on DeepSC and obtain the closed-form expressions for the packets' age of information (AoI) relying on queue theory. Besides, we formulate a non-convex optimization problem for the proposed AoII which combines both error-and AoI-based performance under the constraints of semantic rate, transmit power and status update rate. Finally, in order to solve the problem, we apply an exact linear search based algorithm for finding the optimal policy. Simulation results show that the AoII metric can beneficially evaluate both the error- and AoI-based transmission performance simultaneously.

5.On CSI-Free Multi-Antenna Schemes for Massive Wireless-Powered Underground Sensor Networks

Authors:Kaiqiang Lin, Onel Luis Alcaraz López, Hirley Alves, Tong Hao

Abstract: Radio-frequency wireless energy transfer (WET) is a promising technology to realize wireless-powered underground sensor networks (WPUSNs) and enable sustainable underground monitoring. However, due to the severe attenuation in harsh underground soil and the tight energy budget of the underground sensors, traditional WPUSNs relying on the channel state information (CSI) are highly inefficient, especially in massive WET scenarios. To address this challenge, we comparatively assess the feasibility of several state-of-the-art CSI-free multi-antenna WET schemes for WPUSNs, under a given power budget. Moreover, to overcome the extremely low WET efficiency in underground channels, we propose a distributed CSI-free system, where multiple power beacons (PBs) simultaneously charge a large set of underground sensors without any CSI. We consider the position-aware K-Means and the position-agnostic equally-far-from-center (EFFC) approaches for the optimal deployment of the PBs. Our results evince that the performance of the proposed distributed CSI-free system can approach or even surpass that of a traditional full-CSI WET strategy, especially when adopting an appropriate CSI-free scheme, applying the advisable PBs deployment approach, and equipping the PBs with an appropriate number of antennas. Finally, we discuss the impact of underground parameters, i.e., the burial depth of devices and the volumetric water content of soil, on the system's performance, and identify potential challenges and research opportunities for practical distributed CSI-free WPUSNs deployment.

6.Conditional Rate-Distortion-Perception Trade-Off

Authors:Xueyan Niu, Deniz Gündüz, Bo Bai, Wei Han

Abstract: Recent advances in machine learning-aided lossy compression are incorporating perceptual fidelity into the rate-distortion theory. In this paper, we study the rate-distortion-perception trade-off when the perceptual quality is measured by the total variation distance between the empirical and product distributions of the discrete memoryless source and its reconstruction. We consider the general setting, where two types of resources are available at both the encoder and decoder: a common side information sequence, correlated with the source sequence, and common randomness. We show that the region under the strong perceptual constraint is a subset of that for the weaker empirical perceptual constraint. When sufficient common randomness is provided, the required communication rate is the minimum conditional mutual information such that the distortion and perceptual constraints are satisfied. The coding scheme in the proof of achievability takes advantage of the likelihood encoder.

7.Performance Analysis of NOMA-RIS aided Integrated Navigation and Communication (INAC) Networks

Authors:Tianwei Hou, Anna Li

Abstract: Satellite communication constitutes a promising solution for the sixth generation (6G) wireless networks in terms of providing global communication services. In order to provide a cost-effective satellite network, we propose a novel medium-earth-orbit (MEO) satellite aided integrated-navigation-and-communication (INAC) network. To overcome the severe path loss of MEO satellites, we conceive a network for simultaneous serving navigation and communication for ground users by adopting the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique and the reconfigurable intelligent surface technique. Based on the power allocation strategies, communication-oriented (CO-) and navigation-oriented (NO-) INAC scenarios are proposed. We first derive the closed-form expressions for the new channel statistics, outage probability and channel capacity of the INAC-user. For gleaning further insights, the diversity orders and navigation accuracy are evaluated for illustrating the performance of the INAC networks. According to our analysis, when RIS elements are sufficient, the proposed INAC network can perform better than conventional terrestrial communication networks in terms of channel capacity. Numerical results are provided for confirming that the NO-INAC and CO-INAC scenarios have superior performance for communication in the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regimes and high SNR regimes, respectively, which indicates a hybrid CO/NO-INAC network is preferable.

8.Efficient Evaluation of the Probability of Error of Random Coding Ensembles

Authors:Ioannis Papoutsidakis, Angela Doufexi, Robert J. Piechocki

Abstract: This paper presents an achievability bound that evaluates the exact probability of error of an ensemble of random codes that are decoded by a minimum distance decoder. Compared to the state-of-the-art which demands exponential computation time, this bound is evaluated in polynomial time. This improvement in complexity is also attainable for the original random coding bound that utilizes an information density decoder. The general bound is particularized for the binary symmetric channel, the binary erasure channel, and the Gaussian channel.

9.IRSA-based Unsourced Random Access over the Gaussian Channel

Authors:Velio Tralli, Enrico Paolini

Abstract: A framework for the analysis of synchronous grant-free massive multiple access schemes based on the irregular repetition slotted ALOHA (IRSA) protocol and operating over the Gaussian multiple access channel is presented. IRSA-based schemes are considered here as an instance of the class of unsourced slotted random access codes, operating over a frame partitioned in time slots, and are obtained by concatenation of a medium access control layer code over the entire frame and a physical layer code over each slot. In this framework, an asymptotic analysis is carried out in presence of both collisions and slot decoding errors due to channel noise, which allows the derivation of density-evolution equations, asymptotic limits for minimum packet loss probability and average load threshold, and a converse bound for threshold values. This analysis is exploited as a tool for the evaluation of performance limits in terms of minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to achieve a given packet loss probability, and also provides convergence boundary limits that hold for any IRSA scheme with given physical layer coding scheme. The tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectrum efficiency is numerically evaluated comparing some known coding options, including those achieving random coding bounds at slot level. It is shown that IRSA-based schemes have a convergence boundary limit within few dB from the random coding bound when the number of active transmitters is sufficiently large.

10.Copula-based Performance Analysis for Fluid Antenna Systems under Arbitrary Fading Channels

Authors:Farshad Rostami Ghadi, Kai-Kit Wong, F. Javier Lopez-Martinez, Kin-Fai Tong

Abstract: In this letter, we study the performance of a single-user fluid antenna system (FAS) under arbitrary fading distributions, in which the fading channel coefficients over the ports are correlated. We adopt copula theory to model the structure of dependency between fading coefficients. Specifically, we first derive an exact closed-from expression for the outage probability in the most general case, i.e., for any arbitrary choice of fading distribution and copula. Afterwards, for an important specific case, we analyze the performance of the outage probability under correlated Nakagami-$m$ fading channels by exploiting popular Archimedean copulas, namely, Frank, Clayton, and Gumbel. The results demonstrate that FAS outperforms the conventional single fixed-antenna system in terms of the outage probability. We also see that the spatial correlation dependency structure for the FAS is a key factor to determine its performance, which is natively captured through the choice of copula.

1.User-Centric Clustering Under Fairness Scheduling in Cell-Free Massive MIMO

Authors:Fabian Göttsch, Noboru Osawa, Yoshiaki Amano, Issei Kanno, Kosuke Yamazaki, Giuseppe Caire

Abstract: We consider fairness scheduling in a user-centric cell-free massive MIMO network, where $L$ remote radio units, each with $M$ antennas, serve $K_{\rm tot} \approx LM$ user equipments (UEs). Recent results show that the maximum network sum throughput is achieved where $K_{\rm act} \approx \frac{LM}{2}$ UEs are simultaneously active in any given time-frequency slots. However, the number of users $K_{\rm tot}$ in the network is usually much larger. This requires that users are scheduled over the time-frequency resource and achieve a certain throughput rate as an average over the slots. We impose throughput fairness among UEs with a scheduling approach aiming to maximize a concave component-wise non-decreasing network utility function of the per-user throughput rates. In cell-free user-centric networks, the pilot and cluster assignment is usually done for a given set of active users. Combined with fairness scheduling, this requires pilot and cluster reassignment at each scheduling slot, involving an enormous overhead of control signaling exchange between network entities. We propose a fixed pilot and cluster assignment scheme (independent of the scheduling decisions), which outperforms the baseline method in terms of UE throughput, while requiring much less control information exchange between network entities.

2.A lower bound on the field size of convolutional codes with a maximum distance profile and an improved construction

Authors:Zitan Chen

Abstract: Convolutional codes with a maximum distance profile attain the largest possible column distances for the maximum number of time instants and thus have outstanding error-correcting capability especially for streaming applications. Explicit constructions of such codes are scarce in the literature. In particular, known constructions of convolutional codes with rate k/n and a maximum distance profile require a field of size at least exponential in n for general code parameters. At the same time, the only known lower bound on the field size is the trivial bound that is linear in n. In this paper, we show that a finite field of size $\Omega_L(n^{L-1})$ is necessary for constructing convolutional codes with rate k/n and a maximum distance profile of length L. As a direct consequence, this rules out the possibility of constructing convolutional codes with a maximum distance profile of length L >= 3 over a finite field of size O(n). Additionally, we also present an explicit construction of convolutional code with rate k/n and a maximum profile of length L = 1 over a finite field of size $O(n^{\min\{k,n-k\}})$, achieving a smaller field size than known constructions with the same profile length.

3.Task-Oriented Communication Design at Scale

Authors:Arsham Mostaani, Thang X. Vu, Hamed Habibi, Symeon Chatzinotas, Bjorn Ottersten

Abstract: With countless promising applications in various domains such as IoT and industry 4.0, task-oriented communication design (TOCD) is getting accelerated attention from the research community. This paper presents a novel approach for designing scalable task-oriented quantization and communications in cooperative multi-agent systems (MAS). The proposed approach utilizes the TOCD framework and the value of information (VoI) concept to enable efficient communication of quantized observations among agents while maximizing the average return performance of the MAS, a parameter that quantifies the MAS's task effectiveness. The computational complexity of learning the VoI, however, grows exponentially with the number of agents. Thus, we propose a three-step framework: i) learning the VoI (using reinforcement learning (RL)) for a two-agent system, ii) designing the quantization policy for an $N$-agent MAS using the learned VoI for a range of bit-budgets and, (iii) learning the agents' control policies using RL while following the designed quantization policies in the earlier step. We observe that one can reduce the computational cost of obtaining the value of information by exploiting insights gained from studying a similar two-agent system - instead of the original $N$-agent system. We then quantize agents' observations such that their more valuable observations are communicated more precisely. Our analytical results show the applicability of the proposed framework under a wide range of problems. Numerical results show striking improvements in reducing the computational complexity of obtaining VoI needed for the TOCD in a MAS problem without compromising the average return performance of the MAS.

4.New entanglement-assisted quantum codes from negacyclic codes

Authors:Xiaojing Chen, Xingbo Lu, Shixin Zhu, Wan Jiang, Xindi Wang

Abstract: The theory of entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs) is a generalization of the standard stabilizer quantum error-correcting codes, which can be possibly constructed from any classical codes by relaxing the duality condition and utilizing preshared entanglement between the sender and receiver. In this paper, a new family of EAQECCs is constructed from negacyclic codes of length $n=\frac{q^2+1}{a}$, where $q$ is an odd prime power, $a=\frac{m^2+1}{2}$ and $m$ is an odd integer. Some new entanglement-assisted quantum maximum distance separable (EAQMDS) codes are obtained in the sense that their parameters are not covered by the previously known ones.

5.Chain rules for one-shot entropic quantities via operational methods

Authors:Sayantan Chakraborty, Upendra Kapshikar

Abstract: We introduce a new operational technique for deriving chain rules for general information theoretic quantities. This technique is very different from the popular (and in some cases fairly involved) methods like SDP formulation and operator algebra or norm interpolation. Instead, our framework considers a simple information transmission task and obtains lower and upper bounds for it. The lower bounds are obtained by leveraging a successive cancellation encoding and decoding technique. Pitting the upper and lower bounds against each other gives us the desired chain rule. As a demonstration of this technique, we derive chain rules for the smooth max mutual information and the smooth-Hypothesis testing mutual information.

6.Sum Secrecy Rate Maximization for IRS-aided Multi-Cluster MIMO-NOMA Terahertz Systems

Authors:Jin-lei Xu, Zheng-yu Zhu, Zheng Chu, He-hao Niu, Pei Xiao, Inkyu Lee

Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is a promising and disruptive technique to extend the network coverage and improve spectral efficiency. This paper investigates an IRS-assisted Terahertz (THz) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system based on hybrid precoding in the presence of eavesdropper. Two types of sparse RF chain antenna structures are adopted, i.e., sub-connected structure and fully connected structure. Cluster heads are firstly selected for transmissions, and discrete phase-based analog precoding is designed for the transmit beamforming. Subsequently, based on the channel conditions, the users are grouped into multiple clusters, and each cluster is transmitted by using the NOMA technique. In addition, a low complexity zero-forcing method is employed to design digital precoding so as to eliminate interference between clusters. On this basis, we propose a secure transmission scheme to maximize the sum secrecy rate by jointly optimizing the power allocation and phase shifts of IRS under the constraints of system transmission power, achievable rate requirement of each user, and IRS phase shifts. Due to multiple coupled variables, the formulated problem leads to a non-convex issue. We apply the Taylor series expansion and semidefinite programming to convert the original non-convex problem into a convex one. Then, an alternating optimization algorithm is developed to obtain a feasible solution of the original problem. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate the convergence of the proposed algorithm, and confirm that the deployment of IRS can significantly improve the secrecy performance.

7.Designing Discontinuities

Authors:Ibtihal Ferwana, Suyoung Park, Ting-Yi Wu, Lav R. Varshney

Abstract: Discontinuities can be fairly arbitrary but also cause a significant impact on outcomes in social systems. Indeed, their arbitrariness is why they have been used to infer causal relationships among variables in numerous settings. Regression discontinuity from econometrics assumes the existence of a discontinuous variable that splits the population into distinct partitions to estimate the causal effects of a given phenomenon. Here we consider the design of partitions for a given discontinuous variable to optimize a certain effect previously studied using regression discontinuity. To do so, we propose a quantization-theoretic approach to optimize the effect of interest, first learning the causal effect size of a given discontinuous variable and then applying dynamic programming for optimal quantization design of discontinuities that balance the gain and loss in the effect size. We also develop a computationally-efficient reinforcement learning algorithm for the dynamic programming formulation of optimal quantization. We demonstrate our approach by designing optimal time zone borders for counterfactuals of social capital, social mobility, and health. This is based on regression discontinuity analyses we perform on novel data, which may be of independent empirical interest in showing a causal relationship between sunset time and social capital.

8.Characterization of Plotkin-optimal two-weight codes over finite chain rings and related applications

Authors:Shitao Li, Minjia Shi

Abstract: Few-weight codes over finite chain rings are associated with combinatorial objects such as strongly regular graphs (SRGs), strongly walk-regular graphs (SWRGs) and finite geometries, and are also widely used in data storage systems and secret sharing schemes. The first objective of this paper is to characterize all possible parameters of Plotkin-optimal two-homogeneous weight regular projective codes over finite chain rings, as well as their weight distributions. We show the existence of codes with these parameters by constructing an infinite family of two-homogeneous weight codes. The parameters of their Gray images have the same weight distribution as that of the two-weight codes of type SU1 in the sense of Calderbank and Kantor (Bull Lond Math Soc 18: 97-122, 1986). Further, we also construct three-homogeneous weight regular projective codes over finite chain rings combined with some known results. Finally, we study applications of our constructed codes in secret sharing schemes and graph theory. In particular, infinite families of SRGs and SWRGs with non-trivial parameters are obtained.

9.A Survey of Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence for 6G Wireless Communications

Authors:Yiping Zuo, Jiajia Guo, Ning Gao, Yongxu Zhu, Shi Jin, Xiao Li

Abstract: The research on the sixth-generation (6G) wireless communications for the development of future mobile communication networks has been officially launched around the world. 6G networks face multifarious challenges, such as resource-constrained mobile devices, difficult wireless resource management, high complexity of heterogeneous network architectures, explosive computing and storage requirements, privacy and security threats. To address these challenges, deploying blockchain and artificial intelligence (AI) in 6G networks may realize new breakthroughs in advancing network performances in terms of security, privacy, efficiency, cost, and more. In this paper, we provide a detailed survey of existing works on the application of blockchain and AI to 6G wireless communications. More specifically, we start with a brief overview of blockchain and AI. Then, we mainly review the recent advances in the fusion of blockchain and AI, and highlight the inevitable trend of deploying both blockchain and AI in wireless communications. Furthermore, we extensively explore integrating blockchain and AI for wireless communication systems, involving secure services and Internet of Things (IoT) smart applications. Particularly, some of the most talked-about key services based on blockchain and AI are introduced, such as spectrum management, computation allocation, content caching, and security and privacy. Moreover, we also focus on some important IoT smart applications supported by blockchain and AI, covering smart healthcare, smart transportation, smart grid, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We also analyze the open issues and research challenges for the joint deployment of blockchain and AI in 6G wireless communications. Lastly, based on lots of existing meaningful works, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive survey of blockchain and AI in 6G networks.

10.On The Stability of Approximate Message Passing with Independent Measurement Ensembles

Authors:Dang Qua Nguyen, Taejoon Kim

Abstract: Approximate message passing (AMP) is a scalable, iterative approach to signal recovery. For structured random measurement ensembles, including independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian and rotationally-invariant matrices, the performance of AMP can be characterized by a scalar recursion called state evolution (SE). The pseudo-Lipschitz (polynomial) smoothness is conventionally assumed. In this work, we extend the SE for AMP to a new class of measurement matrices with independent (not necessarily identically distributed) entries. We also extend it to a general class of functions, called controlled functions which are not constrained by the polynomial smoothness; unlike the pseudo-Lipschitz function that has polynomial smoothness, the controlled function grows exponentially. The lack of structure in the assumed measurement ensembles is addressed by leveraging Lindeberg-Feller. The lack of smoothness of the assumed controlled function is addressed by a proposed conditioning technique leveraging the empirical statistics of the AMP instances. The resultants grant the use of the SE to a broader class of measurement ensembles and a new class of functions.

11.Minimal and Optimal binary codes obtained using $C_D$-construction over the non-unital ring $I$

Authors:Vidya Sagar, Ritumoni Sarma

Abstract: In this article, we construct linear codes over the commutative non-unital ring $I$ of size four. We obtain their Lee-weight distributions and study their binary Gray images. Under certain mild conditions, these classes of binary codes are minimal and self-orthogonal. All codes in this article are few-weight codes. Besides, an infinite class of these binary codes consists of distance optimal codes with respect to the Griesmer bound.

1.Performance Analysis of RIS-Aided NOMA Networks in $α-μ$ & $κ-μ$ Generalized Fading Channel

Authors:Aaditya Prakash Kattekola, Sanjana Dontha, Anuradha Sundru

Abstract: For forthcoming 5G networks, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) is a very promising techniques. and in today's world, Line of Sight communication is becoming increasingly harder to achieve. Hence, technologies like Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) emerge. RIS-aided NOMA networks is a widely researched implementation of RIS. The environment where these networks are employed are non-homogeneous & non-linear in nature. The effectiveness of these systems must thus be evaluated using generalized fading channels. In this paper, the performance of a RIS-aided NOMA is compared with conventional NOMA in alpha-mu and kappa-mu channels. This paper also shows that the well-known fading distribution are special cases of these generalized fading channels, both analytically and through simulation.

2.Deletion Correcting Codes for Efficient DNA Synthesis

Authors:Johan Chrisnata, Han Mao Kiah, Van Long Phuoc Pham

Abstract: The synthesis of DNA strands remains the most costly part of the DNA storage system. Thus, to make DNA storage system more practical, the time and materials used in the synthesis process have to be optimized. We consider the most common type of synthesis process where multiple DNA strands are synthesized in parallel from a common alternating supersequence, one nucleotide at a time. The synthesis time or the number of synthesis cycles is then determined by the length of this common supersequence. In this model, we design quaternary codes that minimizes synthesis time that can correct deletions or insertions, which are the most prevalent types of error in array-based synthesis. We also propose polynomial-time algorithms that encode binary strings into these codes and show that the rate is close to capacity.

3.On Authentication against a Myopic Adversary using Stochastic Codes

Authors:Mayank Bakshi, Oliver Kosut

Abstract: We consider the problem of authenticated communication over a discrete arbitrarily varying channel where the legitimate parties are unaware of whether or not an adversary is present. When there is no adversary, the channel state always takes a default value $s_0$. When the adversary is present, they may choose the channel state sequence based on a non-causal noisy view of the transmitted codewords and the encoding and decoding scheme. We require that the decoder output the correct message with a high probability when there is no adversary, and either output the correct message or reject the transmission when the adversary is present. Further, we allow the transmitter to employ private randomness during encoding that is known neither to the receiver nor the adversary. Our first result proves a dichotomy property for the capacity for this problem -- the capacity either equals zero or it equals the non-adversarial capacity of the channel. Next, we give a sufficient condition for the capacity for this problem to be positive even when the non-adversarial channel to the receiver is stochastically degraded with respect to the channel to the adversary. Our proofs rely on a connection to a standalone authentication problem, where the goal is to accept or reject a candidate message that is already available to the decoder. Finally, we give examples and compare our sufficient condition with other related conditions known in the literature

4.Adaptive and Flexible Model-Based AI for Deep Receivers in Dynamic Channels

Authors:Tomer Raviv, Sangwoo Park, Osvaldo Simeone, Yonina C. Eldar, Nir Shlezinger

Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is envisioned to play a key role in future wireless technologies, with deep neural networks (DNNs) enabling digital receivers to learn to operate in challenging communication scenarios. However, wireless receiver design poses unique challenges that fundamentally differ from those encountered in traditional deep learning domains. The main challenges arise from the limited power and computational resources of wireless devices, as well as from the dynamic nature of wireless communications, which causes continual changes to the data distribution. These challenges impair conventional AI based on highly-parameterized DNNs, motivating the development of adaptive, flexible, and light-weight AI for wireless communications, which is the focus of this article. Here, we propose that AI-based design of wireless receivers requires rethinking of the three main pillars of AI: architecture, data, and training algorithms. In terms of architecture, we review how to design compact DNNs via model-based deep learning. Then, we discuss how to acquire training data for deep receivers without compromising spectral efficiency. Finally, we review efficient, reliable, and robust training algorithms via meta-learning and generalized Bayesian learning. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the complementary effectiveness of each of the surveyed methods. We conclude by presenting opportunities for future research on the development of practical deep receivers

5.A Logarithmic Decomposition for Information

Authors:Keenan J. A. Down, Pedro A. M. Mediano

Abstract: The Shannon entropy of a random variable $X$ has much behaviour analogous to a signed measure. Previous work has concretized this connection by defining a signed measure $\mu$ on an abstract information space $\tilde{X}$, which is taken to represent the information that $X$ contains. This construction is sufficient to derive many measure-theoretical counterparts to information quantities such as the mutual information $I(X; Y) = \mu(\tilde{X} \cap \tilde{Y})$, the joint entropy $H(X,Y) = \mu(\tilde{X} \cup \tilde{Y})$, and the conditional entropy $H(X|Y) = \mu(\tilde{X}\, \setminus \, \tilde{Y})$. We demonstrate that there exists a much finer decomposition with intuitive properties which we call the logarithmic decomposition (LD). We show that this signed measure space has the useful property that its logarithmic atoms are easily characterised with negative or positive entropy, while also being coherent with Yeung's $I$-measure. We present the usability of our approach by re-examining the G\'acs-K\"orner common information from this new geometric perspective and characterising it in terms of our logarithmic atoms. We then highlight that our geometric refinement can account for an entire class of information quantities, which we call logarithmically decomposable quantities.

6.Proactive Content Caching Scheme in Urban Vehicular Networks

Authors:Biqian Feng, Chenyuan Feng, Daquan Feng, Yongpeng Wu, Xiang-Gen Xia

Abstract: Stream media content caching is a key enabling technology to promote the value chain of future urban vehicular networks. Nevertheless, the high mobility of vehicles, intermittency of information transmissions, high dynamics of user requests, limited caching capacities and extreme complexity of business scenarios pose an enormous challenge to content caching and distribution in vehicular networks. To tackle this problem, this paper aims to design a novel edge-computing-enabled hierarchical cooperative caching framework. Firstly, we profoundly analyze the spatio-temporal correlation between the historical vehicle trajectory of user requests and construct the system model to predict the vehicle trajectory and content popularity, which lays a foundation for mobility-aware content caching and dispatching. Meanwhile, we probe into privacy protection strategies to realize privacy-preserved prediction model. Furthermore, based on trajectory and popular content prediction results, content caching strategy is studied, and adaptive and dynamic resource management schemes are proposed for hierarchical cooperative caching networks. Finally, simulations are provided to verify the superiority of our proposed scheme and algorithms. It shows that the proposed algorithms effectively improve the performance of the considered system in terms of hit ratio and average delay, and narrow the gap to the optimal caching scheme comparing with the traditional schemes.

1.Finite-State Relative Dimension, dimensions of A. P. subsequences and a Finite-State van Lambalgen's theorem

Authors:Satyadev Nandakumar, Subin Pulari, Akhil S

Abstract: Finite-state dimension (Dai, Lathrop, Lutz, and Mayordomo (2004)) quantifies the information rate in an infinite sequence as measured by finite-state automata. In this paper, we define a relative version of finite-state dimension. The finite-state relative dimension $dim_{FS}^Y(X)$ of a sequence $X$ relative to $Y$ is the finite-state dimension of $X$ measured using the class of finite-state gamblers with an oracle access to $Y$. We show its mathematical robustness by equivalently characterizing this notion using the relative block entropy rate of $X$ conditioned on $Y$. We derive inequalities relating the dimension of a sequence to the relative dimension of its subsequences along any arithmetic progression (A.P.). These enable us to obtain a strengthening of Wall's Theorem on the normality of A.P. subsequences of a normal number, in terms of relative dimension. In contrast to the original theorem, this stronger version has an exact converse yielding a new characterization of normality. We also obtain finite-state analogues of van Lambalgen's theorem on the symmetry of relative normality.

2.Preferential Pliable Index Coding

Authors:Daniel Byrne, Lawrence Ong, Parastoo Sadeghi, Badri N. Vellambi

Abstract: We propose and study a variant of pliable index coding (PICOD) where receivers have preferences for their unknown messages and give each unknown message a preference ranking. We call this the preferential pliable index-coding (PPICOD) problem and study the Pareto trade-off between the code length and overall satisfaction metric among all receivers. We derive theoretical characteristics of the PPICOD problem in terms of interactions between achievable code length and satisfaction metric. We also conceptually characterise two methods for computation of the Pareto boundary of the set of all achievable code length-satisfaction pairs. As for a coding scheme, we extend the Greedy Cover Algorithm for PICOD by Brahma and Fragouli, 2015, to balance the number of satisfied receivers and average satisfaction metric in each iteration. We present numerical results which show the efficacy of our proposed algorithm in approaching the Pareto boundary, found via brute-force computation.

3.Designing Compact Repair Groups for Reed-Solomon Codes

Authors:Thi Xinh Dinh, Serdar Boztas, Son Hoang Dau, Emanuele Viterbo

Abstract: Motivated by the application of Reed-Solomon codes to recently emerging decentralized storage systems such as Storj and Filebase/Sia, we study the problem of designing compact repair groups for recovering multiple failures in a decentralized manner. Here, compactness means that the corresponding trace repair schemes of these groups of helpers can be generated from a single or a few seed repair schemes, thus saving the time and space required for finding and storing them. The goal is to design compact repair groups that can tolerate as many failures as possible. It turns out that the maximum number of failures a collection of repair groups can tolerate equals the size of a minimum hitting set of a collection of subsets of the finite field {\mathbb{F}_{q^{\ell}}} minus one. When the repair groups for each symbol are generated from a single subspace, we establish a pair of asymptotically tight lower bound and upper bound on the size of such a minimum hitting set. Using Burnside's Lemma and the M\"{o}bius inversion formula, we determine a number of subspaces that together attain the upper bound on the minimum hitting set size when the repair groups are generated from multiple subspaces.

4.Zero-Error Distributed Function Compression for Binary Arithmetic Sum

Authors:Xuan Guang, Ruze Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we put forward the model of zero-error distributed function compression system of two binary memoryless sources X and Y, where there are two encoders En1 and En2 and one decoder De, connected by two channels (En1, De) and (En2, De) with the capacity constraints C1 and C2, respectively. The encoder En1 can observe X or (X,Y) and the encoder En2 can observe Y or (X,Y) according to the two switches s1 and s2 open or closed (corresponding to taking values 0 or 1). The decoder De is required to compress the binary arithmetic sum f(X,Y)=X+Y with zero error by using the system multiple times. We use (s1s2;C1,C2;f) to denote the model in which it is assumed that C1 \geq C2 by symmetry. The compression capacity for the model is defined as the maximum average number of times that the function f can be compressed with zero error for one use of the system, which measures the efficiency of using the system. We fully characterize the compression capacities for all the four cases of the model (s1s2;C1,C2;f) for s1s2= 00,01,10,11. Here, the characterization of the compression capacity for the case (01;C1,C2;f) with C1>C2 is highly nontrivial, where a novel graph coloring approach is developed. Furthermore, we apply the compression capacity for (01;C1,C2;f) to an open problem in network function computation that whether the best known upper bound of Guang et al. on computing capacity is in general tight.

5.Joint Identification and Sensing for Discrete Memoryless Channels

Authors:Wafa Labidi, Christian Deppe, Holger Boche

Abstract: In the identification (ID) scheme proposed by Ahlswede and Dueck, the receiver only checks whether a message of special interest to him has been sent or not. In contrast to Shannon transmission codes, the size of ID codes for a Discrete Memoryless Channel (DMC) grows doubly exponentially fast with the blocklength, if randomized encoding is used. This groundbreaking result makes the ID paradigm more efficient than the classical Shannon transmission in terms of necessary energy and hardware components. Further gains can be achieved by taking advantage of additional resources such as feedback. We study the problem of joint ID and channel state estimation over a DMC with independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) state sequences. The sender simultaneously sends an ID message over the DMC with a random state and estimates the channel state via a strictly causal channel output. The random channel state is available to neither the sender nor the receiver. For the proposed system model, we establish a lower bound on the ID capacity-distortion function.

6.Adaptive Privacy-Preserving Coded Computing With Hierarchical Task Partitioning

Authors:Qicheng Zeng, Zhaojun Nan, Sheng Zhou

Abstract: Distributed computing is known as an emerging and efficient technique to support various intelligent services, such as large-scale machine learning. However, privacy leakage and random delays from straggling servers pose significant challenges. To address these issues, coded computing, a promising solution that combines coding theory with distributed computing, recovers computation tasks with results from a subset of workers. In this paper, we propose the adaptive privacy-preserving coded computing (APCC) strategy, which can adaptively provide accurate or approximated results according to the form of computation functions, so as to suit diverse types of computation tasks. We prove that APCC achieves complete data privacy preservation and demonstrate its optimality in terms of encoding rate, defined as the ratio between the computation loads of tasks before and after encoding. To further alleviate the straggling effect and reduce delay, we integrate hierarchical task partitioning and task cancellation into the coding design of APCC. The corresponding partitioning problems are formulated as mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problems with the objective of minimizing task completion delay. We propose a low-complexity maximum value descent (MVD) algorithm to optimally solve these problems. Simulation results show that APCC can reduce task completion delay by at least 42.9% compared to other state-of-the-art benchmarks.

7.Full-Spectrum Wireless Communications for 6G and Beyond: From Microwave, Millimeter-Wave, Terahertz to Lightwave

Authors:Wei Jiang, Hans D. Schotten

Abstract: As of today, 5G is rolling out across the world, but academia and industry have shifted their attention to the sixth generation (6G) cellular technology for a full-digitalized, intelligent society in 2030 and beyond. 6G demands far more bandwidth to support extreme performance, exacerbating the problem of spectrum shortage in mobile communications. In this context, this paper proposes a novel concept coined Full-Spectrum Wireless Communications (FSWC). It makes use of all communication-feasible spectral resources over the whole electromagnetic (EW) spectrum, from microwave, millimeter wave, terahertz (THz), infrared light, visible light, to ultraviolet light. FSWC not only provides sufficient bandwidth but also enables new paradigms taking advantage of peculiarities on different EW bands. This paper will define FSWC, justify its necessity for 6G, and then discuss the opportunities and challenges of exploiting THz and optical bands.

8.Correcting One Error in Non-Binary Channels with Feedback

Authors:Ilya Vorobyev, Vladimir Lebedev, Alexey Lebedev

Abstract: In this paper, the problem of correction of a single error in $q$-ary symmetric channel with noiseless feedback is considered. We propose an algorithm to construct codes with feedback inductively. For all prime power $q$ we prove that two instances of feedback are sufficient to transmit over the $q$-ary symmetric channel the same number of messages as in the case of complete feedback. Our other contribution is the construction of codes with one-time feedback with the same parameters as Hamming codes for $q$ that is not a prime power. We also construct single-error-correcting codes with one-time feedback of size $q^{n-2}$ for arbitrary $q$ and $n\leq q+1$, which can be seen as an analog for Reed-Solomon codes.

9.A Diagonal Splitting Algorithm for Adaptive Group Testing

Authors:Chaorui Yao, Pavlos Nikolopoulos, Christina Fragouli

Abstract: Group testing enables to identify infected individuals in a population using a smaller number of tests than individual testing. To achieve this, group testing algorithms commonly assume knowledge of the number of infected individuals; nonadaptive and several adaptive algorithms fall in this category. Some adaptive algorithms, like binary splitting, operate without this assumption, but require a number of stages that may scale linearly with the size of the population. In this paper we contribute a new algorithm that enables a balance between the number of tests and the number of stages used, and which we term diagonal group testing. Diagonal group testing, like binary splitting, does not require knowledge of the number of infected individuals, yet unlike binary splitting, is order-optimal w.r.t. the expected number of tests it requires and is guaranteed to succeed in a small number of stages that scales at most logarithmically with the size of the population. Numerical evaluations, for diagonal group testing and a hybrid approach we propose, support our theoretical findings.

10.Vector Quantization with Error Uniformly Distributed over an Arbitrary Set

Authors:Chih Wei, Ling, Cheuk Ting, Li

Abstract: For uniform scalar quantization, the error distribution is approximately a uniform distribution over an interval (which is also a 1-dimensional ball). Nevertheless, for lattice vector quantization, the error distribution is uniform not over a ball, but over the basic cell of the quantization lattice. In this paper, we construct vector quantizers where the error is uniform over the n-ball, or any other prescribed set. We then prove bounds on the entropy of the quantized signals.

11.MIMO Radar Transmit Signal Optimization for Target Localization Exploiting Prior Information

Authors:Chan Xu, Shuowen Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we consider a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar system for localizing a target based on its reflected echo signals. Specifically, we aim to estimate the random and unknown angle information of the target, by exploiting its prior distribution information. First, we characterize the estimation performance by deriving the posterior Cram\'er-Rao bound (PCRB), which quantifies a lower bound of the estimation mean-squared error (MSE). Since the PCRB is in a complicated form, we derive a tight upper bound of it to approximate the estimation performance. Based on this, we analytically show that by exploiting the prior distribution information, the PCRB is always no larger than the CRB averaged over random angle realizations without prior information exploitation. Next, we formulate the transmit signal optimization problem to minimize the PCRB upper bound. We show that the optimal sample covariance matrix has a rank-one structure, and derive the optimal signal solution in closed form. Numerical results show that our proposed design achieves significantly improved PCRB performance compared to various benchmark schemes.

12.Single-Server Pliable Private Information Retrieval With Side Information

Authors:Sarah A. Obead, Hsuan-Yin Lin, Eirik Rosnes

Abstract: We study the problem of pliable private information retrieval with side information (PPIR-SI) for the single server case. In PPIR, the messages are partitioned into nonoverlapping classes and stored in a number of noncolluding databases. The user wishes to retrieve any one message from a desired class while revealing no information about the desired class identity to the databases. In PPIR-SI, the user has prior access to some side information in the form of messages from different classes and wishes to retrieve any one new message from a desired class, i.e., the message is not included in the side information set, while revealing no information about the desired class to the databases. We characterize the capacity of (linear) single-server PPIR-SI for the case where the user's side information is unidentified, i.e., the user is oblivious of the identities of its side information messages and the database structure. We term this case PPIR-USI. Surprisingly, we show that having side information, in PPIR-USI, is disadvantageous, in terms of the download rate, compared to PPIR.

13.Multi-Antenna Coded Caching for Location-Aware Content Delivery

Authors:Hamidreza Bakhshzad Mahmoodi, MohammadJavad Salehi, Antti Tolli

Abstract: A location-aware coded caching scheme is introduced for applications with location-dependent data requests. An example of such an application is a wireless immersive experience, where users are immersed in a three-dimensional virtual world and their viewpoint varies as they move within the application area. As the wireless connectivity condition of the users also varies with their location due to small- and large-scale fading, a non-uniform memory allocation process is used to avoid excessive delivery time in the bottleneck areas. Then, a well-defined location-aware placement and delivery array (LAPDA) is used for data delivery to utilize unicast transmission with a fast converging, iterative linear beamforming process. An underlying weighted max-min transmit precoder design enables the proposed scheme to serve users in poor connectivity areas with smaller amounts of data while simultaneously delivering larger amounts to other users. Unlike previous studies in the literature, our new scheme is not constrained by the number of users or network parameters (users' cache capacity, number of antennas at the transmitter, etc.) and is suitable for large networks due to its linear transceiver structure. Despite non-uniform cache placement, the proposed scheme achieves a coded caching gain that is additive to the multiplexing gain and outperforms conventional symmetric CC schemes with only a moderate degree of freedom (DoF) loss.

14.An Information-Spectrum Approach to Distributed Hypothesis Testing for General Sources

Authors:Ismaila Salihou Adamou, Elsa Dupraz, Tad Matsumoto

Abstract: This paper investigates Distributed Hypothesis testing (DHT), in which a source $\mathbf{X}$ is encoded given that side information $\mathbf{Y}$ is available at the decoder only. Based on the received coded data, the receiver aims to decide on the two hypotheses $H_0$ or $H_1$ related to the joint distribution of $\mathbf{X}$ and $\mathbf{Y}$. While most existing contributions in the literature on DHT consider i.i.d. assumptions, this paper assumes more generic, non-i.i.d., non-stationary, and non-ergodic sources models. It relies on information-spectrum tools to provide general formulas on the achievable Type-II error exponent under a constraint on the Type-I error. The achievability proof is based on a quantize-and-binning scheme. It is shown that with the quantize-and-binning approach, the error exponent boils down to a trade-off between a binning error and a decision error, as already observed for the i.i.d. sources. The last part of the paper provides error exponents for particular source models, \emph{e.g.}, Gaussian, stationary, and ergodic models.

15.On the Advantages of Asynchrony in the Unsourced MAC

Authors:Alexander Fengler, Alejandro Lancho, Krishna Narayanan, Yury Polyanskiy

Abstract: In this work we demonstrate how a lack of synchronization can in fact be advantageous in the problem of random access. Specifically, we consider a multiple-access problem over a frame-asynchronous 2-user binary-input adder channel in the unsourced setup (2-UBAC). Previous work has shown that under perfect synchronization the per-user rates achievable with linear codes over the 2-UBAC are limited by 0.5 bit per channel use (compared to the capacity of 0.75). In this paper, we first demonstrate that arbitrary small (even single-bit) shift between the user's frames enables (random) linear codes to attain full capacity of 0.75 bit/user. Furthermore, we derive density evolution equations for irregular LDPC codes, and prove (via concentration arguments) that they correctly track the asymptotic bit-error rate of a BP decoder. Optimizing the degree distributions we construct LDPC codes achieving per-user rates of 0.73 bit per channel use.

16.The Cardinality Bound on the Information Bottleneck Representations is Tight

Authors:Etam Benger, Shahab Asoodeh, Jun Chen

Abstract: The information bottleneck (IB) method aims to find compressed representations of a variable $X$ that retain the most relevant information about a target variable $Y$. We show that for a wide family of distributions -- namely, when $Y$ is generated by $X$ through a Hamming channel, under mild conditions -- the optimal IB representations require an alphabet strictly larger than that of $X$. This implies that, despite several recent works, the cardinality bound first identified by Witsenhausen and Wyner in 1975 is tight. At the core of our finding is the observation that the IB function in this setting is not strictly concave, similar to the deterministic case, even though the joint distribution of $X$ and $Y$ is of full support. Finally, we provide a complete characterization of the IB function, as well as of the optimal representations for the Hamming case.

17.Computing Unique Information for Poisson and Multinomial Systems

Authors:Chaitanya Goswami, Amanda Merkley, Pulkit Grover

Abstract: Bivariate Partial Information Decomposition (PID) describes how the mutual information between a random variable M and two random variables Y and Z is decomposed into unique, redundant, and synergistic terms. Recently, PID has shown promise as an emerging tool to understand biological systems and biases in machine learning. However, computing PID is a challenging problem as it typically involves optimizing over distributions. In this work, we study the problem of computing PID in two systems: the Poisson system inspired by the 'ideal Poisson channel' and the multinomial system inspired by multinomial thinning, for a scalar M. We provide sufficient conditions for both systems under which closed-form expressions for many operationally-motivated PID can be obtained, thereby allowing us to easily compute PID for these systems. Our proof consists of showing that one of the unique information terms is zero, which allows the remaining unique, redundant, and synergistic terms to be easily computed using only the marginal and the joint mutual information.

1.MDD-Enabled Two-Tier Terahertz Fronthaul in Indoor Industrial Cell-Free Massive MIMO

Authors:Bohan Li, Diego Dupleich, Guoqing Xia, Huiyu Zhou, Yue Zhang, Pei Xiao, Lie-Liang Yang

Abstract: To make indoor industrial cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-mMIMO) networks free from wired fronthaul, this paper studies a multicarrier-division duplex (MDD)-enabled two-tier terahertz (THz) fronthaul scheme. More specifically, two layers of fronthaul links rely on the mutually orthogonal subcarreir sets in the same THz band, while access links are implemented over sub-6G band. The proposed scheme leads to a complicated mixed-integer nonconvex optimization problem incorporating access point (AP) clustering, device selection, the assignment of subcarrier sets between two fronthaul links and the resource allocation at both the central processing unit (CPU) and APs. In order to address the formulated problem, we first resort to the low-complexity but efficient heuristic methods thereby relaxing the binary variables. Then, the overall end-to-end rate is obtained by iteratively optimizing the assignment of subcarrier sets and the number of AP clusters. Furthermore, an advanced MDD frame structure consisting of three parallel data streams is tailored for the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed dynamic AP clustering approach in dealing with the varying sizes of networks. Moreover, benefiting from the well-designed frame structure, MDD is capable of outperforming TDD in the two-tier fronthaul networks. Additionally, the effect of the THz bandwidth on system performance is analyzed, and it is shown that with sufficient frequency resources, our proposed two-tier fully-wireless fronthaul scheme can achieve a comparable performance to the fiber-optic based systems. Finally, the superiority of the proposed MDD-enabled fronthaul scheme is verified in a practical scenario with realistic ray-tracing simulations.

2.Coding for IBLTs with Listing Guarantees

Authors:Daniella Bar-Lev, Avi Mizrahi, Tuvi Etzion, Ori Rottenstreich, Eitan Yaakobi

Abstract: The Invertible Bloom Lookup Table (IBLT) is a probabilistic data structure for set representation, with applications in network and traffic monitoring. It is known for its ability to list its elements, an operation that succeeds with high probability for sufficiently large table. However, listing can fail even for relatively small sets. This paper extends recent work on the worst-case analysis of IBLT, which guarantees successful listing for all sets of a certain size, by introducing more general IBLT schemes. These schemes allow for greater freedom in the implementation of the insert, delete, and listing operations and demonstrate that the IBLT memory can be reduced while still maintaining successful listing guarantees. The paper also explores the time-memory trade-off of these schemes, some of which are based on linear codes and \(B_h\)-sequences over finite fields.

3.Transaction Confirmation in Coded Blockchain

Authors:Ilan Tennenhouse, Netanel Raviv

Abstract: As blockchains continue to seek to scale to a larger number of nodes, the communication complexity of protocols has become a significant priority as the network can quickly become overburdened. Several schemes have attempted to address this, one of which uses coded computation to lighten the load. Here we seek to address one issue with all such coded blockchain schemes known to the authors: transaction confirmation. In a coded blockchain, only the leader has access to the uncoded block, while the nodes receive encoded data that makes it effectively impossible for them to identify which transactions were included in the block. As a result, a Byzantine leader might choose not to notify a sender or receiver of a transaction that the transaction went into the block, and even with an honest leader, they would not be able to produce a proof of a transaction's inclusion. To address this, we have constructed a protocol to send the nodes enough information so that a client sending or receiving a transaction is guaranteed to not only be notified but also to receive a proof of that transaction's inclusion in the block. Crucially, we do this without substantially increasing the bit complexity of the original coded blockchain protocol.

4.Integrated Access and Backhaul in 5G with Aerial Distributed Unit using OpenAirInterface

Authors:Rakesh Mundlamuri, Omid Esrafilian, Rajeev Gangula, Rohan Kharade, Cedric Roux, Florian Kaltenberger, Raymond Knopp, David Gesbert

Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate the Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB) capabilities of an aerial robot offering 5G connectivity to ground users. The robot is integrated with a distributed unit (DU) and has 5G wireless backhaul access to a terrestrial central unit (CU). The CU-DU interface fully complies with the 3GPP defined F1 application protocol (F1AP). Such aerial robots can be instantiated and configured dynamically tailoring to the network demands. The complete radio and access network solution is based on open-source software from OpenAirInterface, and off-the-shelf commercial 5G mobile terminals. Experimental results illustrate throughput gains, coverage extension and dynamic adaptability nature of the aerial DU.

5.Orders between channels and some implications for partial information decomposition

Authors:André F. C. Gomes, Mário A. T. Figueiredo

Abstract: The partial information decomposition (PID) framework is concerned with decomposing the information that a set of random variables has with respect to a target variable into three types of components: redundant, synergistic, and unique. Classical information theory alone does not provide a unique way to decompose information in this manner and additional assumptions have to be made. Inspired by Kolchinsky's recent proposal for measures of intersection information, we introduce three new measures based on well-known partial orders between communication channels and study some of their properties.

6.Secure Block Joint Source-Channel Coding with Sequential Encoding

Authors:Hamid Ghourchian, Tobias J. Oechtering, Mikael Skoglund

Abstract: We extend the results of Ghourchian et al. [IEEE JSAIT-2021], to joint source-channel coding with eavesdropping. Our work characterizes the sequential encoding process using the cumulative rate distribution functions (CRDF) and includes a security constraint using the cumulative leakage distribution functions (CLF). The information leakage is defined based on the mutual information between the source and the output of the wiretap channel to the eavesdropper. We derive inner and outer bounds on the achievable CRDF for a given source and CLF, and show that the bounds are tight when the distribution achieving the capacity of the wiretap channel is the same as the one achieving the capacity of the channel.

7.Computation-Efficient Backscatter-Blessed MEC with User Reciprocity

Authors:Bowen Gu, Hao Xie, Dong Li

Abstract: This letter proposes a new user cooperative offloading protocol called user reciprocity in backscatter communication (BackCom)-aided mobile edge computing systems with efficient computation, whose quintessence is that each user can switch alternately between the active or the BackCom mode in different slots, and one user works in the active mode and the other user works in the BackCom mode in each time slot. In particular, the user in the BackCom mode can always use the signal transmitted by the user in the active mode for more data transmission in a spectrum-sharing manner. To evaluate the proposed protocol, a computation efficiency (CE) maximization-based optimization problem is formulated by jointly power control, time scheduling, reflection coefficient adjustment, and computing frequency allocation, while satisfying various physical constraints on the maximum energy budget, the computing frequency threshold, the minimum computed bits, and harvested energy threshold. To solve this non-convex problem, Dinkelbach's method and quadratic transform are first employed to transform the complex fractional forms into linear ones. Then, an iterative algorithm is designed by decomposing the resulting problem to obtain the suboptimal solution. The closed-form solutions for the transmit power, the RC, and the local computing frequency are provided for more insights. Besides, the analytical performance gain with the reciprocal mode is also derived. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms benchmark schemes regarding the CE.

8.Access-Redundancy Tradeoffs in Quantized Linear Computations

Authors:Vinayak Ramkumar, Netanel Raviv, Itzhak Tamo

Abstract: Linear real-valued computations over distributed datasets are common in many applications, most notably as part of machine learning inference. In particular, linear computations which are quantized, i.e., where the coefficients are restricted to a predetermined set of values (such as $\pm 1$), gained increasing interest lately due to their role in efficient, robust, or private machine learning models. Given a dataset to store in a distributed system, we wish to encode it so that all such computations could be conducted by accessing a small number of servers, called the access parameter of the system. Doing so relieves the remaining servers to execute other tasks, and reduces the overall communication in the system. Minimizing the access parameter gives rise to an access-redundancy tradeoff, where smaller access parameter requires more redundancy in the system, and vice versa. In this paper we study this tradeoff, and provide several explicit code constructions based on covering codes in a novel way. While the connection to covering codes has been observed in the past, our results strictly outperform the state-of-the-art, and extend the framework to new families of computations.

9.Entropy Functions on Two-Dimensional Faces of Polymatroidal Region of Degree Four

Authors:Shaocheng Liu, Qi Chen

Abstract: In this paper, we characterize entropy functions on the 2-dimensional faces of the polymatroidal region $\Gamma_4$. We enumerate all 59 types of 2-dimensional faces of $\Gamma_4$ and fully characterized entropy functions on 27 types of them, among which 4 types are non-trivial.

10.Mixing a Covert and a Non-Covert User

Authors:Abdelaziz Bounhar, Mireille Sarkiss, Michèle Wigger

Abstract: This paper establishes the fundamental limits of a two-user single-receiver system where communication from User 1 (but not from User 2) needs to be undetectable to an external warden. Our fundamental limits show a tradeoff between the highest rates (or square-root rates) that are simultaneously achievable for the two users. Moreover, coded time-sharing for both users is fundamentally required on most channels, which distinguishes this setup from the more classical setups with either only covert users or only non-covert users. Interestingly, the presence of a non-covert user can be beneficial for improving the covert capacity of the other user.

11.Maximal Leakage of Masked Implementations Using Mrs. Gerber's Lemma for Min-Entropy

Authors:Julien Béguinot, Yi Liu, Olivier Rioul, Wei Cheng, Sylvain Guilley

Abstract: A common countermeasure against side-channel attacks on secret key cryptographic implementations is $d$th-order masking, which splits each sensitive variable into $d+1$ random shares. In this paper, maximal leakage bounds on the probability of success of any side-channel attack are derived for any masking order. Maximal leakage (Sibson's information of order infinity) is evaluated between the sensitive variable and the noisy leakage, and is related to the conditional ``min-entropy'' (Arimoto's entropy of order infinity) of the sensitive variable given the leakage. The latter conditional entropy is then lower-bounded in terms of the conditional entropies for each share using majorization inequalities. This yields a generalization of Mrs. Gerber's lemma for min-entropy in finite Abelian groups.

12.Explicit Information-Debt-Optimal Streaming Codes With Small Memory

Authors:M. Nikhil Krishnan, Myna Vajha, Vinayak Ramkumar, P. Vijay Kumar

Abstract: For a convolutional code in the presence of a symbol erasure channel, the information debt $I(t)$ at time $t$ provides a measure of the number of additional code symbols required to recover all message symbols up to time $t$. Information-debt-optimal streaming ($i$DOS) codes are convolutional codes which allow for the recovery of all message symbols up to $t$ whenever $I(t)$ turns zero under the following conditions; (i) information debt can be non-zero for at most $\tau$ consecutive time slots and (ii) information debt never increases beyond a particular threshold. The existence of periodically-time-varying $i$DOS codes are known for all parameters. In this paper, we address the problem of constructing explicit, time-invariant $i$DOS codes. We present an explicit time-invariant construction of $i$DOS codes for the unit memory ($m=1$) case. It is also shown that a construction method for convolutional codes due to Almeida et al. leads to explicit time-invariant $i$DOS codes for all parameters. However, this general construction requires a larger field size than the first construction for the $m=1$ case.

13.Perfect vs. Independent Feedback in the Multiple-Access Channel

Authors:Oliver Kosut, Michelle Effros, Michael Langberg

Abstract: The multiple access channel (MAC) capacity with feedback is considered under feedback models designed to tease out which factors contribute to the MAC feedback capacity benefit. Comparing the capacity of a MAC with ``perfect'' feedback, which causally delivers to the transmitters the true channel output, to that of a MAC with ``independent'' feedback, which causally delivers to the transmitters an independent instance of that same channel output, allows separation of effects like cooperation from alternative feedback benefits such as knowledge of the channel instance. Proving that the Cover-Leung (CL) achievability bound, which is known to be loose for some channels, is achievable also under (shared or distinct) independent feedback at the transmitters shows that the CL bound does not require transmitter knowledge of the channel instance. Proving that each transmitter's maximal rate under independent feedback exceeds that under perfect feedback highlights the potential power of an independent look at the channel output.

14.Generalizations and Extensions to Lifting Constructions for Coded Caching

Authors:V. R. Aravind, Pradeep Kiran Sarvepalli, Andrew Thangaraj

Abstract: Coded caching is a technique for achieving increased throughput in cached networks during peak hours. Placement delivery arrays (PDAs) capture both placement and delivery scheme requirements in coded caching in a single array. Lifting is a method of constructing PDAs, where entries in a small base PDA are replaced with constituent PDAs that satisfy a property called Blackburn-compatibility. We propose two new constructions for Blackburn-compatible PDAs including a novel method for lifting Blackburn-compatible PDAs to obtain new sets of Blackburn-compatible PDAs. Both of these constructions improve upon previous tradeoffs between rate, memory and subpacketization. We generalize lifting constructions by defining partial Blackburn-compatibility between two PDAs w.r.t. a third PDA. This is a wider notion of Blackburn-compatibility making the original definition a special case. We show that some popular coded caching schemes can be defined as lifting constructions in terms of this extended notion.

1.On differential properties of a class of Niho-type power function

Authors:Zhexin Wang, Sihem Mesnager, Nian Li, Xiangyong Zeng

Abstract: This paper deals with Niho functions which are one of the most important classes of functions thanks to their close connections with a wide variety of objects from mathematics, such as spreads and oval polynomials or from applied areas, such as symmetric cryptography, coding theory and sequences. In this paper, we investigate specifically the $c$-differential uniformity of the power function $F(x)=x^{s(2^m-1)+1}$ over the finite field $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$, where $n=2m$, $m$ is odd and $s=(2^k+1)^{-1}$ is the multiplicative inverse of $2^k+1$ modulo $2^m+1$, and show that the $c$-differential uniformity of $F(x)$ is $2^{\gcd(k,m)}+1$ by carrying out some subtle manipulation of certain equations over $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$. Notably, $F(x)$ has a very low $c$-differential uniformity equals $3$ when $k$ and $m$ are coprime.

2.Active IRS-Aided MIMO Systems: How Much Gain Can We Get?

Authors:Zeyan Zhuang, Xin Zhang, Dongfang Xu, Shenghui Song

Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) have emerged as a promising technology to improve the efficiency of wireless communication systems. However, passive IRSs suffer from the ``multiplicative fading" effect, because the transmit signal will go through two fading hops. With the ability to amplify and reflect signals, active IRSs offer a potential way to tackle this issue, where the amplification energy only experiences the second hop. However, the fundamental limit and system design for active IRSs have not been fully understood, especially for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In this work, we consider the analysis and design for the large-scale active IRS-aided MIMO system assuming only statistical channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and the IRS. The evaluation of the fundamental limit, i.e., ergodic rate, turns out to be a very difficult problem. To this end, we leverage random matrix theory (RMT) to derive the deterministic approximation (DA) for the ergodic rate, and then design an algorithm to jointly optimize the transmit covariance matrix at the transmitter and the reflection matrix at the active IRS. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the derived DA and the effectiveness of the proposed optimization algorithm. The results in this work reveal interesting physical insights with respect to the advantage of active IRSs over their passive counterparts.

3.Check Belief Propagation Decoding of LDPC Codes

Authors:Wu Guan, Liping Liang

Abstract: Variant belief-propagation (BP) algorithms are applied to low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and a near Shannon limit error-rate performance is obtained. However, the decoders presented in previous literature suffer from a large resource consumption due to the accumulative calculations for each extrinsic message updating. In this paper, check belief is introduced as the probability that the corresponding parity check is satisfied. A check belief propagation (CBP) algorithm is proposed, which can force all the check nodes to contribute their check beliefs to others in a sequential order. The check nodes will enlarge the check beliefs of all the check nodes iteratively. This can result in positive check beliefs for all the check nodes, which indicates that all the parity checks are successfully satisfied. Different from previous BP algorithms, the check beliefs are propagated with no accumulative calculations at an acceptable speed, with low complexity and without performance loss. The simulation results and analyses show that the CBP algorithm provides a similar prominent error-rate performance as the previous BP algorithms, but consumes a lot fewer resources than them. It earns a big benefit in terms of complexity.

4.Minimal Linear Codes Constructed from hierarchical posets with two levels

Authors:X. Wu, W. Lu, X. P. Qin, X. W. Cao

Abstract: J. Y. Hyun, et al. (Des. Codes Cryptogr., vol. 88, pp. 2475-2492, 2020) constructed some optimal and minimal binary linear codes generated by one or two order ideals in hierarchical posets of two levels. At the end of their paper, they left an open problem: it also should be interesting to investigate the cases of more than two orders in hierarchical posets with two levels or many levels. In this paper, we use the geometric method to determine the minimality of linear codes generated by any orders in hierarchical posets with two levels. We generalize their cases of one or two orders to any orders and determine the minimality of the linear codes completely.

5.Minimal Linear Codes Constructed from partial spreads

Authors:W. Lu, X. Wu, X. W. Cao, G. J. Luo, X. P. Qin

Abstract: Partial spread is important in finite geometry and can be used to construct linear codes. From the results in (Designs, Codes and Cryptography 90:1-15, 2022) by Xia Li, Qin Yue and Deng Tang, we know that if the number of the elements in a partial spread is ``big enough", then the corresponding linear code is minimal. They used the sufficient condition in (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 44(5): 2010-2017, 1998) to prove the minimality of such linear codes. In this paper, we use the geometric approach to study the minimality of linear codes constructed from partial spreads in all cases.

6.On Multi-Message Private Computation

Authors:Ali Gholami, Kai Wan, Hua Sun, Mingyue Ji, Giuseppe Caire

Abstract: In a typical formulation of the private information retrieval (PIR) problem, a single user wishes to retrieve one out of $ K$ datasets from $N$ servers without revealing the demanded message index to any server. This paper formulates an extended model of PIR, referred to as multi-message private computation (MM-PC), where instead of retrieving a single message, the user wishes to retrieve $P>1$ linear combinations of datasets while preserving the privacy of the demand information. The MM-PC problem is a generalization of the private computation (PC) problem (where the user requests one linear combination of the datasets), and the multi-message private information retrieval (MM-PIR) problem (where the user requests $P>1$ datasets). A direct achievable scheme, referred to as baseline scheme, repeats the optimal PC scheme by Sun and Jafar $P$ times, or treats each possible demanded linear combination as an independent dataset and then uses the near optimal MM-PIR scheme by Banawan and Ulukus. However, a direct combination of the PC and the MM-PIR schemes does not result in an achievable scheme. Our main contribution to this new problem is to propose an achievable MM-PC scheme by smartly leveraging the above two schemes with some additional highly non-trivial steps.

7.On the Minimum Distance of Subspace Codes Generated by Linear Cellular Automata

Authors:Luca Mariot, Federico Mazzone

Abstract: Motivated by applications to noncoherent network coding, we study subspace codes defined by sets of linear cellular automata (CA). As a first remark, we show that a family of linear CA where the local rules have the same diameter -- and thus the associated polynomials have the same degree -- induces a Grassmannian code. Then, we prove that the minimum distance of such a code is determined by the maximum degree occurring among the pairwise greatest common divisors (GCD) of the polynomials in the family. Finally, we consider the setting where all such polynomials have the same GCD, and determine the cardinality of the corresponding Grassmannian code. As a particular case, we show that if all polynomials in the family are pairwise coprime, the resulting Grassmannian code has the highest minimum distance possible.

8.The Multi-cluster Two-Wave Fading Model

Authors:Juan P. Pena-Martin, Maryam Olyaee, F. J. Lopez-Martinez, Juan M. Romero-Jerez

Abstract: We introduce and characterize a natural generalization of the Two-Wave with Diffuse Power (TWDP) fading model, by allowing that the incident waves arrive in different clusters. The newly proposed model, referred to as the Multi-cluster Two-Wave (MTW) fading model, generalizes both the TWDP and the kappa-mu models under a common umbrella. The special case on which the model parameters reach extreme values is also analyzed, aimed to model harsh fading conditions reported in experimental measurements obtained in enclosed environments. The chief probability functions of both the MTW and the MTW Extreme fading models are obtained, including the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function and the generalized moment-generating function. A number of applications for these models are exemplified, including outage probability in interference-limited scenarios, energy detection, and composite fading modeling.

9.Two new algorithms for error support recovery of low rank parity check codes

Authors:Ermes Franch, Chunlei Li

Abstract: Due to their weak algebraic structure, low rank parity check (LRPC) codes have been employed in several post-quantum cryptographic schemes. In this paper we propose new improved decoding algorithms for (n, k) LRPC codes of dual rank weight d. The proposed algorithms can efficiently decode LRPC codes with the parameters satisfying n - k = rd - c, where r is the dimension of the error support and c <= d - 2. They outperform the original decoding algorithm of LRPC codes when d > 2 and allow for decoding LRPC codes with a higher code rate and smaller values m.

10.Robust Beamforming Design for RIS-aided Cell-free Systems with CSI Uncertainties and Capacity-limited Backhaul

Authors:Jiacheng Yao, Jindan Xu, Wei Xu, Derrick Wing Kwan Ng, Chau Yuen, Xiaohu You

Abstract: In this paper, we consider the robust beamforming design in a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-aided cell-free (CF) system considering the channel state information (CSI) uncertainties of both the direct channels and cascaded channels at the transmitter with capacity-limited backhaul. We jointly optimize the precoding at the access points (APs) and the phase shifts at multiple RISs to maximize the worst-case sum rate of the CF system subject to the constraints of maximum transmit power of APs, unit-modulus phase shifts, limited backhaul capacity, and bounded CSI errors. By applying a series of transformations, the non-smoothness and semi-infinite constraints are tackled in a low-complexity manner that facilitates the design of an alternating optimization (AO)-based iterative algorithm. The proposed algorithm divides the considered problem into two subproblems. For the RIS phase shifts optimization subproblem, we exploit the penalty convex-concave procedure (P-CCP) to obtain a stationary solution and achieve effective initialization. For precoding optimization subproblem, successive convex approximation (SCA) is adopted with a convergence guarantee to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) solution. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed robust beamforming design, which achieves superior performance with low complexity. Moreover, the importance of RIS phase shift optimization for robustness and the advantages of distributed RISs in the CF system are further highlighted.

11.On the Limits of HARQ Prediction for Short Deterministic Codes with Error Detection in Memoryless Channels (Extended Version with Proofs)

Authors:Barış Göktepe, Cornelius Hellge, Tatiana Rykova, Thomas Schierl, Slawomir Stanczak

Abstract: We provide a mathematical framework to analyze the limits of Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) and derive analytical expressions for the most powerful test for estimating the decodability under maximum-likelihood decoding and $t$-error decoding. Furthermore, we numerically approximate the most powerful test for sum-product decoding. We compare the performance of previously studied HARQ prediction schemes and show that none of the state-of-the-art HARQ prediction is most powerful to estimate the decodability of a partially received signal vector under maximum-likelihood decoding and sum-product decoding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that decoding in general is suboptimal for predicting the decodability.

12.Near-Field Beam Focusing Pattern and Grating Lobe Characterization for Modular XL-Array

Authors:Xinrui Li, Zhenjun Dong, Yong Zeng, Shi Jin, Rui Zhang

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the near-field modelling and analyze the beam focusing pattern for modular extremely large-scale array (XL-array) communications. As modular XL-array is physically and electrically large in general, the accurate characterization of amplitude and phase variations across its array elements requires the non-uniform spherical wave (NUSW) model, which, however, is difficult for performance analysis and optimization. To address this issue, we first present two ways to simplify the NUSW model by exploiting the unique regular structure of modular XL-array, termed sub-array based uniform spherical wave (USW) models with different or common angles, respectively. Based on the developed models, the near-field beam focusing patterns of XL-array communications are derived. It is revealed that compared to the existing collocated XL-array with the same number of array elements, modular XL-array can significantly enhance the spatial resolution, but at the cost of generating undesired grating lobes. Fortunately, different from the conventional far-field uniform plane wave (UPW) model, the near-field USW model for modular XL-array exhibits a higher grating lobe suppression capability, thanks to the non-linear phase variations across the array elements. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify the near-field beam focusing pattern and grating lobe characteristics of modular XL-array.

13.Multi-access Coded Caching with Linear Subpacketization

Authors:Srinivas Reddy Kota, Nikhil Karamchandani

Abstract: We consider the multi-access coded caching problem, which contains a central server with $N$ files, $K$ caches with $M$ units of memory each and $K$ users where each one is connected to $L (\geq 1)$ consecutive caches, with a cyclic wrap-around. Caches are populated with content related to the files and each user then requests a file that has to be served via a broadcast message from the central server with the help of the caches. We aim to design placement and delivery policies for this setup that minimize the central servers' transmission rate while satisfying an additional linear sub-packetization constraint. We propose policies that satisfy this constraint and derive upper bounds on the achieved server transmission rate, which upon comparison with the literature establish the improvement provided by our results. To derive our results, we map the multi-access coded caching problem to variants of the well-known index coding problem. In this process, we also derive new bounds on the optimal transmission size for a `structured' index coding problem, which might be of independent interest.

14.UAV-RIS-Aided SAGIN Interference Alignment Design and Degrees-of-Freedom Analysis

Authors:Jingfu Li, Gaojie Chen, Wenjiang Feng, Weiheng Jiang, Tong Zhang

Abstract: In space-air-ground integrated networks (SAGIN), terminals face interference from various sources such as satellites and terrestrial transmitters. However, managing interference with traditional interference management schemes (IM) is challenging since different terminals have different channel state information (CSI). This paper introduces a UAV carrying an active RIS (UAV-RIS) to assist in the interference elimination process. Furthermore, a UAV-RIS-aided IM scheme is proposed, which takes into account the multiple types of CSIs present in SAGIN. In this scheme, the satellite, terrestrial transmitters, and UAV-RIS collaborate to design precoding matrices based on the specific type of CSI of each node. Additionally, the DoF gain obtained by the proposed IM scheme is thoroughly discussed for SAGIN configurations with different numbers of users and transceiver antennas. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed IM scheme outperforms existing IM schemes without UAV-RIS for the same type of CSI. The results also showcase the capacity improvement of the network when the proposed IM scheme is adopted under different types of CSI.

15.A Lower and Upper Bound on the Epsilon-Uniform Common Randomness Capacity

Authors:Rami Ezzine, Moritz Wiese, Christian Deppe, Holger Boche

Abstract: We consider a standard two-source model for uniform common randomness (UCR) generation, in which Alice and Bob observe independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) samples of a correlated finite source and where Alice is allowed to send information to Bob over an arbitrary single-user channel. We study the \(\boldsymbol{\epsilon}\)-UCR capacity for the proposed model, defined as the maximum common randomness rate one can achieve such that the probability that Alice and Bob do not agree on a common uniform or nearly uniform random variable does not exceed \(\boldsymbol{\epsilon}.\) We establish a lower and an upper bound on the \(\boldsymbol{\epsilon}\)-UCR capacity using the bounds on the \(\boldsymbol{\epsilon}\)-transmission capacity proved by Verd\'u and Han for arbitrary point-to-point channels.

16.On the Structure of Higher Order MDS Codes

Authors:Harshithanjani Athi, Rasagna Chigullapally, Prasad Krishnan, Lalitha Vadlamani

Abstract: A code of length $n$ is said to be (combinatorially) $(\rho,L)$-list decodable if the Hamming ball of radius $\rho n$ around any vector in the ambient space does not contain more than $L$ codewords. We study a recently introduced class of higher order MDS codes, which are closely related (via duality) to codes that achieve a generalized Singleton bound for list decodability. For some $\ell\geq 1$, higher order MDS codes of length $n$, dimension $k$, and order $\ell$ are denoted as $(n,k)$-MDS($\ell$) codes. We present a number of results on the structure of these codes, identifying the `extend-ability' of their parameters in various scenarios. Specifically, for some parameter regimes, we identify conditions under which $(n_1,k_1)$-MDS($\ell_1$) codes can be obtained from $(n_2,k_2)$-MDS($\ell_2$) codes, via various techniques. We believe that these results will aid in efficient constructions of higher order MDS codes. We also obtain a new field size upper bound for the existence of such codes, which arguably improves over the best known existing bound, in some parameter regimes.

17.Asymmetric $X$-Secure $T$-Private Information Retrieval: More Databases is Not Always Better

Authors:Mohamed Nomeir, Sajani Vithana, Sennur Ulukus

Abstract: We consider a special case of $X$-secure $T$-private information retrieval (XSTPIR), where the security requirement is \emph{asymmetric} due to possible missing communication links between the $N$ databases considered in the system. We define the problem with a communication matrix that indicates all possible communications among the databases, and propose a database grouping mechanism that collects subsets of databases in an optimal manner, followed by a group-based PIR scheme to perform asymmetric XSTPIR with the goal of maximizing the communication rate (minimizing the download cost). We provide an upper bound on the general achievable rate of asymmetric XSTPIR, and show that the proposed scheme achieves this upper bound in some cases. The proposed approach outperforms classical XSTPIR under certain conditions, and the results of this work show that unlike in the symmetric case, some databases with certain properties can be dropped to achieve higher rates, concluding that more databases is not always better.

1.Distributed Information Bottleneck for a Primitive Gaussian Diamond MIMO Channel

Authors:Yi Song Shitz, Hao Xu Shitz, Kai-Kit Wong Shitz, Giuseppe Caire Shitz, Shlomo Shamai Shitz

Abstract: This paper considers the distributed information bottleneck (D-IB) problem for a primitive Gaussian diamond channel with two relays and MIMO Rayleigh fading. The channel state is an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) process known at the relays but unknown to the destination. The relays are oblivious, i.e., they are unaware of the codebook and treat the transmitted signal as a random process with known statistics. The bottleneck constraints prevent the relays to communicate the channel state information (CSI) perfectly to the destination. To evaluate the bottleneck rate, we provide an upper bound by assuming that the destination node knows the CSI and the relays can cooperate with each other, and also two achievable schemes with simple symbol-by-symbol relay processing and compression. Numerical results show that the lower bounds obtained by the proposed achievable schemes can come close to the upper bound on a wide range of relevant system parameters.

2.Data-Driven Bee Identification for DNA Strands

Authors:Shubhransh Singhvi, Avital Boruchovsky, Han Mao Kiah, Eitan Yaakobi

Abstract: We study a data-driven approach to the bee identification problem for DNA strands. The bee-identification problem, introduced by Tandon et al. (2019), requires one to identify $M$ bees, each tagged by a unique barcode, via a set of $M$ noisy measurements. Later, Chrisnata et al. (2022) extended the model to case where one observes $N$ noisy measurements of each bee, and applied the model to address the unordered nature of DNA storage systems. In such systems, a unique address is typically prepended to each DNA data block to form a DNA strand, but the address may possibly be corrupted. While clustering is usually used to identify the address of a DNA strand, this requires $\mathcal{M}^2$ data comparisons (when $\mathcal{M}$ is the number of reads). In contrast, the approach of Chrisnata et al. (2022) avoids data comparisons completely. In this work, we study an intermediate, data-driven approach to this identification task. For the binary erasure channel, we first show that we can almost surely correctly identify all DNA strands under certain mild assumptions. Then we propose a data-driven pruning procedure and demonstrate that on average the procedure uses only a fraction of $\mathcal{M}^2$ data comparisons. Specifically, for $\mathcal{M}= 2^n$ and erasure probability $p$, the expected number of data comparisons performed by the procedure is $\kappa\mathcal{M}^2$, where $\left(\frac{1+2p-p^2}{2}\right)^n \leq \kappa \leq \left(\frac{1+p}{2}\right)^n $.

3.Computation of Rate-Distortion-Perception Function under f-Divergence Perception Constraints

Authors:Giuseppe Serra, Photios A. Stavrou, Marios Kountouris

Abstract: In this paper, we study the computation of the rate-distortion-perception function (RDPF) for discrete memoryless sources subject to a single-letter average distortion constraint and a perception constraint that belongs to the family of f-divergences. For that, we leverage the fact that RDPF, assuming mild regularity conditions on the perception constraint, forms a convex programming problem. We first develop parametric characterizations of the optimal solution and utilize them in an alternating minimization approach for which we prove convergence guarantees. The resulting structure of the iterations of the alternating minimization approach renders the implementation of a generalized Blahut-Arimoto (BA) type of algorithm infeasible. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a relaxed formulation of the structure of the iterations in the alternating minimization approach, which allows for the implementation of an approximate iterative scheme. This approximation is shown, via the derivation of necessary and sufficient conditions, to guarantee convergence to a globally optimal solution. We also provide sufficient conditions on the distortion and the perception constraints which guarantee that our algorithm converges exponentially fast. We corroborate our theoretical results with numerical simulations, and we draw connections with existing results.

4.$t$-PIR Schemes with Flexible Parameters via Star Products of Berman Codes

Authors:Srikar Kale, Keshav Agarwal, Prasad Krishnan

Abstract: We present a new class of private information retrieval (PIR) schemes that keep the identity of the file requested private in the presence of at most $t$ colluding servers, based on the recent framework developed for such $t$-PIR schemes using star products of transitive codes. These $t$-PIR schemes employ the class of Berman codes as the storage-retrieval code pairs. Berman codes, which are binary linear codes of length $n^m$ for any $n\geq 2$ and $m\geq 1$ being positive integers, were recently shown to achieve the capacity of the binary erasure channel. We provide a complete characterization of the star products of the Berman code pairs, enabling us to calculate the PIR rate of the star product-based schemes that employ these codes. The schemes we present have flexibility in the number of servers, the PIR rate, the storage rate, and the collusion parameter $t$, owing to numerous codes available in the class of Berman codes.

5.Performance Analysis of In-Band-Full-Duplex Multi-Cell Wideband IAB Networks

Authors:Junkai Zhang, Tharmalingam Ratnarajah

Abstract: This paper analyzes the performance of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)-inspired multi-cell wideband single-hop backhaul millimeter-wave-in-band-full-duplex (IBFD)-integrated access and backhaul (IAB) networks by using stochastic geometry. We model the wired-connected Next Generation NodeBs (gNBs) as the Mat\'ern hard-core point process (MHCPP) to meet the real-world deployment requirement and reduce the cost caused by wired connection in the network. We first derive association probabilities that reflect how likely the typical user-equipment is served by a gNB or an IAB-node based on the maximum long-term averaged biased-received-desired-signal power criteria. Further, by leveraging the composite Gamma-Lognormal distribution, we derive the closed-form signal to interference plus noise ratio coverage, capacity with outage, and ergodic capacity of the network. In order to avoid underestimating the noise, we consider the sidelobe gain on inter-cell interference links and the analog to digital converter quantization noise. Compared with the half-duplex transmission, numerical results show an enhanced capacity with outage and ergodic capacity provided by IBFD under successful self-interference cancellation. We also study how the power bias and density ratio of the IAB-node to gNB, and the hard-core distance can affect system performances.

6.Uplink Multiplexing of eMBB/URLLC Services Assisted by Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Authors:João Henrique Inacio de Souza, Victor Croisfelt, Radosław Kotaba, Taufik Abrão, Petar Popovski

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) with their potential of enabling a programmable environment comprise a promising technology to support the coexistence of enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and ultra-reliable-low-latency communication (URLLC) services. In this paper, we propose a RIS-assisted scheme for multiplexing hybrid eMBB-URLLC uplink traffic. Specifically, the scheme relies on the computation of two RIS configurations, given that only eMBB channel state information (CSI) is available. The first configuration optimizes the eMBB quality of service, while the second one mitigates the eMBB interference in the URLLC traffic. Analyzing the outage probability achieved by the scheme, we demonstrate that a RIS can improve the reliability of URLLC transmissions even in the absence of URLLC CSI.

7.Criteria for the construction of MDS convolutional codes with good column distances

Authors:Zita Abreu, Julia Lieb, Raquel Pinto, Joachim Rosenthal

Abstract: Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes are characterized by the property that their free distance reaches the generalized Singleton bound. In this paper, new criteria to construct MDS convolutional codes are presented. Additionally, the obtained convolutional codes have optimal first (reverse) column distances and the criteria allow to relate the construction of MDS convolutional codes to the construction of reverse superregular Toeplitz matrices. Moreover, we present some construction examples for small code parameters over small finite fields.

8.Binary convolutional codes with optimal column distances

Authors:Zita Abreu, Julia Lieb, Joachim Rosenthal

Abstract: There exists a large literature of construction of convolutional codes with maximal or near maximal free distance. Much less is known about constructions of convolutional codes having optimal or near optimal column distances. In this paper, a new construction of convolutional codes over the binary field with optimal column distances is presented.

9.A Direct Construction of Multiple Shift Complementary Sets of Arbitrary Lengths

Authors:Abhishek Roy, Sudhan Majhi

Abstract: Golay complementary set (GCS) plays a vital role in reducing peak-to-mean envelope power ratio (PMEPR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). A more general version of GCS is a multiple shift complementary set (MSCS), where by relaxing the condition of zero auto-correlation sum throughout all the non-zero time shifts to the integer multiples of some fixed time shift, more sequence sets can be made available. In this paper, we propose direct constructions of MSCSs with flexible and arbitrary lengths and flexible set sizes, by using multivariable functions, which have not been reported before.

10.A new construction of an MDS convolutional code of rate 1/2

Authors:Zita Abreu, Raquel Pinto, Rita Simões

Abstract: Maximum distance separable convolutional codes are characterized by the property that the free distance reaches the generalized Singleton bound, which makes them optimal for error correction. However, the existing constructions of such codes are available over fields of large size. In this paper, we present the unique construction of MDS convolutional codes of rate $1/2$ and degree $5$ over the field $\mathbb{F}_{11}$.

11.High-Dimensional Smoothed Entropy Estimation via Dimensionality Reduction

Authors:Kristjan Greenewald, Brian Kingsbury, Yuancheng Yu

Abstract: We study the problem of overcoming exponential sample complexity in differential entropy estimation under Gaussian convolutions. Specifically, we consider the estimation of the differential entropy $h(X+Z)$ via $n$ independently and identically distributed samples of $X$, where $X$ and $Z$ are independent $D$-dimensional random variables with $X$ subgaussian with bounded second moment and $Z\sim\mathcal{N}(0,\sigma^2I_D)$. Under the absolute-error loss, the above problem has a parametric estimation rate of $\frac{c^D}{\sqrt{n}}$, which is exponential in data dimension $D$ and often problematic for applications. We overcome this exponential sample complexity by projecting $X$ to a low-dimensional space via principal component analysis (PCA) before the entropy estimation, and show that the asymptotic error overhead vanishes as the unexplained variance of the PCA vanishes. This implies near-optimal performance for inherently low-dimensional structures embedded in high-dimensional spaces, including hidden-layer outputs of deep neural networks (DNN), which can be used to estimate mutual information (MI) in DNNs. We provide numerical results verifying the performance of our PCA approach on Gaussian and spiral data. We also apply our method to analysis of information flow through neural network layers (c.f. information bottleneck), with results measuring mutual information in a noisy fully connected network and a noisy convolutional neural network (CNN) for MNIST classification.

12.Reviewed of the compression limit of an individual sequence using the Set Shaping Theory

Authors:Aida Koch, Alix Petit

Abstract: Abstract: In this article, we will analyze in detail the coding limit of an individual sequence by introducing the latest developments brought by the Set Shaping Theory. This new theory made us realize that there is a huge difference between source entropy and zero order empirical entropy. Understanding the differences between these two variables allows us to take an important step forward in the study of the compression limit of an individual sequence, which we know is not calculable.

13.Joint Task Offloading and Resource Allocation for Streaming Application in Cooperative Mobile Edge Computing

Authors:Xiang Li, Rongfei Fan, Han Hu, Xiangming Li

Abstract: Mobile edge computing (MEC) enables resource-limited IoT devices to complete computation-intensive or delay-sensitive task by offloading the task to adjacent edge server deployed at the base station (BS), thus becoming an important technology in 5G and beyond. Due to channel occlusion, some users may not be able to access the computation capability directly from the BS. Confronted with this issue, many other devices in the MEC system can serve as cooperative nodes to collect the tasks of these users and further forward them to the BS. In this paper, we study a MEC system in which multiple users continuously generate the tasks and offload the tasks to the BS through a cooperative node. As the tasks are continuously generated, users should simultaneously execute the task generation in the current time frame and the task offloading of the last time frame, i.e. the task is processed in a streaming model. To optimize the power consumption of the users and the cooperative node for finishing these streaming tasks, we investigate the duration of each step in finishing the tasks together with multiuser offloading ratio and bandwidth allocation within two cases: the BS has abundant computation capacity (Case I) and the BS has limited computation capacity (Case II). For both cases, the formulated optimization problems are nonconvex due to fractional structure of the objective function and complicated variable coupling. To address this issue, we propose optimal solution algorithm with low complexity. Finally, simulation is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods and reveal the performance of the considered system.

14.Random Linear Network Coding for Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access in Multicast Optical Wireless Systems

Authors:Ahmed Ali Hassan, Ahmed Adnan Qidan, Taisir Elgorashi, Jaafar Elmirghani

Abstract: Optical Wireless Communication networks (OWC) has emerged as a promising technology that enables high-speed and reliable communication bandwidth for a variety of applications. In this work, we investigated applying Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) over NOMA-based OWC networks to improve the performance of the proposed high density indoor optical wireless network where users are divided into multicast groups, and each group contains users that slightly differ in their channel gains. Moreover, a fixed power allocation strategy is considered to manage interference among these groups and to avoid complexity. The performance of the proposed RLNC-NOMA scheme is evaluated in terms of average bit error rate and ergodic sum rate versus the power allocation ratio factor. The results show that the proposed scheme is more suitable for the considered network compared to the traditional NOMA and orthogonal transmission schemes.

15.Information Mutation and Spread of Misinformation in Timely Gossip Networks

Authors:Priyanka Kaswan, Sennur Ulukus

Abstract: We consider a network of $n$ user nodes that receives updates from a source and employs an age-based gossip protocol for faster dissemination of version updates to all nodes. When a node forwards its packet to another node, the packet information gets mutated with probability $p$ during transmission, creating misinformation. The receiver node does not know whether an incoming packet information is different from the packet information originally at the sender node. We assume that truth prevails over misinformation, and therefore, when a receiver encounters both accurate information and misinformation corresponding to the same version, the accurate information gets chosen for storage at the node. We study the expected fraction of nodes with correct information in the network and version age at the nodes in this setting using stochastic hybrid systems (SHS) modelling and study their properties. We observe that very high or very low gossiping rates help curb misinformation, and misinformation spread is higher with moderate gossiping rates. We support our theoretical findings with simulation results which shed further light on the behavior of above quantities.

1.The Design and Operation of Digital Platform under Sociotechnical Folk Theories

Authors:Jordan W. Suchow, Lea Burton, Vahid Ashrafimoghari

Abstract: We consider the problem of how a platform designer, owner, or operator can improve the design and operation of a digital platform by leveraging a computational cognitive model that represents users's folk theories about a platform as a sociotechnical system. We do so in the context of Reddit, a social media platform whose owners and administrators make extensive use of shadowbanning, a non-transparent content moderation mechanism that filters a user's posts and comments so that they cannot be seen by fellow community members or the public. After demonstrating that the design and operation of Reddit have led to an abundance of spurious suspicions of shadowbanning in case the mechanism was not in fact invoked, we develop a computational cognitive model of users's folk theories about the antecedents and consequences of shadowbanning that predicts when users will attribute their on-platform observations to a shadowban. The model is then used to evaluate the capacity of interventions available to a platform designer, owner, and operator to reduce the incidence of these false suspicions. We conclude by considering the implications of this approach for the design and operation of digital platforms at large.

2.Joint Design of Sampler and Compressor for Timely Status Updates: Age-Distortion Tradeoff

Authors:Jun Li, Wenyi Zhang

Abstract: We consider a joint sampling and compression system for timely status updates. Samples are taken, quantized and encoded into binary sequences, which are sent to the destination. We formulate an optimization problem to jointly design sampler, quantizer and encoder, minimizing the age of information (AoI) on the basis of satisfying a mean-squared error (MSE) distortion constraint of the samples. We prove that the zero-wait sampling, the uniform quantization, and the real-valued AoI-optimal coding policies together provide an asymptotically optimal solution to this problem, i.e., as the average distortion approaches zero, the combination achieves the minimum AoI asymptotically. Furthermore, we prove that the AoI of this solution is asymptotically linear with respect to the log MSE distortion with a slope of $-\frac{3}{4}$. We also show that the real-valued Shannon coding policy suffices to achieve the optimal performance asymptotically. Numerical simulations corroborate the analysis.

3.On Belief Propagation Decoding of Quantum Codes with Quaternary Reliability Statistics

Authors:Ching-Feng Kung, Kao-Yueh Kuo, Ching-Yi Lai

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the use of quaternary reliability statistics for ordered statistics decoding (OSD) of quantum codes. OSD can be used to improve the performance of belief propagation (BP) decoding when it fails to correct the error syndrome. We propose an approach that leverages quaternary reliability information and the hard-decision history output by BP to perform reliability sorting for OSD. This approach improves upon previous methods that separately treat X and Z errors, by preserving the X/Z correlations during the sorting step. Our simulations show that the refined BP with scalar messages and the proposed OSD outperforms previous BP-OSD combinations. We achieve thresholds of 17.5% for toric, surface, and XZZX codes, and 14.8% for hexagonal planar color codes.

4.Enhanced Low-Complexity FDD System Feedback with Variable Bit Lengths via Generative Modeling

Authors:Nurettin Turan, Benedikt Fesl, Wolfgang Utschick

Abstract: Recently, a versatile limited feedback scheme based on a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was proposed for frequency division duplex (FDD) systems. This scheme provides high flexibility regarding various system parameters and is applicable to both point-to-point multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) communications. The GMM is learned to cover the operation of all mobile terminals (MTs) located inside the base station (BS) cell, and each MT only needs to evaluate its strongest mixture component as feedback, eliminating the need for channel estimation at the MT. In this work, we extend the GMM-based feedback scheme to variable feedback lengths by leveraging a single learned GMM through merging or pruning of dispensable mixture components. Additionally, the GMM covariances are restricted to Toeplitz or circulant structure through model-based insights. These extensions significantly reduce the offloading amount and enhance the clustering ability of the GMM which, in turn, leads to an improved system performance. Simulation results for both point-to-point and multi-user systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed extensions.

5.Repair of Reed-Solomon Codes in the Presence of Erroneous Nodes

Authors:Stanislav Kruglik, Gaojun Luo, Wilton Kim, Shubhransh Singhvi, Han Mao Kiah, San Ling, Huaxiong Wang

Abstract: We consider the repair scheme of Guruswami-Wootters for the Reed-Solomon code and ask: can we correctly repair a failed node in the presence of erroneous nodes? Equivalently, we consider the collection of downloaded traces as a code and investigate its code-distance properties. We propose three lower bounds on its minimum distance and study methods to efficiently correct errors close to these bounds.

6.Modular Polynomial Codes for Secure and Robust Distributed Matrix Multiplication

Authors:David Karpuk, Razane Tajeddine

Abstract: We present Modular Polynomial (MP) Codes for Secure Distributed Matrix Multiplication (SDMM). The construction is based on the observation that one can decode certain proper subsets of the coefficients of a polynomial with fewer evaluations than is necessary to interpolate the entire polynomial. These codes are proven to outperform, in terms of recovery threshold, the currently best-known polynomial codes for the inner product partition. We also present Generalized Gap Additive Secure Polynomial (GGASP) codes for the grid partition. These two families of codes are shown experimentally to perform favorably in terms of recovery threshold when compared to other comparable polynomials codes for SDMM. Both MP and GGASP codes achieve the recovery threshold of Entangled Polynomial Codes for robustness against stragglers, but MP codes can decode below this recovery threshold depending on the set of worker nodes which fails. The decoding complexity of MP codes is shown to be lower than other approaches in the literature, due to the user not being tasked with interpolating an entire polynomial.

7.EH Modelling and Achievable Rate for FSO SWIPT Systems with Non-linear Photovoltaic Receivers

Authors:Nikita Shanin, Hedieh Ajam, Vasilis K. Papanikolaou, Bernhard Schmauss, Laura Cottatellucci, Robert Schober

Abstract: In this paper, we study optical simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems, where a photovoltaic optical receiver (RX) is illuminated by ambient light and an intensity-modulated free space optical (FSO) signal. To facilitate simultaneous information reception and energy harvesting (EH) at the RX, the received optical signal is first converted to an electrical signal, and then, its alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) components are separated and utilized for information decoding and EH, respectively. By accurately analysing the equivalent electrical circuit of the photovoltaic RX, we model the current flow through the photovoltaic p-n junction in both the low and high input power regimes using a two-diode model of the p-n junction and we derive a closed-form non-linear EH model that characterizes the harvested power at the RX. Furthermore, taking into account the non-linear behaviour of the photovoltaic RX on information reception, we derive the optimal distribution of the transmit information signal that maximizes the achievable information rate. The proposed EH model is validated by circuit simulation results. Furthermore, we compare with two baseline models based on maximum power point (MPP) tracking at the RX and a single-diode p-n junction model, respectively, and demonstrate that in contrast to the proposed EH model, they are not able to fully capture the non-linearity of photovoltaic optical RXs. Finally, our numerical results highlight that the proposed optimal distribution of the transmit signal yields significantly higher achievable information rates compared to uniformly distributed transmit signals, which are optimal for linear optical information RXs.

8.Achievable Rate-Power Tradeoff in THz SWIPT Systems with Resonant Tunnelling Diodes

Authors:Nikita Shanin, Simone Clochiatti, Kenneth M. Mayer, Laura Cottatellucci, Nils Weimann, Robert Schober

Abstract: In this paper, we study terahertz (THz) simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems. Since coherent information detection is challenging at THz frequencies and Schottky diodes are not usable for THz energy harvesting (EH), we employ unipolar amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation at the transmitter (TX) and a resonant tunnelling diode (RTD)- based EH circuit at the receiver (RX) to extract both information and power from the received signal. However, the electrical properties of Schottky diodes and RTDs are different, and unlike EH receivers based on a single Schottky diode, an accurate closed-form EH model for RTD-based RXs is not available, yet. In this paper, we model the dependency of the instantaneous RX output power on the instantaneous received power by a non-linear piecewise function, whose parameters are adjusted to fit circuit simulation results. We formulate an optimization problem to maximize the mutual information between the TX and RX signals subject to constraints on the peak amplitude of the transmitted signal and the required average harvested power at the RX. Furthermore, we determine a feasibility condition for the formulated problem, and for high and low required average harvested powers, we derive the achievable information rate numerically and in closed form, respectively. Our simulation results highlight a tradeoff between the information rate and the average harvested power. Finally, we show that this tradeoff is determined by the peak amplitude of the transmitted signal and the maximum instantaneous harvested power for low and high received signal powers, respectively.

1.Chain Rules for Renyi Information Combining

Authors:Christoph Hirche, Xinyue Guan, Marco Tomamichel

Abstract: Bounds on information combining are a fundamental tool in coding theory, in particular when analyzing polar codes and belief propagation. They usually bound the evolution of random variables with respect to their Shannon entropy. In recent work this approach was generalized to Renyi $\alpha$-entropies. However, due to the lack of a traditional chain rule for Renyi entropies the picture remained incomplete. In this work we establish the missing link by providing Renyi chain rules connecting different definitions of Renyi entropies by Hayashi and Arimoto. This allows us to provide new information combining bounds for the Arimoto Renyi entropy. In the second part, we generalize the chain rule to the quantum setting and show how they allow us to generalize results and conjectures previously only given for the von Neumann entropy. In the special case of $\alpha=2$ we give the first optimal information combining bounds with quantum side information.

2.Sparsity Domain Smoothing Based Thresholding Recovery Method for OFDM Sparse Channel Estimation

Authors:Mohammad Hossein Bahonar, Reza Ghaderi Zefreh, Rouhollah Amiri

Abstract: Due to the ever increasing data rate demand of beyond 5G networks and considering the wide range of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multipllexing (OFDM) technique in cellular systems, it is critical to reduce pilot overhead of OFDM systems in order to increase data rate of such systems. Due to sparsity of multipath channels, sparse recovery methods can be exploited to reduce pilot overhead. OFDM pilots are utilized as random samples for channel impulse response estimation. We propose a three-step sparsity recovery algorithm which is based on sparsity domain smoothing. Time domain residue computation, sparsity domain smoothing, and adaptive thresholding sparsifying are the three-steps of the proposed scheme. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed sparsity domain smoothing based thresholding recovery method known as SDS-IMAT has not been used for OFDM sparse channel estimation in the literature. Pilot locations are also derived based on the minimization of the measurement matrix coherence. Numerical results verify that the performance of the proposed scheme outperforms other existing thresholding and greedy recovery methods and has a near-optimal performance. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is shown in terms of mean square error and bit error rate.

3.Low-Complexity Design and Detection of Unitary Constellations in Non-Coherent SIMO Systems for URLLC

Authors:Son T. Duong, Ha H. Nguyen, Ebrahim Bedeer, Robert Barton

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel multi-symbol unitary constellation structure for non-coherent single-input multiple-output (SIMO) communications over block Rayleigh fading channels. To facilitate the design and the detection of large unitary constellations at reduced complexity, the proposed constellations are constructed as the Cartesian product of independent amplitude and phase-shift-keying (PSK) vectors, and hence, can be iteratively detected. The amplitude vector can be detected by exhaustive search, whose complexity is still sufficiently low in short packet transmissions. For detection of the PSK vector, we adopt a maximum-A-posteriori (MAP) criterion to improve the reliability of the sorted decision-feedback differential detection (sort-DFDD), which results in near-optimal error performance in the case of the same modulation order of the transmit PSK symbols at different time slots. This detector is called MAP-based-reliability-sort-DFDD (MAP-R-sort-DFDD) and has polynomial complexity. For the case of different modulation orders at different time slots, we observe that undetected symbols with lower modulation orders have a significant impact on the detection of PSK symbols with higher modulation orders. We exploit this observation and propose an improved detector called improved-MAP-R-sort-DFDD, which approaches the optimal error performance with polynomial time complexity. Simulation results show the merits of our proposed multi-symbol unitary constellation when compared to competing low-complexity unitary constellations.

4.Variations on a Theme by Blahut and Arimoto

Authors:Lingyi Chen, Shitong Wu, Wenhao Ye, Huihui Wu, Wenyi Zhang, Hao Wu, Bo Bai

Abstract: The Blahut-Arimoto (BA) algorithm has played a fundamental role in the numerical computation of rate-distortion (RD) functions. This algorithm possesses a desirable monotonic convergence property by alternatively minimizing its Lagrangian with a fixed multiplier. In this paper, we propose a novel modification of the BA algorithm, letting the multiplier be updated in each iteration via a one-dimensional root-finding step with respect to a monotonic univariate function, which can be efficiently implemented by Newton's method. This allows the multiplier to be updated in a flexible and efficient manner, overcoming a major drawback of the original BA algorithm wherein the multiplier is fixed throughout iterations. Consequently, the modified algorithm is capable of directly computing the RD function for a given target distortion, without exploring the entire RD curve as in the original BA algorithm. A theoretical analysis shows that the modified algorithm still converges to the RD function and the convergence rate is $\Theta(1/n)$, where $n$ denotes the number of iterations. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the modified algorithm directly computes the RD function with a given target distortion, and it significantly accelerates the original BA algorithm.

5.Mixed Max-and-Min Fractional Programming for Wireless Networks

Authors:Yannan Chen, Licheng Zhao, Kaiming Shen

Abstract: Fractional programming (FP) plays a crucial role in wireless network design because many relevant problems involve maximizing or minimizing ratio terms. Notice that the maximization case and the minimization case of FP cannot be converted to each other in general, so they have to be dealt with separately in most of the previous studies. Thus, an existing FP method for maximizing ratios typically does not work for the minimization case, and vice versa. However, the FP objective can be mixed max-and-min, e.g., one may wish to maximize the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the legitimate receiver while minimizing that of the eavesdropper. We aim to fill the gap between max-FP and min-FP by devising a unified optimization framework. The main results are three-fold. First, we extend the existing max-FP technique called quadratic transform to the min-FP, and further develop a full generalization for the mixed case. Second. we provide a minorization-maximization (MM) interpretation of the proposed unified approach, thereby establishing its convergence and also obtaining a matrix extension; another result we obtain is a generalized Lagrangian dual transform which facilitates the solving of the logarithmic FP. Finally, we present three typical applications: the age-of-information (AoI) minimization, the Cramer-Rao bound minimization for sensing, and the secure data rate maximization, none of which can be efficiently addressed by the previous FP methods.

6.On Vertically-Drifted First Arrival Position Distribution in Diffusion Channels

Authors:Yen-Chi Lee, Yun-Feng Lo, Min-Hsiu Hsieh

Abstract: Recent studies show that stable distributions are successful in modeling heavy-tailed or impulsive noise. Investigation of the stability of a probability distribution can be greatly facilitated if the corresponding characteristic function (CF) has a closed-form expression. We explore a new family of distribution called the Vertically-Drifted First Arrival Position (VDFAP) distribution, which can be viewed as a generalization of symmetric alpha-stable (S$\alpha$S) distribution with stability parameter $\alpha=1$. In addition, VDFAP distribution has a clear physical interpretation when we consider first-hitting problems of particles following Brownian motion with a driving drift. Inspired by the Fourier relation between the probability density function and CF of Student's $t$-distribution, we extract an integral representation for the VDFAP probability density function. Then, we exploit the Hankel transform to derive a closed-form expression for the CF of VDFAP. From the CF, we discover that VDFAP possesses some interesting stability properties, which are in a weaker form than S$\alpha$S. This calls for a generalization of the theory on alpha-stable distributions.

7.Shannon meets Gray: Noise-robust, Low-sensitivity Codes with Applications in Differential Privacy

Authors:David Rasmussen Lolck, Rasmus Pagh

Abstract: Integer data is typically made differentially private by adding noise from a Discrete Laplace (or Discrete Gaussian) distribution. We study the setting where differential privacy of a counting query is achieved using bit-wise randomized response, i.e., independent, random bit flips on the encoding of the query answer. Binary error-correcting codes transmitted through noisy channels with independent bit flips are well-studied in information theory. However, such codes are unsuitable for differential privacy since they have (by design) high sensitivity, i.e., neighboring integers have encodings with a large Hamming distance. Gray codes show that it is possible to create an efficient sensitivity 1 encoding, but are also not suitable for differential privacy due to lack of noise-robustness. Our main result is that it is possible, with a constant rate code, to simultaneously achieve the sensitivity of Gray codes and the noise-robustness of error-correcting codes (down to the noise level required for differential privacy). An application of this new encoding of the integers is a faster, space-optimal differentially private data structure for histograms.

8.Algorithmic Computability of the Capacity of Gaussian Channels with Colored Noise

Authors:Holger Boche, Andrea Grigorescu, Rafael F. Schaefer, H. Vincent Poor

Abstract: Designing capacity achieving coding schemes for the band-limited additive Gaussian channel with colored noise has been and is still a challenge. In this paper, the capacity of the band-limited additive Gaussian channel with colored noise is studied from a fundamental algorithmic point of view by addressing the question of whether or not the capacity can be algorithmically computed. To this aim, the concept of Turing machines is used, which provides fundamental performance limits of digital computers. It has been shown that there exist Gaussian colored noise with a computable continuous noise spectral density whose capacity is a non-computable number. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that for these channels, it is not possible to find a computable sequence of asymptotically sharp upper bounds for their capacity.

9.Fundamental Detection Probability vs. Achievable Rate Tradeoff in Integrated Sensing and Communication Systems

Authors:Jiancheng An, Hongbin Li, Derrick Wing Kwan Ng, Chau Yuen

Abstract: Integrating sensing functionalities is envisioned as a distinguishing feature of next-generation mobile networks, which has given rise to the development of a novel enabling technology -- \emph{Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC)}. Portraying the theoretical performance bounds of ISAC systems is fundamentally important to understand how sensing and communication functionalities interact (e.g., competitively or cooperatively) in terms of resource utilization, while revealing insights and guidelines for the development of effective physical-layer techniques. In this paper, we characterize the fundamental performance tradeoff between the detection probability for target monitoring and the user's achievable rate in ISAC systems. To this end, we first discuss the achievable rate of the user under sensing-free and sensing-interfered communication scenarios. Furthermore, we derive closed-form expressions for the probability of false alarm (PFA) and the successful probability of detection (PD) for monitoring the target of interest, where we consider both communication-assisted and communication-interfered sensing scenarios. In addition, the effects of the unknown channel coefficient are also taken into account in our theoretical analysis. Based on our analytical results, we then carry out a comprehensive assessment of the performance tradeoff between sensing and communication functionalities. Specifically, we formulate a power allocation problem to minimize the transmit power at the base station (BS) under the constraints of ensuring a required PD for perception as well as the communication user's quality of service requirement in terms of achievable rate. Finally, simulation results corroborate the accuracy of our theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed power allocation solutions.

10.On the Closed-form Weight Enumeration of Polar Codes: 1.5$d$-weight Codewords

Authors:Mohammad Rowshan, Vlad-Florin Drăgoi, Jinhong Yuan

Abstract: The weight distribution of error correction codes is a critical determinant of their error-correcting performance, making enumeration of utmost importance. In the case of polar codes, the minimum weight $\wm$ (which is equal to minimum distance $d$) is the only weight for which an explicit enumerator formula is currently available. Having closed-form weight enumerators for polar codewords with weights greater than the minimum weight not only simplifies the enumeration process but also provides valuable insights towards constructing better polar-like codes. In this paper, we contribute towards understanding the algebraic structure underlying higher weights by analyzing Minkowski sums of orbits. Our approach builds upon the lower triangular affine (LTA) group of decreasing monomial codes. Specifically, we propose a closed-form expression for the enumeration of codewords with weight $1.5\wm$. Our simulations demonstrate the potential for extending this method to higher weights.

11.HARQ Delay Minimization of 5G Wireless Network with Imperfect Feedback

Authors:Weihang Ding, Mohammad Shikh-Bahaei

Abstract: 5G new radio (NR) technology is introduced to satisfy more demanding services. Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC) requires very low delay compared with the previous techniques. This is hard to achieve when hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) is applied and especially when the feedback channel is erroneous. In this work, we consider various delay components in incremental redundancy (IR) HARQ systems and minimize the average delay by applying asymmetric feedback detection (AFD) and find the optimal transmission length for each transmission attempt. A M/G/1 queuing model is used in this work to analyze the queuing delay in 5G NR when there are multiple uses in the system. Numerical results show that significant performance gains and lower outage probability can be achieved by applying AFD.

12.Majorizing Measures, Codes, and Information

Authors:Yifeng Chu, Maxim Raginsky

Abstract: The majorizing measure theorem of Fernique and Talagrand is a fundamental result in the theory of random processes. It relates the boundedness of random processes indexed by elements of a metric space to complexity measures arising from certain multiscale combinatorial structures, such as packing and covering trees. This paper builds on the ideas first outlined in a little-noticed preprint of Andreas Maurer to present an information-theoretic perspective on the majorizing measure theorem, according to which the boundedness of random processes is phrased in terms of the existence of efficient variable-length codes for the elements of the indexing metric space.

13.Functional Properties of the Ziv-Zakai bound with Arbitrary Inputs

Authors:Minoh Jeong, Alex Dytso, Martina Cardone

Abstract: This paper explores the Ziv-Zakai bound (ZZB), which is a well-known Bayesian lower bound on the Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE). First, it is shown that the ZZB holds without any assumption on the distribution of the estimand, that is, the estimand does not necessarily need to have a probability density function. The ZZB is then further analyzed in the high-noise and low-noise regimes and shown to always tensorize. Finally, the tightness of the ZZB is investigated under several aspects, such as the number of hypotheses and the usefulness of the valley-filling function. In particular, a sufficient and necessary condition for the tightness of the bound with continuous inputs is provided, and it is shown that the bound is never tight for discrete input distributions with a support set that does not have an accumulation point at zero.

1.Hybrid Active-Passive IRS Assisted Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication

Authors:Qiaoyan Peng, Guangji Chen, Qingqing Wu, Ruiqi Liu, Shaodan Ma, Wen Chen

Abstract: Deploying active reflecting elements at the intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) increases signal amplification capability but incurs higher power consumption. Therefore, it remains a challenging and open problem to determine the optimal number of active/passive elements for maximizing energy efficiency (EE). To answer this question, we consider a hybrid active-passive IRS (H-IRS) assisted wireless communication system, where the H-IRS consists of both active and passive reflecting elements.Specifically, we study the optimization of the number of active/passive elements at the H-IRS to maximize EE. To this end, we first derive the closed-form expression for a near-optimal solution under the line-of-sight (LoS) channel case and obtain its optimal solution under the Rayleigh fading channel case. Then, an efficient algorithm is employed to obtain a high-quality sub-optimal solution for the EE maximization under the general Rician channel case. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the H-IRS for maximizing EE under different Rician factors and IRS locations.

2.Satellite Clusters Flying in Formation: Orbital Configuration-Dependent Performance Analyses

Authors:Dong-Hyun Jung, Joon-Gyu Ryu, Junil Choi

Abstract: This paper considers a downlink satellite communication system where a satellite cluster, i.e., a satellite swarm consisting of one leader and multiple follower satellites, serves a ground terminal. The satellites in the cluster form either a linear or circular formation moving in a group and cooperatively send their signals by maximum ratio transmission precoding. We first conduct a coordinate transformation to effectively capture the relative positions of satellites in the cluster. Next, we derive an exact expression for the orbital configuration-dependent outage probability under the Nakagami fading by using the distribution of the sum of independent Gamma random variables. In addition, we obtain a simpler approximated expression for the outage probability with the help of second-order moment-matching. We also analyze asymptotic behavior in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime and the diversity order of the outage performance. Finally, we verify the analytical results through Monte Carlo simulations. Our analytical results provide the performance of satellite cluster-based communication systems based on specific orbital configurations, which can be used to design reliable satellite clusters in terms of cluster size, formation, and orbits.

3.Phase-Equivariant Polar Coded Modulation

Authors:Marvin Geiselhart, Marc Gauger, Felix Krieg, Jannis Clausius, Stephan ten Brink

Abstract: For short-packet, low-latency communications over random access channels, piloting overhead significantly reduces spectral efficiency. Therefore, pilotless systems recently gained attraction. While blind phase estimation algorithms such as Viterbi-Viterbi Phase Estimation (VVPE) can correct a phase offset using only payload symbols, a phase ambiguity remains. We first show that the remaining phase rotations in a polar coded quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmission with gray labeling are combinations of bit-flips and automorphisms. Therefore, the decoder is equivariant to such phase rotations and, by smartly selecting the frozen bits, one can jointly decode and resolve the phase ambiguity, without the need for pilot symbols or an outer code. Our proposed system outperforms pilot-assisted transmissions by up to 0.8 dB and 2 dB for quaternary phase shift keying (QPSK) and 16-QAM, respectively.

4.Generalized LRPC codes

Authors:Ermes Franch, Philippe Gaborit, Chunlei Li

Abstract: In this paper we generalize the notion of low-rank parity check (LRPC) codes by introducing a bilinear product over F^m q based on a generic 3-tensor in Fq^mxmxm, where Fq is the finite field with q elements. The generalized LRPC codes are Fq -linear codes in general and a particular choice of the 3-tensor corresponds to the original Fqm -linear LRPC codes. For the generalized LRPC codes, we propose two probabilistic polynomial-time decoding algorithms by adapting the decoding method for LRPC codes and also show that the proposed algorithms have a decoding failure rate similar to that of decoding LRPC codes

5.Channel Customization for Limited Feedback in RIS-assisted FDD Systems

Authors:Weicong Chen, Chao-Kai Wen, Xiao Li, Michail Matthaiou, Shi Jin

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) represent a pioneering technology to realize smart electromagnetic environments by reshaping the wireless channel. \textcolor[rgb]{0,0,0}{Jointly designing the transceiver and RIS relies on the channel state information (CSI), whose feedback has not been investigated in multi-RIS-assisted frequency division duplexing systems.} In this study, the limited feedback of the RIS-assisted wireless channel is examined by capitalizing on the ability of the RIS in channel customization. \textcolor[rgb]{0,0,0}{By configuring the phase shifters of the surfaces using statistical CSI, we customize a sparse channel in rich-scattering environments, which significantly reduces the feedback overhead in designing the transceiver and RISs. Since the channel is customized in terms of singular value decomposition (SVD) with full-rank, the optimal SVD transceiver can be approached without a matrix decomposition and feeding back the complete channel parameters. The theoretical spectral efficiency (SE) loss of the proposed transceiver and RIS design is derived by considering the limited CSI quantization. To minimize the SE loss, a bit partitioning algorithm that splits the limited number of bits to quantize the CSI is developed.} Extensive numerical results show that the channel customization-based transceiver with reduced CSI can achieve satisfactory performance compared with the optimal transceiver with full CSI. Given the limited number of feedback bits, the bit partitioning algorithm can minimize the SE loss by adaptively allocating bits to quantize the channel parameters.

6.On the Channel Correlation in Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface-Aided System

Authors:Kuang-Hao Stanley, Liu

Abstract: This works explores the correlation between channels in reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-aided communication systems. In this type of system, an RIS made up of many passive elements with adjustable phases reflects the transmitter's signal to the receiver. Since the transmitter-RIS link may be shared by multiple receivers, the cascade channels of two receivers may experience correlated fading, which can negatively impact system performance. Using the mean correlation coefficient as a metric, we analyze the correlation between two cascade channels and derive an accurate approximation in closed form. We also consider the extreme case of an infinitely large number of RIS elements and obtain a convergence result. Our analysis accuracy is validated by simulation results, which offer insights into the correlation characteristics of RIS-aided fading channels.

7.A Digital Twin Empowered Lightweight Model Sharing Scheme for Multi-Robot Systems

Authors:Kai Xiong, Zhihong Wang, Supeng Leng, Jianhua He

Abstract: Multi-robot system for manufacturing is an Industry Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigm with significant operational cost savings and productivity improvement, where Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are employed to control and implement collaborative productions without human intervention. This mission-critical system relies on 3-Dimension (3-D) scene recognition to improve operation accuracy in the production line and autonomous piloting. However, implementing 3-D point cloud learning, such as Pointnet, is challenging due to limited sensing and computing resources equipped with UAVs. Therefore, we propose a Digital Twin (DT) empowered Knowledge Distillation (KD) method to generate several lightweight learning models and select the optimal model to deploy on UAVs. With a digital replica of the UAVs preserved at the edge server, the DT system controls the model sharing network topology and learning model structure to improve recognition accuracy further. Moreover, we employ network calculus to formulate and solve the model sharing configuration problem toward minimal resource consumption, as well as convergence. Simulation experiments are conducted over a popular point cloud dataset to evaluate the proposed scheme. Experiment results show that the proposed model sharing scheme outperforms the individual model in terms of computing resource consumption and recognition accuracy.

1.Integrated Sensing and Communication in Coordinated Cellular Networks

Authors:Dongfang Xu, Chang Liu, Shenghui Song, Derrick Wing Kwan Ng

Abstract: Integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) has recently merged as a promising technique to provide sensing services in future wireless networks. In the literature, numerous works have adopted a monostatic radar architecture to realize ISAC, i.e., employing the same base station (BS) to transmit the ISAC signal and receive the echo. Yet, the concurrent information transmission causes severe self-interference (SI) to the radar echo at the BS which cannot be effectively suppressed. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper, we propose a coordinated cellular network-supported multistatic radar architecture to implement ISAC. In particular, among all the coordinated BSs, we select a BS as the multistatic receiver to receive the sensing echo signal, while the other BSs act as the multistatic transmitters to collaborate with each other to facilitate cooperative ISAC. This allows us to spatially separate the ISAC signal transmission and radar echo reception, intrinsically circumventing the problem of SI. To this end, we jointly optimize the transmit and receive beamforming policy to minimize the sensing beam pattern mismatch error subject to both the communication and sensing quality-of-service requirements. The resulting non-convex optimization problem is tackled by a low-complexity alternating optimization-based suboptimal algorithm. Simulation results showed that the proposed scheme outperforms the two baseline schemes adopting conventional designs. Moreover, our results confirm that the proposed architecture is promising in achieving high-quality ISAC.

2.Rate-Compatible Polar Codes for Automorphism Ensemble Decoding

Authors:Marvin Geiselhart, Jannis Clausius, Stephan ten Brink

Abstract: Recently, automorphism ensemble decoding (AED) has drawn research interest as a more computationally efficient alternative to successive cancellation list (SCL) decoding of polar codes. Although AED has demonstrated superior performance for specific code parameters, a flexible code design that can accommodate varying code rates does not yet exist. This work proposes a theoretical framework for constructing rate-compatible polar codes with a prescribed automorphism group, which is a key requirement for AED. We first prove that a one-bit granular sequence with useful automorphisms cannot exist. However, by allowing larger steps in the code dimension, flexible code sequences can be constructed. An explicit synthetic channel ranking based on the $\beta$-expansion is then proposed to ensure that all constructed codes possess the desired symmetries. Simulation results, covering a broad range of code dimensions and blocklengths, show a performance comparable to that of 5G polar codes under cyclic redundancy check (CRC)-aided SCL decoding, however, with lower complexity.

3.Universal MIMO Jammer Mitigation via Secret Temporal Subspace Embeddings

Authors:Gian Marti, Christoph Studer

Abstract: MIMO processing enables jammer mitigation through spatial filtering, provided that the receiver knows the spatial signature of the jammer interference. Estimating this signature is easy for barrage jammers that transmit continuously and with static signature, but difficult for more sophisticated jammers: Smart jammers may deliberately suspend transmission when the receiver tries to estimate their spatial signature, they may use time-varying beamforming to continuously change their spatial signature, or they may stay mostly silent and jam only specific instants (e.g., transmission of control signals). To deal with such smart jammers, we propose MASH, the first method that indiscriminately mitigates all types of jammers: Assume that the transmitter and receiver share a common secret. Based on this secret, the transmitter embeds (with a linear time-domain transform) its signal in a secret subspace of a higher-dimensional space. The receiver applies a reciprocal linear transform to the receive signal, which (i) raises the legitimate transmit signal from its secret subspace and (ii) provably transforms any jammer into a barrage jammer, which makes estimation and mitigation via MIMO processing straightforward. We show the efficacy of MASH for data transmission in the massive multi-user MIMO uplink.

4.A Direct Construction of Type-II $Z$ complementary code set with arbitrarily large codes

Authors:Rajen Kumar, Prashant Kumar Srivastava, Sudhan Majhi

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a construction of type-II $Z$-complementary code set (ZCCS), using a multi-variable function with Hamiltonian paths and disjoint vertices. For a type-I $(K,M,Z,N)$-ZCCS, $K$ is bounded by $K \leq M \left\lfloor \frac{N}{Z}\right\rfloor$. However, the proposed type-II ZCCS provides $K = M(N-Z+1)$. The proposed type-II ZCCS provides a larger number of codes compared to that of type-I ZCCS. Further, the proposed construction can generate the Kernel of complete complementary code (CCC) as $(p,p,p)$-CCC, for any integral value of $p\ge2$.

5.Next-Generation Full Duplex Networking System Empowered by Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Authors:Yingyang Chen, Yuncong Li, Miaowen Wen, Duoying Zhang, Bingli Jiao, Zhiguo Ding, Theodoros A. Tsiftsis, H. Vincent Poor

Abstract: Full duplex (FD) radio has attracted extensive attention due to its co-time and co-frequency transceiving capability. {However, the potential gain brought by FD radios is closely related to the management of self-interference (SI), which imposes high or even stringent requirements on SI cancellation (SIC) techniques. When the FD deployment evolves into next-generation mobile networking, the SI problem becomes more complicated, significantly limiting its potential gains.} In this paper, we conceive a multi-cell FD networking scheme by deploying a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) at the cell boundary to configure the radio environment proactively. To achieve the full potential of the system, we aim to maximize the sum rate (SR) of multiple cells by jointly optimizing the transmit precoding (TPC) matrices at FD base stations (BSs) and users and the phase shift matrix at RIS. Since the original problem is non-convex, we reformulate and decouple it into a pair of subproblems by utilizing the relationship between the SR and minimum mean square error (MMSE). The optimal solutions of TPC matrices are obtained in closed form, while both complex circle manifold (CCM) and successive convex approximation (SCA) based algorithms are developed to resolve the phase shift matrix suboptimally. Our simulation results show that introducing an RIS into an FD networking system not only improves the overall SR significantly but also enhances the cell edge performance prominently. More importantly, we validate that the RIS deployment with optimized phase shifts can reduce the requirement for SIC and the number of BS antennas, which further reduces the hardware cost and power consumption, especially with a sufficient number of reflecting elements. As a result, the utilization of an RIS enables the originally cumbersome FD networking system to become efficient and practical.

6.Spectral approach to the communication complexity of multi-party key agreement

Authors:Geoffroy Caillat-Grenier, Andrei Romashchenko

Abstract: In multi-party key agreement protocols it is assumed that the parties are given correlated input data and should agree on a common secret key so that the eavesdropper cannot obtain any information on this key by listening to the communications between the parties. We consider the one-shot setting, when there is no ergodicity assumption on the input data. It is known that the optimal size of the secret key can be characterized in terms of the mutual information between different combinations of the input data sets, and the optimal key can be produced with the help of the omniscience protocol. However, the optimal communication complexity of this problem remains unknown. We show that the communication complexity of the omniscience protocol is optimal, at least for some complexity profiles of the input data, in the setting with restricted interaction between parties (the simultaneous messages model). We also provide some upper and lower bounds for communication complexity for other communication problems. Our proof technique combines information-theoretic inequalities and the spectral method.

7.On Strong Secrecy for Multiple Access Channel with States and Causal CSI

Authors:Yiqi Chen, Tobias Oechtering, Mikael Skoglund, Yuan Luo

Abstract: Strong secrecy communication over a discrete memoryless state-dependent multiple access channel (SD-MAC) with an external eavesdropper is investigated. The channel is governed by discrete memoryless and i.i.d. channel states and the channel state information (CSI) is revealed to the encoders in a causal manner. An inner bound of the capacity is provided. To establish the inner bound, we investigate coding schemes incorporating wiretap coding and secret key agreement between the sender and the legitimate receiver. Two kinds of block Markov coding schemes are studied. The first one uses backward decoding and Wyner-Ziv coding and the secret key is constructed from a lossy reproduction of the CSI. The other one is an extended version of the existing coding scheme for point-to-point wiretap channels with causal CSI. We further investigate some capacity-achieving cases for state-dependent multiple access wiretap channels (SD-MAWCs) with degraded message sets. It turns out that the two coding schemes are both optimal in these cases.

8.Trade-off Between Optimal Efficiency and Envelope Correlation Coefficient for Antenna Clusters

Authors:Vojtech Neuman, Miloslav Capek, Lukas Jelinek, Anu Lehtovuori, Ville Viikari

Abstract: This paper introduces a theory for assessing and optimizing the multiple-input-multiple-output performance of multi-port cluster antennas in terms of efficiency, channel correlation, and power distribution. A method based on a convex optimization of feeding coefficients is extended with additional constraints allowing the user to control a ratio between the power radiated by the clusters. The formulation of the problem makes it possible to simultaneously optimize total efficiency and channel correlation with a fixed ratio between power radiated by the clusters, thus examining a trade-off between these parameters. It is shown that channel correlation, total efficiency, and allocation of radiated power are mutually conflicting parameters. The trade-offs are shown and discussed. The theory is demonstrated on a four-element antenna array and on a mobile terminal antenna.

9.A Direct Construction of Optimal Symmetrical Z-Complementary Code Sets of Prime Power Lengths

Authors:Praveen Kumar, Sudhan Majhi, Subhabrata Paul

Abstract: This paper presents a direct construction of an optimal symmetrical Z-complementary code set (SZCCS) of prime power lengths using a multi-variable function (MVF). SZCCS is a natural extension of the Z-complementary code set (ZCCS), which has only front-end zero correlation zone (ZCZ) width. SZCCS has both front-end and tail-end ZCZ width. SZCCSs are used in developing optimal training sequences for broadband generalized spatial modulation systems over frequency-selective channels because they have ZCZ width on both the front and tail ends. The construction of optimal SZCCS with large set sizes and prime power lengths is presented for the first time in this paper. Furthermore, it is worth noting that several existing works on ZCCS and SZCCS can be viewed as special cases of the proposed construction.

10.Complementary Graph Entropy, AND Product, and Disjoint Union of Graphs

Authors:Nicolas Charpenay, Maël le Treust, Aline Roumy

Abstract: In the zero-error Slepian-Wolf source coding problem, the optimal rate is given by the complementary graph entropy $\overline{H}$ of the characteristic graph. It has no single-letter formula, except for perfect graphs, for the pentagon graph with uniform distribution $G_5$, and for their disjoint union. We consider two particular instances, where the characteristic graphs respectively write as an AND product $\wedge$, and as a disjoint union $\sqcup$. We derive a structural result that equates $\overline{H}(\wedge \: \cdot)$ and $\overline{H}(\sqcup \: \cdot)$ up to a multiplicative constant, which has two consequences. First, we prove that the cases where $\overline{H}(\wedge \:\cdot)$ and $\overline{H}(\sqcup \: \cdot)$ can be linearized coincide. Second, we determine $\overline{H}$ in cases where it was unknown: products of perfect graphs; and $G_5 \wedge G$ when $G$ is a perfect graph, using Tuncel et al.'s result for $\overline{H}(G_5 \sqcup G)$. The graphs in these cases are not perfect in general.

1.Exactly Tight Information-Theoretic Generalization Error Bound for the Quadratic Gaussian Problem

Authors:Ruida Zhou, Chao Tian, Tie Liu

Abstract: We provide a new information-theoretic generalization error bound that is exactly tight (i.e., matching even the constant) for the canonical quadratic Gaussian mean estimation problem. Despite considerable existing efforts in deriving information-theoretic generalization error bounds, applying them to this simple setting where sample average is used as the estimate of the mean value of Gaussian data has not yielded satisfying results. In fact, most existing bounds are order-wise loose in this setting, which has raised concerns about the fundamental capability of information-theoretic bounds in reasoning the generalization behavior for machine learning. The proposed new bound adopts the individual-sample-based approach proposed by Bu et al., but also has several key new ingredients. Firstly, instead of applying the change of measure inequality on the loss function, we apply it to the generalization error function itself; secondly, the bound is derived in a conditional manner; lastly, a reference distribution, which bears a certain similarity to the prior distribution in the Bayesian setting, is introduced. The combination of these components produces a general KL-divergence-based generalization error bound. We further show that although the conditional bounding and the reference distribution can make the bound exactly tight, removing them does not significantly degrade the bound, which leads to a mutual-information-based bound that is also asymptotically tight in this setting.

2.On Mismatched Oblivious Relaying

Authors:Michael Dikshtein Shitz, Nir Weinberger Shitz, Shlomo Shamai Shitz

Abstract: We consider the problem of reliable communication over a discrete memoryless channel (DMC) with the help of a relay, termed the information bottleneck (IB) channel. There is no direct link between the source and the destination, and the information flows in two hops. The first hop is a noisy channel from the source to the relay. The second hop is a noiseless but limited-capacity backhaul link from the relay to the decoder. We further assume that the relay is oblivious to the transmission codebook. We examine two mismatch scenarios. In the first setting, we assume the decoder is restricted to use some fixed decoding rule, which is mismatched to the actual channel. In the second setting, we assume that the relay is restricted to use some fixed compression metric, which is again mismatched to the statistics of the relay input. We establish bounds on the random- coding capacity of both settings, some of which are shown to be ensemble tight.

3.Non-Binary LDPC Code Design for Energy-Time Entanglement Quantum Key Distribution

Authors:Debarnab Mitra, Lev Tauz, Murat Can Sarihan, Chee Wei Wong, Lara Dolecek

Abstract: In energy-time entanglement Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), two users extract a shared secret key from the arrival times (discretized as symbols) of entangled photon pairs. In prior work, Zhou et al. proposed a multi-level coding (MLC) scheme that splits the observed symbols into bit layers and utilizes binary Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes for reconciliation of the symbols. While binary LDPC codes offer low latency for key generation, splitting the symbols into bits results in a loss of key generation rate due to error propagation. Additionally, existing LDPC codes do not fully utilize the properties of the QKD channel to optimize the key rates. In this paper, we mitigate the above issues by first generalizing the MLC scheme to a non-binary(NB) MLC scheme that has layers with non-binary symbols and utilizes NB-LDPC codes. We show the NB-MLC scheme offers flexibility in system design. Additionally, we show that the NB-MLC scheme with a small symbol size per layer offers the best trade-off between latency and key rate. We then propose a framework to jointly optimize the rate and degree profile of the NB-LDPC codes that is tailored towards the QKD channel resulting in higher key rates than prior work.

1.Quantum Cross Subspace Alignment Codes via the $N$-sum Box Abstraction

Authors:Yuxiang Lu, Syed Ali Jafar

Abstract: Cross-subspace alignment (CSA) codes are used in various private information retrieval (PIR) schemes (e.g., with secure storage) and in secure distributed batch matrix multiplication (SDBMM). Using a recently developed $N$-sum box abstraction of a quantum multiple-access channel (QMAC), we translate CSA schemes over classical multiple-access channels into efficient quantum CSA schemes over a QMAC, achieving maximal superdense coding gain. Because of the $N$-sum box abstraction, the underlying problem of coding to exploit quantum entanglements for CSA schemes, becomes conceptually equivalent to that of designing a channel matrix for a MIMO MAC subject to given structural constraints imposed by the $N$-sum box abstraction, such that the resulting MIMO MAC is able to implement the functionality of a CSA scheme (encoding/decoding) over-the-air. Applications include Quantum PIR with secure and MDS-coded storage, as well as Quantum SDBMM.

2.Polynomial time attack on high rate random alternant codes

Authors:Magali Bardet, Rocco Mora, Jean-Pierre Tillich

Abstract: A long standing open question is whether the distinguisher of high rate alternant codes or Goppa codes \cite{FGOPT11} can be turned into an algorithm recovering the algebraic structure of such codes from the mere knowledge of an arbitrary generator matrix of it. This would allow to break the McEliece scheme as soon as the code rate is large enough and would break all instances of the CFS signature scheme. We give for the first time a positive answer for this problem when the code is {\em a generic alternant code} and when the code field size $q$ is small : $q \in \{2,3\}$ and for {\em all} regime of other parameters for which the aforementioned distinguisher works. This breakthrough has been obtained by two different ingredients : (i) a way of using code shortening and the component-wise product of codes to derive from the original alternant code a sequence of alternant codes of decreasing degree up to getting an alternant code of degree $3$ (with a multiplier and support related to those of the original alternant code); (ii) an original Gr\"obner basis approach which takes into account the non standard constraints on the multiplier and support of an alternant code which recovers in polynomial time the relevant algebraic structure of an alternant code of degree $3$ from the mere knowledge of a basis for it.

3.Channel Orthogonalization with Reconfigurable Surfaces

Authors:Juan Vidal Alegria, Fredrik Rusek

Abstract: Orthogonal multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) channels allow for optimum performance with simplified precoding/equalization, and they achieve maximum multiplexing gain which is shared fairly among users. Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) constitutes a promising cost-efficient solution to improve the wireless channel, since they consist of passive reflecting elements able to adjust the phases of the incoming waves. However, it is still widely unclear how these surfaces can improve spatial-multiplexing. In fact, the common RIS model cannot achieve perfect orthogonalization of MU-MIMO channels with a reasonable number of elements. Furthermore, efficient channel estimation algorithms for RIS, which are key for taking advantage of its benefits, are still a matter of research. We study two types of reconfigurable surfaces (RSs), namely amplitude-reconfigurable intelligent surface (ARIS) and fully-reconfigurable intelligent surface (FRIS), with extended capabilities over RIS. We show how these RSs allow for perfect channel orthogonalization, and, by minimizing the applied power, we show that they can potentially be implemented without the need of amplification. We also present an efficient channel estimation method for each of them that allows the base station (BS) to select the desired propagation channel.

4.Estimation of Interference Correlation in mmWave Cellular Systems

Authors:Stefano Tomasin, Raphael Hasler, Antonia M. Tulino, Matilde Sánchez-Fernández

Abstract: We consider a cellular network, where the uplink transmissions to a base station (BS) are interferenced by other devices, a condition that may occur, e.g., in cell-free networks or when using non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) techniques. Assuming that the BS treats this interference as additional noise, we focus on the problem of estimating the interference correlation matrix from received signal samples. We consider a BS equipped with multiple antennas and operating in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands and propose techniques exploiting the fact that channels comprise only a few reflections at these frequencies. This yields a specific structure of the interference correlation matrix that can be decomposed into three matrices, two rectangular depending on the angle of arrival (AoA) of the interference and the third square with smaller dimensions. We resort to gridless approaches to estimate the AoAs and then project the least square estimate of the interference correlation matrix into a subspace with a smaller dimension, thus reducing the estimation error. Moreover, we derive two simplified estimators, still based on the gridless angle estimation that turns out to be convenient when estimating the interference over a larger number of samples.

5.Randomness Requirements for Three-Secret Sharing

Authors:Hari Krishnan P. Anilkumar, Aayush Rajesh, Varun Narayanan, Manoj M. Prabhakaran, Vinod M. Prabhakaran

Abstract: We study a secret sharing problem with three secrets where the secrets are allowed to be related to each other, i.e., only certain combinations of the three secrets are permitted. The dealer produces three shares such that every pair of shares reveals a unique secret and reveals nothing about the other two secrets, other than what can be inferred from the revealed secret. For the case of binary secrets, we exactly determine the minimum amount of randomness required by the dealer, for each possible set of permitted combinations. Our characterization is based on new lower and upper bounds.

1.Explicit Constructions of Optimal $(r,δ)$-Locally Repairable Codes

Authors:Yaxin Wang School of Mathematical Sciences, East China Normal University Shanghai Key Laboratory of PMMP, East China Normal University, Siman Yang School of Mathematical Sciences, East China Normal University Shanghai Key Laboratory of PMMP, East China Normal University

Abstract: Locally repairable codes (LRCs) have recently been widely used in distributed storage systems and the LRCs with $(r,\delta)$-locality ($(r,\delta)$-LRCs) attracted a lot of interest for tolerating multiple erasures. Ge et al. constructed $(r,\delta)$-LRCs with unbounded code length and optimal minimum distance when $\delta+1 \leq d \leq 2\delta$ from the parity-check matrix equipped with the Vandermonde structure, but the block length is limited by the size of $\mathbb{F}_q$. In this paper, we propose a more general construction of $(r,\delta)$-LRCs through the parity-check matrix. Furthermore, with the help of MDS codes, we give three classes of explicit constructions of optimal $(r,\delta)$-LRCs with block length beyond $q$. It turns out that 1) our general construction extends the results of Ge et al. and 2) our explicit constructions yield some optimal $(r,\delta)$-LRCs with new parameters.

2.Optimal Covariance Cleaning for Heavy-Tailed Distributions: Insights from Information Theory

Authors:Christian Bongiorno, Marco Berritta

Abstract: In optimal covariance cleaning theory, minimizing the Frobenius norm between the true population covariance matrix and a rotational invariant estimator is a key step. This estimator can be obtained asymptotically for large covariance matrices, without knowledge of the true covariance matrix. In this study, we demonstrate that this minimization problem is equivalent to minimizing the loss of information between the true population covariance and the rotational invariant estimator for normal multivariate variables. However, for Student's t distributions, the minimal Frobenius norm does not necessarily minimize the information loss in finite-sized matrices. Nevertheless, such deviations vanish in the asymptotic regime of large matrices, which might extend the applicability of random matrix theory results to Student's t distributions. These distributions are characterized by heavy tails and are frequently encountered in real-world applications such as finance, turbulence, or nuclear physics. Therefore, our work establishes a connection between statistical random matrix theory and estimation theory in physics, which is predominantly based on information theory.

3.Hypothesis Testing for Adversarial Channels: Chernoff-Stein Exponents

Authors:Eeshan Modak, Neha Sangwan, Mayank Bakshi, Bikash Kumar Dey, Vinod M. Prabhakaran

Abstract: We study the Chernoff-Stein exponent of the following binary hypothesis testing problem: Associated with each hypothesis is a set of channels. A transmitter, without knowledge of the hypothesis, chooses the vector of inputs to the channel. Given the hypothesis, from the set associated with the hypothesis, an adversary chooses channels, one for each element of the input vector. Based on the channel outputs, a detector attempts to distinguish between the hypotheses. We study the Chernoff-Stein exponent for the cases where the transmitter (i) is deterministic, (ii) may privately randomize, and (iii) shares randomness with the detector that is unavailable to the adversary. It turns out that while a memoryless transmission strategy is optimal under shared randomness, it may be strictly suboptimal when the transmitter only has private randomness.

4.Simultaneously Transmitting And Reflecting (STAR) RIS for 6G: Fundamentals, Recent Advances, and Future Directions

Authors:Yuanwei Liu, Jiaqi Xu, Zhaolin Wang, Xidong Mu, Jianhua Zhang, Ping Zhang

Abstract: Simultaneously transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (STAR-RISs) have been attracting significant attention in both academia and industry for their advantages of achieving 360{\deg} coverage and enhanced degrees of freedom. This article first identifies the fundamentals of STAR-RIS, by discussing the hardware models, channel models, and signal models. Then, three representative categorizing approaches for STAR-RIS are introduced from phase-shift, directional, and energy consumption perspectives. Furthermore, the beamforming design of STAR-RIS is investigated for both independent and coupled phase-shift cases. A general optimization framework is proposed as the recent advances, which has high compatibility and provable optimality regardless of the application scenarios. As a further advance, several promising applications are discussed to demonstrate the potential benefits of applying STAR-RIS in the sixth-generation wireless network. Lastly, a few future directions and research opportunities are highlighted for motivating future work.

5.The Mutual Information In The Vicinity of Capacity-Achieving Input Distributions

Authors:Hao-Chung Cheng, Barış Nakiboğlu

Abstract: The mutual information is analyzed as a function of the input distribution using an identity due to Tops\o{e} for channels with (possibly multiple) linear cost constraints and finite input and output sets. The mutual information is bounded above by a function decreasing quadratically with the distance to the set of all capacity-achieving input distributions for the case when the distance is less than a certain threshold. The closed-form expressions for the threshold and the coefficient of the quadratic decrease are derived. A counter-example demonstrating the non-existence of such a quadratic bound in the case of infinitely many linear cost constraints is provided. Implications of these observations for the channel coding problem and applications of the proof technique to related problems are discussed.

6.LDPC Decoders Prefer More Reliable Parity Bits: Unequal Data Protection Over BSC

Authors:Beyza Dabak, Ece Tiryaki, Robert Calderbank, Ahmed Hareedy

Abstract: Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are specified by graphs, and are the error correction technique of choice in many communications and data storage contexts. Message passing decoders diffuse information carried by parity bits into the payload, and this paper measures the value of engineering parity bits to be more reliable than message bits. We consider the binary symmetric channel (BSC) and measure the impact of unequal data protection on the threshold of a regular LDPC code. Our analysis also includes doping where the parity bits are known to the decoder. We investigate BSC with Gallager-A decoder, with a $3$-level-alphabet decoder, and with a full belief propagation decoder. We demonstrate through theoretical analysis and simulation that non-equiprobable inputs lead to significant improvements both in the threshold and in the speed with which the decoder converges. We also show that all these improvements are possible even with a simple $3$-level-alphabet decoder.

7.A Versatile Low-Complexity Feedback Scheme for FDD Systems via Generative Modeling

Authors:Nurettin Turan, Benedikt Fesl, Michael Koller, Michael Joham, Wolfgang Utschick

Abstract: In this work, we propose a versatile feedback scheme which can be deployed for both single- and multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency division duplex (FDD) systems. Particularly, we propose to use a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with a reduced number of parameters for codebook construction, feedback encoding, and precoder design. The GMM is fitted offline at the base station (BS) to uplink (UL) training samples to approximate the channel distribution of all possible mobile terminals (MTs) located inside the BS cell. Afterwards, a codebook is constructed, where each codebook entry is based on one GMM component. By extracting directional information of the constructed codebook, the proposed GMM-based feedback approach allows to jointly design the precoders of a multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) system using common precoding algorithms. Alternatively, the GMM's sample generation ability can be utilized to design the precoders using a state-of-the-art stochastic iterative algorithm. After offloading the GMM to the MTs, they determine their feedback simply as the index of the GMM component with the highest responsibility for their received pilot signal. This strategy exhibits low complexity and allows for parallelization. Simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms conventional methods, especially for a reduced number of pilots.

8.Generalized Automorphisms of Channel Codes: Properties, Code Design, and a Decoder

Authors:Jonathan Mandelbaum, Holger Jäkel, Laurent Schmalen

Abstract: Low-density parity-check codes together with belief propagation (BP) decoding are known to be well-performing for large block lengths. However, for short block lengths there is still a considerable gap between the performance of the BP decoder and the maximum likelihood decoder. Different ensemble decoding schemes such as, e.g., the automorphism ensemble decoder (AED), can reduce this gap in short block length regime. We propose a generalized AED (GAED) that uses automorphisms according to the definition in linear algebra. Here, an automorphism of a vector space is defined as a linear, bijective self-mapping, whereas in coding theory self-mappings that are scaled permutations are commonly used. We show that the more general definition leads to an explicit joint construction of codes and automorphisms, and significantly enlarges the search space for automorphisms of existing linear codes. Furthermore, we prove the concept that generalized automorphisms can indeed be used to improve decoding. Additionally, we propose a code construction of parity check codes enabling the construction of codes with suitably designed automorphisms. Finally, we analyze the decoding performances of the GAED for some of our constructed codes.

9.Private Information Retrieval and Its Applications: An Introduction, Open Problems, Future Directions

Authors:Sajani Vithana, Zhusheng Wang, Sennur Ulukus

Abstract: Private information retrieval (PIR) is a privacy setting that allows a user to download a required message from a set of messages stored in a system of databases without revealing the index of the required message to the databases. PIR was introduced under computational privacy guarantees, and is recently re-formulated to provide information-theoretic guarantees, resulting in \emph{information theoretic privacy}. Subsequently, many important variants of the basic PIR problem have been studied focusing on fundamental performance limits as well as achievable schemes. More recently, a variety of conceptual extensions of PIR have been introduced, such as, private set intersection (PSI), private set union (PSU), and private read-update-write (PRUW). Some of these extensions are mainly intended to solve the privacy issues that arise in distributed learning applications due to the extensive dependency of machine learning on users' private data. In this article, we first provide an introduction to basic PIR with examples, followed by a brief description of its immediate variants. We then provide a detailed discussion on the conceptual extensions of PIR, along with potential research directions.

1.MacWilliams' Extension Theorem for rank-metric codes

Authors:Elisa Gorla, Flavio Salizzoni

Abstract: The MacWilliams' Extension Theorem is a classical result by Florence Jessie MacWilliams. It shows that every linear isometry between linear block-codes endowed with the Hamming distance can be extended to a linear isometry of the ambient space. Such an extension fails to exist in general for rank-metric codes, that is, one can easily find examples of linear isometries between rank-metric codes which cannot be extended to linear isometries of the ambient space. In this paper, we explore to what extent a MacWilliams' Extension Theorem may hold for rank-metric codes. We provide an extensive list of examples of obstructions to the existence of an extension, as well as a positive result.

2.Optimal Fairness Scheduling for Coded Caching in Multi-AP Wireless Local Area Networks

Authors:Kagan Akcay, MohammadJavad Salehi, Giuseppe Caire

Abstract: Coded caching schemes exploit the cumulative cache memory of the users by using simple linear encoders, outperforming uncoded schemes where cache contents are only used locally. Considering multi-AP WLANs and video-on-demand (VoD) applications where users stream videos by sequentially requesting video ``chunks", we apply existing coded caching techniques with reduced subpacketization order, and obtain a computational method to determine the theoretical throughput region of the users' content delivery rates, calculated as the number of chunks delivered per unit of time per user. We then solve the fairness scheduling problem by maximizing the desired fairness metric over the throughput region. We also provide two heuristic methods with reduced complexity, where one of them maximizes the desired fairness metric over a smaller region than the throughput region, and the other uses a greedy algorithmic approach to associate users with APs in a fair way.

3.Design and analysis of bent functions using $\mathcal{M}$-subspaces

Authors:Enes Pasalic, Alexandr Polujan, Sadmir Kudin, Fengrong Zhang

Abstract: In this article, we provide the first systematic analysis of bent functions $f$ on $\mathbb{F}_2^{n}$ in the Maiorana-McFarland class $\mathcal{MM}$ regarding the origin and cardinality of their $\mathcal{M}$-subspaces, i.e., vector subspaces on which the second-order derivatives of $f$ vanish. By imposing restrictions on permutations $\pi$ of $\mathbb{F}_2^{n/2}$, we specify the conditions, such that Maiorana-McFarland bent functions $f(x,y)=x\cdot \pi(y) + h(y)$ admit a unique $\mathcal{M}$-subspace of dimension $n/2$. On the other hand, we show that permutations $\pi$ with linear structures give rise to Maiorana-McFarland bent functions that do not have this property. In this way, we contribute to the classification of Maiorana-McFarland bent functions, since the number of $\mathcal{M}$-subspaces is invariant under equivalence. Additionally, we give several generic methods of specifying permutations $\pi$ so that $f\in\mathcal{MM}$ admits a unique $\mathcal{M}$-subspace. Most notably, using the knowledge about $\mathcal{M}$-subspaces, we show that using the bent 4-concatenation of four suitably chosen Maiorana-McFarland bent functions, one can in a generic manner generate bent functions on $\mathbb{F}_2^{n}$ outside the completed Maiorana-McFarland class $\mathcal{MM}^\#$ for any even $n\geq 8$. Remarkably, with our construction methods it is possible to obtain inequivalent bent functions on $\mathbb{F}_2^8$ not stemming from two primary classes, the partial spread class $\mathcal{PS}$ and $\mathcal{MM}$. In this way, we contribute to a better understanding of the origin of bent functions in eight variables, since only a small fraction, of which size is about $2^{76}$, stems from $\mathcal{PS}$ and $\mathcal{MM}$, whereas the total number of bent functions on $\mathbb{F}_2^8$ is approximately $2^{106}$.

4.Automatic and Flexible Transmission of Semantic Map Images using Polar Codes for End-to-End Semantic-based Communication Systems

Authors:Hossein Rezaei, Thushan Sivalingam, Nandana Rajatheva

Abstract: Semantic communication represents a promising roadmap toward achieving end-to-end communication with reduced communication overhead and an enhanced user experience. The integration of semantic concepts with wireless communications presents novel challenges. This paper proposes a flexible simulation software that automatically transmits semantic segmentation map images over a communication channel. An additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel using binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation is considered as the channel setup. The well-known polar codes are chosen as the channel coding scheme. The popular COCO-Stuff dataset is used as an example to generate semantic map images corresponding to different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). To evaluate the proposed software, we have generated four small datasets, each containing a thousand semantic map samples, accompanied by comprehensive information corresponding to each image, including the polar code specifications, detailed image attributes, bit error rate (BER), and frame error rate (FER). The capacity to generate an unlimited number of semantic maps utilizing desired channel coding parameters and preferred SNR, in conjunction with the flexibility of using alternative datasets, renders our simulation software highly adaptable and transferable to a broad range of use cases.

5.Heuristic Barycenter Modeling of Fully Absorbing Receivers in Diffusive Molecular Communication Channels

Authors:Fardad Vakilipoor, Abdulhamid N. M. Ansari, Maurizio Magarini

Abstract: In a recent paper it has been shown that to model a diffusive molecular communication (MC) channel with multiple fully absorbing (FA) receivers, these can be interpreted as sources of negative particles from the other receivers' perspective. The barycenter point is introduced as the best position where to place the negative sources. The barycenter is obtained from the spatial mean of the molecules impinging on the surface of each FA receiver. This paper derives an expression that captures the position of the barycenter in a diffusive MC channel with multiple FA receivers. In this work, an analytical model inspired by Newton's law of gravitation is found to describe the barycenter, and the result is compared with particle-based simulation (PBS) data. Since the barycenter depends on the distance between the transmitter and receiver and the observation time, the condition that the barycenter can be assumed to be at the center of the receiver is discussed. This assumption simplifies further modeling of any diffusive MC system containing multiple FA receivers. The resulting position of the barycenter is used in channel models to calculate the cumulative number of absorbed molecules and it has been verified with PBS data in a variety of scenarios.

6.Coded matrix computation with gradient coding

Authors:Kyungrak Son, Aditya Ramamoorthy

Abstract: Polynomial based approaches, such as the Mat-Dot and entangled polynomial (EP) codes have been used extensively within coded matrix computations to obtain schemes with good thresholds. However, these schemes are well-recognized to suffer from poor numerical stability in decoding. Moreover, the encoding process in these schemes involves linearly combining a large number of input submatrices, i.e., the encoding weight is high. For the practically relevant case of sparse input matrices, this can have the undesirable effect of significantly increasing the worker node computation time. In this work, we propose a generalization of the EP scheme by combining the idea of gradient coding along with the basic EP encoding. Our scheme allows us to reduce the weight of the encoding and arrive at schemes that exhibit much better numerical stability; this is achieved at the expense of a worse threshold. By appropriately setting parameters in our scheme, we recover several well-known schemes in the literature. Simulation results show that our scheme provides excellent numerical stability and fast computation speed (for sparse input matrices) as compared to EPC and Mat-Dot codes.

1.Statistics of Random Binning Based on Tsallis Divergence

Authors:Masoud Kavian, Mohammad Mahdi Mojahedian, Mohammad Hossein Yassaee, Mahtab Mirmohseni, Mohammad Reza Aref

Abstract: Random binning is a powerful and widely used tool in information theory. In this paper, considering the Tsallis measures, we examine the output statistics of random binning (OSRB). Using the OSRB framework, the achievable rate region of the wiretap channel with Tsallis divergence as a security measure is investigated.

2.State-Dependent DMC with a Causal Helper

Authors:Amos Lapidoth, Ligong Wang

Abstract: A memoryless state sequence governing the behavior of a memoryless state-dependent channel is to be described causally to an encoder wishing to communicate over said channel. Given the maximal-allowed description rate, we seek the description that maximizes the Shannon capacity. It is shown that the maximum need not be achieved by a memoryless (symbol-by-symbol) description. Such descriptions are, however, optimal when the receiver is cognizant of the state sequence or when the description is allowed to depend on the message. For other cases, a block-Markov scheme with backward decoding is proposed.

3.Channel Estimation and Signal Detection for NLOS Ultraviolet Scattering Communication with Space Division Multiple Access

Authors:Yubo Zhang, Yuchen Pan, Chen Gong, Beiyuan Liu, Zhengyuan Xu

Abstract: We design a receiver assembling several photomultipliers (PMTs) as an array to increase the field of view (FOV) of the receiver and adapt to multiuser situation over None-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet (UV) channels. Channel estimation and signal detection have been investigated according to the space division characteristics of the structure. Firstly, we adopt the balanced structure on the pilot matrix, analyze the channel estimation mean square error (MSE), and optimize the structure parameters. Then, with the estimated parameters, an analytical threshold detection rule is proposed as a preliminary work of multiuser detection. The detection rule can be optimized by analyzing the separability of two users based on the Gaussian approximation of Poisson weighted sum. To assess the effect of imperfect estimation, the sensitivity analysis of channel estimation error on two-user signal detection is performed. Moreover, we propose a successive elimination method for on-off keying (OOK) modulated multiuser symbol detection based on the previous threshold detection rule. A closed-form upper bound on the detection error rate is calculated, which turns out to be a good approximation of that of multiuser maximum-likelihood (ML) detection. The proposed successive elimination method is twenty times faster than the ML detection with negligible detection error rate degradation.

4.A New Information Theory of Certainty for Machine Learning

Authors:Arthur Jun Zhang

Abstract: Claude Shannon coined entropy to quantify the uncertainty of a random distribution for communication coding theory. We observe that the uncertainty nature of entropy also limits its direct usage in mathematical modeling. Therefore we propose a new concept troenpy,as the canonical dual of entropy, to quantify the certainty of the underlying distribution. We demonstrate two applications in machine learning. The first is for the classical document classification, we develop a troenpy based weighting scheme to leverage the document class label. The second is a self-troenpy weighting scheme for sequential data and show that it can be easily included in neural network based language models and achieve dramatic perplexity reduction. We also define quantum troenpy as the dual of the Von Neumann entropy to quantify the certainty of quantum systems.

5.A new invariant for cyclic orbit flag codes

Authors:Clementa Alonso-González, Miguel Ángel Navarro-Pérez

Abstract: In the network coding framework, given a prime power $q$ and the vector space $\mathbb{F}_q^n$, a constant type flag code is a set of nested sequences of $\mathbb{F}_q$-subspaces (flags) with the same increasing sequence of dimensions (the type of the flag). If a flag code arises as the orbit under the action of a cyclic subgroup of the general linear group over a flag, we say that it is a cyclic orbit flag code. Among the parameters of such a family of codes, we have its best friend, that is the largest field over which all the subspaces in the generating flag are vector spaces. This object permits to compute the cardinality of the code and estimate its minimum distance. However, as it occurs with other absolute parameters of a flag code, the information given by the best friend is not complete in many cases due to the fact that it can be obtained in different ways. In this work, we present a new invariant, the best friend vector, that captures the specific way the best friend can be unfolded. Furthermore, throughout the paper we analyze the strong underlying interaction between this invariant and other parameters such as the cardinality, the flag distance, or the type vector, and how it conditions them. Finally, we investigate the realizability of a prescribed best friend vector in a vector space.

1.Sum-rank metric codes

Authors:Elisa Gorla, Umberto Martínez-Peñas, Flavio Salizzoni

Abstract: Sum-rank metric codes are a natural extension of both linear block codes and rank-metric codes. They have several applications in information theory, including multishot network coding and distributed storage systems. The aim of this chapter is to present the mathematical theory of sum-rank metric codes, paying special attention to the $\mathbb{F}_q$-linear case in which different sizes of matrices are allowed. We provide a comprehensive overview of the main results in the area. In particular, we discuss invariants, optimal anticodes, and MSRD codes. In the last section, we concentrate on $\mathbb{F}_{q^m}$-linear codes.

2.Compressed sensing with l0-norm: statistical physics analysis and algorithms for signal recovery

Authors:D. Barbier, C Lucibello, L. Saglietti, F. Krzakala, L. Zdeborova

Abstract: Noiseless compressive sensing is a protocol that enables undersampling and later recovery of a signal without loss of information. This compression is possible because the signal is usually sufficiently sparse in a given basis. Currently, the algorithm offering the best tradeoff between compression rate, robustness, and speed for compressive sensing is the LASSO (l1-norm bias) algorithm. However, many studies have pointed out the possibility that the implementation of lp-norms biases, with p smaller than one, could give better performance while sacrificing convexity. In this work, we focus specifically on the extreme case of the l0-based reconstruction, a task that is complicated by the discontinuity of the loss. In the first part of the paper, we describe via statistical physics methods, and in particular the replica method, how the solutions to this optimization problem are arranged in a clustered structure. We observe two distinct regimes: one at low compression rate where the signal can be recovered exactly, and one at high compression rate where the signal cannot be recovered accurately. In the second part, we present two message-passing algorithms based on our first results for the l0-norm optimization problem. The proposed algorithms are able to recover the signal at compression rates higher than the ones achieved by LASSO while being computationally efficient.

3.How Costly Was That (In)Decision?

Authors:Peng Zou, Ali Maatouk, Jin Zhang, Suresh Subramaniam

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new metric, named Penalty upon Decision (PuD), for measuring the impact of communication delays and state changes at the source on a remote decision maker. Specifically, the metric quantifies the performance degradation at the decision maker's side due to delayed, erroneous, and (possibly) missed decisions. We clarify the rationale for the metric and derive closed-form expressions for its average in M/GI/1 and M/GI/1/1 with blocking settings. Numerical results are then presented to support our expressions and to compare the infinite and zero buffer regimes. Interestingly, comparing these two settings sheds light on a buffer length design challenge that is essential to minimize the average PuD.

4.Rectangular Rotational Invariant Estimator for General Additive Noise Matrices

Authors:Farzad Pourkamali, Nicolas Macris

Abstract: We propose a rectangular rotational invariant estimator to recover a real matrix from noisy matrix observations coming from an arbitrary additive rotational invariant perturbation, in the large dimension limit. Using the Bayes-optimality of this estimator, we derive the asymptotic minimum mean squared error (MMSE). For the particular case of Gaussian noise, we find an explicit expression for the MMSE in terms of the limiting singular value distribution of the observation matrix. Moreover, we prove a formula linking the asymptotic mutual information and the limit of log-spherical integral of rectangular matrices. We also provide numerical checks for our results, which match our theoretical predictions and known Bayesian inference results.

5.Inference in Linear Observations with Multiple Signal Sources: Analysis of Approximate Message Passing and Applications to Unsourced Random Access in Cell-Free Systems

Authors:Burak Çakmak, Eleni Gkiouzepi, Manfred Opper, Giuseppe Caire

Abstract: Here we consider a problem of multiple measurement vector (MMV) compressed sensing with multiple signal sources. The observation model is motivated by the application of {\em unsourced random access} in wireless cell-free MIMO (multiple-input-multiple-output) networks. We present a novel (and rigorous) high-dimensional analysis of the AMP (approximate message passing) algorithm devised for the model. As the system dimensions in the order, say $\mathcal O(L)$, tend to infinity, we show that the empirical dynamical order parameters -- describing the dynamics of the AMP -- converge to deterministic limits (described by a state-evolution equation) with the convergence rate $\mathcal O(L^{-\frac 1 2})$. Furthermore, we have shown the asymptotic consistency of the AMP analysis with the replica-symmetric calculation of the static problem. In addition, we provide some interesting aspects on the unsourced random access (or initial access) for cell-free systems, which is the application motivating the algorithm.

1.Forecast Ergodicity: Prediction Modeling Using Algorithmic Information Theory

Authors:Glauco Amigo, Daniel Andrés Díaz-Pachón, Robert J. Marks

Abstract: The capabilities of machine intelligence are bounded by the potential of data from the past to forecast the future. Deep learning tools are used to find structures in the available data to make predictions about the future. Such structures have to be present in the available data in the first place and they have to be applicable in the future. Forecast ergodicity is a measure of the ability to forecast future events from data in the past. We model this bound by the algorithmic complexity of the available data.

2.An Orchestration Framework for Open System Models of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Authors:Victor Croisfelt, Francesco Devoti, Fabio Saggese, Vincenzo Sciancalepore, Xavier Costa-Pérez, Petar Popovski

Abstract: To obviate the control of reflective intelligent surfaces (RISs) and the related control overhead, recent works envisioned autonomous and self-configuring RISs that do not need explicit use of control channels. Instead, these devices, named hybrid RISs (HRISs), are equipped with receiving radio-frequency (RF) chains and can perform sensing operations to act independently and in parallel to the other network entities. A natural problem then emerges: as the HRIS operates concurrently with the communication protocols, how should its operation modes be scheduled in time such that it helps the network while minimizing any undesirable effects? In this paper, we propose an orchestration framework that answers this question revealing an engineering trade-off, called the self-configuring trade-off, that characterizes the applicability of self-configuring HRISs under the consideration of massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) networks. We evaluate our proposed framework considering two different HRIS hardware architectures, the power- and signal-based HRISs that differ in their hardware complexity. The numerical results show that the self-configuring HRIS can offer significant performance gains when adopting our framework.

3.An Optimization Framework For Anomaly Detection Scores Refinement With Side Information

Authors:Ali Maatouk, Fadhel Ayed, Wenjie Li, Yu Wang, Hong Zhu, Jiantao Ye

Abstract: This paper considers an anomaly detection problem in which a detection algorithm assigns anomaly scores to multi-dimensional data points, such as cellular networks' Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). We propose an optimization framework to refine these anomaly scores by leveraging side information in the form of a causality graph between the various features of the data points. The refinement block builds on causality theory and a proposed notion of confidence scores. After motivating our framework, smoothness properties are proved for the ensuing mathematical expressions. Next, equipped with these results, a gradient descent algorithm is proposed, and a proof of its convergence to a stationary point is provided. Our results hold (i) for any causal anomaly detection algorithm and (ii) for any side information in the form of a directed acyclic graph. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the advantage of our proposed framework in dealing with False Positives (FPs) and False Negatives (FNs). Additionally, the effect of the graph's structure on the expected performance advantage and the various trade-offs that take place are analyzed.

1.Transmit Power Minimization for STAR-RIS Empowered Symbiotic Radio Communications

Authors:Chao Zhou, Bin Lyu, Youhong Feng, Dinh Thai Hoang

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a simultaneously transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surface (STAR-RIS) empowered transmission scheme for symbiotic radio (SR) systems to make more flexibility for network deployment and enhance system performance. The STAR-RIS is utilized to not only beam the primary signals from the base station (BS) towards multiple primary users on the same side of the STAR-RIS, but also achieve the secondary transmission to the secondary users on another side. We consider both the broadcasting signal model and unicasting signal model at the BS. For each model, we aim for minimizing the transmit power of the BS by designing the active beamforming and simultaneous reflection and transmission coefficients under the practical phase correlation constraint. To address the challenge of solving the formulated problem, we propose a block coordinate descent based algorithm with the semidefinite relaxation, penalty dual decomposition and successive convex approximation methods, which decomposes the original problem into one sub-problem about active beamforming and the other sub-problem about simultaneous reflection and transmission coefficients, and iteratively solve them until the convergence is achieved. Numerical results indicate that the proposed scheme can reduce up to 150.6% transmit power compared to the backscattering device enabled scheme.

2.The Seven Worlds and Experiences of the Wireless Metaverse: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors:Omar Hashash, Christina Chaccour, Walid Saad, Tao Yu, Kei Sakaguchi, Merouane Debbah

Abstract: The wireless metaverse will create diverse user experiences at the intersection of the physical, digital, and virtual worlds. These experiences will enable novel interactions between the constituents (e.g., extended reality (XR) users and avatars) of the three worlds. However, remarkably, to date, there is no holistic vision that identifies the full set of metaverse worlds, constituents, and experiences, and the implications of their associated interactions on next-generation communication and computing systems. In this paper, we present a holistic vision of a limitless, wireless metaverse that distills the metaverse into an intersection of seven worlds and experiences that include the: i) physical, digital, and virtual worlds, along with the ii) cyber, extended, live, and parallel experiences. We then articulate how these experiences bring forth interactions between diverse metaverse constituents, namely, a) humans and avatars and b) connected intelligence systems and their digital twins (DTs). Then, we explore the wireless, computing, and artificial intelligence (AI) challenges that must be addressed to establish metaverse-ready networks that support these experiences and interactions. We particularly highlight the need for end-to-end synchronization of DTs, and the role of human-level AI and reasoning abilities for cognitive avatars. Moreover, we articulate a sequel of open questions that should ignite the quest for the future metaverse. We conclude with a set of recommendations to deploy the limitless metaverse over future wireless systems.

3.To Reflect or Not To Reflect: On-Off Control and Number Configuration for Reflecting Elements in RIS-Aided Wireless Systems

Authors:Hao Xie, Dong Li

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) has been regarded as a promising technique due to its high array gain and low power. However, the traditional passive RIS suffers from the ``double fading'' effect, which has restricted the performance of passive RIS-aided communications. Fortunately, active RIS can alleviate this problem since it can adjust the phase shift and amplify the received signal simultaneously. Nevertheless, a high beamforming gain often requires a number of reflecting elements, which leads to non-negligible power consumption, especially for the active RIS. Thus, one challenge is how to improve the scalability of the RIS and the energy efficiency. Different from the existing works where all reflecting elements are activated, we propose a novel element on-off mechanism where reflecting elements can be flexibly activated and deactivated. Two different optimization problems for passive RIS and active RIS are formulated by maximizing the total energy efficiency. We develop two different alternating optimization-based iterative algorithms to obtain sub-optimal solutions. Furthermore, we consider special cases involving rate maximization problems for given the same total power budget, and respectively analyze the number configuration for passive RIS and active RIS. Simulation results verify that reflecting elements under the proposed algorithms can be flexibly activated and deactivated.

4.DNA-Correcting Codes: End-to-end Correction in DNA Storage Systems

Authors:Avital Boruchovsky, Daniella Bar-Lev, Eitan Yaakobi

Abstract: This paper introduces a new solution to DNA storage that integrates all three steps of retrieval, namely clustering, reconstruction, and error correction. DNA-correcting codes are presented as a unique solution to the problem of ensuring that the output of the storage system is unique for any valid set of input strands. To this end, we introduce a novel distance metric to capture the unique behavior of the DNA storage system and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for DNA-correcting codes. The paper also includes several upper bounds and constructions of DNA-correcting codes.

5.Adaptive Greedy Rejection Sampling

Authors:Gergely Flamich, Lucas Theis

Abstract: We consider channel simulation protocols between two communicating parties, Alice and Bob. First, Alice receives a target distribution $Q$, unknown to Bob. Then, she employs a shared coding distribution $P$ to send the minimum amount of information to Bob so that he can simulate a single sample $X \sim Q$. For discrete distributions, Harsha et al. (2009) developed a well-known channel simulation protocol -- greedy rejection sampling (GRS) -- with a bound of ${D_{KL}[Q \,\Vert\, P] + 2\ln(D_{KL}[Q \,\Vert\, P] + 1) + \mathcal{O}(1)}$ on the expected codelength of the protocol. In this paper, we extend the definition of GRS to general probability spaces and allow it to adapt its proposal distribution after each step. We call this new procedure Adaptive GRS (AGRS) and prove its correctness. Furthermore, we prove the surprising result that the expected runtime of GRS is exactly $\exp(D_\infty[Q \,\Vert\, P])$, where $D_\infty[Q \,\Vert\, P]$ denotes the R\'enyi $\infty$-divergence. We then apply AGRS to Gaussian channel simulation problems. We show that the expected runtime of GRS is infinite when averaged over target distributions and propose a solution that trades off a slight increase in the coding cost for a finite runtime. Finally, we describe a specific instance of AGRS for 1D Gaussian channels inspired by hybrid coding. We conjecture and demonstrate empirically that the runtime of AGRS is $\mathcal{O}(D_{KL}[Q \,\Vert\, P])$ in this case.

6.New Closed-Form ASER Expressions for Dual-Hop Mixed THz-RF Cooperative Relay Networks

Authors:Soumendu Das, Nagendra Kumar, Dharmendra Dixit

Abstract: In this paper, we consider a dual-hop mixed THz-RF system model for backhaul-fronthaul applications where the link between source and destination is established only through the relay node in which decode-and-forward relaying protocol is used. The THz link suffers from the joint impact of antenna misalignment and stochastic characteristics of wireless channels, including the effect of environmental conditions such as pressure, humidity, and temperature. The envelope of THz link in the first hop follows a generalized $\alpha-\mu$ distribution, and for the RF end, the Nakagami-$m$ distribution is considered. In this context, we obtain new closed-form expressions of the cumulative density function and the moment-generating function of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Further, we derive the average symbol error rate expressions for coherent rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (RQAM) and coherent hexagonal QAM (HQAM), as well as the non-coherent modulation scheme. The asymptotic behavior is also discussed to examine the system's diversity. Furthermore, the impact of several parameters, such as fading coefficients of individual links and antenna misalignment, as well as the distance between nodes, are also highlighted in the system's performance. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations are used to validate the presented analytical framework. Finally, the presented numerical insights aid in the extraction of practical design principles.

1.Contrastive Learning based Semantic Communication for Wireless Image Transmission

Authors:Shunpu Tang, Qianqian Yang, Lisheng Fan, Xianfu Lei, Yansha Deng, Arumugam Nallanathan

Abstract: Recently, semantic communication has been widely applied in wireless image transmission systems as it can prioritize the preservation of meaningful semantic information in images over the accuracy of transmitted symbols, leading to improved communication efficiency. However, existing semantic communication approaches still face limitations in achieving considerable inference performance in downstream AI tasks like image recognition, or balancing the inference performance with the quality of the reconstructed image at the receiver. Therefore, this paper proposes a contrastive learning (CL)-based semantic communication approach to overcome these limitations. Specifically, we regard the image corruption during transmission as a form of data augmentation in CL and leverage CL to reduce the semantic distance between the original and the corrupted reconstruction while maintaining the semantic distance among irrelevant images for better discrimination in downstream tasks. Moreover, we design a two-stage training procedure and the corresponding loss functions for jointly optimizing the semantic encoder and decoder to achieve a good trade-off between the performance of image recognition in the downstream task and reconstructed quality. Simulations are finally conducted to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the competitive approaches. In particular, the proposed method can achieve up to 56\% accuracy gain on the CIFAR10 dataset when the bandwidth compression ratio is 1/48.

2.Randomly punctured Reed--Solomon codes achieve list-decoding capacity over linear-sized fields

Authors:Omar Alrabiah, Venkatesan Guruswami, Ray Li

Abstract: Reed--Solomon codes are a classic family of error-correcting codes consisting of evaluations of low-degree polynomials over a finite field on some sequence of distinct field elements. They are widely known for their optimal unique-decoding capabilities, but their list-decoding capabilities are not fully understood. Given the prevalence of Reed-Solomon codes, a fundamental question in coding theory is determining if Reed--Solomon codes can optimally achieve list-decoding capacity. A recent breakthrough by Brakensiek, Gopi, and Makam, established that Reed--Solomon codes are combinatorially list-decodable all the way to capacity. However, their results hold for randomly-punctured Reed--Solomon codes over an exponentially large field size $2^{O(n)}$, where $n$ is the block length of the code. A natural question is whether Reed--Solomon codes can still achieve capacity over smaller fields. Recently, Guo and Zhang showed that Reed--Solomon codes are list-decodable to capacity with field size $O(n^2)$. We show that Reed--Solomon codes are list-decodable to capacity with linear field size $O(n)$, which is optimal up to the constant factor. We also give evidence that the ratio between the alphabet size $q$ and code length $n$ cannot be bounded by an absolute constant. Our proof is based on the proof of Guo and Zhang, and additionally exploits symmetries of reduced intersection matrices. With our proof, which maintains a hypergraph perspective of the list-decoding problem, we include an alternate presentation of ideas of Brakensiek, Gopi, and Makam that more directly connects the list-decoding problem to the GM-MDS theorem via a hypergraph orientation theorem.

3.Resource Allocation in the RIS Assisted SCMA Cellular Network Coexisting with D2D Communications

Authors:Yukai Liu, Wen Chen, Kunlun Wang

Abstract: The cellular network coexisting with device-to-device (D2D) communications has been studied extensively. Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) are promising technologies for the evolution of 5G, 6G and beyond. Besides, sparse code multiple access (SCMA) is considered suitable for next-generation wireless network in code-domain NOMA. In this paper, we consider the RIS-aided uplink SCMA cellular network simultaneously with D2D users. We formulate the optimization problem which aims to maximize the cellular sum-rate by jointly designing D2D users resource block (RB) association, the transmitted power for both cellular users and D2D users, and the phase shifts at the RIS. The power limitation and users communication requirements are considered. The problem is non-convex, and it is challenging to solve it directly. To handle this optimization problem, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm based on block coordinate descent (BCD) method. The original problem is decoupled into three subproblems to solve separately. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the sum-rate performance over various schemes.

4.Entropy Estimation via Uniformization

Authors:Ziqiao Ao, Jinglai Li

Abstract: Entropy estimation is of practical importance in information theory and statistical science. Many existing entropy estimators suffer from fast growing estimation bias with respect to dimensionality, rendering them unsuitable for high-dimensional problems. In this work we propose a transform-based method for high-dimensional entropy estimation, which consists of the following two main ingredients. First by modifying the k-NN based entropy estimator, we propose a new estimator which enjoys small estimation bias for samples that are close to a uniform distribution. Second we design a normalizing flow based mapping that pushes samples toward a uniform distribution, and the relation between the entropy of the original samples and the transformed ones is also derived. As a result the entropy of a given set of samples is estimated by first transforming them toward a uniform distribution and then applying the proposed estimator to the transformed samples. The performance of the proposed method is compared against several existing entropy estimators, with both mathematical examples and real-world applications.

5.Weakly Secure Summation with Colluding Users

Authors:Zhou Li, Yizhou Zhao, Hua Sun

Abstract: In secure summation, $K$ users, each holds an input, wish to compute the sum of the inputs at a server without revealing any information about {\em all the inputs} even if the server may collude with {\em an arbitrary subset of users}. In this work, we relax the security and colluding constraints, where the set of inputs whose information is prohibited from leakage is from a predetermined collection of sets (e.g., any set of up to $S$ inputs) and the set of colluding users is from another predetermined collection of sets (e.g., any set of up to $T$ users). For arbitrary collection of security input sets and colluding user sets, we characterize the optimal randomness assumption, i.e., the minimum number of key bits that need to be held by the users, per input bit, for weakly secure summation to be feasible, which generally involves solving a linear program.

6.Optimal Codes Detecting Deletions in Concatenated Binary Strings Applied to Trace Reconstruction

Authors:Serge Kas Hanna

Abstract: Consider two or more strings $\mathbf{x}^1,\mathbf{x}^2,\ldots,$ that are concatenated to form $\mathbf{x}=\langle \mathbf{x}^1,\mathbf{x}^2,\ldots \rangle$. Suppose that up to $\delta$ deletions occur in each of the concatenated strings. Since deletions alter the lengths of the strings, a fundamental question to ask is: how much redundancy do we need to introduce in $\mathbf{x}$ in order to recover the boundaries of $\mathbf{x}^1,\mathbf{x}^2,\ldots$? This boundary problem is equivalent to the problem of designing codes that can detect the exact number of deletions in each concatenated string. In this work, we answer the question above by first deriving converse results that give lower bounds on the redundancy of deletion-detecting codes. Then, we present a marker-based code construction whose redundancy is asymptotically optimal in $\delta$ among all families of deletion-detecting codes, and exactly optimal among all block-by-block decodable codes. To exemplify the usefulness of such deletion-detecting codes, we apply our code to trace reconstruction and design an efficient coded reconstruction scheme that requires a constant number of traces.

1.Rack-aware minimum-storage regenerating codes with optimal access

Authors:Jiaojiao Wang, Zitan Chen

Abstract: We derive a lower bound on the amount of information accessed to repair failed nodes within a single rack from any number of helper racks in the rack-aware storage model that allows collective information processing in the nodes that share the same rack. Furthermore, we construct a family of rack-aware minimum-storage regenerating (MSR) codes with the property that the number of symbols accessed for repairing a single failed node attains the bound with equality for all admissible parameters. Constructions of rack-aware optimal-access MSR codes were only known for limited parameters. We also present a family of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes that only require accessing a relatively small number of symbols to repair multiple failed nodes in a single rack. In particular, for certain code parameters, the RS construction attains the bound on the access complexity with equality and thus has optimal access.

2.Full-Duplex Wireless for 6G: Progress Brings New Opportunities and Challenges

Authors:Besma Smida, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Gabor Fodor, George C. Alexandropoulos, Himal A. Suraweera, Chan-Byoung Chae

Abstract: The use of in-band full-duplex (FD) enables nodes to simultaneously transmit and receive on the same frequency band, which challenges the traditional assumption in wireless network design. The full-duplex capability enhances spectral efficiency and decreases latency, which are two key drivers pushing the performance expectations of next-generation mobile networks. In less than ten years, in-band FD has advanced from being demonstrated in research labs to being implemented in standards and products, presenting new opportunities to utilize its foundational concepts. Some of the most significant opportunities include using FD to enable wireless networks to sense the physical environment, integrate sensing and communication applications, develop integrated access and backhaul solutions, and work with smart signal propagation environments powered by reconfigurable intelligent surfaces. However, these new opportunities also come with new challenges for large-scale commercial deployment of FD technology, such as managing self-interference, combating cross-link interference in multi-cell networks, and coexistence of dynamic time division duplex, subband FD and FD networks.

3.Soft-Output Deep Neural Network-Based Decoding

Authors:Dmitry Artemasov, Kirill Andreev, Pavel Rybin, Alexey Frolov

Abstract: Deep neural network (DNN)-based channel decoding is widely considered in the literature. The existing solutions are investigated for the case of hard output, i.e. when the decoder returns the estimated information word. At the same time, soft-output decoding is of critical importance for iterative receivers and decoders. In this paper, we focus on the soft-output DNN-based decoding problem. We start with the syndrome-based approach proposed by Bennatan et al. (2018) and modify it to provide soft output in the AWGN channel. The new decoder can be considered as an approximation of the MAP decoder with smaller computation complexity. We discuss various regularization functions for joint DNN-MAP training and compare the resulting distributions for [64, 45] BCH code. Finally, to demonstrate the soft-output quality we consider the turbo-product code with [64, 45] BCH codes as row and column codes. We show that the resulting DNN-based scheme is very close to the MAP-based performance and significantly outperforms the solution based on the Chase decoder. We come to the conclusion that the new method is prospective for the challenging problem of DNN-based decoding of long codes consisting of short component codes.

4.Age-of-Information Dependent Random Access in NOMA-Aided Multiple-Relay Slotted ALOHA

Authors:Gabriel Germino Martins de Jesus, João Luiz Rebelatto, Richard Demo Souza, Onel Luis Alcaraz López

Abstract: We propose and evaluate the performance of a Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) dual-hop multiple relay (MR) network from an information freshness perspective using the Age of Information (AoI) metric. More specifically, we consider an age dependent (AD) policy, named as AD-NOMA- MR, in which users only transmit, with a given probability, after they reach a certain age threshold. The packets sent by the users are potentially received by the relays, and then forwarded to a common sink in a NOMA fashion by randomly selecting one of the available power levels, and multiple packets are received if all selected levels are unique. We derive analytical expressions for the average AoI of AD-NOMA-MR. Through numerical and simulation results, we show that the proposed policy can improve the average AoI up to 76.6% when compared to a previously proposed AD Orthogonal Multiple Access MR policy.

5.Hardware-Impaired Rician-Faded Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems With Channel Aging

Authors:Venkatesh Tentu, Dheeraj N Amudala, Anish Chattopadhyay, Rohit Budhiraja

Abstract: We study the impact of channel aging on the uplink of a cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) system by considering i) spatially-correlated Rician-faded channels; ii) hardware impairments at the access points and user equipments (UEs); and iii) two-layer large-scale fading decoding (LSFD). We first derive a closed-form spectral efficiency (SE) expression for this system, and later propose two novel optimization techniques to optimize the non-convex SE metric by exploiting the minorization-maximization (MM) method. The first one requires a numerical optimization solver, and has a high computation complexity. The second one with closed-form transmit power updates, has a trivial computation complexity. We numerically show that i) the two-layer LSFD scheme effectively mitigates the interference due to channel aging for both low- and high-velocity UEs; and ii) increasing the number of AP antennas does not mitigate the SE deterioration due to channel aging. We numerically characterize the optimal pilot length required to maximize the SE for various UE speeds. We also numerically show that the proposed closed-form MM optimization yields the same SE as that of the first technique, which requires numerical solver, and that too with a much reduced time-complexity.

6.Number Theoretical Locally Recoverable Codes

Authors:Andrea Ferraguti, Dorian Goldfeld, Giacomo Micheli

Abstract: In this paper we give constructions for infinite sequences of finite non-linear locally recoverable codes $\mathcal C\subseteq \prod\limits^N_{i=1}\mathbb F_{q_i}$ over a product of finite fields arising from basis expansions in algebraic number fields. The codes in our sequences have increasing length and size, constant rate, fixed locality, and minimum distance going to infinity.

1.Collaborative Bearing Estimation Using Set Membership Methods

Authors:Mohammad Zamani, Jochen Trumpf, Chris Manzie

Abstract: We consider the problem of collaborative bearing estimation using a method with historic roots in set theoretic estimation techniques. We refer to this method as the Convex Combination Ellipsoid (CCE) method and show that it provides a less conservative covariance estimate than the well known Covariance Intersection (CI) method. The CCE method does not introduce additional uncertainty that was not already present in the prior estimates. Using our proposed approach for collaborative bearing estimation, the nonlinearity of the bearing measurement is captured as an uncertainty ellipsoid thereby avoiding the need for linearization or approximation via sampling procedures. Simulations are undertaken to evaluate the relative performance of the collaborative bearing estimation solution using the proposed (CCE) and typical (CI) methods.

2.Orthogonal AMP for Problems with Multiple Measurement Vectors and/or Multiple Transforms

Authors:Yiyao Cheng, Lei Liu, Shansuo Liang, Jonathan. H. Manton, Li Ping

Abstract: Approximate message passing (AMP) algorithms break a (high-dimensional) statistical problem into parts then repeatedly solve each part in turn, akin to alternating projections. A distinguishing feature is their asymptotic behaviours can be accurately predicted via their associated state evolution equations. Orthogonal AMP (OAMP) was recently developed to avoid the need for computing the so-called Onsager term in traditional AMP algorithms, providing two clear benefits: the derivation of an OAMP algorithm is both straightforward and more broadly applicable. OAMP was originally demonstrated for statistical problems with a single measurement vector and single transform. This paper extends OAMP to statistical problems with multiple measurement vectors (MMVs) and multiple transforms (MTs). We name the resulting algorithms as OAMP-MMV and OAMP-MT respectively, and their combination as augmented OAMP (A-OAMP). Whereas the extension of traditional AMP algorithms to such problems would be challenging, the orthogonal principle underpinning OAMP makes these extensions straightforward. The MMV and MT models are widely applicable to signal processing and communications. We present an example of MIMO relay system with correlated source data and signal clipping, which can be modelled as a joint MMV-MT system. While existing methods meet with difficulties in this example, OAMP offers an efficient solution with excellent performance.

3.Wireless Channel Charting: Theory, Practice, and Applications

Authors:Paul Ferrand, Maxime Guillaud, Christoph Studer, Olav Tirkkonen

Abstract: Channel charting is a recently proposed framework that applies dimensionality reduction to channel state information (CSI) in wireless systems with the goal of associating a pseudo-position to each mobile user in a low-dimensional space: the channel chart. Channel charting summarizes the entire CSI dataset in a self-supervised manner, which opens up a range of applications that are tied to user location. In this article, we introduce the theoretical underpinnings of channel charting and present an overview of recent algorithmic developments and experimental results obtained in the field. We furthermore discuss concrete application examples of channel charting to network- and user-related applications, and we provide a perspective on future developments and challenges as well as the role of channel charting in next-generation wireless networks.

4.Entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes from subfield subcodes of projective Reed-Solomon codes

Authors:P. Gimenez, D. Ruano, R. San-José

Abstract: Subfield subcodes of Reed-Solomon codes and their duals, BCH codes, have been widely used for constructing quantum error-correcting codes with good parameters. In this paper, we study subfield subcodes of projective Reed-Solomon codes and their duals, we provide bases for these codes and estimate their parameters. With this knowledge, we can construct symmetric and asymmetric entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes, which in many cases have new or better parameters than the ones available in the literature.

5.Secrecy Design of Indoor Visible Light Communication Network under Downlink NOMA Transmission

Authors:Tianji Shen, Vamoua Yachongka, Yuto Hama, Hideki Ochiai

Abstract: In this work, we investigate the transmission sum rate as well as the secrecy sum rate of indoor visible light communication (VLC) networks for mobile devices with the power domain non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) transmission, where multiple legitimate users are equipped with photodiodes (PDs). We introduce a body blockage model of the legitimate users as well as the eavesdropper to focus on the case where the communications from transmitting light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to receiving devices are blocked by the bodies of receiving users. Furthermore, in order to improve the secrecy without any knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) of the eavesdropper, a novel LED arrangement is introduced to reduce the overlapping area covered by LED units supporting different users. We also propose two LED operation strategies, called simple and smart LED linking, and evaluate their performance against the conventional broadcasting in terms of transmission sum rate and secrecy sum rate. Through computer simulations, the superiority of our proposed strategies is demonstrated.

6.Solving Systems of Algebraic Equations Over Finite Commutative Rings and Applications

Authors:Hermann Tchatchiem Kamche, Hervé Talé Kalachi

Abstract: Several problems in algebraic geometry and coding theory over finite rings are modeled by systems of algebraic equations. Among these problems, we have the rank decoding problem, which is used in the construction of public-key cryptography. In 2004, Nechaev and Mikhailov proposed two methods for solving systems of polynomial equations over finite chain rings. These methods used solutions over the residual field to construct all solutions step by step. However, for some types of algebraic equations, one simply needs partial solutions. In this paper, we combine two existing approaches to show how Gr\"obner bases over finite chain rings can be used to solve systems of algebraic equations over finite commutative rings. Then, we use skew polynomials and Pl\"ucker coordinates to show that some algebraic approaches used to solve the rank decoding problem and the MinRank problem over finite fields can be extended to finite principal ideal rings.

1.Entropy-Based Energy Dissipation Analysis of Mobile Communication Systems

Authors:Litao Yan, Xiaohu Ge

Abstract: Compared with the energy efficiency of conventional mobile communication systems, the energy efficiency of fifth generation (5G) communication systems has been improved more than 30 times. However, the energy consumption of 5G communication systems is 3 times of the energy consumption of fourth generation (4G) communication systems when the wireless traffic is increased more than 100 times in the last decade. It is anticipated that the traffic of future sixth generation (6G) communication systems will keep an exponential growth in the next decade. It is a key issue how much space is left for improving of energy efficiency in mobile communication systems. To answer the question, an entropy-based energy dissipation model based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics is first proposed for mobile communication systems. Moreover, the theoretical minimal energy dissipation limits are derived for typical modulations in mobile communication systems. Simulation results show that the practical energy dissipation of information processing and information transmission is three and seven orders of magnitude away from the theoretical minimal energy dissipation limits in mobile communication systems, respectively. These results provide some guidelines for energy efficiency optimization in future mobile communication systems.

2.Faster List Decoding of AG Codes

Authors:Peter Beelen, Vincent Neiger

Abstract: In this article, we present a fast algorithm performing an instance of the Guruswami-Sudan list decoder for algebraic geometry codes. We show that any such code can be decoded in $\tilde{O}(s^2\ell^{\omega-1}\mu^{\omega-1}(n+g) + \ell^\omega \mu^\omega)$ operations in the underlying finite field, where $n$ is the code length, $g$ is the genus of the function field used to construct the code, $s$ is the multiplicity parameter, $\ell$ is the designed list size and $\mu$ is the smallest positive element in the Weierstrass semigroup of some chosen place.

3.Resource Allocation and Passive Beamforming for IRS-assisted URLLC Systems

Authors:Yangyi Zhang, Xinrong Guan, Zhi Ji, Qingqing Wu, Yueming Cai

Abstract: In this correspondence, we investigate an intelligent reflective surface (IRS) assisted downlink ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC) system, where an access point (AP) sends short packets to multiple devices with the help of an IRS. Specifically, a performance comparison between the frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) is conducted for the considered system, from the perspective of average age of information (AoI). Aiming to minimize the maximum average AoI among all devices by jointly optimizing the resource allocation and passive beamforming. However, the formulated problem is difficult to solve due to the non-convex objective function and coupled variables. Thus, we propose an alternating optimization based algorithm by dividing the original problem into two sub-problems which can be efficiently solved. Simulation results show that TDMA can achieve lower AoI by exploiting the time-selective passive beamforming of IRS for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of each device consecutively. Moreover, it also shows that as the length of information bits becomes sufficiently large as compared to the available bandwidth, the proposed FDMA transmission scheme becomes more favorable instead, due to the more effective utilization of bandwidth.

4.Network-Assisted Full-Duplex Cell-Free Massive MIMO: Spectral and Energy Efficiencies

Authors:Mohammadali Mohammadi, Tung T. Vu, Hien Quoc Ngo, Michail Matthaiou

Abstract: We consider network-assisted full-duplex (NAFD) cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-mMIMO) systems, where full-duplex (FD) transmission is virtually realized via half-duplex (HD) hardware devices. The HD access points (APs) operating in uplink (UL) mode and those operating in downlink (DL) mode simultaneously serve DL and UL user equipments (UEs) in the same frequency bands. We comprehensively analyze the performance of NAFD CF-mMIMO from both a spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE) perspectives. Specifically, we propose a joint optimization approach that designs the AP mode assignment, power control, and large-scale fading (LSFD) weights to improve the sum SE and EE of NAFD CF-mMIMO systems. We formulate two mixed-integer nonconvex optimization problems of maximizing the sum SE and EE, under realistic power consumption models, and the constraints on minimum individual SE requirements, maximum transmit power at each DL AP and UL UE. The challenging formulated problems are transformed into tractable forms and two novel algorithms are proposed to solve them using successive convex approximation techniques. More importantly, our approach can be applied to jointly optimize power control and LSFD weights for maximizing the sum SE and EE of HD and FD CF-mMIMO systems, which, to date, has not been studied. Numerical results show that: (a) our joint optimization approach significantly outperforms the heuristic approaches in terms of both sum SE and EE; (b) in CF-mMIMO systems, the NAFD scheme can provide approximately 30\% SE gains, while achieving a remarkable EE gain of up to 200\% compared with the HD and FD schemes.

1.How Practical Phase-shift Errors Affect Beamforming of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface?

Authors:Jun Yang, Yijian Chen, Yijun Cui, Qingqing Wu, Jianwu Dou, Yuxin Wang

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is a new technique that is able to manipulate the wireless environment smartly and has been exploited for assisting the wireless communications, especially at high frequency band. However, it suffers from hardware impairments (HWIs) in practical designs, which inevitably degrades its performance and thus limits its full potential. To address this practical issue, we first propose a new RIS reflection model involving phase-shift errors, which is then verified by the measurement results from field trials. With this beamforming model, various phase-shift errors caused by different HWIs can be analyzed. The phase-shift errors are classified into three categories: (1) globally independent and identically distributed errors, (2) grouped independent and identically distributed errors and (3) grouped fixed errors. The impact of typical HWIs, including frequency mismatch, PIN diode failures and panel deformation, on RIS beamforming ability are studied with the theoretical model and are compared with numerical results. The impact of frequency mismatch are discussed separately for narrow-band and wide-band beamforming. Finally, useful insights and guidelines on the RIS design and its deployment are highlighted for practical wireless systems.

2.Non-Orthogonal Multiplexing in the FBL Regime Enhances Physical Layer Security with Deception

Authors:Bin Han, Yao Zhu, Anke Schmeink, Hans D. Schotten

Abstract: We propose a new security framework for physical layer security (PLS) in the finite blocklength (FBL) regime that incorporates deception technology, allowing for active countermeasures against potential eavesdroppers. Using a symmetric block cipher and power-domain non-orthogonal multiplexing (NOM), our approach is able to achieve high secured reliability while effectively deceiving the eavesdropper, and can benefit from increased transmission power. This work represents a promising direction for future research in PLS with deception technology.

3.Linear Codes over $\mathfrak{R}^{s,m}=\sum\limits_{ς=1}^{m} v_{m}^{ς-1}\mathcal{A}_{m-1}$, with $v_{m}^{m}=v_{m}$

Authors:Mouna. Malki, Karima. Chatouh

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to extend the previously defined code family over the ring $\mathfrak{R}=\sum\limits_{s=0}^{4} v_{5}^{s} \mathcal{A}_{4}$ to $\mathfrak{R}^{s,m}=\sum\limits_{\varsigma=1}^{m} v_{m}^{\varsigma-1}\mathcal{A}_{m-1}$, and propose an expanded framework for its implementation in coding theory, and to derive additional properties from this generalized code family, including the construction of cyclic and quasi-cyclic codes. Furthermore, we will present specific applications of this extended code family.

1.Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface-Empowered MIMO Systems

Authors:Ertugrul Basar

Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-empowered communication stands out as a solid candidate for future wireless networks due to its flexibility, ease of deployment, and attractive advantages to control the wireless propagation environment. In this perspective article, a brief overview is presented considering the application of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces for future multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Potential future research directions are also highlighted.

1.The Kraft--Barmpalias--Lewis-Pye lemma revisited

Authors:Alexander Shen

Abstract: This note provides a simplified exposition of the proof of hierarchical Kraft lemma proven by Barmpalias and Lewis-Pye and its consequences for the oracle use in the Ku\v{c}era--G\'acs theorem (saying that every sequence is Turing reducible to a random one).

2.Golden Modulation: a New and Effective Waveform for Massive IoT

Authors:Lorenzo Vangelista, Bruno Jechoux, Jean-Xavier Canonici, Michele Zorzi

Abstract: This paper considers massive Internet of Things systems, especially for LoW Power Wide Area Networks, that aim at connecting billions of low-cost devices with multi-year battery life requirements. Current systems for massive Internet of Things exhibit severe problems when trying to pursue the target of serving a very large number of users. In this paper, a novel asynchronous spread spectrum modulation, called Golden Modulation, is introduced. This modulation provides a vast family of equivalent waveforms with very low cross-interference even in asynchronous conditions, hence enabling natural multiuser operation without the need for inter-user synchronization or for interference cancellation receivers. Thanks to minimal interference between waveforms, coupled with the absence of coordination requirements, this modulation can accommodate very high system capacity. The basic modulation principles, relying on spectrum spreading via direct Zadoff-Chu sequences modulation, are presented and the corresponding theoretical bit error rate performance in an additive white Gaussian noise channel is derived and compared by simulation with realistic Golden Modulation receiver performance. The demodulation of the Golden Modulation is also described, and its performance in the presence of uncoordinated multiple users is characterized.