arXiv daily: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics

arXiv daily: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

1.Tidal evolution for any rheological model using a vectorial approach expressed in Hansen coefficients

Authors:Alexandre C. M. Correia, Ema F. S. Valente

Abstract: We revisit the two body problem, where one body can be deformed under the action of tides raised by the companion. Tidal deformation and consequent dissipation result in spin and orbital evolution of the system. In general, the equations of motion are derived from the tidal potential developed in Fourier series expressed in terms of Keplerian elliptical elements, so that the variation of dissipation with amplitude and frequency can be examined. However, this method introduces multiple index summations and some orbital elements depend on the chosen frame, which is prone to confusion and errors. Here, we develop the quadrupole tidal potential solely in a series of Hansen coefficients, which are widely used in celestial mechanics and depend just on the eccentricity. We derive the secular equations of motion in a vectorial formalism, which is frame independent and valid for any rheological model. We provide expressions for a single average over the mean anomaly and for an additional average over the argument of the pericentre. These equations are suitable to model the long-term evolution of a large variety of systems and configurations, from planet satellite to stellar binaries. We also compute the tidal energy released inside the body for an arbitrary configuration of the system.

2.Excitation Properties of Photopigments and Their Possible Dependence on the Host Star

Authors:Manasvi Lingam, Amedeo Balbi, Swadesh M. Mahajan

Abstract: Photosynthesis is a plausible pathway for the sustenance of a substantial biosphere on an exoplanet. In fact, it is also anticipated to create distinctive biosignatures detectable by next-generation telescopes. In this work, we explore the excitation features of photopigments that harvest electromagnetic radiation by constructing a simple quantum-mechanical model. Our analysis suggests that the primary Earth-based photopigments for photosynthesis may not function efficiently at wavelengths $> 1.1$ $\mu$m. In the context of (hypothetical) extrasolar photopigments, we calculate the potential number of conjugated $\pi$-electrons ($N_\star$) in the relevant molecules, which can participate in the absorption of photons. By hypothesizing that the absorption maxima of photopigments are close to the peak spectral photon flux of the host star, we utilize the model to estimate $N_\star$. As per our formalism, $N_\star$ is modulated by the stellar temperature, and is conceivably higher (lower) for planets orbiting stars cooler (hotter) than the sun; exoplanets around late-type M-dwarfs might require an $N_\star$ twice that of the Earth. We conclude the analysis with a brief exposition of how our model could be empirically tested by future observations.

3.Simulations of idealised 3D atmospheric flows on terrestrial planets using LFRic-Atmosphere

Authors:Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan J. Mayne, Thomas Bendall, Ian A. Boutle, Alex Brown, Iva Kavcic, James Kent, Krisztian Kohary, James Manners, Thomas Melvin, Enrico Olivier, Lokesh K. Ragta, Ben J. Shipway, Jon Wakelin, Nigel Wood, Mohamed Zerroukat

Abstract: We demonstrate that LFRic-Atmosphere, a model built using the Met Office's GungHo dynamical core, is able to reproduce idealised large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns specified by several widely-used benchmark recipes. This is motivated by the rapid rate of exoplanet discovery and the ever-growing need for numerical modelling and characterisation of their atmospheres. Here we present LFRic-Atmosphere's results for the idealised tests imitating circulation regimes commonly used in the exoplanet modelling community. The benchmarks include three analytic forcing cases: the standard Held-Suarez test, the Menou-Rauscher Earth-like test, and the Merlis-Schneider Tidally Locked Earth test. Qualitatively, LFRic-Atmosphere agrees well with other numerical models and shows excellent conservation properties in terms of total mass, angular momentum and kinetic energy. We then use LFRic-Atmosphere with a more realistic representation of physical processes (radiation, subgrid-scale mixing, convection, clouds) by configuring it for the four TRAPPIST-1 Habitable Atmosphere Intercomparison (THAI) scenarios. This is the first application of LFRic-Atmosphere to a possible climate of a confirmed terrestrial exoplanet. LFRic-Atmosphere reproduces the THAI scenarios within the spread of the existing models across a range of key climatic variables. Our work shows that LFRic-Atmosphere performs well in the seven benchmark tests for terrestrial atmospheres, justifying its use in future exoplanet climate studies.

4.Splitting of Long-Period Comet C/2018 F4 (PANSTARRS)

Authors:Man-To Hui, Michael S. P. Kelley, Denise Hung, Tim Lister, Joseph Chatelain, Edward Gomez, Sarah Greenstreet

Abstract: Long-period comet C/2018 F4 (PANSTARRS) was observed to show duplicity of its inner region in 2020 September, suggestive of a splitting event. We here present analyses of our observations of the comet taken from the LOOK project and the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope after the discovery of the splitting. The two fragments Components A and B, estimated to be $\sim\!60$ m to 4 km in radius, remained highly similar to each other in terms of brightness, colour, and dust morphology throughout our observing campaign from 2020 September to 2021 December. Our fragmentation model yielded that the two components split at a relative speed of $3.00 \pm 0.18$ m s$^{-1}$ in 2020 late April, implying a specific energy change of $\left(5.3 \pm 2.8 \right) \times 10^3$ J kg$^{-1}$, and that Component B was subjected to a stronger nongravitational acceleration than Component A in both the radial and normal directions of the orbit. The obtained splitting time is broadly consistent with the result from the dust morphology analysis, which further suggested that the dominant dust grains were millimeter-sized and ejected at speed $\sim\!2$ m s$^{-1}$. We postulate that the pre-split nucleus of the comet consisted of two lobes resembling the one of 67P, or that the comet used to be a binary system like main-belt comet 288P. Regardless, we highlight the possibility of using observations of split comets as a feasible manner to study the bilobate shape or binarity fraction of cometary nuclei.

5.Temperature-chemistry coupling in the evolution of gas giant atmospheres driven by stellar flares

Authors:Harrison Nicholls, Eric Hébrard, Olivia Venot, Benjamin Drummond, Elise Evans

Abstract: The effect of enhanced UV irradiation associated with stellar flares on the atmospheric composition and temperature of gas giant exoplanets was investigated. This was done using a 1D radiative-convective-chemical model with self-consistent feedback between the temperature and the non-equilibrium chemistry. It was found that flare-driven changes to chemical composition and temperature give rise to prolonged trends in evolution across a broad range of pressure levels and species. Allowing feedback between chemistry and temperature plays an important role in establishing the quiescent structure of these atmospheres, and determines their evolution due to flares. It was found that cooler planets are more susceptible to flares than warmer ones, seeing larger changes in composition and temperature, and that temperature-chemistry feedback modifies their evolution. Long-term exposure to flares changes the transmission spectra of gas giant atmospheres; these changes differed when the temperature structure was allowed to evolve self-consistently with the chemistry. Changes in spectral features due to the effects of flares on these atmospheres can be associated with changes in composition. The effects of flares on the atmospheres of sufficiently cool planets will impact observations made with JWST. It is necessary to use self-consistent models of temperature and chemistry in order to accurately capture the effects of flares on features in the transmission spectra of cooler gas giants, but this depends heavily on the radiation environment of the planet.

6.orbitN: A symplectic integrator for planetary systems dominated by a central mass -- Insight into long-term solar system chaos

Authors:Richard E. Zeebe

Abstract: Reliable studies of the long-term dynamics of planetary systems require numerical integrators that are accurate and fast. The challenge is often formidable because the chaotic nature of many systems requires relative numerical error bounds at or close to machine precision (~1e-16, double-precision arithmetic), otherwise numerical chaos may dominate over physical chaos. Currently, the speed/accuracy demands are usually only met by symplectic integrators. For example, the most up-to-date long-term astronomical solutions for the solar system in the past (widely used in, e.g., astrochronology and high-precision geological dating) have been obtained using symplectic integrators. Yet, the source codes of these integrators are unavailable. Here I present the symplectic integrator orbitN (lean version 1.0) with the primary goal of generating accurate and reproducible long-term orbital solutions for near-Keplerian planetary systems (here the solar system) with a dominant mass M0. Among other features, orbitN-1.0 includes M0's quadrupole moment, a lunar contribution, and post-Newtonian corrections (1PN) due to M0 (fast symplectic implementation). To reduce numerical roundoff errors, Kahan compensated summation was implemented. I use orbitN to provide insight into the effect of various processes on the long-term chaos in the solar system. Notably, 1PN corrections have the opposite effect on chaoticity/stability on 100-Myr vs. Gyr-time scale. For the current application, orbitN is about as fast or faster (factor 1.15-2.6) than comparable integrators, depending on hardware. The orbitN source code (C) is available at

7.A Chondritic Solar Neighborhood

Authors:Isabella L. Trierweiler, Alexandra E. Doyle, Edward D. Young

Abstract: A persistent question in exoplanet demographics is whether exoplanetary systems form from similar compositional building blocks to our own. Polluted white dwarf stars offer a unique way to address this question as they provide measurements of the bulk compositions of exoplanetary material. We present a statistical analysis of the rocks polluting oxygen-bearing white dwarfs and compare their compositions to rocks in the Solar System. We find that the majority of the extrasolar rocks are consistent with the composition of typical chondrites. Measurement uncertainties prevent distinguishing between chondrites and bulk Earth, but do permit detecting the differences between chondritic compositions and basaltic or continental crust. We find no evidence of crust amongst the polluted white dwarfs. We show that the chondritic nature of extrasolar rocks is also supported by the compositions of local stars. While galactic chemical evolution results in variations in the relative abundances of rock-forming elements spatially and temporally on galaxy-wide scales, the current sample of polluted white dwarfs are sufficiently young and close to Earth that they are not affected by this process. We conclude that exotic compositions are not required to explain the majority of observed rock types around polluted white dwarfs, and that variations between exoplanetary compositions in the stellar neighborhood are generally not due to significant differences in the initial composition of protoplanetary disks. Nonetheless, there is evidence from stellar observations that planets formed in the first several billion years in the Galaxy have lower metal core fractions compared with Earth on average.

8.Thermal Extraction of Volatiles from Lunar and Asteroid Regolith in Axisymmetric Crank-Nicholson Modeling

Authors:Philip T. Metzger, Kris Zacny, Phillip Morrison

Abstract: A physics-based computer model has been developed to support the development of volatile extraction from regolith of the Moon and asteroids. The model is based upon empirical data sets for extraterrestrial soils and simulants, including thermal conductivity of regolith and mixed composition ice, heat capacity of soil and mixed composition ice, hydrated mineral volatile release patterns, and sublimation of ice. A new thermal conductivity relationship is derived that generalizes cases of regolith with varying temperature, soil porosity, and pore vapor pressure. Ice composition is based upon measurements of icy ejecta from the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) impact and it is shown that thermal conductivity and heat capacity equations for water ice provide adequate accuracy at the present level of development. The heat diffusion equations are integrated with gas diffusion equations using multiple adaptive timesteps. The entire model is placed into a Crank-Nicholson framework where the finite difference formalism was extended to two dimensions in axisymmetry. The one-dimensional version of the model successfully predicts heat transfer that matches lunar and asteroid data sets. The axisymmetric model has been used to study heat dissipation around lunar drills and water extraction in asteroid coring devices.

1.Understanding the Planetary Formation and Evolution in Star Clusters(UPiC)-I: Evidence of Hot Giant Exoplanets Formation Timescales

Authors:Yuan-Zhe Dai, Hui-Gen Liu, Jia-Yi Yang, Ji-Lin Zhou

Abstract: Planets in young star clusters could shed light on planet formation and evolution since star clusters can provide accurate age estimation. However, the number of transiting planets detected in clusters was only $\sim 30$, too small for statistical analysis. Thanks to the unprecedented high-precision astrometric data provided by Gaia DR2 and Gaia DR3, many new Open Clusters(OCs) and comoving groups have been identified. The UPiC project aims to find observational evidence and interpret how planet form and evolve in cluster environments. In this work, we cross-match the stellar catalogs of new OCs and comoving groups with confirmed planets and candidates. We carefully remove false positives and obtain the biggest catalog of planets in star clusters up to now, which consists of 73 confirmed planets and 84 planet candidates. After age validation, we obtain the radius--age diagram of these planets/candidates. We find an increment of the fraction of Hot Jupiters(HJs) around 100 Myr and attribute the increment to the flyby-induced high-e migration in star clusters. An additional small bump of the fraction of HJs after 1 Gyr is detected, which indicates the formation timescale of HJ around field stars is much larger than that in star clusters. Thus, stellar environments play important roles in the formation of HJs. The hot-Neptune desert occurs around 100 Myr in our sample. A combination of photoevaporation and high-e migration may sculpt the hot-Neptune desert in clusters.

2.Prebiosignature Molecules Can Be Detected in Temperate Exoplanet Atmospheres with JWST

Authors:Alastair Claringbold, Paul Rimmer, Sarah Rugheimer, Oliver Shorttle

Abstract: The search for biosignatures on exoplanets connects the fields of biology and biochemistry to astronomical observation, with the hope that we might detect evidence of active biological processes on worlds outside the solar system. Here we focus on a complementary aspect of exoplanet characterisation connecting astronomy to prebiotic chemistry: the search for molecules associated with the origin of life, prebiosignatures. Prebiosignature surveys in planetary atmospheres offer the potential to both constrain the ubiquity of life in the galaxy and provide important tests of current prebiotic syntheses outside of the laboratory setting. Here, we quantify the minimum abundance of identified prebiosignature molecules that would be required for detection by transmission spectroscopy using JWST. We consider prebiosignatures on five classes of terrestrial planet: an ocean planet, a volcanic planet, a post-impact planet, a super-Earth, and an early Earth analogue. Using a novel modelling and detection test pipeline, with simulated JWST noise, we find the detection thresholds of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), cyanoacetylene (HC3N), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), formaldehyde (CH2O), and carbon monoxide (CO) in a variety of low mean molecular weight (<5) atmospheres. We test the dependence of these detection thresholds on M dwarf target star and the number of observed transits, finding that a modest number of transits (1-10) are required to detect prebiosignatures in numerous candidate planets, including TRAPPIST-1e with a high mean molecular weight atmosphere. We find that the NIRSpec G395M/H instrument is best suited for detecting most prebiosignatures.

3.Warm Jupiters Beyond the Tidal Synchronization Limit May Exhibit a Wide Range of Secondary Eclipse Depths

Authors:Emily Rauscher, Nicolas B. Cowan, Rodrigo Luger

Abstract: With JWST we can now characterize the atmospheres of planets on longer orbital planets, but this moves us into a regime where we cannot assume that tidal forces from the star have eroded planets' obliquities and synchronized their rotation rates. These rotation vectors may be tracers of formation and evolution histories and also enable a range of atmospheric circulation states. Here we delineate the orbital space over which tidal synchronization and alignment assumptions may no longer apply and present three-dimensional atmospheric models of a hypothetical warm Jupiter over a range of rotation rates and obliquities. We simulate the secondary eclipses of this planet for different possible viewing orientations and times during its orbital, seasonal cycle. We find that the eclipse depth can be strongly influenced by rotation rate and obliquity through the timing of the eclipse relative to the planet's seasonal cycle, and advise caution in attempting to derive properties such as albedo or day-night transport from this measurement. We predict that if warm Jupiters beyond the tidal limit have intrinsic diversity in their rotation vectors, then it will manifest itself as dispersion in their secondary eclipse depths. We explore eclipse mapping as a way to uniquely constrain the rotation vector of warm Jupiters but find that the associated signals are likely at the edge of JWST performance. Nevertheless, as JWST begins to measure the secondary eclipses of longer orbital period planets, we should expect to observe the consequences of a wider range of rotation states and circulation patterns.

4.Precise Transit Photometry Using TESS: Updated Physical Properties for 28 Exoplanets Around Bright Stars

Authors:Suman Saha

Abstract: The TESS follow-up of a large number of known transiting exoplanets provide unique opportunity to study their physical properties more precisely. Being a space-based telescope, the TESS observations are devoid of any noise component resulting from the interference of Earth's atmosphere. TESS also provides a better probability to observe subsequent transit events owing to its longer uninterrupted time-series observations compared to the ground-based telescopes. Especially, for the exoplanets around bright host-stars, TESS time-series observations provides high SNR lightcurves, which can be used for higher precision studies for these exoplanets. In this work, I have studied the TESS transit photometric follow-up observations of 28 exoplanets around bright stars with $V_{mag}\le$10. The already high SNR lightcurves from TESS have been further processed with a critical noise treatment algorithm, using the wavelet denoising and the Gaussian-process regression techniques, to effectively reduce the noise components both correlated and uncorrelated in time, which were then used to estimate the physical properties of these exoplanets. The study has resulted in very precise values for the physical properties of the target exoplanets, with the improvements in precision being significant for most of the cases compared to the previous studies. Also, since a comparatively large number of transit lightcurves from TESS observations were used to estimate these physical properties for each of the target exoplanets, which removes any bias due to the lack of sufficient datasets, these updated physical properties can be considered extremely accurate and reliable for future studies.

5.Stratospheric dayside-to-nightside circulation drives the 3-D ozone distribution on synchronously rotating rocky exoplanets

Authors:Marrick Braam, Paul I. Palmer, Leen Decin, Maureen Cohen, Nathan J. Mayne

Abstract: Determining the habitability and interpreting future atmospheric observations of exoplanets requires understanding the atmospheric dynamics and chemistry from a 3-D perspective. Previous studies have shown significant spatial variability in the ozone layer of synchronously rotating M-dwarf planets, assuming an Earth-like initial atmospheric composition. We use a 3-D Coupled Climate-Chemistry model to understand this distribution of ozone and identify the mechanism responsible for it. We document a previously unreported connection between the ozone production regions on the photochemically active dayside hemisphere and the nightside devoid of stellar radiation and thus photochemistry. We find that stratospheric dayside-to-nightside overturning circulation can advect ozone-rich air to the nightside. On the nightside, ozone-rich air subsides at the locations of two quasi-stationary Rossby gyres, resulting in an exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere and the accumulation of ozone at the gyre locations. We identify the hemispheric contrast in radiative heating and cooling as the main driver of this ozone circulation. Dynamically-driven chemistry also impacts other tracer species in the atmosphere (gaseous and non-gaseous phase) as long as chemical lifetimes exceed dynamical lifetimes. These findings illustrate the 3-D nature of planetary atmospheres, predicting spatial and temporal variability that will impact spectroscopic observations of exoplanet atmospheres.

6.Results of the 2015 Workshop on Asteroid Simulants

Authors:Philip T. Metzger, Daniel T. Britt, Stephen D. Covey, John S. Lewis

Abstract: The first asteroid simulants workshop was held in late 2015. These materials are needed for tests of technologies and mission operational concepts, for training astronauts , for medical studies, and a variety of other purposes. The new program is based on lessons learned from the earlier lunar simulants program. It aims to deliver families of simulants for major spectral classes of asteroids both in cobble and regolith form, beginning with one type of carbonaceous chondrite and rapidly expanding to provide four to six more asteroid classes. These simulants will replicate a selected list of asteroid properties, but not all known properties, in order to serve the greatest number of users at an affordable price. They will be benchmarked by a variety of data sets including laboratory analysis of meteorites, observation of bolides, remote sensing of asteroids, data from asteroid missions, and scientific modeling. A variety of laboratory tests will verify the as-manufactured simulants are accurately and repeatedly providing the specified characteristics.

1.Influence of planets on debris disks in star clusters I: the 50 AU Jupiter

Authors:Kai Wu, M. B. N. Kouwenhoven, Rainer Spurzem, Xiaoying Pang

Abstract: Although debris disks may be common in exoplanet systems, only a few systems are known in which debris disks and planets coexist. Planets and the surrounding stellar population can have a significant impact on debris disk evolution. Here we study the dynamical evolution of debris structures around stars embedded in star clusters, aiming to determine how the presence of a planet affects the evolution of such structures. We combine NBODY6++GPU and REBOUND to carry out N-body simulations of planetary systems in star clusters (N=8000; Rh=0.78 pc) for a period of 100 Myr, in which 100 solar-type stars are assigned 200 test particles. Simulations are carried out with and without a Jupiter-mass planet at 50 au. We find that the planet destabilizes test particles and speeds up their evolution. The planet expels most particles in nearby and resonant orbits. Remaining test particles tend to retain small inclinations when the planet is present, and fewer test particles obtain retrograde orbits. Most escaping test particles with speeds smaller than the star cluster's escape speed originate from cold regions of the planetary system or from regions near the planet. We identify three regions within planetary systems in star clusters: (i) the private region of the planet, where few debris particles remain (40 - 60 au), (ii) the reach of the planet, in which particles are affected by the planet (0 - 400 au), and (iii) the territory of the planetary system, most particles outside which will eventually escape (0 - 700 au).

2.Trajectory Optimisation of a Swarm Orbiting 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Maximising Gravitational Signal

Authors:Rasmus Maråk, Emmanuel Blazquez, Pablo Gómez

Abstract: Proper modelling of the gravitational fields of irregularly shaped asteroids and comets is an essential yet challenging part of any spacecraft visit and flyby to these bodies. Accurate density representations provide crucial information for proximity missions which rely heavily on it to design safe and efficient trajectories. This work explores using a spacecraft swarm to maximise the measured gravitational signal in a hypothetical mission around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Spacecraft trajectories are simultaneously propagated with an evolutionary optimisation approach to maximise overall signal return. The propagation is based on an open-source polyhedral gravity model using a detailed mesh of 67P and considers the comet's sidereal rotation. We compare performance on a mission scenario using one and four spacecraft. The results show that the swarm achieved almost twice the single spacecraft coverage over a fixed mission duration. However, optimising for a single spacecraft results in a more effective trajectory. Overall, this work serves as a testbed for efficiently designing a set of trajectories in this complex gravitational environment balancing measured signals and risks in a swarm scenario. The codebase and results are publicly available at

3.In-situ enrichment in heavy elements of hot Jupiters

Authors:A. Morbidelli, K. Batygin, E. Lega

Abstract: Context: Radius and mass measurements of short-period giant planets reveal that many of these planets contain a large amount of heavy elements, in sharp contrast with the expectations of the conventional core-accretion model for the origin of giant planets. Aims: The proposed explanations for the heavy-element enrichment of giant planets fall short of explaining the most enriched planets. We look for additional processes that can explain the full envelope of inferred enrichments. Methods: We revisit the dynamics of pebbles and dust in the vicinity of giant planets using analytic estimates. Although our results are derived in the framework of a viscous alpha-disk we also discuss the case of disks driven by angular momentum removal in magnetized winds. Results: When giant planets are far from the star, dust and pebbles are confined in a pressure bump at the outer edge of the planet-induced gap. Instead, when the planets reach the inner part of the disk (r << 2 au), dust penetrates the gap together with the gas. The dust/gas ratio can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude if radial drift of dust is not impeded farther out by other barriers. Thus, hot planets undergoing runaway gas accretion can swallow a large amount of dust. Conclusions: Whereas the gas accreted by giant planets in the outer disk is very dust-poor, that accreted by hot planets can be extremely dust-rich. Thus, provided that a large fraction of the atmosphere of hot-Jupiters is accreted in situ, a large amount of dust can be accreted as well. We draw a distinction between this process and pebble accretion, which is ineffective at small stellocentric radii, even for super-Earths. Giant planets farther out in the disk are extremely effective barriers against the flow of pebbles and dust across their gap.

1.The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. A sub-Neptunian mass planet in the habitable zone of HN Lib

Authors:E. González-Álvarez, J. Kemmer, P. Chaturvedi, J. A. Caballero, A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, V. J. S. Béjar, C. Cifuentes, E. Herrero, D. Kossakowski, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, E. Rodríguez, C. Rodríguez-López, J. Sanz-Forcada, Y. Shan, S. Stock, H. M. Tabernero, L. Tal-Or, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, M. J. López-González, D. Montes, J. C. Morales, E. Pallé, S. Pedraz, M. Perger, S. Reffert, S. Sabotta, A. Schweitzer, M. Zechmeister

Abstract: We report the discovery of HN Lib b, a sub-Neptunian mass planet orbiting the nearby ($d \approx$ = 6.25 pc) M4.0 V star HN Lib detected by our CARMENES radial-velocity (RV) survey. We determined a planetary minimum mass of $M_\text{b}\sin i = $ 5.46 $\pm$ 0.75 $\text{M}_\oplus$ and an orbital period of $P_\text{b} = $ 36.116 $\pm$ 0.029 d, using $\sim$5 yr of CARMENES data, as well as archival RVs from HARPS and HIRES spanning more than 13 years. The flux received by the planet equals half the instellation on Earth, which places it in the middle of the conservative habitable zone (HZ) of its host star. The RV data show evidence for another planet candidate with $M_\text{[c]}\sin i = $ 9.7 $\pm$ 1.9 $\text{M}_\oplus$ and $P_\text{[c]} = $ 113.46 $\pm$ 0.20 d. The long-term stability of the signal and the fact that the best model for our data is a two-planet model with an independent activity component stand as strong arguments for establishing a planetary origin. However, we cannot rule out stellar activity due to its proximity to the rotation period of HN Lib, which we measured using CARMENES activity indicators and photometric data from a ground-based multi-site campaign as well as archival data. The discovery adds HN Lib b to the shortlist of super-Earth planets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs, but HN Lib [c] probably cannot be inhabited because, if confirmed, it would most likely be an icy giant.

2.Investigation of the Robustness of Neural Density Fields

Authors:Jonas Schuhmacher, Fabio Gratl, Dario Izzo, Pablo Gómez

Abstract: Recent advances in modeling density distributions, so-called neural density fields, can accurately describe the density distribution of celestial bodies without, e.g., requiring a shape model - properties of great advantage when designing trajectories close to these bodies. Previous work introduced this approach, but several open questions remained. This work investigates neural density fields and their relative errors in the context of robustness to external factors like noise or constraints during training, like the maximal available gravity signal strength due to a certain distance exemplified for 433 Eros and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It is found that both models trained on a polyhedral and mascon ground truth perform similarly, indicating that the ground truth is not the accuracy bottleneck. The impact of solar radiation pressure on a typical probe affects training neglectable, with the relative error being of the same magnitude as without noise. However, limiting the precision of measurement data by applying Gaussian noise hurts the obtainable precision. Further, pretraining is shown as practical in order to speed up network training. Hence, this work demonstrates that training neural networks for the gravity inversion problem is appropriate as long as the gravity signal is distinguishable from noise. Code and results are available at

3.Analysing high resolution digital Mars images using machine learning

Authors:M. Gergacz, A. Kereszturi

Abstract: The search for ephemeral liquid water on Mars is an ongoing activity. After the recession of the seasonal polar ice cap on Mars, small water ice patches may be left behind in shady places due to the low thermal conductivity of the Martian surface and atmosphere. During late spring and early summer, these patches may be exposed to direct sunlight and warm up rapidly enough for the liquid phase to emerge. To see the spatial and temporal occurrence of such ice patches, optical images should be searched for and checked. Previously a manual image analysis was conducted on 110 images from the southern hemisphere, captured by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter space mission. Out of these, 37 images were identified with smaller ice patches, which were distinguishable by their brightness, colour and strong connection to local topographic shading. In this study, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is applied to find further images with potential water ice patches in the latitude band between -40{\deg} and -60{\deg}, where the seasonal retreat of the polar ice cap happens. Previously analysed HiRISE images are used to train the model, each was split into hundreds of pieces, expanding the training dataset to 6240 images. A test run conducted on 38 new HiRISE images indicates that the program can generally recognise small bright patches, however further training might be needed for more precise predictions.Using a CNN model may make it realistic to analyse all available surface images, aiding us in selecting areas for further investigation.

4.Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles

Authors:John E. Lane, Philip T. Metzger, Christopher D. Immer, Xiaoyi Li

Abstract: A mathematical model and software implementation developed to predict trajectories of single lunar dust particles acted on by a high velocity gas flow is discussed. The model uses output from a computation fluid dynamics (CFD) or direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulation of a rocket nozzle hot gas jet. The gas density, velocity vector field, and temperature predicted by the CFD/DSMC simulations, provide the data necessary to compute the forces and accelerations acting on a single particle of regolith. All calculations of trajectory assume that the duration of particle flight is much shorter than the change in gas properties, i.e., the particle trajectory calculations take into account the spatial variation of the gas jet, but not the temporal variation. This is a reasonable first-order assumption. Final results are compared to photogrammetry derived estimates of dust angles form Apollo landing videos.

5.The Physical State of Lunar Soil in the Permanently Shadowed Craters of the Moon

Authors:Jacob N. Gamsky, Philip T. Metzger

Abstract: The physical state of the lunar soil in the permanently shadowed craters of the moon is inferred from experimental investigation. The permanently shadowed craters do not undergo the same thermal cycling experienced by other parts of the moon and therefore could be slightly less compacted. This study is significant because excavating, roving, and landing interactions, along with the energy budgets and deployment schedules for associated technology, need to be scaled and designed properly. Results indicate that the degree of compaction due to thermal cycling is a function of the depth in the soil column.

1.JWST molecular mapping and characterization of Enceladus' water plume feeding its torus

Authors:G. L. Villanueva, H. B. Hammel, S. N. Milam, V. Kofman, S. Faggi, C. R. Glein, R. Cartwright, L. Roth, K. P. Hand, L. Paganini, J. Spencer, J. Stansberry, B. Holler, N. Rowe-Gurney, S. Protopapa, G. Strazzulla, G. Liuzzi, G. Cruz-Mermy, M. El Moutamid, M. Hedman, K. Denny

Abstract: Enceladus is a prime target in the search for life in our solar system, having an active plume likely connected to a large liquid water subsurface ocean. Using the sensitive NIRSpec instrument onboard JWST, we searched for organic compounds and characterized the plume's composition and structure. The observations directly sample the fluorescence emissions of H2O and reveal an extraordinarily extensive plume (up to 10,000 km or 40 Enceladus radii) at cryogenic temperatures (25 K) embedded in a large bath of emission originating from Enceladus' torus. Intriguingly, the observed outgassing rate (300 kg/s) is similar to that derived from close-up observations with Cassini 15 years ago, and the torus density is consistent with previous spatially unresolved measurements with Herschel 13 years ago, suggesting that the vigor of gas eruption from Enceladus has been relatively stable over decadal timescales. This level of activity is sufficient to maintain a derived column density of 4.5x1017 m-2 for the embedding equatorial torus, and establishes Enceladus as the prime source of water across the Saturnian system. We performed searches for several non-water gases (CO2, CO, CH4, C2H6, CH3OH), but none were identified in the spectra. On the surface of the trailing hemisphere, we observe strong H2O ice features, including its crystalline form, yet we do not recover CO2, CO nor NH3 ice signatures from these observations. As we prepare to send new spacecraft into the outer solar system, these observations demonstrate the unique ability of JWST in providing critical support to the exploration of distant icy bodies and cryovolcanic plumes.

2.A dynamical survey of the trans-Neptunian region II.: On the nature of chaotic diffusion

Authors:Emese Kővári, Emese Forgács-Dajka, Tamás Kovács, Csaba Kiss, Zsolt Sándor

Abstract: On long enough timescales, chaotic diffusion has the potential to significantly alter the appearance of a dynamical system. The solar system is no exception: diffusive processes take part in the transportation of small bodies and provide dynamical pathways even for the distant trans-Neptunian objects to reach the inner solar system. In this Letter, we carry out a thorough investigation of the nature of chaotic diffusion. We analyze the temporal evolution of the mean squared displacement of ten thousand ensembles of test particles and quantify in each case the diffusion exponent (enabling the classification between normal, sub-, and super-diffusion), the generalized diffusion coefficient, and a characteristic diffusion timescale, too. This latter quantity is compared with an entropy-based timescale, and the two approaches are studied in light of direct computations as well. Our results are given in the context of two-dimensional maps, thereby facilitating the understanding of the relationship between the typical phase space structures and the properties of chaotic diffusion.

3.Detecting Multi-Planetary Systems with Gravitational Microlensing and the Roman Space Telescope

Authors:Hossein Fatheddin, Sedighe Sajadian

Abstract: It is plausible that most of the Stars in the Milky Way (MW) Galaxy, like the Sun, consist of planetary systems, instead of a single planet. Out of the estimately discovered 3,950 planet-hosting stars, about 860 of them are known to be multiplanetary systems (as of March, 2023). Gravitational microlensing, which is the magnification in the light of a source star, due to a single or several lenses, has proven to be one of the most useful Astrophysical phenomena with many applications. Until now, many extrasolar planets (exoplanets) have been discovered through binary microlensing, where the lens system consists of a star with one planet. In this paper, we discuss and explore the detection of multi-planetary systems that host two exoplanets via microlensing. This is done through the analysis and modeling of possible triple lens configurations (one star and two planets) of a microlensing event. Furthermore, we examine different magnifications and caustic areas of the second planet, by comparing the magnification maps of triple and binary models in different settings. We also discuss the possibility of detecting the corresponding light curves of such planetary systems with the future implementation of the Nancy Grace Roman (Roman) Space Telescope and its Galactic Time Domain survey.

4.BEAST detection of a brown dwarf and a low-mass stellar companion around the young bright B star HIP 81208

Authors:Gayathri Viswanath, Markus Janson, Raffaele Gratton, Vito Squicciarini, Laetitia Rodet, Simon C. Ringqvist, Eric E. Mamajek, Sabine Reffert, Gaël Chauvin, Philippe Delorme, Arthur Vigan, Mickaël Bonnefoy, Natalia Engler, Silvano Desidera, Thomas Henning, Janis Hagelberg, Maud Langlois, Michael Meyer

Abstract: Recent observations from B-star Exoplanet Abundance Study (BEAST) have illustrated the existence of sub-stellar companions around very massive stars. In this paper, we present the detection of two lower mass companions to a relatively nearby ($148.7^{+1.5}_{-1.3}$ pc), young ($17^{+3}_{-4}$ Myr), bright (V=$6.632\pm0.006$ mag), $2.58\pm0.06~ M_{\odot}$ B9V star HIP 81208 residing in the Sco-Cen association, using the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. Analysis of the photometry obtained gives mass estimates of $67^{+6}_{-7}~M_J$ for the inner companion and $0.135^{+0.010}_{-0.013}~M_{\odot}$ for the outer companion, indicating the former to be most likely a brown dwarf and the latter to be a low-mass star. The system is compact but unusual, as the orbital planes of the two companions are likely close to orthogonal. The preliminary orbital solutions we derived for the system indicate that the star and the two companions are likely in a Kozai resonance, rendering the system dynamically very interesting for future studies.

1.Spatio-temporal influence of solar activity on global air temperature

Authors:S. T. Ogunjo, A. B. Rabiu

Abstract: Previous studies on the impact and influence of solar activity on terrestrial weather has yielded contradictory results in literature. Present study presents, on a global scale, the correlation between surface air temperature and two solar activity indices (Sunspot number, 'Rz', and solar radio flux at 10.7, 'F10.7' ) at different time scales during solar cycle 23. Global air temperature has higher correlation values of $\pm 0.8$ with F10.7 compared to Rz ($\pm 0.3$). Our results showed hemispheric delineation of the correlation between air temperature and solar activity with negative correlation in the southern hemisphere and positive correlation in the northern hemisphere. At the onset of the solar cycle, this hemispheric delineation pattern was prevalent, however, an inverse hemispheric delineation was observed at the recession of the solar cycle.

2.Constructing a refined model of small bodies in the solar system -- II. The Plutinos

Authors:Yue Chen, Jian Li

Abstract: As the second part of our study, in this paper, we proceed to refine the solar system model by incorporating the gravitational influence of Plutinos in Neptune's 2:3 resonance. We aim to develop the arc model to represent the global perturbation of Plutinos by taking into account their asymmetric spatial distribution resulting from the 2:3 resonance, and demonstrate the difference to the commonly employed ring model. The global perturbation of Plutinos is measured by the change in the Sun-Neptune distance. We begin by deriving the number density of the discrete-arc comprised of point masses to accurately represent the continuous-arc. Based on the resonant characteristics of the 2:3 MMR, we then construct three overlapping discrete-arcs to model the Plutinos. The perturbations of these arcs are investigated in detail, considering various azimuthal and radial distributions associated with the resonant amplitudes A and eccentricities e of the Plutinos, respectively. The change in Sun-Neptune distance, i.e. $\Delta d_{SN}$, caused by Plutinos increases as the range of A widens. At e<=0.1, $\Delta d_{SN}$ can reach magnitudes on the order of 100 km. However, the effects of Plutinos' A and e can possibly balance each other. As given e>=0.25, we find that $\Delta d_{SN}$ approaches zero, indicating a negligible contribution from highly eccentric Plutinos to the planetary ephemerides. We finally provide a concise analytic expression, which contains the parameters A, e and the total mass of Plutinos, to estimate $\Delta d_{SN}$ at any epoch from 2020 to 2120. Furthermore, since the difference in $\Delta d_{SN}$ between the arc and ring model can be as large as 170 km, we conclude that the ring model is unsuitable for representing the perturbations of Plutinos. The idea of the multiple-arc model designed for Plutinos can be readily generalized to other MMRs heavily populated by small bodies.

3.Kepler's Last Planet Discoveries: Two New Planets and One Single-Transit Candidate from K2 Campaign 19

Authors:Elyse Incha, Andrew Vanderburg, Tom Jacobs, Daryll LaCourse, Allyson Bieryla, Emily Pass, Steve B. Howell, Perry Berlind, Michael Calkins, Gilbert Esquerdo, David W. Latham, Andrew W. Mann

Abstract: The Kepler space telescope was responsible for the discovery of over 2,700 confirmed exoplanets, more than half of the total number of exoplanets known today. These discoveries took place during both Kepler's primary mission, when it spent 4 years staring at the same part of the sky, and its extended K2 mission, when a mechanical failure forced it to observe different parts of the sky along the ecliptic. At the very end of the mission, when Kepler was exhausting the last of its fuel reserves, it collected a short set of observations known as K2 Campaign 19. So far, no planets have been discovered in this dataset because it only yielded about a week of high-quality data. Here, we report some of the last planet discoveries made by Kepler in the Campaign 19 dataset. We conducted a visual search of the week of high-quality Campaign 19 data and identified three possible planet transits. Each planet candidate was originally identified with only one recorded transit, from which we were able to estimate the planets' radii and estimate the semimajor axes and orbital periods. Analysis of lower-quality data collected after low fuel pressure caused the telescope's pointing precision to suffer revealed additional transits for two of these candidates, allowing us to statistically validate them as genuine exoplanets. We also tentatively confirm the transits of one planet with TESS. These discoveries demonstrate Kepler's exoplanet detection power, even when it was literally running on fumes.

4.TOI-1416: A system with a super-Earth planet with a 1.07d period

Authors:H. J. Deeg, I. Y. Georgieva, G. Nowak, C. M. Persson, B. L. Cale, F. Murgas, E. Pallé, D. Godoy Rivera, F. Dai, D. R. Ciardi, J. M. Akana Murphy, P. G. Beck, C. J. Burke, J. Cabrera, I. Carleo, W. D. Cochran, K. A. Collins, Sz. Csizmadia, M. El Mufti, M. Fridlund, A. Fukui, D. Gandolfi, R. A. García, E. W. Guenther, P. Guerra, S. Grziwa, H. Isaacson, K. Isogai, J. M. Jenkins, P. Kábath, J. Korth, K. W. F. Lam, D. W. Latham, R. Luque, M. B. Lund, J. H. Livingston, S. Mathis, S. Mathur, N. Narita, J. Orell-Miquel, H. L. M. Osborne, H. Parviainen, P. P. Plavchan, S. Redfield, D. R. Rodriguez, R. P. Schwarz, S. Seager, A. M. S. Smith, V. Van Eylen, J. Van Zandt, J. N Winn, C. Ziegler

Abstract: TOI 1416 (BD+42 2504, HIP 70705) is a V=10 late G or early K-type dwarf star with transits detected by TESS. Radial velocities verify the presence of the transiting planet TOI-1416 b, with a period of 1.07d, a mass of $3.48 M_{Earth}$ and a radius of $1.62 R_{Earth}$, implying a slightly sub-Earth density of $4.50$ g cm$^{-3}$. The RV data also further indicate a tentative planet c with a period of 27.4 or 29.5 days, whose nature cannot be verified due to strong suspicions about contamination by a signal related to the Moon's synodic period of 29.53 days. The near-USP (Ultra Short Period) planet TOI-1416 b is a typical representative of a short-period and hot ($T_{eq} \approx$ 1570 K) super-Earth like planet. A planet model of an interior of molten magma containing a significant fraction of dissolved water provides a plausible explanation for its composition, and its atmosphere could be suitable for transmission spectroscopy with JWST. The position of TOI-1416 b within the radius-period distribution corroborates that USPs with periods of less than one day do not form any special group of planets. Rather, this implies that USPs belong to a continuous distribution of super-Earth like planets with periods ranging from the shortest known ones up to ~ 30 days, whose period-radius distribution is delimitated against larger radii by the Neptune desert and by the period-radius valley that separates super-Earths from sub-Neptune planets. In the abundance of small-short periodic planets against period, a plateau between periods of 0.6 to 1.4 days has however become notable that is compatible with the low-eccentricity formation channel. For the Neptune desert, its lower limits required a revision due to the increasing population of short period planets and new limits are provided. These limits are also given in terms of the planets' insolation and effective temperatures.

5.JWST/NIRSpec Observations of the Planetary Mass Companion TWA 27B

Authors:K. L. Luhman, P. Tremblin, S. M. Birkmann, E. Manjavacas, J. Valenti, C. Alves de Oliveira, T. L. Beck, G. Giardino, N. Lutzgendorf, B. J. Rauscher, M. Sirianni

Abstract: We present 1-5um spectroscopy of the young planetary mass companion TWA 27B (2M1207B) performed with NIRSpec on board the James Webb Space Telescope. In these data, the fundamental band of CH_4 is absent and the fundamental band of CO is weak. The nondetection of CH_4 reinforces a previously observed trend of weaker CH_4 with younger ages among L dwarfs, which has been attributed to enhanced non-equilibrium chemistry among young objects. The weakness of CO may reflect an additional atmospheric property that varies with age, such as the temperature gradient or cloud thickness. We are able to reproduce the broad shape of the spectrum with an ATMO cloudless model that has T=1300 K, non-equilibrium chemistry, and a temperature gradient reduction caused by fingering convection. However, the fundamental bands of CH_4 and CO are somewhat stronger in the model. In addition, the model temperature of 1300 K is higher than expected from evolutionary models given the luminosity and age of TWA 27B (T=1200 K). Previous models of young L-type objects suggest that the inclusion of clouds could potentially resolve these issues; it remains to be seen whether cloudy models can provide a good fit to the 1-5um data from NIRSpec. TWA 27B exhibits emission in Paschen transitions and the He I triplet at 1.083um, which are signatures of accretion that provide the first evidence of a circumstellar disk. We have used the NIRSpec data to estimate the bolometric luminosity of TWA 27B (log L/L_sun=-4.466+/-0.014), which implies a mass of 5-6 MJup according to evolutionary models.

6.The origin of the terrestrial planets

Authors:Richard B. Firestone

Abstract: Three major planets, Venus, Earth, and Mercury formed out of the solar nebula. A fourth planetesimal, Theia, also formed near Earth where it collided in a giant impact, rebounding as the planet Mars. During this impact Earth lost ${\approx}4$\% of its crust and mantle that is now is found on Mars and the Moon. At the antipode of the giant impact, $\approx$60\% of Earth's crust, atmosphere, and a large amount of mantle were ejected into space forming the Moon. The lost crust never reformed and became the Earth's ocean basins. The Theia impact site corresponds to Indian Ocean gravitational anomaly on Earth and the Hellas basin on Mars. The dynamics of the giant impact are consistent with the rotational rates and axial tilts of both Earth and Mars. The giant impact removed sufficient CO$_2$ from Earth's atmosphere to avoid a runaway greenhouse effect, initiated plate tectonics, and gave life time to form near geothermal vents at the continental margins. Mercury formed near Venus where on a close approach it was slingshot into the Sun's convective zone losing 94\% of its mass, much of which remains there today. Black carbon, from CO$_2$ decomposed by the intense heat, is still found on the surface of Mercury. Arriving at 616 km/s, Mercury dramatically altered the Sun's rotational energy, explaining both its anomalously slow rotation rate and axial tilt. These results are quantitatively supported by mass balances, the current locations of the terrestrial planets, and the orientations of their major orbital axes.

1.Dust dynamics in current sheets within protoplanetary disks. I. Isothermal models including ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic resistivity

Authors:U. Lebreuilly, M. -M. Mac Low, B. Commerçon, D. S. Ebel

Abstract: Context: Chondrules originate from the reprocessing of dust grains. They are key building blocks of telluric planets, yet their formation, which must happen in strongly localized regions of high temperature, remains poorly understood. Aims: We examine the dust spatial distribution near regions of strong local heating produced by current sheets, as a step toward exploring a potential path for chondrule formation. We further aim to investigate current sheet formation under various conditions in protoplanetary disks in the presence of ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic resistivity and the effect of current sheet morphology on dust dynamics in their vicinity. Methods: We use the RAMSES code including modules for non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and solution of the dynamics of multiple sizes of dust grains to compute unstratified shearing box simulations of current sheet formation. We investigate, through seven models the effect of the ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic resistivity strength, the initial density, and magnetic field, as well as the resolution and box size. Results: We find that current sheets form in all our models, with typical widths of 0.001-0.01 AU and that strong dust fraction variations occur for millimeter-sized grains. These variations are typically of an order of magnitude and up to two orders of magnitude for the most favorable cases. We also show that the box size and resolution has a strong impact on the current sheet distribution and intensity. Conclusions: The formation of current sheets that can intensely heat their surroundings near strong dynamical dust fraction variations could have important implications for chondrule formation, as it appears likely to happen in regions of large dust fraction.

2.Awesome SOSS: Atmospheric Characterisation of WASP-96 b using the JWST Early Release Observations

Authors:Jake Taylor, Michael Radica, Luis Welbanks, Ryan J. MacDonald, Jasmina Blecic, Maria Zamyatina, Alexander Roth, Jacob L. Bean, Vivien Parmentier, Louis-Philippe Coulombe, Adina D. Feinstein, Néstor Espinoza, Björn Benneke, David Lafrenière, René Doyon, Eva-Maria Ahrer

Abstract: The newly operational JWST offers the potential to study the atmospheres of distant worlds with precision that has not been achieved before. One of the first exoplanets observed by JWST in the summer of 2022 was WASP-96 b, a hot-Saturn orbiting a G8 star. As part of the Early Release Observations program, one transit of WASP-96 b was observed with NIRISS/SOSS to capture its transmission spectrum from 0.6-2.85 microns. In this work, we utilise four retrieval frameworks to report precise and robust measurements of WASP-96 b's atmospheric composition. We constrain the logarithmic volume mixing ratios of multiple chemical species in its atmosphere, including: H$_2$O = $-3.59 ^{+ 0.35 }_{- 0.35 }$, CO$_2$ = $-4.38 ^{+ 0.47 }_{- 0.57 }$ and K = $-8.04 ^{+ 1.22 }_{- 1.71 }$. Notably, our results offer a first abundance constraint on potassium in WASP-96 b's atmosphere, and important inferences on carbon-bearing species such as CO$_2$ and CO. Our short wavelength NIRISS/SOSS data are best explained by the presence of an enhanced Rayleigh scattering slope, despite previous inferences of a clear atmosphere - although we find no evidence for a grey cloud deck. Finally, we explore the data resolution required to appropriately interpret observations using NIRISS/SOSS. We find that our inferences are robust against different binning schemes. That is, from low $R = 125$ to the native resolution of the instrument, the bulk atmospheric properties of the planet are consistent. Our systematic analysis of these exquisite observations demonstrates the power of NIRISS/SOSS to detect and constrain multiple molecular and atomic species in the atmospheres of hot giant planets.

3.The influence of planetesimal fragmentation on planet formation

Authors:Nicolas Kaufmann, Yann Alibert

Abstract: Context. The effects of planetesimal fragmentation on planet formation has been studied by various models on single embryos therefore neglecting concurrent effects mostly in the outer disk. They show that planetesimal fragmentation can both hinder or aid planet formation due to the introduction of competing effects, namely speeding up accretion and depleting the feeding zone of forming planets. Aims. We investigate the influence of the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals on the planet formation process using a population synthesis approach. We aim to investigate its effects for a large set of initial conditions and also explore the consequences on the formation of multiple embryos in the same disk. Methods. We run global planet formation simulations including fragmentation, drift and an improved ice line description. To do this we use a fragmentation model in our code. The initial conditions for the simulations that are informed by observations are varied to generate synthetic exoplanet populations. Results. Our synthetic populations show that depending on the typical size of solids generated in collisions, fragmentation in tandem with the radial drift can either enhance or hinder planet formation. For larger fragments we see increased accretion throughout the populations especially beyond the ice line. However, the shorter drift timescale of smaller fragments, due to their stronger coupling to the gas, can hinder the formation process. Furthermore, beyond the ice line fragmentation promotes late growth when the damping by gas drag fades Conclusions. Fragmentation significantly affects the planet formation process in various ways for all types of planet and warrants further investigation.

4.Awesome SOSS: Transmission Spectroscopy of WASP-96b with NIRISS/SOSS

Authors:Michael Radica, Luis Welbanks, Néstor Espinoza, Jake Taylor, Louis-Philippe Coulombe, Adina D. Feinstein, Jayesh Goyal, Nicholas Scarsdale, Loic Albert, Priyanka Baghel, Jacob L. Bean, Jasmina Blecic, David Lafrenière, Ryan J. MacDonald, Maria Zamyatina, Romain Allart, Étienne Artigau, Natasha E. Batalha, Neil James Cook, Nicolas B. Cowan, Lisa Dang, René Doyon, Marylou Fournier-Tondreau, Doug Johnstone, Michael R. Line, Sarah E. Moran, Sagnick Mukherjee, Stefan Pelletier, Pierre-Alexis Roy, Geert Jan Talens, Joseph Filippazzo, Klaus Pontoppidan, Kevin Volk

Abstract: The future is now - after its long-awaited launch in December 2021, JWST began science operations in July 2022 and is already revolutionizing exoplanet astronomy. The Early Release Observations (ERO) program was designed to provide the first images and spectra from JWST, covering a multitude of science cases and using multiple modes of each on-board instrument. Here, we present transmission spectroscopy observations of the hot-Saturn WASP-96b with the Single Object Slitless Spectroscopy (SOSS) mode of the Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph, observed as part of the ERO program. As the SOSS mode presents some unique data reduction challenges, we provide an in-depth walk-through of the major steps necessary for the reduction of SOSS data: including background subtraction, correction of 1/f noise, and treatment of the trace order overlap. We furthermore offer potential routes to correct for field star contamination, which can occur due to the SOSS mode's slitless nature. By comparing our extracted transmission spectrum with grids of atmosphere models, we find an atmosphere metallicity between 1x and 5x solar, and a solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio. Moreover, our models indicate that no grey cloud deck is required to fit WASP-96b's transmission spectrum, but find evidence for a slope shortward of 0.9$\mu$m, which could either be caused by enhanced Rayleigh scattering or the red wing of a pressure-broadened Na feature. Our work demonstrates the unique capabilities of the SOSS mode for exoplanet transmission spectroscopy and presents a step-by-step reduction guide for this new and exciting instrument.

5.The Orbital Eccentricity Distribution of Planets Orbiting M dwarfs

Authors:Sheila Sagear, Sarah Ballard

Abstract: We investigate the underlying distribution of orbital eccentricities for planets around early-to-mid M dwarf host stars. We employ a sample of 163 planets around early- to mid-M dwarfs across 101 systems detected by NASA's Kepler Mission. We constrain the orbital eccentricity for each planet by leveraging the Kepler lightcurve together with a stellar density prior, constructed using metallicity from spectroscopy, Ks magnitude from 2MASS, and stellar parallax from Gaia. Within a Bayesian hierarchical framework, we extract the underlying eccentricity distribution, assuming alternately Rayleigh, half-Gaussian, and Beta functions for both single- and multi-transit systems. We describe the eccentricity distribution for apparently single-transiting planetary systems with a Rayleigh distribution with sigma = 0.19 (+0.04, -0.03), and for multi-transit systems with sigma = 0.03 (+0.02, -0.01). The data suggest the possibility of distinct dynamically warmer and cooler sub-populations within the single-transit distribution: The single-transit data prefer a mixture model composed of two distinct Rayleigh distributions with sigma_1 = 0.02 (+0.11, -0.00) and sigma_2 = 0.24 (+0.20, -0.03) over a single Rayleigh distribution, with 7:1 odds. We contextualize our findings within a planet formation framework, by comparing them to analogous results in the literature for planets orbiting FGK stars. By combining our derived eccentricity distribution with other M dwarf demographic constraints, we estimate the underlying eccentricity distribution for the population of early- to mid-M dwarf planets in the local neighborhood.

6.Retrieval survey of metals in six ultra-hot Jupiters: Trends in chemistry, rain-out, ionisation and atmospheric dynamics

Authors:Siddharth Gandhi, Aurora Kesseli, Yapeng Zhang, Amy Louca, Ignas Snellen, Matteo Brogi, Yamila Miguel, Núria Casasayas-Barris, Stefan Pelletier, Rico Landman, Cathal Maguire, Neale P. Gibson

Abstract: Ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy (HRS) has detected numerous chemical species and atmospheric dynamics in exoplanets, most notably ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs). However, quantitative estimates on abundances have been challenging but are essential for accurate comparative characterisation and to determine formation scenarios. In this work we retrieve the atmospheres of six UHJs (WASP-76~b, MASCARA-4~b, MASCARA-2~b, WASP-121~b, HAT-P-70~b and WASP-189~b) with ESPRESSO and HARPS-N/HARPS observations, exploring trends in eleven neutral species and dynamics. While Fe abundances agree well with stellar values, Mg, Ni, Cr, Mn and V show more variation, highlighting the difficulty in using a single species as a proxy for metallicity. We find that Ca, Na, Ti and TiO are under-abundant, potentially due to ionisation and/or night-side rain-out. Our retrievals also show that relative abundances between species are more robust, consistent with previous works. We perform spatially- and phase-resolved retrievals for WASP-76~b and WASP-121~b given their high signal-to-noise observations, and find the chemical abundances in each of the terminator regions are broadly consistent. We additionally constrain dynamics for our sample through Doppler shifts and broadening of the planetary signals during the primary eclipse, with median blue shifts between $\sim$0.9-9.0~km/s due to day-night winds. Furthermore, we constrain spectroscopic masses for MASCARA-2~b and HAT-P-70~b consistent with their known upper limits, but we note that these may be biased due to degeneracies. This work highlights the importance of future HRS studies to further probe differences and trends between exoplanets.

1.Near-Earth Asteroids of Cometary Origin Associated with the Virginid Complex

Authors:G. I. Kokhirova, A. I. Zhonmuhammadi, U. H. Khamroev, T. J. Jopek

Abstract: The Virginid meteoroid streams produce a series of meteor showers active annually during February-May. A certain parent comet is not found but a related association of some showers with near-Earth asteroids was previously established and a cometary origin of these asteroids was suggested. We performed a new search for NEAs belonging to the Virginid asteroid-meteoroid complex. On the base of calculation of orbital evolution of a sample of NEAs and determination of theoretical features of related showers a search for observable active showers close to theoretically predicted ones was carried out. As a result, the predicted showers of 29 NEAs were identified with the showers of the Virginid complex. Revealed association points to a cometary nature of NEAs that are moving within the stream and may be considered as extinct fragments of a larger comet-progenitor of the Virginid asteroid-meteoroid complex.

2.The ice composition close to the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Authors:Matthias Laeuter, Tobias Kramer, Martin Rubin, Kathrin Altwegg

Abstract: The relation between ice composition in the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on the one hand and relative abundances of volatiles in the coma on the other hand is important for the interpretation of density measurements in the environment of the cometary nucleus. For the 2015 apparition, in situ measurements from the two ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) sensors COPS (COmet Pressure Sensor) and DFMS (Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer) determined gas densities at the spacecraft position for the 14 gas species H2O, CO2, CO, H2S, O2, C2H6, CH3OH, H2CO, CH4, NH3, HCN, C2H5OH, OCS, and CS2. We derive the spatial distribution of the gas emissions on the complex shape of the nucleus separately for 50 subintervals of the two-year mission time. The most active patches of gas emission are identified on the surface. We retrieve the relation between solar irradiation and observed emissions from these patches. The emission rates are compared to a minimal thermophysical model to infer the surface active fraction of H2O and CO2. We obtain characteristic differences in the ice composition close to the surface between the two hemispheres with a reduced abundance of CO2 ice on the northern hemisphere (locations with positive latitude). We do not see significant differences for the ice composition on the two lobes of 67P/C-G.

3.Transiting Exoplanet Yields for the Roman Galactic Bulge Time Domain Survey Predicted from Pixel-Level Simulations

Authors:Robert F. Wilson, Thomas Barclay, Brian P. Powell, Joshua Schlieder, Christina Hedges, Benjamin T. Montet, Elisa Quintana, Iain McDonald, Matthew T. Penny, Nestor Espinoza, Eamonn Kerins

Abstract: The Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (Roman) is NASA's next astrophysics flagship mission, expected to launch in late 2026. As one of Roman's core community science surveys, the Galactic Bulge Time Domain Survey (GBTDS) will collect photometric and astrometric data for over 100 million stars in the Galactic bulge to search for microlensing planets. To assess the potential with which Roman can detect exoplanets via transit, we developed and conducted pixel-level simulations of transiting planets in the GBTDS. From these simulations, we predict that Roman will find between $\sim$60,000 and $\sim$200,000 transiting planets, over an order of magnitude more planets than are currently known. While the majority of these planets will be giants ($R_p>4R_\oplus$) on close-in orbits ($a<0.3$ au), the yield also includes between $\sim$7,000 and $\sim$12,000 small planets ($R_p<4 R_\oplus$). The yield for small planets depends sensitively on the observing cadence and season duration, with variations on the order of $\sim$10-20% for modest changes in either parameter, but is generally insensitive to the trade between surveyed area and cadence given constant slew/settle times. These predictions depend sensitively on the Milky Way's metallicity distribution function, highlighting an incredible opportunity to understand exoplanet demographics across a comprehensive set of stellar populations and Galactic environments.

4.The Optical Phase Curves of CoRoT-1 b

Authors:Andrew Li

Abstract: Of the three space telescopes launched so far to survey transiting extrasolar planets, CoRoT is unique in that it was the only one with spectral resolution, allowing for an extraordinary opportunity to study the reflective properties of exoplanets at different wavelengths. In this work, I present a systematic lightcurve analysis of the white-light and chromatic CoRoT lightcurves of CoRoT-1 in order to search for the secondary eclipse and orbital phase variation of the transiting extrasolar planet CoRoT-1 b, as well at search for any chromatic difference in the aforementioned effects. I manage to detect a significant secondary eclipse in the white lightcurve, and detect the eclipse marginally in all three of the color channels. However I am only able to significantly detect the planetary phase variation in the red channel lightcurve. The retrieved secondary eclipse depth is higher in the blue and green channels compared to the white and red, suggesting that CoRoT-1 b has a higher geometric albedo at shorter wavelengths. I also attempt to detect the secondary eclipse using TESS, but show that the available volume and precision of the data is not high enough to allow detection of the secondary eclipse.

5.Using neural networks to model Main Belt Asteroid albedos as a function of their proper orbital elements

Authors:Zachary Murray

Abstract: Asteroid diameters are traditionally difficult to estimate. When a direct measurement of the diameter cannot be made through either occultation or direct radar observation, the most common method is to approximate the diameter from infrared observations. Once the diameter is known, a comparison with visible light observations can be used to find the visible geometric albedo of the body. One of the largest datasets of asteroid albedos comes from the NEOWISE mission, which measured asteroid albedos both in the visible and infrared. We model these albedos as a function of proper elements available from the Asteroid Families Portal using an ensemble of neural networks. We find that both the visible and infrared geometric albedos are significantly correlated with asteroid position in the belt and occur in both asteroid families and in the background belt. We find that the ensemble's prediction reduces the average error in albedo by about 37% compared to a model that simply adopts an average albedo, with no regard for the dynamical state of the body. We then use this model to predict albedos for the half million main belt asteroids with proper elements available in the Asteroid Families Portal and provide the results in a catalog. Finally, we show that several presently categorized asteroid families exist within much larger groups of asteroids of similar albedos - this may suggest that further improvements in family identification can be made.

6.TOI-1859b: A 64-Day Warm Jupiter on an Eccentric and Misaligned Orbit

Authors:Jiayin Dong, Songhu Wang, Malena Rice, George Zhou, Chelsea X. Huang, Rebekah I. Dawson, Gudmundur K. Stefánsson, Samuel Halverson, Shubham Kanodia, Suvrath Mahadevan, Michael W. McElwain, Jaime A. Alvarado-Montes, Joe P. Ninan, Paul Robertson, Arpita Roy, Christian Schwab, Sarah E. Logsdon, Ryan C. Terrien, Karen A. Collins, Gregor Srdoc, Ramotholo Sefako, Didier Laloum, David W. Latham, Allyson Bieryla, Paul A. Dalba, Diana Dragomir, Steven Villanueva Jr., Steve B. Howell, George R. Ricker, S. Seager, Joshua N. Winn, Jon M. Jenkins, Avi Shporer, David Rapetti

Abstract: Warm Jupiters are close-in giant planets with relatively large planet-star separations (i.e., $10< a/R_\star <100$). Given their weak tidal interactions with their host stars, measurements of stellar obliquity may be used to probe the initial obliquity distribution and dynamical history for close-in gas giants. Using spectroscopic observations, we confirm the planetary nature of TOI-1859b and determine the stellar obliquity of TOI-1859 to be $\lambda = 38.9^{+2.8}_{-2.7}\deg$ relative to its planetary companion using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. TOI-1859b is a 64-day warm Jupiter orbiting around a late-F dwarf and has an orbital eccentricity of $0.57^{+0.12}_{-0.16}$, inferred purely from transit light curves. The eccentric and misaligned orbit of TOI-1859b is likely an outcome of dynamical interactions, such as planet-planet scattering and planet-disk resonance crossing.

1.Formation of the warped debris disc around $β$ Pictoris

Authors:Jeremy L. Smallwood

Abstract: In light of the recent confirmation of an eccentric orbit giant planet, $\beta$ Pic c, I revisit the formation and evolution of the warped debris disc in the system. $\beta$ Pic c is interior to $\beta$ Pic b, and the debris disc is exterior to both planets. Previous $N$-body simulations have shown that $\beta$ Pic b is responsible for exciting the inclination of the debris disc. With hydrodynamical simulations, I model a protoplanetary gas disc misaligned with the planets. I find that the gas disc does not exhibit significant long lasting inclination excitation from the planets even for the observed disc size. The warp that is excited by the planets propagates through the entire disc with a timescale much less than the gas disc lifetime. Therefore, the observed warp in the debris disc must be produced after the gas disc has dispersed. With analytical secular theory calculations, I show that two secular resonances are exterior to $\beta$ Pic b, located at $\sim 20\, \rm au$ and $\sim 25\, \rm au$. This agrees with my $N$-body simulations that show that these secular resonances shape the inner edge of the $\beta$ Pic debris disc at a radius that agrees with observations.

1.Tau-Herculid meteor shower on night 30/31 May, 2022, and properties of the meteoroids

Authors:Pavel Koten, Lukáš Shrbený, Pavel Spurný, Jiří Borovička, Rostislav Štork, Tomáš Henych, Vlastimil Vojáček, Jan Mánek

Abstract: A tau-Herculid meteor outburst or even a storm was predicted by several models to occur around 5~UT on 31~May, 2022 as a consequence of the break-up of comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 in 1995. The multi-instrument and multi-station experiment was carried-out within the Czech Republic to cover possible earlier activity of the shower between 21 and 1 UT on 30/31 May. Multi-station observations using video and photographic cameras were used for calculation of the atmospheric trajectories and heliocentric orbits of the meteors. Their arrival times are used for determination of the shower activity profile. Physical properties of the meteoroids are evaluated using various criteria based on meteor heights. Evolution of spectra of three meteors are studied as well. This annual but poor meteor shower was active for the whole night many hours before the predicted peak. A comparison with dynamical models shows that a mix of older material ejected after 1900 and fresh particles originating from the 1995 comet fragmentation event was observed. Radiant positions of both groups of meteors were identified and found to be in good agreement with simulated radiants. Meteoroids with masses between 10 mg and 10 kg were recorded. The mass distribution index was slightly higher than 2. A study of the physical properties shows that the tau-Herculid meteoroids belong to the most fragile particles observed ever, especially among higher masses of meteoroids. Exceptionally bright bolide observed during the dawn represents a challenge for the dynamical simulations as it is necessary to explain how to transfer a half metre body to the vicinity of the Earth at the same time as millimetre sized particles.

2.A subsolar oxygen abundance or a radiative region deep in Jupiter revealed by thermochemical modelling

Authors:Thibault Cavalié, Jonathan Lunine, Olivier Mousis

Abstract: Jupiter's deep abundances help to constrain the formation history of the planet and the environment of the protoplanetary nebula. Juno recently measured Jupiter's deep oxygen abundance near the equator to be 2.2$_{-2.1}^{+3.9}$ times the protosolar value (2$\sigma$ uncertainties). Even if the nominal value is supersolar, subsolar abundances cannot be ruled out. Here we use a state-of-the-art one-dimensional thermochemical and diffusion model with updated chemistry to constrain the deep oxygen abundance with upper tropospheric CO observations. We find a value of 0.3$_{-0.2}^{+0.5}$ times the protosolar value. This result suggests that Jupiter could have a carbon-rich envelope that accreted in a region where the protosolar nebula was depleted in water. However, our model can also reproduce a solar/supersolar water abundance if vertical mixing is reduced in a radiative layer where the deep oxygen abundance is obtained. More precise measurements of the deep water abundance are needed to discriminate between these two scenarios and understand Jupiter's internal structure and evolution.

3.Structure of the planetary 2:1 MMR.Mapping the structure of the planetary 2:1 mean motion resonance. The TOI-216, K2-24, and HD27894 systems

Authors:Cristian Giuppone, Adrián Rodríguez, Viviam Alencastro, Fernando Roig, Tabaré Gallardo

Abstract: Mean motion resonances (MMR) are a frequent phenomenon among extrasolar planetary systems. Current observations indicate that many systems have planets that are close to or inside the 2:1 MMR, when the orbital period of one of the planets is twice the other. Analytical models to describe this particular MMR can only be reduced to integrable approximations in a few specific cases. While there are successful approaches to the study of this MMR in the case of very elliptic and/or very inclined orbits using semi-analytical or semi-numerical methods, these may not be enough to completely understand the resonant dynamics. In this work, we propose to apply a well-established numerical method to assess the global portrait of the resonant dynamics, which consists in constructing dynamical maps. Combining these maps with the results from a semi-analytical method, helps to better understand the underlying dynamics of the 2:1 MMR, and to identify the behaviors that can be expected in different regions of the phase space and for different values of the model parameters. We verify that the family of stable resonant equilibria bifurcate from symmetric to asymmetric librations, depending on the mass ratio and eccentricities of the resonant planets pair. This introduces new structures in the phase space, that turns the classical V-shape of the MMR, in the semi-major axis vs. eccentricity space, into a sand clock shape. We construct dynamical maps for three extrasolar planetary systems, TOI-216, HD27894, and K2-24, and discuss their phase space structure and their stability in the light of the orbital fits available in the literature.

4.A Hierarchical Bayesian Framework for Inferring the Stellar Obliquity Distribution

Authors:Jiayin Dong, Daniel Foreman-Mackey

Abstract: Stellar obliquity, the angle between a planet's orbital axis and its host star's spin axis, traces the formation and evolution of a planetary system. In transiting exoplanet observations, only the sky-projected stellar obliquity can be measured, but this can be de-projected using an estimate of the stellar obliquity. In this paper, we introduce a flexible, hierarchical Bayesian framework that can be used to infer the stellar obliquity distribution solely from sky-projected stellar obliquities, including stellar inclination measurements when available. We demonstrate that while a constraint on the stellar inclination is crucial for measuring the obliquity of an individual system, it is not required for robust determination of the population-level stellar obliquity distribution. In practice, the constraints on the stellar obliquity distribution are mainly driven by the sky-projected stellar obliquities. When applying the framework to all systems with measured sky-projected stellar obliquity, which are mostly Hot Jupiter systems, we find that the inferred population-level obliquity distribution is unimodal and peaked at zero degrees. The misaligned systems have nearly isotropic stellar obliquities with no strong clustering near 90 degrees. The diverse range of stellar obliquities prefers dynamic mechanisms, such as planet-planet scattering after a convergent disk migration, which could produce both prograde and retrograde orbits of close-in planets with no strong inclination concentrations other than 0 degrees.

1.Spitzer IRS Observations of Titan as a Precursor to JWST MIRI Observations

Authors:Brandon Park Coy, Conor A. Nixon, Naomi Rowe-Gurney, Richard Achterberg, Nicholas A. Lombardo, Leigh N. Fletcher, Patrick Irwin

Abstract: In this work we present, for the first time, infrared spectra of Titan from the Spitzer Space Telescope ($2004-2009$). The data are from both the short wavelength-low resolution (SL, $5.13-14.29\mathrm{\mu m}, R\sim60-127$) and short wavelength-high resolution channels (SH, $9.89 - 19.51\mathrm{\mu m}, R\sim600$) showing the emissions of CH$_{4}$, C$_{2}$H$_{2}$, C$_{2}$H$_{4}$, C$_{2}$H$_{6}$, C$_{3}$H$_{4}$, C$_{3}$H$_{6}$, C$_{3}$H$_{8}$, C$_{4}$H$_{2}$, HCN, HC$_{3}$N, and CO$_{2}$. We compare the results obtained for Titan from Spitzer to those of the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) for the same time period, focusing on the $16.35-19.35\mathrm{\mu m}$ wavelength range observed by the SH channel but impacted by higher noise levels in CIRS observations. We use the SH data to provide estimated haze extinction cross-sections for the $16.67-17.54\mathrm{\mu m}$ range that are missing in previous studies. We conclude by identifying spectral features in the $16.35-19.35\mathrm{\mu m}$ wavelength range, including two prominent emission features at 16.39 and $17.35\mathrm{\mu m}$, that could be analyzed further through upcoming James Webb Space Telescope Cycle 1 observations with the Mid-Infrared Instrument ($5.0-28.3\mathrm{\mu m}, R\sim1500-3500$). We also highlight gaps in current spectroscopic knowledge of molecular bands, including candidate trace species such as C$_{60}$ and detected trace species such as C$_{3}$H$_{6}$, that could be addressed by theoretical and laboratory study.

1.Alpha-Meteoroids then and now: Unearthing an overlooked micrometeoroid population

Authors:Maximilian Sommer

Abstract: The term `$\alpha$-meteoroid' was introduced to describe a group of micrometeoroids with certain dynamical properties, which -- alongside the group of the $\beta$-meteoroids -- had been identified by the first generation of reliable in-situ dust detectors in interplanetary space. In recent years, use of the term $\alpha$-meteoroid has become more frequent again, under a subtly but crucially altered definition. This work shall bring attention to the discrepancy between the term's original and newly established meaning, and spotlight the now-overlooked group of particles that the term used to describe. We review past and present pertinent literature around the term $\alpha$-meteoroid, and assess the dynamics of the originally referred-to particles with respect to possible sources, showing that their formation is the expected consequence of collisional grinding of the zodiacal cloud at short heliocentric distances. The abundance of the original $\alpha$-meteoroids, which are essentially `bound $\beta$-meteoroids', makes them relevant to all in-situ dust experiments in the inner solar system. Due to the change of the term's meaning, however, they are not considered by contemporary studies. The characterization of this particle population could elucidate the processing of the innermost zodiacal cloud, and should thus be objective of upcoming in-situ dust experiments. The attained ambiguity of the term $\alpha$-meteoroid is not easily resolved, warranting great care and clarity going forward.

2.The 14 Her Planetary System: Companion Masses and Architecture from Radial Velocities and Astrometry

Authors:G. F. Benedict, B. E. McArthur, E. P. Nelan, J. L. Bean

Abstract: We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance Sensor, Hipparcos, and Gaia DR3 astrometric observations of the K0 V star 14 Her with the results of an analysis of extensive ground-based radial velocity data to determine perturbation orbits and masses for two previously known companions, 14 Her b and c. Radial velocities obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and from the literature now span over twenty five years. With these data we obtain improved RV orbital elements for both the inner companion, 14 Her b and the long-period outer companion, 14 Her c. We also find evidence of an additional RV signal with P $/sim$ 3789d. We then model astrometry from Hipparcos, HST, and Gaia with RV results to obtain system parallax and proper motion, perturbation periods, inclinations, and sizes due to 14 Her b and c. We find P_b = 1767.6 +/- 0.2 d, perturbation semi-major axis {\alpha}_b = 1.3 +/- 0.1 mas, and inclination i_b = 36 +/- 3 degrees, P_c = 52160 +/- 1028 d, perturbation semi-major axis {\alpha}_c = 10.3 +/- 0.7 mas, and inclination i_c = 82 +/- 14 degrees. In agreement with a past investigation, the 14 Her b, c orbits exhibit significant mutual inclination. Assuming a primary mass M = 0.98 +/- 0.04Msun, we obtain companion masses M_b = 8.5 +/- 1.0Mjup and M_c = 7.1 +/- 1.0Mjup.

1.Reconstruction of asteroid spin states from Gaia DR3 photometry

Authors:Josef Durech, Josef Hanus

Abstract: Gaia Data Release 3 contains accurate photometric observations of more than 150,000 asteroids covering a time interval of 34 months. With a total of about 3,000,000 measurements, a typical number of observations per asteroid ranges from a few to several tens. We aimed to reconstruct the spin states and shapes of asteroids from this dataset. We computed the viewing and illumination geometry for each individual observation and used the light curve inversion method to find the best-fit asteroid model, which was parameterized by the sidereal rotation period, the spin axis direction, and a low-resolution convex shape. To find the best-fit model, we ran the inversion for tens of thousands of trial periods on interval 2-10,000 h, with tens of initial pole directions. To find the correct rotation period, we also used a triaxial ellipsoid model for the shape approximation. In most cases the number of data points was insufficient to uniquely determine the rotation period. However, for about 8600 asteroids we were able to determine the spin state uniquely together with a low-resolution convex shape model. This large sample of new asteroid models enables us to study the spin distribution in the asteroid population. The distribution of spins confirms previous findings that (i) small asteroids have poles clustered toward ecliptic poles, likely because of the YORP-induced spin evolution, (ii) asteroid migration due to the Yarkovsky effect depends on the spin orientation, and (iii) members of asteroid families have the sense of rotation correlated with their proper semimajor axis: over the age of the family, orbits of prograde rotators evolved, due to the Yarkovsky effect, to larger semimajor axes, while those of retrograde rotators drifted in the opposite direction.

2.A spectroscopic thermometer: individual vibrational band spectroscopy with the example of OH in the atmosphere of WASP-33b

Authors:Sam O. M. Wright, Stevanus K. Nugroho, Matteo Brogi, Neale P. Gibson, Ernst J. W. de Mooij, Ingo Waldmann, Jonathan Tennyson, Hajime Kawahara, Masayuki Kuzuhara, Teruyuki Hirano, Takayuki Kotani, Yui Kawashima, Kento Masuda, Jayne L. Birkby, Chris A. Watson, Motohide Tamura, Konstanze Zwintz, Hiroki Harakawa, Tomoyuki Kudo, Klaus Hodapp, Shane Jacobson, Mihoko Konishi, Takashi Kurokawa, Jun Nishikawa, Masashi Omiya, Takuma Serizawa, Akitoshi Ueda, Sébastien Vievard, Sergei N. Yurchenko

Abstract: Individual vibrational band spectroscopy presents an opportunity to examine exoplanet atmospheres in detail by distinguishing where the vibrational state populations of molecules differ from the current assumption of a Boltzmann distribution. Here, retrieving vibrational bands of OH in exoplanet atmospheres is explored using the hot Jupiter WASP-33b as an example. We simulate low-resolution spectroscopic data for observations with the JWST's NIRSpec instrument and use high resolution observational data obtained from the Subaru InfraRed Doppler instrument (IRD). Vibrational band-specific OH cross section sets are constructed and used in retrievals on the (simulated) low and (real) high resolution data. Low resolution observations are simulated for two WASP-33b emission scenarios: under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and a toy non-LTE model for vibrational excitation of selected bands. We show that mixing ratios for individual bands can be retrieved with sufficient precision to allow the vibrational population distributions of the forward models to be reconstructed. A simple fit for the Boltzmann distribution in the LTE case shows that the vibrational temperature is recoverable in this manner. For high resolution, cross-correlation applications, we apply the individual vibrational band analysis to an IRD spectrum of WASP-33b, applying an 'un-peeling' technique. Individual detection significances for the two strongest bands are shown to be in line with Boltzmann distributed vibrational state populations consistent with the effective temperature of the WASP-33b atmosphere reported previously. We show the viability of this approach for analysing the individual vibrational state populations behind observed and simulated spectra including reconstructing state population distributions.

3.PPDONet: Deep Operator Networks for Fast Prediction of Steady-State Solutions in Disk-Planet Systems

Authors:Shunyuan Mao, Ruobing Dong, Lu Lu, Kwang Moo Yi, Sifan Wang, Paris Perdikaris

Abstract: We develop a tool, which we name Protoplanetary Disk Operator Network (PPDONet), that can predict the solution of disk-planet interactions in protoplanetary disks in real-time. We base our tool on Deep Operator Networks (DeepONets), a class of neural networks capable of learning non-linear operators to represent deterministic and stochastic differential equations. With PPDONet we map three scalar parameters in a disk-planet system -- the Shakura \& Sunyaev viscosity $\alpha$, the disk aspect ratio $h_\mathrm{0}$, and the planet-star mass ratio $q$ -- to steady-state solutions of the disk surface density, radial velocity, and azimuthal velocity. We demonstrate the accuracy of the PPDONet solutions using a comprehensive set of tests. Our tool is able to predict the outcome of disk-planet interaction for one system in less than a second on a laptop. A public implementation of PPDONet is available at \url{}.

1.Testing 2D temperature models in Bayesian retrievals of atmospheric properties from hot Jupiter phase curves

Authors:Jingxuan Yang, Patrick G. J. Irwin, Joanna K. Barstow

Abstract: Spectroscopic phase curves of transiting hot Jupiters are spectral measurements at multiple orbital phases, giving a set of disc-averaged spectra that probe multiple hemispheres. By fitting model phase curves to observations, we can constrain the atmospheric properties of hot Jupiters such as molecular abundance, aerosol distribution and thermal structure, which offer insights into their dynamics, chemistry, and formation. In this work, we propose a novel 2D temperature scheme consisting of a dayside and a nightside to retrieve information from near-infrared phase curves, and apply the scheme to phase curves of WASP-43b observed by HST/WFC3 and Spitzer/IRAC. In our scheme, temperature is constant on isobars on the nightside and varies with cos$^n$(longitude/$\epsilon$) on isobars on the dayside, where $n$ and $\epsilon$ are free parameters. We fit all orbital phases simultaneously using the radiative transfer code NEMESISPY coupled to a Bayesian inference code. We first validate the performance of our retrieval scheme with synthetic phase curves generated from a GCM, and find our 2D scheme can accurately retrieve the latitudinally-averaged thermal structure and constrain the abundance of H$_2$O and CH$_4$. We then apply our 2D scheme to the observed phase curves of WASP-43b and find: (1) the dayside temperature-pressure profiles do not vary strongly with longitude and are non-inverted; (2) the retrieved nightside temperatures are extremely low, suggesting significant nightside cloud coverage; (3) the H$_2$O volume mixing ratio is constrained to $5.6\times10^{-5}$--$4.0\times10^{-4}$, and we retrieve an upper bound for CH$_4$ at $\sim$10$^{-6}$.

2.Detecting Exoplanets Closer to Stars with Moderate Spectral Resolution Integral-Field Spectroscopy

Authors:Shubh Agrawal, Jean-Baptiste Ruffio, Quinn M. Konopacky, Bruce Macintosh, Dimitri Mawet, Eric L. Nielsen, Kielan K. W. Hoch, Michael C. Liu, Travis S. Barman, William Thompson, Alexandra Z. Greenbaum, Christian Marois, Jenny Patience

Abstract: While radial velocity surveys have demonstrated that the population of gas giants peaks around $3~\text{au}$, the most recent high-contrast imaging surveys have only been sensitive to planets beyond $\sim~10~\text{au}$. Sensitivity at small angular separations from stars is currently limited by the variability of the point spread function. We demonstrate how moderate-resolution integral field spectrographs can detect planets at smaller separations ($\lesssim~0.3$ arcseconds) by detecting the distinct spectral signature of planets compared to the host star. Using OSIRIS ($R$ $\approx$ 4000) at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we present the results of a planet search via this methodology around 20 young targets in the Ophiuchus and Taurus star-forming regions. We show that OSIRIS can outperform high-contrast coronagraphic instruments equipped with extreme adaptive optics and non-redundant masking in the $0.05-0.3$ arcsecond regime. As a proof of concept, we present the $34\sigma$ detection of a high-contrast M dwarf companion at $\approx0.1$" with a flux ratio of $\approx0.92\%$ around the field F2 star HD 148352. We developed an open-source Python package, breads, for the analysis of moderate-resolution integral field spectroscopy data in which the planet and the host star signal are jointly modeled. The diffracted starlight continuum is forward-modeled using a spline model, which removes the need for prior high-pass filtering or continuum normalization. The code allows for analytic marginalization of linear hyperparameters, simplifying posterior sampling of other parameters (e.g., radial velocity, effective temperature). This technique could prove very powerful when applied to integral field spectrographs like NIRSpec on the JWST and other upcoming first-light instruments on the future Extremely Large Telescopes.

3.A catalog of collected debris disks: properties, classifications and correlations between disks and stars/planets

Authors:Peng-cheng Cao, Qiong Liu, Neng-Hui Liao, Qian-cheng Yang, Dong Huang

Abstract: We have collected a catalog of 1095 debris disks with properties and classification (resolved, planet, gas) information. From the catalog, we defined a less biased sample with 612 objects and presented the distributions of their stellar and disk properties to search for correlations between disks and stars. We found debris disks were widely distributed from B to M-type stars while planets were mostly found around solar-type stars, gases were easier to detect around early-type stars and resolved disks were mostly distributed from A to G- type stars. The fractional luminosity dropped off with stellar age and planets were mostly found around old stars while gas-detected disks were much younger. The dust temperature of both one-belt systems and cold components in two-belt systems increased with distance while decreasing with stellar age. In addition, we defined a less biased planet sample with 211 stars with debris disks but no planets and 35 stars with debris disks and planets and found the stars with debris disks and planets had higher metallicities than stars with debris disks but no planets. Among the 35 stars with debris disks and planets, we found the stars with disks and cool Jupiters were widely distributed with age from 10 Myr to 10 Gyr and metallicity from -1.56 to 0.28 while the other three groups tended to be old (> 4Gyr) and metal-rich (> -0.3). Besides, the eccentricities of cool Jupiters are distributed from 0 to 0.932 wider than the other three types of planets (< 0.3).

4.Constraining the Thickness of the Atmosphere of TRAPPIST-1 b from its JWST Secondary Eclipse Observation

Authors:Jegug Ih, Eliza M. -R. Kempton, Emily A. Whittaker, Madeline Lessard

Abstract: Recently, the first JWST measurement of thermal emission from a rocky exoplanet was reported. The inferred dayside brightness temperature of TRAPPIST-1 b at 15 $\mu$m is consistent with the planet having no atmosphere and therefore no mechanism by which to circulate heat to its nightside. In this Letter, we compare the measured secondary eclipse depth of TRAPPIST-1 b to predictions from a suite of self-consistent radiative-convective equilibrium models in order to quantify the maximum atmospheric thickness consistent with the observation. We find that plausible atmospheres (i.e., those that contain at least 100 ppm CO$_2$) with surface pressures greater than 0.01 bar (0.1 bar) are ruled out at 1$\sigma$ (3$\sigma$), regardless of the choice of background atmosphere. Thicker atmospheres of up to 10 bar (100 bar) at 1$\sigma$ (3$\sigma$) are only allowed if the atmosphere lacks any strong absorbers across the mid-IR wavelength range, a scenario that we deem unlikely. We additionally model the emission spectra for bare-rock planets of various compositions. We find that a variety of silicate surfaces match the measured eclipse depth to within 1$\sigma$, and the best-fit grey albedo is $0.02 \pm 0.11$. We conclude that planned secondary eclipse observations at 12.8 $\mu$m will serve to validate the high observed brightness temperature of TRAPPIST-1 b, but are unlikely to further distinguish among the consistent atmospheric and bare-rock scenarios.

1.A hot super-Earth planet in the WASP-84 planetary system

Authors:G. Maciejewski, J. Golonka, W. Łoboda, J. Ohlert, M. Fernandez, F. Aceituno

Abstract: Hot Jupiters have been perceived as loners devoid of planetary companions in close orbital proximity. However, recent discoveries based on space-borne precise photometry have revealed that at least some fraction of giant planets coexists with low-mass planets in compact orbital architectures. We report detecting a 1.446-day transit-like signal in the photometric time series acquired with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) for the WASP-84 system, which is known to contain a hot Jupiter on a circular 8.5-day orbit. The planet was validated based on TESS photometry, and its signal was distilled in radial velocity measurements. The joint analysis of photometric and Doppler data resulted in a multi-planetary model of the system. With a mass of $15\, M_{\oplus}$, radius of $2\, R_{\oplus}$, and orbital distance of 0.024 au, the new planet WASP-84 c was classified as a hot super-Earth with the equilibrium temperature of 1300 K. A growing number of companions to hot Jupiters indicates that a non-negligible part of them must have formed under a quiescent scenario such as disc migration or in-situ formation.

2.Emission line variability of young 10-30 Mjup companions : I. The case of GQ Lup b and GSC 06214-00210 b

Authors:Dorian Demars Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France, Mickael Bonnefoy Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France, Catherine Dougados Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France, Yuhiko Aoyama Institute for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan, Thanawuth Thanathibodee Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Institute for Astrophysical Research and Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA, Gabriel-Dominique Marleau Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Tübingen, Germany Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Bern, Switzerland Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany, Pascal Tremblin Maison de la Simulation, CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Philippe Delorme Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France, Paulina Palma-Bifani Université Côte d'Azur, OCA, Lagrange CNRS, Nice, France, Simon Petrus Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña, Valparaíso, Chile Núcleo Milenio Formación Planetaria - NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av., Valparaíso, Chile, Brendan P. Bowler Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA, Gael Chauvin Université Côte d'Azur, OCA, Lagrange CNRS, Nice, France Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France, Anne-Marie Lagrange LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Meudon, France Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France

Abstract: Emission lines indicative of active accretion have been seen on a handful of low-mass companions (M < 30 MJup) to stars. Line variability is ubiquitous on stellar accretors but has never been characterized in detail on low-mass companions and can give insights on the accretion mechanism at play. We investigate the emission line variability of two low-mass companions (M<30 MJup) to stars to understand their accretion mechanisms. Using J-band observations, we analyze the short to long-term variability of the HI Paschen {\beta} emission line (1.282 {\mu}m) for GQ Lup b and GSC 06214-00210 b. Archival spectroscopic observations are also examined to extend the time span. We compare their line profiles and intensities to more massive accretors and magnetospheric accretion and shock models. Both objects have HI Paschen {\beta} flux variability that is moderate at short timescales (< 50 %) and increases at longer timescales (~1000 % on decade timescales), resembling classical T Tauri stars. GQ Lup b's line profiles are compatible with magnetospheric accretion. GSC 06214-00210 b's profiles are reproduced by both magnetospheric accretion and shock models, except for the brightest epoch for which the shock model is highly favored. Both companions have C/O values broadly consistent with solar values. While magnetospheric accretion is favored for GQ Lup b, higher resolution (R > 10000) observations are required to disentangle the two (non-exclusive) line formation mechanisms. The similarity in variability behavior may support similar accretion mechanisms between these low-mass companions and classical T Tauri stars. The significant variability observed at months and longer timescales could explain the low yield of H{\alpha} imaging campaigns.

3.The Period Distribution of Hot Jupiters is Not Dependent on Host Star Metallicity

Authors:Samuel W. Yee, Joshua N. Winn

Abstract: The probability that a Sun-like star has a close-orbiting giant planet (period < 1 year) increases with stellar metallicity. Previous work provided evidence that the period distribution of close-orbiting giant planets is also linked to metallicity, hinting that there two formation/evolution pathways for such objects, one of which is more probable in high-metallicity environments. Here, we check for differences in the period distribution of hot Jupiters (P < 10 days) as a function of host star metallicity, drawing on a sample of 232 transiting hot Jupiters and homogeneously-derived metallicities from Gaia Data Release 3. We found no evidence for any metallicity dependence; the period distributions of hot Jupiters around metal-poor and metal-rich stars are indistinguishable. As a byproduct of this study, we provide transformations between metallicities from the Gaia Radial Velocity Spectrograph and from traditional high-resolution optical spectroscopy of main-sequence FGK stars.

4.Identification and Classification of Exoplanets Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors:Prithivraj G, Alka Kumari

Abstract: NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has been instrumental in the task of finding the presence of exoplanets in our galaxy. This search has been supported by computational data analysis to identify exoplanets from the signals received by the Kepler telescope. In this paper, we consider building upon some existing work on exoplanet identification using residual networks for the data of the Kepler space telescope and its extended mission K2. This paper aims to explore how deep learning algorithms can help in classifying the presence of exoplanets with less amount of data in one case and a more extensive variety of data in another. In addition to the standard CNN-based method, we propose a Siamese architecture that is particularly useful in addressing classification in a low-data scenario. The CNN and ResNet algorithms achieved an average accuracy of 68% for three classes and 86% for two-class classification. However, for both the three and two classes, the Siamese algorithm achieved 99% accuracy.

5.Photochemical hazes dramatically alter temperature structure and atmospheric circulation in 3D simulations of hot Jupiters

Authors:Maria E. Steinrueck, Tommi Koskinen, Panayotis Lavvas, Vivien Parmentier, Sebastian Zieba, Xianyu Tan, Xi Zhang, Laura Kreidberg

Abstract: Photochemical hazes are expected to form in hot Jupiter atmospheres and may explain the strong scattering slopes and muted spectral features observed in the transmission spectra of many hot Jupiters. Absorption and scattering by photochemical hazes have the potential to drastically alter temperature structure and atmospheric circulation of these planets but have previously been neglected in general circulation models (GCMs). We present GCM simulations of hot Jupiter HD 189733b that include photochemical hazes as a radiatively active tracer fully coupled to atmospheric dynamics. The influence of haze radiative feedback strongly depends on the assumed haze optical properties. For soot hazes, two distinct thermal inversions form, separated by a local temperature minimum around 10$^{-5}$ bar caused by upwelling on the dayside mixing air with low haze abundance upwards. The equatorial jet broadens and slows down. The horizontal distribution of hazes remains relatively similar to simulations with radiatively passive tracers. For Titan-type hazes, the equatorial jet accelerates and extends to much lower pressures, resulting in a dramatically different 3D distribution of hazes compared to radiatively passive or soot hazes. Further experimental and observational studies to constrain the optical properties of photochemical hazes will therefore be crucial for understanding the role of hazes in exoplanet atmospheres. In the dayside emission spectrum, for both types of hazes the amplitude of near-infrared features is reduced, while the emitted flux at longer wavelengths ($>$4 $\mu$m) increases. Haze radiative feedback leads to increased phase curve amplitudes in many infrared wavelength regions, mostly due to stronger dayside emission.

1.Effect of Centrifugal Force on Transmission Spectroscopy of Exoplanet Atmospheres

Authors:Agnibha Banerjee, Joanna K. Barstow, Carole A. Haswell, Stephen R. Lewis

Abstract: Transmission spectroscopy is one of the most successful methods of learning about exoplanet atmospheres. The process of retrievals using transmission spectroscopy consists of creating numerous forward models and comparing them to observations to solve the inverse problem of constraining the atmospheric properties of exoplanets. We explore the impact of one simplifying assumption commonly employed by forward models of transiting exoplanets: namely that the planet can be treated as an isolated, non-rotating spherical body. The centrifugal acceleration due to a planet's rotation opposes the gravitational pull on a planet's atmosphere and increases its scale height. Conventional forward models used for retrievals generally do not include this effect. We find that atmospheric retrievals produce significantly different results for close-in planets with low gravity when this assumption is removed, e.g., differences between true and retrieved values of gas abundances greater than 1$\sigma$ for a simulated planet analogous to WASP-19 b. We recommend that the correction to the atmospheric scale height due to this effect be taken into account for the analysis of high precision transmission spectra of exoplanets in the future, most immediately JWST Cycle 1 targets WASP-19 b and WASP-121 b.

2.Spectroscopic follow-up of Gaia exoplanet candidates: Impostor binary stars invade the Gaia DR3 astrometric exoplanet candidates

Authors:Marcus L. Marcussen, Simon H. Albrecht

Abstract: In this paper we report on the follow-up of five potential exoplanets detected with Gaia astrometry and provide an overview of what is currently known about the nature of the entire Gaia astrometric exoplanet candidate sample, 72 systems in total. We discuss the primary false-positive scenario for astrometric planet detections: binary systems with alike components that produce small photocenter motions, mimicking exoplanets. These false positives can be identified as double-lined SB2 binaries through analysis of high resolution spectra. Doing so we find that three systems, Gaia DR3 1916454200349735680, Gaia DR3 2052469973468984192, and Gaia DR3 5122670101678217728 are indeed near equal mass double star systems rather than exoplanetary systems. The spectra of the other two analyzed systems, HD 40503 and HIP 66074, are consistent with the exoplanet scenario in that no second set of lines can be found in the time series of publicly available high resolution spectra. However, their Gaia astrometric solutions imply radial-velocity semi-amplitudes $\sim$\,3 (HD 40503) and $\sim$\,15 (HIP 66074) larger than what was observed with ground based spectrographs. The Gaia astrometry orbital solutions and ground-based radial-velocity measurements exhibit inconsistencies in six out of a total of 12 exoplanet candidate systems where such data are available, primarily due to substantial differences between observed ground-based radial-velocity semi-amplitudes and those implied by the Gaia orbits. We investigated various hypotheses as to why this might be the case, and though we found no clear perpetrator, we note that a mismatch in orbital inclination offers the most straightforward explanation.

3.Preparing an unsupervised massive analysis of SPHERE high contrast data with the PACO algorithm

Authors:A. Chomez, A. -M. Lagrange, P. Delorme, M. Langlois, G. Chauvin, O. Flasseur, J. Dallant, F. Philipot, S. Bergeon, D. Albert, N. Meunier, P. Rubini

Abstract: We aim at searching for exoplanets on the whole ESO/VLT-SPHERE archive with improved and unsupervised data analysis algorithm that could allow to detect massive giant planets at 5 au. To prepare, test and optimize our approach, we gathered a sample of twenty four solar-type stars observed with SPHERE using angular and spectral differential imaging modes. We use PACO, a new generation algorithm recently developed, that has been shown to outperform classical methods. We also improve the SPHERE pre-reduction pipeline, and optimize the outputs of PACO to enhance the detection performance. We develop custom built spectral prior libraries to optimize the detection capability of the ASDI mode for both IRDIS and IFS. Compared to previous works conducted with more classical algorithms than PACO, the contrast limits we derived are more reliable and significantly better, especially at short angular separations where a gain by a factor ten is obtained between 0.2 and 0.5 arcsec. Under good observing conditions, planets down to 5 MJup, orbiting at 5 au could be detected around stars within 60 parsec. We identified two exoplanet candidates that require follow-up to test for common proper motion. In this work, we demonstrated on a small sample the benefits of PACO in terms of achievable contrast and of control of the confidence levels. Besides, we have developed custom tools to take full benefits of this algorithm and to quantity the total error budget on the estimated astrometry and photometry. This work paves the way towards an end-to-end, homogeneous, and unsupervised massive re-reduction of archival direct imaging surveys in the quest of new exoJupiters.

4.On the Existence of a Super-Kreutz System of Sungrazing Comets

Authors:Zdenek Sekanina

Abstract: In the context of a recently proposed contact-binary model of the Kreutz system, all its members are products of the process of cascading fragmentation of the two lobes of the parent, Aristotle's comet of 372 BC. This process presumably began with the lobes' separation from each other near aphelion. However, not every object in a Kreutz-like orbit is a Kreutz sungrazer. Any surviving sungrazer that had split off from the progenitor before the lobes separated, as well as its surviving fragments born in any subsequent tidal or nontidal event, are by definition not members of the Kreutz system. Yet, as parts of the same progenitor, they belong -- as do all Kreutz sungrazers -- to a broader assemblage of related objects, which I refer to as a super-Kreutz system. After estimating the ratio of the number of super-Kreutz members to nonmembers among potential historical sungrazers, I generate representative extended pedigree charts for both the Kreutz system and super-Kreutz system. While the fragmentation paths and relationships among the individual sungrazers or potential sungrazers in the two charts are (with at most a few exceptions) arbitrary, the purpose of the exercise is to suggest that the Kreutz system proper could in effect represent an ultimate deagglomeration stage of the super-Kreutz system.

5.Effect of the inclination in the passage through the 5/3 mean motion resonance between Ariel and Umbriel

Authors:Sérgio R. A. Gomes, Alexandre C. M. Correia

Abstract: The orbits of the main satellites of Uranus are expected to slowly drift away owing to tides raised in the planet. As a result, the 5/3 mean motion resonance between Ariel and Umbriel was likely encountered in the past. Previous studies have shown that, in order to prevent entrapment in this resonance, the eccentricities of the satellites must be larger than $\sim 0.01$ at the epoch, which is hard to explain. On the other hand, if the satellites experience some temporary capture and then escape, the inclinations rise to high values that are not observed today. We have revisited this problem both analytically and numerically focussing on the inclination, using a secular two-satellite model with circular orbits. We show that if the inclination of Umbriel was around $0.15^{\circ}$ at the time of the 5/3 resonance encounter, capture can be avoided in about $60\%$ of the cases. Moreover, after the resonance crossing, the inclination of Umbriel drops to a mean value around $0.08^{\circ}$, which is close to the presently observed one. The final inclination of Ariel is distributed between $0.01^{\circ}$ and $0.25^{\circ}$ with a nearly equal probability, which includes the present mean value of $0.02^{\circ}$.

1.Simultaneous navigation and mascon gravity estimation around small bodies

Authors:Julio C. Sanchez, Hanspeter Schaub

Abstract: This manuscript develops a simultaneous navigation and gravity estimation strategy around a small body. The scheme combines dynamical model compensation with a mascon gravity fit. Dynamical compensation adds the unmodeled acceleration to the filter state. Consequently, the navigation filter is able to generate an on-orbit position-unmodeled acceleration dataset. The available measurements correspond to the landmarks-based navigation technique. Accordingly, an on-board camera is able to provide landmark pixels. The aforementioned position-unmodeled acceleration dataset serves to train a mascon gravity model on-board while in flight. The training algorithm finds the optimal mass values and locations using Adam gradient descent. By a careful choice of the mascon variables and constraints projection, the masses are ensured to be positive and within the small body shape. The numerical results provide a comprehensive analysis on the global gravity accuracy for different estimation scenarios.

2.CHEOPS's hunt for exocomets: photometric observations of 5 Vul

Authors:Isabel Rebollido, Sebastian Zieba, Daniela Iglesias, Vincent Bourrier, Flavien Kiefer, Alain Lecavelier Des Etangs

Abstract: The presence of minor bodies in exoplanetary systems is in most cases inferred through infra-red excesses, with the exception of exocomets. Even if over 35 years have passed since the first detection of exocomets around beta Pic, only ~ 25 systems are known to show evidence of evaporating bodies, and most of them have only been observed in spectroscopy. With the appearance of new high-precision photometric missions designed to search for exoplanets, such as CHEOPS, a new opportunity to detect exocomets is available. Combining data from CHEOPS and TESS we investigate the lightcurve of 5 Vul, an A-type star with detected variability in spectroscopy, to search for non periodic transits that could indicate the presence of dusty cometary tails in the system. While we did not find any evidence of minor bodies, the high precision of the data, along with the combination with previous spectroscopic results and models, allows for an estimation of the sizes and spatial distribution of the exocomets.

1.Doppler wind measurements in Neptune's stratosphere with ALMA

Authors:Óscar Carrión-González, Raphael Moreno, Emmanuel Lellouch, Thibault Cavalié, Sandrine Guerlet, Gwenaël Milcareck, Aymeric Spiga, Noé Clément, Jérémy Leconte

Abstract: Neptune's tropospheric winds are among the most intense in the Solar System, but the dynamical mechanisms that produce them remain uncertain. Measuring wind speeds at different pressure levels may help understand the atmospheric dynamics of the planet. The goal of this work is to directly measure winds in Neptune's stratosphere with ALMA Doppler spectroscopy. We derived the Doppler lineshift maps of Neptune at the CO(3-2) and HCN(4-3) lines at 345.8 GHz ($\lambda$~0.87 mm) and 354.5 GHz (0.85 mm), respectively. For that, we used spectra obtained with ALMA in 2016 and recorded with a spatial resolution of ~0.37" on Neptune's 2.24" disk. After subtracting the planet solid rotation, we inferred the contribution of zonal winds to the measured Doppler lineshifts at the CO and HCN lines. We developed an MCMC-based retrieval methodology to constrain the latitudinal distribution of wind speeds. We find that CO(3-2) and HCN(4-3) lines probe the stratosphere of Neptune at pressures of $2^{+12}_{-1.8}$ mbar and $0.4^{+0.5}_{-0.3}$ mbar, respectively. The zonal winds at these altitudes are less intense than the tropospheric winds based on cloud tracking from Voyager observations. We find equatorial retrograde (westward) winds of $-180^{+70}_{-60}$ m/s for CO, and $-190^{+90}_{-70}$ m/s for HCN. Wind intensity decreases towards mid-latitudes, and wind speeds at 40$^\circ$S are $-90^{+50}_{-60}$ m/s for CO, and $-40^{+60}_{-80}$ m/s for HCN. Wind speeds become 0 m/s at about 50$^\circ$S, and we find that the circulation reverses to a prograde jet southwards of 60$^\circ$S. Overall, our direct stratospheric wind measurements match previous estimates from stellar occultation profiles and expectations based on thermal wind equilibrium. These are the first direct Doppler wind measurements performed on the Icy Giants, opening a new method to study and monitor their stratospheric dynamics.

2.The SNR of a Transit

Authors:David Kipping

Abstract: Accurate quantification of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a given observational phenomenon is central to associated calculations of sensitivity, yield, completeness and occurrence rate. Within the field of exoplanets, the SNR of a transit has been widely assumed to be the formula that one would obtain by assuming a boxcar light curve, yielding an SNR of the form $(\delta/\sigma_0) \sqrt{D}$. In this work, a general framework is outlined for calculating the SNR of any analytic function and it is applied to the specific case of a trapezoidal transit as a demonstration. By refining the approximation from boxcar to trapezoid, an improved SNR equation is obtained that takes the form $(\delta/\sigma_0) \sqrt{(T_{14}+2T_{23})/3}$. A solution is also derived for the case of a trapezoid convolved with a top-hat, corresponding to observations with finite integration time, where it is proved that SNR is a monotonically decreasing function of integration time. As a rule of thumb, integration times exceeding $T_{14}/3$ lead to a 10% loss in SNR. This work establishes that the boxcar transit is approximate and it is argued that efforts to calculate accurate completeness maps or occurrence rate statistics should either use the refined expression, or even better numerically solve for the SNR of a more physically complete transit model.

3.TOI-2498 b: A hot bloated super-Neptune within the Neptune desert

Authors:Ginger Frame, David J. Armstrong, Heather M. Cegla, Jorge Fernández Fernández, Ares Osborn, Vardan Adibekyan, Karen A. Collins, Elisa Delgado Mena, Steven Giacalone, John F. Kielkopf, Nuno C. Santos, Sérgio G. Sousa, Keivan G. Stassun, Carl Ziegler, David R. Anderson, Susana C. C. Barros, Daniel Bayliss, César Briceño, Dennis M. Conti, Courtney D. Dressing, Xavier Dumusque, Pedro~Figueira, William Fong, Samuel Gill, Faith Hawthorn, Jon M. Jenkins, Eric L. N. Jensen, Marcelo Aron F. Keniger, David W. Latham, Nicholas Law, Jack J. Lissauer, Andrew W. Mann, Louise D. Nielsen, Hugh Osborn, Martin Paegert, Sara Seager, Richard P. Schwarz, Avi Shporer, Gregor Srdoc, Paul A. Strøm, Joshua N. Winn, Peter J. Wheatley

Abstract: We present the discovery and confirmation of a transiting hot, bloated Super-Neptune using photometry from TESS and LCOGT and radial velocity measurements from HARPS. The host star TOI-2498 is a V = 11.2, G-type (T$_{eff}$ = 5905 $\pm$ 12K) solar-like star with a mass of 1.12 $\pm$ 0.02 M$_{\odot}$ and a radius of 1.26 $\pm$ 0.04 R$_{\odot}$. The planet, TOI-2498 b, orbits the star with a period of 3.7 days, has a radius of 6.1 $\pm$ 0.3 R$_{\oplus}$, and a mass of 35 $\pm$ 4 M$_{\oplus}$. This results in a density of 0.86 $\pm$ 0.25 g cm$^{-3}$. TOI-2498 b resides on the edge of the Neptune desert; a region of mass-period parameter space in which there appears to be a dearth of planets. Therefore TOI-2498 b is an interesting case to study to further understand the origins and boundaries of the Neptune desert. Through modelling the evaporation history, we determine that over its $\sim$3.6 Gyr lifespan, TOI-2498 b has likely reduced from a Saturn sized planet to its current radius through photoevaporation. Moreover, TOI-2498 b is a potential candidate for future atmospheric studies searching for species like water or sodium in the optical using high-resolution, and for carbon based molecules in the infra-red using JWST.

1.A Bayesian Analysis of Technological Intelligence in Land and Oceans

Authors:Manasvi Lingam, Amedeo Balbi, Swadesh M. Mahajan

Abstract: Current research indicates that (sub)surface ocean worlds essentially devoid of subaerial landmasses (e.g., continents) are common in the Milky Way, and that these worlds could host habitable conditions, thence raising the possibility that life and technological intelligence (TI) may arise in such aquatic settings. It is known, however, that TI on Earth (i.e., humans) arose on land. Motivated by these considerations, we present a Bayesian framework to assess the prospects for the emergence of TIs in land- and ocean-based habitats (LBHs and OBHs). If all factors are equally conducive for TIs to arise in LBHs and OBHs, we demonstrate that the evolution of TIs in LBHs (which includes humans) might have very low odds of roughly $1$-in-$10^3$ to $1$-in-$10^4$, thus outwardly contradicting the Copernican Principle. Hence, we elucidate three avenues whereby the Copernican Principle can be preserved: (i) the emergence rate of TIs is much lower in OBHs, (ii) the habitability interval for TIs is much shorter in OBHs, and (iii) only a small fraction of worlds with OBHs comprise appropriate conditions for effectuating TIs. We also briefly discuss methods for empirically falsifying our predictions, and comment on the feasibility of supporting TIs in aerial environments.

2.Observability of Photoevaporation Signatures in the Dust Continuum Emission of Transition Discs

Authors:Giovanni Picogna, Carolina Schäfer, Barbara Ercolano, Christian Rab, Rafael Franz, Matías Gárate

Abstract: Photoevaporative disc winds play a key role in our understanding of circumstellar disc evolution, especially in the final stages, and they might affect the planet formation process and the final location of planets. The study of transition discs (i.e. discs with a central dust cavity) is central for our understanding of the photoevaporation process and disc dispersal. However, we need to distinguish cavities created by photoevaporation from those created by giant planets. Theoretical models are necessary to identify possible observational signatures of the two different processes, and models to find the differences between the two processes are still lacking. In this paper we study a sample of transition discs obtained from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of internally photoevaporated discs, and focus on the dust dynamics relevant for current ALMA observations. We then compared our results with gaps opened by super Earths/giant planets, finding that the photoevaporated cavity steepness depends mildly on gap size, and it is similar to that of a 1 Jupiter mass planet. However, the dust density drops less rapidly inside the photoevaporated cavity compared to the planetary case due to the less efficient dust filtering. This effect is visible in the resulting spectral index, which shows a larger spectral index at the cavity edge and a shallower increase inside it with respect to the planetary case. The combination of cavity steepness and spectral index might reveal the true nature of transition discs.

3.A 1.55 R$_{\oplus}$ habitable-zone planet hosted by TOI-715, an M4 star near the ecliptic South Pole

Authors:Georgina Dransfield, Mathilde Timmermans, Amaury H. M. J. Triaud, Martín Dévora-Pajares, Christian Aganze, Khalid Barkaoui, Adam J. Burgasser, Karen A. Collins, Marion Cointepas, Elsa Ducrot, Maximilian N. Günther, Steve B. Howell, Catriona A. Murray, Prajwal Niraula, Benjamin V. Rackham, Daniel Sebastian, Keivan G. Stassun, Sebastián Zúñiga-Fernández, José Manuel Almenara, Xavier Bonfils, François Bouchy, Christopher J. Burke, David Charbonneau, Jessie L. Christiansen, Laetitia Delrez, Tianjun Gan, Lionel J. García, Michaël Gillon, Yilen Gómez Maqueo Chew, Katharine M. Hesse, Matthew J. Hooton, Giovanni Isopi, Emmanuël Jehin, Jon M. Jenkins, David W. Latham, Franco Mallia, Felipe Murgas, Peter P. Pedersen, Francisco J. Pozuelos, Didier Queloz, David R. Rodriguez, Nicole Schanche, Sara Seager, Gregor Srdoc, Chris Stockdale, Joseph D. Twicken, Roland Vanderspek, Robert Wells, Joshua N. Winn, Julien de Wit, Aldo Zapparata

Abstract: A new generation of observatories is enabling detailed study of exoplanetary atmospheres and the diversity of alien climates, allowing us to seek evidence for extraterrestrial biological and geological processes. Now is therefore the time to identify the most unique planets to be characterised with these instruments. In this context, we report on the discovery and validation of TOI-715 b, a $R_{\rm b}=1.55\pm 0.06\rm R_{\oplus}$ planet orbiting its nearby ($42$ pc) M4 host (TOI-715/TIC 271971130) with a period $P_{\rm b} = 19.288004_{-0.000024}^{+0.000027}$ days. TOI-715 b was first identified by TESS and validated using ground-based photometry, high-resolution imaging and statistical validation. The planet's orbital period combined with the stellar effective temperature $T_{\rm eff}=3075\pm75~\rm K$ give this planet an instellation $S_{\rm b} = 0.67_{-0.20}^{+0.15}~\rm S_\oplus$, placing it within the most conservative definitions of the habitable zone for rocky planets. TOI-715 b's radius falls exactly between two measured locations of the M-dwarf radius valley; characterising its mass and composition will help understand the true nature of the radius valley for low-mass stars. We demonstrate TOI-715 b is amenable for characterisation using precise radial velocities and transmission spectroscopy. Additionally, we reveal a second candidate planet in the system, TIC 271971130.02, with a potential orbital period of $P_{02} = 25.60712_{-0.00036}^{+0.00031}$ days and a radius of $R_{02} = 1.066\pm0.092\,\rm R_{\oplus}$, just inside the outer boundary of the habitable zone, and near a 4:3 orbital period commensurability. Should this second planet be confirmed, it would represent the smallest habitable zone planet discovered by TESS to date.

4.A reflective, metal-rich atmosphere for GJ 1214b from its JWST phase curve

Authors:Eliza M. -R. Kempton, Michael Zhang, Jacob L. Bean, Maria E. Steinrueck, Anjali A. A. Piette, Vivien Parmentier, Isaac Malsky, Michael T. Roman, Emily Rauscher, Peter Gao, Taylor J. Bell, Qiao Xue, Jake Taylor, Arjun B. Savel, Kenneth E. Arnold, Matthew C. Nixon, Kevin B. Stevenson, Megan Mansfield, Sarah Kendrew, Sebastian Zieba, Elsa Ducrot, Achrène Dyrek, Pierre-Olivier Lagage, Keivan G. Stassun, Gregory W. Henry, Travis Barman, Roxana Lupu, Matej Malik, Tiffany Kataria, Jegug Ih, Guangwei Fu, Luis Welbanks, Peter McGill

Abstract: There are no planets intermediate in size between Earth and Neptune in our Solar System, yet these objects are found around a substantial fraction of other stars. Population statistics show that close-in planets in this size range bifurcate into two classes based on their radii. It is hypothesized that the group with larger radii (referred to as "sub-Neptunes") is distinguished by having hydrogen-dominated atmospheres that are a few percent of the total mass of the planets. GJ 1214b is an archetype sub-Neptune that has been observed extensively using transmission spectroscopy to test this hypothesis. However, the measured spectra are featureless, and thus inconclusive, due to the presence of high-altitude aerosols in the planet's atmosphere. Here we report a spectroscopic thermal phase curve of GJ 1214b obtained with JWST in the mid-infrared. The dayside and nightside spectra (average brightness temperatures of 553 $\pm$ 9 and 437 $\pm$ 19 K, respectively) each show >3$\sigma$ evidence of absorption features, with H$_2$O as the most likely cause in both. The measured global thermal emission implies that GJ 1214b's Bond albedo is 0.51 $\pm$ 0.06. Comparison between the spectroscopic phase curve data and three-dimensional models of GJ 1214b reveal a planet with a high metallicity atmosphere blanketed by a thick and highly reflective layer of clouds or haze.

5.DMPP-3: confirmation of short-period S-type planet(s) in a compact eccentric binary star system, and warnings about long-period RV planet detections

Authors:Adam T. Stevenson The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, Carole A. Haswell The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, John R. Barnes The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, Joanna K. Barstow The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, Zachary O. B. Ross The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK

Abstract: We present additional HARPS radial velocity observations of the highly eccentric ($e \sim 0.6$) binary system DMPP-3AB, which comprises a K0V primary and a low-mass companion at the hydrogen burning limit. The binary has a $507$ d orbital period and a $1.2$ au semi-major axis. The primary component harbours a known $2.2$ M$_{\oplus}$ planet, DMPP-3A b, with a $6.67$ day orbit. New HARPS measurements constrain periastron passage for the binary orbit and add further integrity to previously derived solutions for both companion and planet orbits. Gaia astrometry independently confirms the binary orbit, and establishes the inclination of the binary is $63.89 \pm 0.78 ^{\circ}$. We performed dynamical simulations which establish that the previously identified $\sim800$ d RV signal cannot be attributed to an orbiting body. The additional observations, a deviation from strict periodicity, and our new analyses of activity indicators suggest the $\sim800$ d signal is caused by stellar activity. We conclude that there may be long period planet 'detections' in other systems which are similar misinterpreted stellar activity artefacts. Without the unusual eccentric binary companion to the planet-hosting star we could have accepted the $\sim800$ d signal as a probable planet. Further monitoring of DMPP-3 will reveal which signatures can be used to most efficiently identify these imposters. We also report a threshold detection (0.2 per cent FAP) of a $\sim2.26$ d periodicity in the RVs, potentially attributed to an Earth-mass S-type planet interior to DMPP-3A b.

1.Physical properties of the slow-rotating near-Earth asteroid (2059) Baboquivari from one apparition

Authors:Orhan Erece, Irek Khamitov, Murat Kaplan, Yucel Kilic, Hee-Jae Lee, Myung-Jin Kim, Ilfan F. Bikmaevc, Rustem I. Gumerov, Eldar N. Irtuganov

Abstract: In this study, we carried out photometric, spectroscopic, and for the first time, polarimetric observations of the Amor-type near-Earth asteroid (2059) Baboquivari. Our findings represent the first reliable determination of Baboquivari's physical properties. We used data from a 1m-class telescope (T100) along with ALCDEF data for photometric analyses and a 1.5-m-class telescope (RTT150) for polarimetric, spectroscopic, and additional photometric observations. We obtained the synodic rotation period of Baboquivari as 129.93 +/- 2.31 hours and the standard phase function parameters H and G as 16.05 +/- 0.05, 0.22 +/- 0.02, respectively. Our colour index (V-R) measurement of 0.45 +/- 0.02 is consistent with spectroscopic observations, indicating an S (or sub-S) spectral type. Using the polarimetric and spectroscopic data, we found that the geometric albedo is 0.15 +/- 0.03, and the spectral type is Sq. Based on the estimated albedo and absolute magnitude, Baboquivari has an effective diameter of 2.12 +/- 0.21 km. Due to the scattered data in the light curve, its slow rotation and location among the NEAs suggest that Baboquivari may be a non-principal axis (NPA) rotator.

2.Discovery of a new lunar mineral rich in water and ammonium in lunar soils returned by Chang'e-5 mission

Authors:Shifeng Jin, Munan Hao, Zhongnan Guo, Bohao Yin, Yuxin Ma, Lijun Deng, Xu Chen, Yanpeng Song, Cheng Cao, Congcong Chai, Yunqi Ma, Jiangang Guo, Xiaolong Chen

Abstract: The origin and distribution of lunar water are among the most important issues in understanding the earth-moon system. After more than half a century of laboratory research and remote detection, only hydroxyl contained minerals and lunar ice (H2O) are identified. Here we report the discovery of a hydrous mineral (NH4)MgCl3(H2O)6 in the lunar soil returned by Chang'e-5 mission, which contains 417,000 parts per million H2O. The determined structure and composition are similar to novograblenovite-a terrestrial fumarole mineral formed by reaction of hot basalt in water-rich volcanic gases, whereas the measured isotope composition delta37Cl reached 20.4 parts per thousand, a high value that only found in lunar minerals. We rule out the possibility that this hydrate originated from terrestrial contaminants or rocket exhaust through analysis of its chemical, isotopic compositions as well as the formation conditions. Our finding indicates that water can exist on some parts of the sunlit Moon in the form of hydrate compounds. Moreover, this hydrate is rich in ammonium, providing new information in understanding the origin of the Moon.

3.Beyond Mediocrity: How Common is Life?

Authors:Amedeo Balbi, Manasvi Lingam

Abstract: The probability that life spontaneously emerges in a suitable environment (abiogenesis) is one of the major unknowns in astrobiology. Assessing its value is impeded by the lack of an accepted theory for the origin of life, and is further complicated by the existence of selection biases. Appealing uncritically to some version of the ``Principle of Mediocrity'' -- namely, the supposed typicality of what transpired on Earth -- is problematic on empirical or logical grounds. In this paper, we adopt a Bayesian statistical approach to put on rigorous footing the inference of lower bounds for the probability of abiogenesis, based on current and future evidence. We demonstrate that the single datum that life has appeared at least once on Earth merely sets weak constraints on the minimal probability of abiogenesis. In fact, the {\it a priori} probability assigned to this event (viz., optimistic, pessimistic or agnostic prior) exerts the strongest influence on the final result. We also show that the existence of a large number of habitable worlds does not necessarily imply, by itself, a high probability that life should be common in the universe. Instead, as delineated before, the choice of prior, which is subject to uncertainty (i.e., admits multiple scenarios), strongly influences the likelihood of life being common. If habitable worlds are uncommon, for an agnostic prior, a deterministic scenario for the origin of life might be favoured over one where abiogenesis is a fluke event.

1.Three-Dimensional Dust Stirring by a Giant Planet Embedded in a Protoplanetary Disk

Authors:Fabian Binkert, Judit Szulágyi, Til Birnstiel

Abstract: The motion of solid particles embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disks is influenced by turbulent fluctuations. Consequently, the dynamics of moderately to weakly coupled solids can be distinctly different from the dynamics of the gas. Additionally, gravitational perturbations from an embedded planet can further impact the dynamics of solids. In this work, we investigate the combined effects of turbulent fluctuations and planetary dust stirring in a protoplanetary disk on three-dimensional dust morphology and on synthetic ALMA continuum observations. We carry out 3D radiative two-fluid (gas+1-mm-dust) hydrodynamic simulations in which we explicitly model the gravitational perturbation of a Jupiter-mass planet. We derived a new momentum-conserving turbulent diffusion model that introduces a turbulent pressure to the pressureless dust fluid to capture the turbulent transport of dust. The model implicitly captures the effects of orbital oscillations and reproduces the theoretically predicted vertical settling-diffusion equilibrium. We find a Jupiter-mass planet to produce distinct and large-scale three-dimensional flow structures in the mm-size dust, which vary strongly in space. We quantify these effects by locally measuring an effective vertical diffusivity (equivalent alpha) and find azimuthally averaged values in a range $\delta_\mathrm{eff}\sim5\cdot 10^{-3} - 2\cdot 10^{-2}$ and local peaks at values of up to $\delta_\mathrm{eff}\sim3\cdot 10^{-1}$. In synthetic ALMA continuum observations of inclined disks, we find effects of turbulent diffusion to be observable, especially at disk edges, and effects of planetary dust stirring in edge-on observations.

2.Gas Sources from the Coma and Nucleus of Comet 46P/Wirtanen Observed Using ALMA

Authors:M. A. Cordiner, N. X. Roth, S. N. Milam, G. Villanueva, D. Bockelee-Morvan, A. J. Remijan, S. B. Charnley, N. Biver, D. C. Lis, C. Qi, B. Bonev, J. Crovisier, J. Boissier

Abstract: Gas-phase molecules in cometary atmospheres (comae) originate primarily from (1) outgassing by the nucleus, (2) sublimation of icy grains in the near-nucleus coma, and (3) coma (photo-)chemical processes. However, the majority of cometary gases observed at radio wavelengths have yet to be mapped, so their production/release mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we present observations of six molecular species towards comet 46P/Wirtanen, obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during the comet's unusually close (~0.1 au) approach to Earth in December 2018. Interferometric maps of HCN, CH$_3$OH, CH$_3$CN, H$_2$CO, CS and HNC were obtained at an unprecedented sky-projected spatial resolution of up to 25 km, enabling the nucleus and coma sources of these molecules to be accurately quantified. The HCN, CH$_3$OH and CH$_3$CN spatial distributions are consistent with the production from direct outgassing from (or very near to) the nucleus, with a significant proportion (~50%) of the observed CH$_3$OH originating from sublimation of icy grains in the near-nucleus coma. On the other hand, H$_2$CO, CS and HNC originate primarily from distributed coma sources. The HCN, CH$_3$OH and HNC abundances in 46P are consistent with the average values previously observed in comets, whereas the H$_2$CO, CH$_3$CN and CS abundances are relatively low.

3.The Increasingly Strange Polarimetric Behavior of the Barbarian Asteroids

Authors:Joseph R. Masiero, Maxime Devogele, Isabella Macias, Joahan Castaneda Jaimes, Alberto Cellino

Abstract: Polarization phase-curve measurements provide a unique constraint on the surface properties of asteroids that are complementary to those from photometry and spectroscopy, and have led to the identification of the ``Barbarian'' asteroids as a class of objects with highly unusual surfaces. We present new near-infrared polarimetric observations of six Barbarian asteroids obtained with the WIRC+Pol instrument on the Palomar Hale telescope. We find a dramatic change in polarimetric behavior from visible to near-infrared for these objects, including a change in the polarimetric inversion angle that is tied to the index of refraction of the surface material. Our observations support a two-phase surface composition consisting of high albedo, high index of refraction inclusions with a small optical size scale embedded in a dark matrix material more closely related to C-complex asteroids. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the Barbarians are remnants of a population of primitive bodies that formed shortly after CAIs. Near-infrared polarimetry provides a direct test of the constituent grains of asteroid surfaces.

4.The hazardous km-sized NEOs of the next thousands of years

Authors:Oscar Fuentes-Muñoz, Daniel J. Scheeres, Davide Farnocchia, Ryan S. Park

Abstract: The catalog of km-sized near-Earth objects (NEOs) is nearly complete. Typical impact monitoring analyses search for possible impacts over the next 100 years and none of the km-sized objects represent an impact threat over that time interval. Assessing the impact risk over longer time scales is a challenge since orbital uncertainties grow. To overcome this limitation we analyze the evolution of the Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID), which bounds the closest possible encounters between the asteroid and the Earth. The evolution of the MOID highlights NEOs that are in the vicinity of the Earth for longer periods of time, and we propose a method to estimate the probability of a deep Earth encounter during these periods. This metric is used to rank the km-sized catalog in terms of their long-term impact hazard to identify targets of potential interest for additional observation and exploration.

5.Origins of Life on Exoplanets

Authors:Paul B. Rimmer

Abstract: I show that exoplanets can be used to test origins scenarios. Origins scenarios start with certain initial conditions, proceed via a network of chemical reactions and, if successful, result in a chemistry that is closer to a living system than the initial conditions. Exoplanet environments can be applied to test each of these three aspects of origins scenarios. I show what tests can be applied to the UV-driven cyanosulfidic scenario and how the application of some of these tests has already falsified certain versions of this scenario. Testing initial conditions has replaced certain reactants with others and has affected the overall chemical network underlying the cyanosulfidic scenario. The sequence of reactions the scenario invokes provide a predicted upper limit on the ubiquity of life in the universe that has ample room for improvement. The outcome of the experiments in different environments is part of a predicted distribution of biosignature detections that can be compared to future observed distributions.

6.An unusually low-density super-Earth transiting the bright early-type M-dwarf GJ 1018 (TOI-244)

Authors:A. Castro-González, O. D. S. Demangeon, J. Lillo-Box, C. Lovis, B. Lavie, V. Adibekyan, L. Acuña, M. Deleuil, A. Aguichine, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, H. M. Tabernero, J. Davoult, Y. Alibert, N. Santos, S. G. Sousa, A. Antoniadis-Karnavas, F. Borsa, J. N. Winn, C. Allende Prieto, P. Figueira, J. M. Jenkins, A. Sozzetti, M. Damasso, A. M. Silva, N. Astudillo-Defru, S. C. C. Barros, X. Bonfils, S. Cristiani, P. Di Marcantonio, J. I. González Hernández, G. Lo Curto, C. J. A. P. Martins, N. J. Nunes, E. Palle, F. Pepe, S. Seager, A. Suárez Mascareño

Abstract: Small planets located at the lower mode of the bimodal radius distribution are generally assumed to be composed of iron and silicates in a proportion similar to that of the Earth. However, recent discoveries are revealing a new group of low-density planets that are inconsistent with that description. We intend to confirm and characterize the TESS planet candidate TOI-244.01, which orbits the bright ($K$ = 7.97 mag), nearby ($d$ = 22 pc), and early-type (M2.5 V) M-dwarf star GJ 1018 with an orbital period of 7.4 days. We used Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to model 57 precise radial velocity measurements acquired by the ESPRESSO spectrograph together with TESS photometry and complementary HARPS data. We find TOI-244 b to be a super-Earth with a radius of $R_{\rm p}$ = 1.52 $\pm$ 0.12 $\rm R_{\oplus}$ and a mass of $M_{\rm p}$ = 2.68 $\pm$ 0.30 $\rm M_{\oplus}$. These values correspond to a density of $\rho$ = 4.2 $\pm$ 1.1 $\rm g \cdot cm^{-3}$, which is below what would be expected for an Earth-like composition. We find that atmospheric loss processes may have been efficient to remove a potential primordial hydrogen envelope, but high mean molecular weight volatiles such as water could have been retained. Our internal structure modeling suggests that TOI-244 b has a $479^{+128}_{-96}$ km thick hydrosphere over a 1.17 $\pm$ 0.09 $\rm R_{\oplus}$ solid structure composed of a Fe-rich core and a silicate-dominated mantle compatible with that of the Earth. On a population level, we find two tentative trends in the density-metallicity and density-insolation parameter space for the low-density super-Earths, which may hint at their composition. With a 8$\%$ precision in radius and 12$\%$ precision in mass, TOI-244 b is among the most precisely characterized super-Earths, which, together with the likely presence of an extended hydrosphere, makes it a key target for atmospheric observations.

1.Extreme evaporation of planets in hot thermally unstable protoplanetary discs: the case of FU Ori

Authors:Sergei Nayakshin, James E. Owen, Vardan Elbakyan

Abstract: Disc accretion rate onto low mass protostar FU Ori suddenly increased hundreds of times 85 years ago and remains elevated to this day. We show that the sum of historic and recent observations challenges existing FU Ori models. We build a theory of a new process, Extreme Evaporation (EE) of young gas giant planets in discs with midplane temperatures exceeding 30, 000 K. Such temperatures are reached in the inner 0.1 AU during thermal instability bursts. In our 1D time-dependent code the disc and an embedded planet interact through gravity, heat, and mass exchange. We use disc viscosity constrained by simulations and observations of dwarf novae instabilities, and we constrain planet properties with a stellar evolution code. We show that dusty gas giants born in the outer self-gravitating disc reach the innermost disc in a $\sim$ 10,000 years with radius of $\sim 10 R_J$. We show that their EE rates are $\sim 10^{-5}$ Msun/yr; if this exceeds the background disc accretion activity then the system enters a planet-sourced mode. Like a stellar secondary in mass-transferring binaries, the planet becomes the dominant source of matter for the star, albeit for $\sim$ O(100) years. We find that a $\sim$ 6 Jupiter mass planet evaporating in a disc fed at a time-averaged rate of $\sim 10^{-6}$ Msun/yr appears to explain all that we currently know about FU Ori accretion outburst. More massive planets and/or planets in older less massive discs do not experience EE process. Future FUOR modelling may constrain planet internal structure and evolution of the earliest discs.

2.Tidally Heated Exomoons around $ε$ Eridani b: Observability and prospects for characterization

Authors:E. Kleisioti, D. Dirkx, M. Rovira-Navarro, M. A. Kenworthy

Abstract: Exomoons are expected to orbit gas giant exoplanets just as moons orbit solar system planets. Tidal heating is present in solar system satellites and it can heat up their interior depending on their orbital and interior properties. We aim to identify a Tidally Heated Exomoon's (THEM) orbital parameter space that would make it observable in infrared wavelengths with MIRI/JWST around $\epsilon$ Eridani b. We study the possible constraints on orbital eccentricity and interior properties that a successful THEM detection in infrared wavelengths can bring. We also investigate what exomoon properties need to be independently known in order to place these constraints. We use a coupled thermal-tidal model to find stable equilibrium points between the tidally produced heat and heat transported within a moon. For the latter, we consider a spherical and radially symmetric satellite with heat being transported via magma advection in a sub-layer of melt (asthenosphere) and convection in the lower mantle. We incorporate uncertainties in the interior and tidal model parameters to assess the fraction of simulated moons that would be observable with MIRI. We find that a $2 R_{Io}$ THEM orbiting $\epsilon$ Eridani b with an eccentricity of 0.02, would need to have a semi-major axis of 4 planetary Roche-radii for 100% of the simulations to produce an observable moon. These values are comparable with the orbital properties of gas giant solar system satellites. We place similar constraints for eccentricities up to 0.1. We conclude that if the semi-major axis and radius of the moon are known (eg. with exomoon transits), tidal dissipation can constrain the orbital eccentricity and interior properties of the satellite, such as the presence of melt and the thickness of the melt containing sub-layer.

3.Chemical and physical properties of cometary dust

Authors:Cecile Engrand, Jérémie Lasue, Diane H. Wooden, Mike E. Zolensky

Abstract: Cometary dust particles are best preserved remnants of the matter present at the onset of the formation of the Solar System. Space missions, telescopic observations and laboratory analyses advanced the knowledge on the properties of cometary dust. Cometary samples were returned from comet 81P/Wild2 by the Stardust mission. The chondritic (porous) anhydrous interplanetary dust particles and chondritic porous micrometeorites, and the ultracarbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites (UCAMMs) also show strong evidence for a cometary origin. The composition of cometary dust is generally chondritic, but with high C and N compared with CI. The cometary organic matter is mixed with minor amounts of crystalline and amorphous minerals. The most abundant crystalline minerals are ferromagnesian silicates, refractory minerals and low Ni Fe sulfides are also present. The presence of carbonates in cometary dust is still debated, but a phyllosilicate-like phase was observed in a UCAMM. GEMS phases are usually abundant. Some of the organic matter present in cometary dust particle resembles the insoluble organic matter present in primitive meteorites, but amorphous carbon and exotic (e.g. N-rich) organic phases are also present. The H isotopic composition of the organic matter traces a formation at very low temperatures, in the protosolar cloud or in the outer regions of the protoplanetary disk. The presolar dust concentration in cometary dust can reach about 1%, which is the most elevated value observed in extraterrestrial samples. The differential size distribution of cometary dust in comet trails is well represented by a power-law distribution with a mean power index N typically ranging from -3 to -4. Polarimetric and light scattering studies suggest mixtures of porous agglomerates of sub-micrometer minerals with organic matter. Cometary dust particles have low tensile strength, and low density.

4.Unsigned magnetic flux proxy from solar optical intensity spectra

Authors:F. Lienhard, A. Mortier, H. M. Cegla, A. Collier Cameron, B. Klein, C. A. Watson

Abstract: The photospheric unsigned magnetic flux has been shown to be highly correlated with radial velocity (RV) variations caused by solar surface activity. This activity indicator is therefore a prime candidate to unlock the potential of RV surveys to discover Earth twins orbiting Sun-like stars. We show for the first time how a precise proxy of the unsigned magnetic flux ($\Delta\alpha B^2$) can be obtained from Sun-as-a-star intensity spectra by harnessing the magnetic information contained in over 4000 absorption lines in the wavelength range from 380 to 690 nm. This novel activity proxy can thus be obtained from the same spectra from which RVs are routinely extracted. We derived $\Delta\alpha B^2$ from 500 randomly selected spectra from the HARPS-N public solar data set, which spans from 2015 to 2018. We compared our estimates with the unsigned magnetic flux values from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) finding excellent agreement (median absolute deviation: 4.9 per cent). The extracted indicator $\Delta\alpha B^2$ correlates with SDO's unsigned magnetic flux estimates on the solar rotational timescale (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.67) and on the three-year timescale of our data set (correlation coefficient 0.91). We find correlations of $\Delta\alpha B^2$ with the HARPS-N solar RV variations of 0.49 on the rotational timescale and 0.78 on the three-year timescale. The Pearson correlation of $\Delta\alpha B^2$ with the RVs is found to be greater than the correlation of the classical activity indicators with the RVs. For solar-type stars, $\Delta\alpha B^2$ therefore represents the best simultaneous activity proxy known to date.

5.Forbidden planetesimals

Authors:Laurent Schönau, Jens Teiser, Tunahan Demirci, Kolja Joeris, Tetyana Bila, F. Chioma Onyeagusi, Miriam Fritscher, Gerhard Wurm

Abstract: Planetesimals are born fragile and are subject to destruction by wind erosion as they move through the gas of a protoplanetary disk. In microgravity experiments, we determined the shear stress necessary for erosion of a surface consisting of 1 mm dust pebbles down to 1 Pa ambient pressure. This is directly applicable to protoplanetary disks. Even pebble pile planetesimals with low eccentricities of 0.1 cannot survive inside of 1 au in a minimum-mass solar nebula, and safe zones for planetesimals with higher eccentricities are located even farther out.

6.The role of the drag force in the gravitational stability of dusty planet-forming disc -- II. Numerical simulations

Authors:Cristiano Longarini, Philip J. Armitage, Giuseppe Lodato, Daniel J. Price, Simone Ceppi

Abstract: Young protostellar discs are likely to be both self-gravitating, and to support grain growth to sizes where the particles decoupled from the gas. This combination could lead to short-wavelength fragmentation of the solid component in otherwise non-fragmenting gas discs, forming Earth-mass solid cores during the Class 0/I stages of Young Stellar Object evolution. We use three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of two-fluid discs, in the regime where the Stokes number of the particles St>1, to study how the formation of solid clumps depends on the disc-to-star mass ratio, the strength of gravitational instability, and the Stokes number. Gravitational instability of the simulated discs is sustained by local cooling. We find that the ability of the spiral structures to concentrate solids increases with the cooling time, and decreases with the Stokes number, while the relative dynamical temperature between gas and dust of the particles decreases with the cooling time and the disc-to-star mass ratio, and increases with the Stokes number. Dust collapse occurs in a subset of high disc mass simulations, yielding clumps whose mass is close to linear theory estimates, namely 1-10 Earth masses. Our results suggest that if planet formation occurs via this mechanism, the best conditions correspond to near the end of the self-gravitating phase, when the cooling time is long and the Stokes number close to unity.

1.No Evidence for Additional Planets at GJ 3470 from TESS and Archival Radial Velocities

Authors:Thomas Tarrants, Andrew Li

Abstract: The nearby M2 dwarf GJ 3470 has been the target of considerable interest after the discovery of a transiting short-period Neptune-sized planet. Recently, claims regarding the existence of additional transiting planets has gotten some attention, suggesting both the presence of a gas giant in the habitable zone, and that the system hosts a remarkable co-orbital gas giant configuration. We show that the existence of these three additional planets are readily amenable to testing with available data from both ground-based radial velocity data and space-based TESS photometry. A periodogram search of the available radial velocities show no compelling signals at the claimed periods, and the TESS photometry effectively rules out these planets assuming a transiting configuration. While it is doubtlessly possible that additional planets orbit GJ 3470, there is no evidence to date for their existence, and the available data conclusively rule out any planets similar to those considered in this text.

2.The Shape of Jupiter and Saturn Based on Atmospheric Dynamics, Radio Occultations and Gravity Measurements

Authors:Eli Galanti, Yohai Kaspi, Tristan Guillot

Abstract: The shape of the two gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn, is determined primarily by their rotation rate, and interior density distribution. It is also affected by their zonal winds, causing an anomaly of O(10 km) at low latitudes. However, uncertainties in the observed cloud-level wind and the polar radius, translate to an uncertainty in the shape with the same order of magnitude. The Juno (Jupiter) and Cassini (Saturn) missions gave unprecedented accurate gravity measurements, constraining better the uncertainty in the wind structure. Using an accurate shape calculation, and a joint optimization, given both gravity and radio-occultation measurements, we calculate the possible range of dynamical height for both planets. We find that for Saturn there is an excellent match to the radio-occultation measurements, while at Jupiter such a match is not achieved. This may point to deviations from a barotropic flow above the cloud level, which might be tested with the forthcoming radio-occultation measurements by Juno.

1.Photosynthesis Under a Red Sun: Predicting the absorption characteristics of an extraterrestrial light-harvesting antenna

Authors:Christopher D. P. Duffy, Gregoire Canchon, Thomas J. Haworth, Edward Gillen, Samir Chitnavis, Conrad W. Mullineaux

Abstract: Here we discuss the feasibility of photosynthesis on Earth-like rocky planets in close orbit around ultra-cool red dwarf stars. Stars of this type have very limited emission in the \textit{photosynthetically active} region of the spectrum ($400 - 700$ nm), suggesting that they may not be able to support oxygenic photosynthesis. However, photoautotrophs on Earth frequently exploit very dim environments with the aid of highly structured and extremely efficient antenna systems. Moreover, the anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, which do not need to oxidize water to source electrons, can exploit far red and near infrared light. Here we apply a simple model of a photosynthetic antenna to a range of model stellar spectra, ranging from ultra-cool (2300 K) to Sun-like (5800 K). We assume that a photosynthetic organism will evolve an antenna that maximizes the rate of energy input while also minimizing fluctuations. The latter is the 'noise cancelling' principle recently reported by Arp et al. 2020. Applied to the Solar spectrum this predicts optimal antenna configurations in agreement with the chlorophyll Soret absorption bands. Applied to cooler stars, the optimal antenna peaks become redder with decreasing stellar temperature, crossing to the typical wavelength ranges associated with anoxygenic photoautotrophs at $\sim 3300$ K. Lastly, we compare the relative input power delivered by antennae of equivalent size around different stars and find that the predicted variation is within the same order of magnitude. We conclude that low-mass stars do not automatically present light-limiting conditions for photosynthesis but they may select for anoxygenic organisms.

2.Wapiti: a data-driven approach to correct for systematics in RV data -- Application to SPIRou data of the planet-hosting M dwarf GJ 251

Authors:M. Ould-Elhkim, C. Moutou, J-F. Donati, É. Artigau, P. Fouqué, N. J. Cook, A. Carmona, P. I. Cristofari, E. Martioli, F. Debras, X. Dumusque, J. H. C. Martins, G. Hébrard, C. Cadieux, X. Delfosse, R. Doyon, B. Klein, J. Gomes da Silva, T. Forveille, T. Hood, P. Charpentier

Abstract: Context: Recent advances in the development of precise radial velocity (RV) instruments in the near-infrared (nIR) domain, such as SPIRou, have facilitated the study of M-type stars to more effectively characterize planetary systems. However, the nIR presents unique challenges in exoplanet detection due to various sources of planet-independent signals which can result in systematic errors in the RV data. Aims: In order to address the challenges posed by the detection of exoplanetary systems around M-type stars using nIR observations, we introduce a new data-driven approach for correcting systematic errors in RV data. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated through its application to the star GJ\,251. Methods: Our proposed method, referred to as \texttt{Wapiti} (Weighted principAl comPonent analysIs reconsTructIon), uses a dataset of per-line RV time-series generated by the line-by-line (LBL) algorithm and employs a weighted principal component analysis (wPCA) to reconstruct the original RV time-series. A multi-step process is employed to determine the appropriate number of components, with the ultimate goal of subtracting the wPCA reconstruction of the per-line RV time-series from the original data in order to correct systematic errors. Results: The application of \texttt{Wapiti} to GJ\,251 successfully eliminates spurious signals from the RV time-series and enables the first detection in the nIR of GJ\,251b, a known temperate super-Earth with an orbital period of 14.2 days. This demonstrates that, even when systematics in SPIRou data are unidentified, it is still possible to effectively address them and fully realize the instrument's capability for exoplanet detection. Additionally, in contrast to the use of optical RVs, this detection did not require to filter out stellar activity, highlighting a key advantage of nIR RV measurements.

3.Quantifying the Impact of the Dust Torque on the Migration of Low-mass Planets

Authors:Octavio M. Guilera, Pablo Benitez-Llambay, Marcelo M. Miller Bertolami, Martin E. Pessah

Abstract: Disk solids are critical in many planet formation processes, however, their effect on planet migration remains largely unexplored. Here we assess for the first time this important issue by building on the systematic measurements of dust torques on an embedded planet by Benitez-Llambay & Pessah (2018). Adopting standard models for the gaseous disk and its solid content, we quantify the impact of the dust torque for a wide range of conditions describing the disk/planet system. We show that the total torque can be positive and revert inward planet migration for planetary cores with $M_{\rm p} \lesssim 10 M_\oplus$. We compute formation tracks for low-mass embryos for conditions usually invoked when modeling planet formation processes. Our most important conclusion is that dust torques can have a significant impact on the migration and formation history of planetary embryos. The most important implications of our findings are: $\it{i})$ For nominal dust-to-gas mass ratios $\epsilon \simeq 0.01$, low-mass planets migrate outwards beyond the water ice-line if most of the mass in solids is in particles with Stokes numbers St $\simeq 0.1$. $\it{ii})$. For $\epsilon \gtrsim 0.02-0.05$, solids with small Stokes numbers, St $\simeq 0.01$, can play a dominant role if most of the mass is in those particles. $\it{iii})$ Dust torques have the potential to enable low-mass planetary cores formed in the inner disk to migrate outwards and act as the seed for massive planets at distances of tens of au.

4.Viscosity contrasts in the Venus mantle from tidal deformations

Authors:Christelle Saliby, Agnes Fienga, Arthur Briaud, Anthony Memin, Carianna Herrera

Abstract: The tidal deformations of a planet are often considered as markers of its inner structure. In this work, we use the tide excitations induced by the Sun on Venus for deciphering the nature of its internal layers. In using a Monte Carlo Random Exploration of the space of parameters describing the thickness, density and viscosity of 4 or 5 layer profiles, we were able to select models that can reproduce the observed mass, total moment of inertia, $k_2$ Love number and expected quality factor $Q$. Each model is assumed to have homogeneous layers with constant density, viscosity and rigidity. These models show significant contrasts in the viscosity between the upper mantle and the lower mantle. They also rather favor a S-free core and a slightly hotter lower mantle consistent with previous expectations.

1.Interior-atmosphere modelling to assess the observability of rocky planets with JWST

Authors:Lorena Acuna, Magali Deleuil, Olivier Mousis

Abstract: Super-Earths present compositions dominated by refractory materials. However, there is a degeneracy in their interior structure between a planet with no atmosphere and a small Fe content, and a planet with a thin atmosphere and a higher core mass fraction. To break this degeneracy, atmospheric characterization observations are required. We present a self-consistent interior-atmosphere model to constrain the volatile mass fraction, surface pressure, and temperature of rocky planets with water and CO2 atmospheres. These parameters obtained in our analysis can then be used to predict observations in emission spectroscopy and photometry with JWST, which can determine the presence of an atmosphere, and if present, its composition. To obtain the bolometric emission and Bond albedo for an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium, we present the k-uncorrelated approximation for fast computations within our retrieval on planetary mass, radius and host stellar abundances. For the generation of emission spectra, we use our k-correlated atmospheric model. An adaptive MCMC is used for an efficient sampling of the parameter space at low volatile mass fractions. We show how to use our modelling approach to predict observations with JWST for TRAPPIST-1 c and 55 Cancri e. TRAPPIST-1 c's most likely scenario is a bare surface, although the presence of an atmosphere cannot be ruled out. If the emission in the MIRI F1500 filter is 731 ppm or higher, there would be a water-rich atmosphere. For fluxes between 730 and 400 ppm, no atmosphere is present, while low emission fluxes (300 ppm) indicate a CO2-dominated atmosphere. In the case of 55 Cancri e, a combined spectrum with NIRCam and MIRI LRS may present high uncertainties at wavelengths between 3 and 3.7 $\mu$m. However, this does not affect the identification of H2O and CO2 because they do not present spectral features in this wavelength range.

2.Coma environment of comet C/2017 K2 around the water ice sublimation boundary observed with VLT/MUSE

Authors:Yuna G. Kwon, Cyrielle Opitom, Manuela Lippi

Abstract: We report a new imaging spectroscopic observation of Oort-cloud comet C/2017 K2 (hereafter K2) on its way to perihelion at 2.53 au, around a heliocentric distance where H2O ice begins to play a key role in comet activation. Normalized reflectances over 6 500--8 500 AA for its inner and outer comae are 9.7+/-0.5 and 7.2+/-0.3 % (10^3 AA)^-1, respectively, the latter being consistent with the slope observed when the comet was beyond the orbit of Saturn. The dust coma at the time of observation appears to contain three distinct populations: mm-sized chunks prevailing at <~10^3 km; a 10^5-km steady-state dust envelope; and fresh anti-sunward jet particles. the dust chunks dominate the continuum signal and are distributed over a similar radial distance scale as the coma region with redder dust than nearby. they also appear to be co-spatial with OI1D, suggesting that the chunks may accommodate H2O ice with a fraction (>~1 %) of refractory materials. The jet particles do not colocate with any gas species detected. The outer coma spectrum contains three significant emissions from C2(0,0) Swan band, OI1D, and CN(1,0 red band, with an overall deficiency in NH2. Assuming that all OI1D flux results from H2O dissociation, we compute an upper limit on the water production rate Q_H2O of ~7 x 10^28 molec s^-1 (with an uncertainty of a factor of two). the production ratio log[Q_C2/Q_CN] of K2 suggests that the comet has typical carbon-chain composition, with the value potentially changing with distance from the Sun. Our observations suggest that water ice-containing dust chunks (>0.1 mm) near K2's nucleus emitted beyond 4 au may be responsible for its very low gas rotational temperature and the discrepancy between its optical and infrared lights reported at similar heliocentric distances.

3.Lunar Mantle Structure and Composition Inferred From Apollo 12 -- Explorer 35 Electromagnetic Sounding

Authors:Robert E. Grimm

Abstract: Constraints on the interior structure of the Moon have been derived from its inductive response, principally as measured by the magnetic transfer function (TF) between the distantly orbiting Explorer 35 satellite and the Apollo 12 surface station. The most successful prior studies used a dataset 0.01-1 mHz, so the lunar response could be modeled as a simple dipole. However, earlier efforts also produced transfer functions up to 40 mHz. The smaller electromagnetic skin depth at higher frequency would better resolve the uppermost mantle - where key information about primitive lunar evolution may still be preserved - but requires a multipole treatment. I compute new profiles of electrical conductivity vs depth using both the low-frequency and the full-bandwidth ranges of published Apollo-Explorer TFs. I derive temperature profiles at depths >400 km (<1 mHz) consistent with conductive heat loss and expectations of the iron (and possibly water) content of the mantle. The near-constant iron fraction (Mg# 81 +/- 7) implies either efficient mixing, due to now-defunct convection or perhaps incomplete overturn of gravitationally unstable cumulates following crystallization of the magma ocean. In contrast, the full-bandwidth analysis produced a different conductivity profile that could not be realistically matched by conduction, convection, partial melting, or simple considerations of lateral heterogeneity. I conclude that the TF method at the Moon is unreliable >>1 mHz. Future EM sounding using the magnetotelluric method can operate up to 100s Hz and is largely insensitive to multipole effects, resolving structure to 100 km or less.

4.Using planet migration and dust drift to weigh protoplanetary discs

Authors:Yinhao Wu, Clément Baruteau, Sergei Nayakshin

Abstract: ALMA has spatially resolved over 200 annular structures in protoplanetary discs, many of which are suggestive of the presence of planets. Constraining the mass of these putative planets is quite degenerate for it depends on the disc physical properties, and for simplicity a steady-state is often assumed whereby the planet position is kept fixed and there is a constant source of dust at the outer edge of the disc. Here we argue against this approach by demonstrating how the planet and dust dynamics can lift degeneracies of such steady-state models. We take main disc parameters from the well-known protoplanetary disc HD 163296 with a suspected planet at $R\approx 86$~au as an example. By running gas and dust hydrodynamical simulations post-processed with dust radiative transfer calculations, we first find steady-state disc and planet parameters that reproduce ALMA continuum observations fairly well. For the same disc mass, but now allowing the planet to migrate in the simulation, we find that the planet undergoes runaway migration and reaches the inner disc in $\sim 0.2$ Myr. Further, decreasing the disc mass slows down planet migration, but it then also increases the dust's radial drift, thereby depleting the disc dust faster. We find that the opposing constraints of planet migration and dust drift require the disc mass to be at most $0.025~\msun$, must less massive than previously estimated, and for the dust to be porous rather than compact. We propose that similar analysis should be extended to other sources with suspected planetary companions.

1.Small Planets Around Cool Dwarfs: Enhanced Formation Efficiency of Super-Earths around M dwarfs

Authors:Yayaati Chachan, Eve J. Lee

Abstract: Current measurements of planet population as a function of stellar mass show three seemingly contradictory signatures: close-in super-Earths are more prevalent around M dwarfs than FGK dwarfs; inner super-Earths are correlated with outer giants; and outer giants are less common around M dwarfs than FGK dwarfs. Here, we build a simple framework that combines the theory of pebble accretion with the measurements of dust masses in protoplanetary disks to reconcile all three observations. First, we show that cooler stars are more efficient at converting pebbles into planetary cores at short orbital periods. Second, when disks are massive enough to nucleate a heavy core at 5 AU, more than enough dust can drift in to assemble inner planets, establishing the correlation between inner planets and outer giants. Finally, while stars of varying masses are similarly capable of converting pebbles into cores at long orbital periods, hotter stars are much more likely to harbor more massive dust disks so that the giant planet occurrence rate rises around hotter stars. Our results are valid over a wide range of parameter space for a disk accretion rate that follows $\dot{M}_\star \sim 10^{-8}\,M_\odot\,{\rm yr}^{-1}(M_\star/M_\odot)^2$. We predict a decline in mini-Neptune population (but not necessarily terrestrial planets) around stars lighter than $\sim 0.3-0.5 \, M_\odot$. Cold giants ($\gtrsim$5 AU), if they exist, should remain correlated with inner planets even around lower mass stars.

2.Star-Planet Interaction at radio wavelengths in YZ Ceti: Inferring planetary magnetic field

Authors:Corrado Trigilio, Ayan Biswas, Paolo Leto, Grazia Umana, Innocenza Busa, Francesco Cavallaro, Barnali Das, Poonam Chandra, Miguel Perez-Torres, Gregg A. Wade, Cristobal Bordiu, Carla S. Buemi, Filomena Bufano, Adriano Ingallinera, Sara Loru, Simone Riggi

Abstract: In exoplanetary systems, the interaction between the central star and the planet can trigger Auroral Radio Emission (ARE), due to the Electron Cyclotron Maser mechanism. The high brightness temperature of this emission makes it visible at large distances, opening new opportunities to study exoplanets and to search for favourable conditions for the development of extra-terrestrial life, as magnetic fields act as a shield that protects life against external particles and influences the evolution of the planetary atmospheres. In the last few years, we started an observational campaign to observe a sample of nearby M-type stars known to host exoplanets with the aim to detect ARE. We observed YZ Ceti with the upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (uGMRT) in band 4 (550-900 MHz) nine times over a period of five months. We detected radio emission four times, two of which with high degree of circular polarization. With statistical considerations we exclude the possibility of flares due to stellar magnetic activity. Instead, when folding the detections to the orbital phase of the closest planet YZ Cet b, they are at positions where we would expect ARE due to star-planet interaction (SPI) in sub-Alfvenic regime. With a degree of confidence higher than 4.37 sigma, YZ Cet is the first extrasolar systems with confirmed SPI at radio wavelengths. Modelling the ARE, we estimate a magnetic field for the star of about 2.4 kG and we find that the planet must have a magnetosphere. The lower limit for the polar magnetic field of the planet is 0.4 G.

3.DREAM II. The spin-orbit angle distribution of close-in exoplanets under the lens of tides

Authors:O. Attia, V. Bourrier, J. -B. Delisle, P. Eggenberger

Abstract: The spin-orbit angle, or obliquity, is a powerful observational marker that allows us to access the dynamical history of exoplanetary systems. Here, we have examined the distribution of spin-orbit angles for close-in exoplanets and put it in a statistical context of tidal interactions between planets and their stars. We confirm the observed trends between the obliquity and physical quantities directly connected to tides, namely the stellar effective temperature, the planet-to-star mass ratio, and the scaled orbital distance. We further devised a tidal efficiency factor combining critical parameters that control the strength of tidal effects and used it to corroborate the strong link between the spin-orbit angle distribution and tidal interactions. In particular, we developed a readily usable formula to estimate the probability that a system is misaligned, which will prove useful in global population studies. By building a robust statistical framework, we reconstructed the distribution of the three-dimensional spin-orbit angles, allowing for a sample of nearly 200 true obliquities to be analyzed for the first time. This realistic distribution maintains the sky-projected trends, and additionally hints toward a striking pileup of truly aligned systems. The comparison between the full population and a pristine subsample unaffected by tidal interactions suggests that perpendicular architectures are resilient toward tidal realignment, providing evidence that orbital misalignments are sculpted by disruptive dynamical processes that preferentially lead to polar orbits. On the other hand, star-planet interactions seem to efficiently realign or quench the formation of any tilted configuration other than for polar orbits, and in particular for antialigned orbits.

4.SHAMPOO: A stochastic model for tracking dust particles under the influence of non-local disk processes

Authors:M. Oosterloo, I. Kamp, W. van Westrenen, C. Dominik

Abstract: The abundances of CHNOS are crucial for the composition of planets. At the onset of planet formation, large amounts of these elements are stored in ices on dust grains in planet-forming disks. The evolution of this ice is affected by dynamical transport, collisional processes, and the formation and sublimation of ice. We aim to constrain the disk regions where these processes are fully coupled, and develop a flexible modelling approach that is able to predict the effects of these processes acting simultaneously on the CHNOS budgets of the dust in these regions. We compared timescales associated with these disk processes to constrain the disk regions where this approach is necessary, and developed the SHAMPOO code, which tracks the CHNOS abundances in the ice mantle of a single monomer dust particle, embedded in a larger aggregate and undergoing these processes simultaneously. The adsorption and photodesorption of monomer ices depend on the depth of the monomer in the aggregate. We investigated the effect of fragmentation velocity and aggregate filling factor on the amount of ice on monomers residing at r = 10 AU. The locations where disk processes are fully coupled depend on both grain size and ice species. Monomers embedded in aggregates with fragmentation velocities of 1 m/s are able to undergo adsorption and photodesorption more often compared to a fragmentation velocity of 5 m/s or 10 m/s. Aggregates with a filling factor of $10^{-3}$ are able to accumulate ice 22 times faster on average than aggregates with a filling factor of 1. As different grain sizes are coupled through collisions and the grain ice consists of multiple ice species, it is difficult to isolate the locations where disk processes are fully coupled, necessitating the development of the SHAMPOO code. The processing of ice may not be spatially limited to dust aggregate surfaces for either fragile or porous aggregates.

5.High Tide or Riptide on the Cosmic Shoreline? A Water-Rich Atmosphere or Stellar Contamination for the Warm Super-Earth GJ~486b from JWST Observations

Authors:Sarah E. Moran, Kevin B. Stevenson, David K. Sing, Ryan J. MacDonald, James Kirk, Jacob Lustig-Yaeger, Sarah Peacock, L. C. Mayorga, Katherine A. Bennett, Mercedes López-Morales, E. M. May, Zafar Rustamkulov, Jeff A. Valenti, Jéa I. Adams Redai, Munazza K. Alam, Natasha E. Batalha, Guangwei Fu, Junellie Gonzalez-Quiles, Alicia N. Highland, Ethan Kruse, Joshua D. Lothringer, Kevin N. Ortiz Ceballos, Kristin S. Sotzen, Hannah R. Wakeford

Abstract: Planets orbiting M-dwarf stars are prime targets in the search for rocky exoplanet atmospheres. The small size of M dwarfs renders their planets exceptional targets for transmission spectroscopy, facilitating atmospheric characterization. However, it remains unknown whether their host stars' highly variable extreme-UV radiation environments allow atmospheres to persist. With JWST, we have begun to determine whether or not the most favorable rocky worlds orbiting M dwarfs have detectable atmospheres. Here, we present a 2.8-5.2 micron JWST NIRSpec/G395H transmission spectrum of the warm (700 K, 40.3x Earth's insolation) super-Earth GJ 486b (1.3 R$_{\oplus}$ and 3.0 M$_{\oplus}$). The measured spectrum from our two transits of GJ 486b deviates from a flat line at 2.2 - 3.3 $\sigma$, based on three independent reductions. Through a combination of forward and retrieval models, we determine that GJ 486b either has a water-rich atmosphere (with the most stringent constraint on the retrieved water abundance of H2O > 10% to 2$\sigma$) or the transmission spectrum is contaminated by water present in cool unocculted starspots. We also find that the measured stellar spectrum is best fit by a stellar model with cool starspots and hot faculae. While both retrieval scenarios provide equal quality fits ($\chi^2_\nu$ = 1.0) to our NIRSpec/G395H observations, shorter wavelength observations can break this degeneracy and reveal if GJ 486b sustains a water-rich atmosphere.

6.Formation of Gaps in Self-gravitating Debris Disks by Secular Resonance in a Single-planet System. II. Towards a Self-consistent Model

Authors:Antranik A. Sefilian, Roman R. Rafikov, Mark C. Wyatt

Abstract: High-resolution observations of several debris disks reveal structures such as gaps and spirals, suggestive of gravitational perturbations induced by underlying planets. Most existing studies of planet--debris disk interactions ignore the gravity of the disk, treating it as a reservoir of massless planetesimals. In this paper, we continue our investigation into the long-term interaction between a single eccentric planet and an external, massive debris disk. Building upon our previous work, here we consider not only the axisymmetric component of the disk's gravitational potential, but also the non-axisymmetric torque that the disk exerts on the planet (ignoring for now only the non-axisymmetric component of the disk \textit{self}-gravity). To this goal, we develop and test a semi-analytic `$N$-ring' framework that is based on a generalized (softened) version of the classical Laplace--Lagrange secular theory. Using this tool, we demonstrate that even when the disk is less massive than the planet, not only can a secular resonance be established within the disk that leads to the formation of a wide non-axisymmetric gap (akin to those observed in HD 107146, HD 92945, and HD 206893), but that the very same resonance also damps the planetary eccentricity via a process known as resonant friction. We also develop analytic understanding of these findings, finding good quantitative agreement with the outcomes of the $N$-ring calculations. Our results may be used to infer both the dynamical masses of gapped debris disks and the dynamical history of the planets interior to them, as we exemplify for HD 206893.

1.Systematics of planetary ephemeris reference frames inferred from pulsar timing astrometry

Authors:Niu Liu, Ziu Zhu, John Antoniadis, Jia-Cheng Liu, Hong Zhang

Abstract: This study aims to investigate the systematics in planetary ephemeris reference frames through pulsar timing observations. We used the published data sets from several pulsar timing arrays and performed timing analyses for each pulsar using different planetary ephemerides retrieved from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Development Ephemeris (DE), Ephemeris of Planets and the Moon (EPM), and INPOP (Int\'egration Num\'erique Plan\'etaire de l'Observatoire de Paris). Then, we compared the timing solutions and modeled the differences in position and proper motion by vector spherical harmonics of the first degree. The timing solutions were also compared with those determined by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrometry. The orientation offsets between the latest editions of the DE, EPM, and INPOP series do not exceed 0.4 milliarcseconds (mas), while the relative spins between these ephemerides are less than 5 microarcseconds per year ($\mathrm{\mu as\,yr^{-1}}$). We do not detect significant glides in either position or proper motion between these ephemerides. The orientation of the pulsar timing frames deviates from that of the VLBI frame from zero by approximately $\mathrm{0.4\,mas}$ when considering the formal uncertainty and possible systematics. The orientation of current planetary ephemeris frames is as accurate as at least 0.4 mas, and the nonrotating is better than $\mathrm{5\,\mu as\,yr^{-1}}$.

2.The mass determination of TOI-519 b: a close-in giant planet transiting a metal-rich mid-M dwarf

Authors:Taiki Kagetani, Norio Narita, Tadahiro Kimura, Teruyuki Hirano, Masahiro Ikoma, Hiroyuki Tako Ishikawa, Steven Giacalone, Akihiko Fukui, Takanori Kodama, Rebecca Gore, Ashley Schroeder, Yasunori Hori, Kiyoe Kawauchi, Noriharu Watanabe, Mayuko Mori, Yujie Zou, Kai Ikuta, Vigneshwaran Krishnamurthy, Jon Zink, Kevin Hardegree-Ullman, Hiroki Harakawa, Tomoyuki Kudo, Takayuki Kotani, Takashi Kurokawa, Nobuhiko Kusakabe, Masayuki Kuzuhara, Jerome P. de Leon, John H. Livingston, Jun Nishikawa, Masashi Omiya, Enric Palle, Hannu Parviainen, Takuma Serizawa, Huan-Yu Teng, Akitoshi Ueda, Motohide Tamura

Abstract: We report the mass determination of TOI-519 b, a transiting substellar object around a mid-M dwarf. We carried out radial velocity measurements using Subaru / InfraRed Doppler (IRD), revealing that TOI-519 b is a planet with a mass of $0.463^{+0.082}_{-0.088}~M_{\rm Jup}$. We also find that the host star is metal rich ($\rm [Fe/H] = 0.27 \pm 0.09$ dex) and has the lowest effective temperature ($T_{\rm eff}=3322 \pm 49$ K) among all stars hosting known close-in giant planets based on the IRD spectra and mid-resolution infrared spectra obtained with NASA Infrared Telescope Facility / SpeX. The core mass of TOI-519 b inferred from a thermal evolution model ranges from $0$ to $\sim30~M_\oplus$, which can be explained by both the core accretion and disk instability models as the formation origins of this planet. However, TOI-519 is in line with the emerging trend that M dwarfs with close-in giant planets tend to have high metallicity, which may indicate that they formed in the core accretion model. The system is also consistent with the potential trend that close-in giant planets around M dwarfs tend to be less massive than those around FGK dwarfs.

3.The Io, Europa and Ganymede auroral footprints at Jupiter in the ultraviolet: positions and equatorial lead angles

Authors:Vincent Hue, Randy Gladstone, Corentin K. Louis, Thomas K. Greathouse, Bertrand Bonfond, Jamey R. Szalay, Alessandro Moirano, Rohini S. Giles, Joshua A. Kammer, Masafumi Imai, Alessandro Mura, Maarten H. Versteeg, George Clark, Jean-Claude Gérard, Denis C. Grodent, Jonas Rabia, Ali H. Sulaiman, Scott J. Bolton, John E. P. Connerney

Abstract: Jupiter's satellite auroral footprints are a consequence of the interaction between the Jovian magnetic field with co-rotating iogenic plasma and the Galilean moons. The disturbances created near the moons propagate as Alfv\'en waves along the magnetic field lines. The position of the moons is therefore "Alfv\'enically" connected to their respective auroral footprint. The angular separation from the instantaneous magnetic footprint can be estimated by the so-called lead angle. That lead angle varies periodically as a function of orbital longitude, since the time for the Alfv\'en waves to reach the Jovian ionosphere varies accordingly. Using spectral images of the Main Alfv\'en Wing auroral spots collected by Juno-UVS during the first forty-three orbits, this work provides the first empirical model of the Io, Europa and Ganymede equatorial lead angles for the northern and southern hemispheres. Alfv\'en travel times between the three innermost Galilean moons to Jupiter's northern and southern hemispheres are estimated from the lead angle measurements. We also demonstrate the accuracy of the mapping from the Juno magnetic field reference model (JRM33) at the completion of the prime mission for M-shells extending to at least 15RJ . Finally, we shows how the added knowledge of the lead angle can improve the interpretation of the moon-induced decametric emissions.

4.(130) Elektra Delta -- on the stability of the new third moonlet

Authors:Giulia Valvano, Rai Machado Oliveira, Othon Cabo Winter, Rafael Sfair, Gabriel Borderes-Motta

Abstract: The aim of this work is to verify the stability of the proposed orbital solutions for the third moonlet (Delta) taking into account a realistic gravitational potential for the central body of the quadruple system (Alpha). We also aim to estimate the location and size of a stability region inside the orbit of Gamma. First, we created a set of test particles with intervals of semi-major axis, eccentricities, and inclinations that covers the region interior to the orbit of Gamma, including the proposed orbit of Delta and a wide region around it. We considered three different models for the gravitational potential of Alpha: irregular polyhedron, ellipsoidal body and oblate body. For a second scenario, Delta was considered a massive spherical body and Alpha an irregular polyhedron. Beta and Gamma were assumed as spherical massive bodies in both scenarios. The simulations showed that a large region of space is almost fully stable only when Alpha was modeled as simply as an oblate body. For the scenario with Delta as a massive body, the results did not change from those as massless particles. Beta and Gamma do not play any relevant role in the dynamics of particles interior to the orbit of Gamma. Delta's predicted orbital elements are fully unstable and far from the nearest stable region. The primary instability source is Alpha's elongated shape. Therefore, in the determination of the orbital elements of Delta, it must be taken into account the gravitational potential of Alpha assuming, at least, an ellipsoidal shape.

5.Gas distribution in ODISEA sources from ALMA long-baseline observations in $^{12}$CO(2-1)

Authors:Juanita Antilen, Simon Casassus, Lucas A. Cieza, Camilo González-Ruilova

Abstract: The $^{12}$CO rotational lines in protoplanetary discs are good tracers of the total spatial extension of the gas component, and potentially planet-disc interactions. We present ALMA long baseline observations of the $^{12}$CO(2-1) line of ten protoplanetary discs from the Ophiuchus DIsc Survey Employing ALMA (ODISEA) project, aiming to set constraints on the gas distribution of these sources. The position angle of the gaseous disc can be inferred for five sources using high-velocity channels, which trace the gas in the inner part of the disc. We compare the high-velocity PAs to the orientations inferred from the continuum, representative of the orientation over $\sim$ 53 to 256 au in these resolved discs. We find a significant difference in orientation for DoAr 44, which is evidence of a tilted inner disc. Eight discs show evidence of gas inside inner dust cavities or gaps, and the disc of ISO-Oph 196 is not detected in $^{12}$CO(2-1), except for the compact signal located inside its dust cavity. Our observations also point out a possible outflow in WLY 2-63.

1.Orbital pathways for a Lunar-Ejecta Origin of the Near-Earth Asteroid Kamo`oalewa

Authors:Jose Daniel Castro-Cisneros, Renu Malhotra, Aaron J. Rosengren

Abstract: The near-Earth asteroid, Kamo`oalewa (469219), is one of a small number of known quasi-satellites of Earth. Numerical simulations show that it transitions between quasi-satellite and horseshoe orbital states on centennial timescales, maintaining this dynamics over megayears. Its reflectance spectrum suggest a similarity to lunar silicates. Considering its Earth-like orbit and its physical resemblance to lunar surface materials, we explore the hypothesis that it might have originated as a debris-fragment from a meteoroidal impact with the lunar surface. We carry out numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of particles launched from different locations on the lunar surface with a range of ejection velocities. As these ejecta escape the Earth-Moon environment and evolve into heliocentric orbits, we find that a small fraction of launch conditions yield outcomes that are compatible with Kamo`oalewa's dynamical behavior. The most favored conditions are launch velocities slightly above the escape velocity from the trailing lunar hemisphere.

2.Thermal Tomography of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with the ngVLA and ALMA

Authors:Satoshi Okuzumi, Munetake Momose, Akimasa Kataoka

Abstract: Understanding the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks is crucial for answering the fundamental question of when and where in the disks rocky planets like our own form. However, the thermal structure of the inner few au of the disks is poorly understood not only because of lack of observational constraints but also because of the uncertainty of accretion heating processes. Here, we propose thermal tomography of the inner regions of protoplanetary disks with the ngVLA and ALMA. The proposed approach is based on the assumption that the inner disk regions are optically thick at submillimeter wavelengths but are marginally optically thin at longer millimeter wavelengths. By combining high-resolution millimeter continuum images from the ngVLA with submillimeter images at comparable resolutions from ALMA, we will be able to reconstruct the radial and vertical structure of the inner few au disk regions. We demonstrate that the thermal tomography we propose can be used to constrain the efficiency of midplane accretion heating, a process that controls the timing of snow-line migration to the rocky planet-forming region, in the few au regions of protoplanetary disks at a distance of 140 pc.

3.Distinguishing a planetary transit from false positives: a Transformer-based classification for planetary transit signals

Authors:Helem Salinas, Karim Pichara, Rafael Brahm, Francisco Pérez-Galarce, Domingo Mery

Abstract: Current space-based missions, such as the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), provide a large database of light curves that must be analysed efficiently and systematically. In recent years, deep learning (DL) methods, particularly convolutional neural networks (CNN), have been used to classify transit signals of candidate exoplanets automatically. However, CNNs have some drawbacks; for example, they require many layers to capture dependencies on sequential data, such as light curves, making the network so large that it eventually becomes impractical. The self-attention mechanism is a DL technique that attempts to mimic the action of selectively focusing on some relevant things while ignoring others. Models, such as the Transformer architecture, were recently proposed for sequential data with successful results. Based on these successful models, we present a new architecture for the automatic classification of transit signals. Our proposed architecture is designed to capture the most significant features of a transit signal and stellar parameters through the self-attention mechanism. In addition to model prediction, we take advantage of attention map inspection, obtaining a more interpretable DL approach. Thus, we can identify the relevance of each element to differentiate a transit signal from false positives, simplifying the manual examination of candidates. We show that our architecture achieves competitive results concerning the CNNs applied for recognizing exoplanetary transit signals in data from the TESS telescope. Based on these results, we demonstrate that applying this state-of-the-art DL model to light curves can be a powerful technique for transit signal detection while offering a level of interpretability.

4.A Measurement of the Kuiper Belt's Mean Plane From Objects Classified By Machine Learning

Authors:Ian C. Matheson, Renu Malhotra

Abstract: Mean plane measurements of the Kuiper Belt from observational data are of interest for their potential to test dynamical models of the solar system. Recent measurements have yielded inconsistent results. Here we report a measurement of the Kuiper Belt's mean plane with a sample size more than twice as large as in previous measurements. The sample of interest is the non-resonant Kuiper belt objects, which we identify by using machine learning on the observed Kuiper Belt population whose orbits are well-determined. We estimate the measurement error with a Monte Carlo procedure. We find that the overall mean plane of the non-resonant Kuiper Belt (semimajor axis range 35-150 au) and also that of the classical Kuiper Belt (semimajor axis range 42-48 au) are both close to (within about 0.7 degrees) but distinguishable from the invariable plane of the solar system to greater than 99.7% confidence. When binning the sample into smaller semimajor axis bins, we find the measured mean plane mostly consistent with both the invariable plane and the theoretically expected Laplace surface forced by the known planets. Statistically significant discrepancies are found only in the semimajor axis ranges 40.3-42 au and 45-50 au; these ranges are in proximity to a secular resonance and Neptune's 2:1 mean motion resonance where the theory for the Laplace surface is likely to be inaccurate. These results do not support a previously reported anomalous warp at semimajor axes above 50 au.

5.Molecular Outgassing in Centaur 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 During Its Exceptional 2021 Outburst: Coordinated Multi-Wavelength Observations Using nFLASH at APEX and iSHELL at the NASA-IRTF

Authors:Nathan X. Roth, Stefanie N. Milam, Michael A. DiSanti, Geronimo L. Villanueva, Sara Faggi, Boncho P. Bonev, Martin A. Cordiner, Anthony J. Remijan, Dominique Bockelée-Morvan, Nicolas Biver, Jacques Crovisier, Dariusz C. Lis, Steven B. Charnley, Emmanuel Jehin, Eva. S. Wirström, Adam J. McKay

Abstract: The extraordinary 2021 September-October outburst of Centaur 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 afforded an opportunity to test the composition of primitive Kuiper disk material at high sensitivity. We conducted nearly simultaneous multi-wavelength spectroscopic observations of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 using iSHELL at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and nFLASH at the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) on 2021 October 6, with follow-up APEX/nFLASH observations on 2021 October 7 and 2022 April 3. This coordinated campaign between near-infrared and radio wavelengths enabled us to sample molecular emission from a wealth of coma molecules and to perform measurements that cannot be accomplished with either wavelength alone. We securely detected CO emission on all dates with both facilities, including velocity-resolved spectra of the CO (J=2-1) transition with APEX/nFLASH and multiple CO (v=1-0) rovibrational transitions with IRTF/iSHELL. We report rotational temperatures, coma kinematics, and production rates for CO and stringent (3-sigma) upper limits on abundance ratios relative to CO for CH4, C2H6, CH3OH, H2CO, CS, and OCS. Our upper limits for CS/CO and OCS/CO represent their first values in the literature for this Centaur. Upper limits for CH4, C2H6, CH3OH, and H2CO are the most stringent reported to date, and are most similar to values found in ultra CO-rich Oort cloud comet C/2016 R2 (PanSTARRS), which may have implications for how ices are preserved in cometary nuclei. We demonstrate the superb synergy of coordinated radio and near-infrared measurements, and advocate for future small body studies that jointly leverage the capabilities of each wavelength.

1.Gaussian processes for radial velocity modeling Better rotation periods and planetary parameters with the quasi-periodic kernel and constrained priors

Authors:Stephan Stock, Jonas Kemmer, Diana Kossakowski, Silvia Sabotta, Sabine Reffert, Andreas Quirrenbach

Abstract: In this study we present an analysis of the performance and properties of the quasi-periodic (QP) GP kernel, which is the multiplication of the squared-exponential kernel by the exponential-sine-squared kernel, based on an extensive set of synthetic RVs, into which the signature of activity was injected. We find that while the QP-GP rotation parameter matches the simulated rotation period of the star, the length scale cannot be directly connected to the spot lifetimes on the stellar surface. Regarding the setup of the priors for the QP-GP, we find that it can be advantageous to constrain the QP-GP hyperparameters in different ways depending on the application and the goal of the analysis. We find that a constraint on the length scale of the QP-GP can lead to a significant improvement in identifying the correct rotation period of the star, while a constraint on the rotation hyperparameter tends to lead to improved planet detection efficiency and more accurately derived planet parameters. Even though for most of the simulations the Bayesian evidence performed as expected, we identified not far-fetched cases where a blind adoption of this metric would lead to wrong conclusions. We conclude that modeling stellar astrophysical noise by using a QP-GP considerably improves detection efficiencies and leads to precise planet parameters. Nevertheless, there are also cases in which the QP-GP does not perform optimally, for example RV variations dynamically evolving on short timescales or a mixture of a very stable activity component and random variations. Knowledge of these limitations is essential for drawing correct conclusions from observational data.

2.Reliable and Repeatable Transit Through Cislunar Space Using the 2:1 Resonant Spatial Orbit Family

Authors:Andrew Binder, David Arnas

Abstract: This work focuses on the identification of reliable and repeatable spatial (three-dimensional) trajectories that link the Earth and the Moon. For this purpose, this paper aims to extend the 2:1 resonant prograde family and 2:1 resonant retrograde family to three dimensions and to introduce spatial orbits that are not currently present in the literature. These orbits, named the 2:1 resonant spatial family, bifurcate from the two-dimensional families and smoothly transition between them in phase space. The stability properties of this new family of resonant orbits are discussed, and, interestingly, this family includes marginally stable members. Furthermore, this new family of orbits is applied to several engineering problems in the Earth-Moon system. First, this paper selects an appropriate member of 2:1 resonant spatial family on the basis of its stability properties and relationships with other multibody orbits in the regime. Next, this work combines this trajectory with momentum exchange tethers to transit payloads throughout the system in a reliable and repeatable fashion. Finally, this paper studies the process of aborting a catch and related recovery opportunities.

3.The invasion of a free floating planet and the number asymmetry of Jupiter Trojans

Authors:Jian Li, Zhihong Jeff Xia, Nikolaos Georgakarakos, Fumi Yoshida

Abstract: This paper extends our previous study (Li et al. 2023) of the early evolution of Jupiter and its two Trojan swarms by introducing the possible perturbations of a free floating planet (FFP) invading the Solar System. In the framework of the invasion of a FFP, we aim to provide some new scenarios to explain the number asymmetry of the L4 and L5 Jupiter Trojans, and some other observed features. We investigate two different cases: (i) The indirect case, where Jupiter experiences a scattering encounter with the FFP and jumps outwards at a speed that is much higher than that considered in(Li et al. 2023), resulting in a change in the numbers of the L4 (N4) and L5 (N5) Trojans swarms. (ii) The direct case, in which the FFP traverses the L5 region and affects the stability of the local Trojans. In the indirect case, the outward migration of Jupiter can be fast enough to make the L4 islands disappear temporarily, inducing a resonant amplitude increase of the local Trojans. After the migration is over, the L4 Trojans come back to the re-appeared and enlarged islands. As for the L5 islands, they always exist but expand even more considerably. Since the L4 swarm suffers less excitation in the resonant amplitude than the L5 swarm, more L4 Trojans are stable and could survive to the end. In the direct case, the FFP could deplete a considerable fraction of the L5 Trojans, while the L4 Trojans at large distances are not affected and all of them could survive. Both the indirect and direct cases could result in a number ratio of R45=N4/N5~1.6 that can potentially explain the current observations. The latter has the advantage of producing the observed resonant amplitude distribution. For achieving these results, we propose that the FFP should have a mass of at least of a few tens of Earth masses and its orbital inclination is allowed to be as high as 40 degrees.

4.Narrow loophole for H2-dominated atmospheres on habitable rocky planets around M dwarfs

Authors:Renyu Hu, Fabrice Gaillard, Edwin Kite

Abstract: Habitable rocky planets around M dwarfs that have H2-dominated atmospheres, if they exist, would permit characterizing habitable exoplanets with detailed spectroscopy using JWST, owing to their extended atmospheres and small stars. However, the H2-dominated atmospheres that are consistent with habitable conditions cannot be too massive, and a moderate-size H2-dominated atmosphere will lose mass to irradiation-driven atmospheric escape on rocky planets around M dwarfs. We evaluate volcanic outgassing and serpentinization as two potential ways to supply H2 and form a steady-state H2-dominated atmosphere. For rocky planets of 1-7 Earth mass and early, mid, and late M dwarfs, the expected volcanic outgassing rates from a reduced mantle fall short of the escape rates by >~1 order of magnitude, and a generous upper limit of the serpentinization rate is still less than the escape rate by a factor of a few. Special mechanisms that may sustain the steady-state H2-dominated atmosphere include direct interaction between liquid water and mantle, heat-pipe volcanism from a reduced mantle, and hydrodynamic escape slowed down by efficient upper-atmospheric cooling. It is thus unlikely to find moderate-size, H2-dominated atmospheres on rocky planets of M dwarfs that would support habitable environments.

1.The shared evaporation history of three sub-Neptunes spanning the radius-period valley of a Hyades star

Authors:Jorge Fernández Fernández, Peter J. Wheatley, George W. King

Abstract: We model the evaporation histories of the three planets around K2-136, a K-dwarf in the Hyades open cluster with an age of 700 Myr. The star hosts three transiting planets, with radii of 1.0, 3.0 and 1.5 Earth radii, where the middle planet lies above the radius-period valley and the inner and outer planets are below. We use an XMM-Newton observation to measure the XUV radiation environment of the planets, finding that the X-ray activity of K2-136 is lower than predicted by models but typical of similar Hyades members. We estimate the internal structure of each planet, and model their evaporation histories using a range of structure and atmospheric escape formulations. While the precise X-ray irradiation history of the system may be uncertain, we exploit the fact that the three planets must have shared the same history. We find that the Earth-sized K2-136b is most likely rocky, with any primordial gaseous envelope being lost within a few Myr. The sub-Neptune, K2-136c, has an envelope contributing 1-1.7% of its mass that is stable against evaporation thanks to the high mass of its rocky core, whilst the super-Earth, K2-136d, must have a mass at the upper end of the allowed range in order to retain any of its envelope. Our results are consistent with all three planets beginning as sub-Neptunes that have since been sculpted by atmospheric evaporation to their current states, stripping the envelope from planet b and removing most from planet d whilst preserving planet c above the radius-period valley.

2.Giants are bullies: how their growth influences systems of inner sub-Neptunes and super-Earths

Authors:Bertram Bitsch, Andre Izidoro

Abstract: Observations point to a correlation between outer giants and inner sub-Neptunes, unexplained by simulations so far. We utilize N-body simulations including pebble and gas accretion as well as planetary migration to investigate how the gas accretion rates influence the formation of systems of inner sub-Neptunes and outer gas giants as well as the eccentricity distribution of the outer giant planets. Less efficient envelope contraction rates allow a more efficient formation of systems with inner sub-Neptunes and outer giants. This is caused by the fact that the cores formed in the inner disc are too small to accrete large envelopes and only cores growing in the outer disc can become giants. As a result, instabilities between the outer giant planets do not necessarily destroy the inner systems of sub-Neptunes unlike simulations where giant planets can form closer in. Our simulations show that up to 50% of the systems of cold Jupiters could have inner sub-Neptunes, in agreement with observations. Our simulations show a good agreement with the eccentricity distribution of giants, even though we find a slight mismatch to the mass and semi-major axes distributions. Synthetic transit observations of the inner systems (r<0.7 AU) reveal an excellent match to the Kepler observations, where our simulations match the period ratios of adjacent planet pairs. Thus, the breaking the chains model for super-Earth and sub-Neptune formation remains consistent with observations even when outer giant planets are present. However, simulations with outer giant planets produce more systems with mostly only one inner planet and with larger eccentricities, in contrast to simulations without outer giants. We thus predict that systems with truly single close-in planets are more likely to host outer gas giants and we consequently suggest RV follow-up observations of these systems to constrain the formation pathway.

3.Warm giant exoplanet characterisation: current state, challenges and outlook

Authors:Simon Müller, Ravit Helled

Abstract: The characterisation of giant exoplanets is crucial to constrain giant planet formation and evolution theory and for putting the solar-system's giant planets in perspective. Typically, mass-radius (M-R) measurements of moderately irradiated warm Jupiters are used to estimate the planetary bulk composition, which is an essential quantity for constraining giant planet formation, evolution and structure models. The successful launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the upcoming ARIEL mission open a new era in giant exoplanet characterisation as atmospheric measurements provide key information on the composition and internal structure of giant exoplanets. In this review, we discuss how giant planet evolution models are used to infer the planetary bulk composition, and the connection between the compositions of the interior and atmosphere. We identify the important theoretical uncertainties in evolution models including the equations of state, atmospheric models, chemical composition, interior structure and main energy transport processes. Nevertheless, we show that that atmospheric measurements by JWST and ARIEL and the accurate determination of stellar ages by PLATO can significantly reduce the degeneracy in the inferred bulk composition. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of evolution models for the characterisation of direct-imaged planets. We conclude that giant planet theory has a critical role in the interpretation of observation and emphasise the importance of advancing giant planet theory.

4.The interplay between pebble and planetesimal accretion in population synthesis models and its role in giant planet formation

Authors:Andrin Kessler, Yann Alibert

Abstract: In the core accretion scenario of planet formation, rocky cores grow by first accreting solids until they are massive enough to accrete gas. For giant planet formation this means that a massive core must form within the lifetime of the gas disk. The accretion of roughly km-sized planetesimals and the accretion of mm-cm sized pebbles are typically discussed separately as the main solid accretion mechanisms. We investigate the interplay between the two accretion processes in a disk containing both pebbles and planetesimals for planet formation in general and in the context of giant planet formation specifically. The goal is to disentangle and understand the fundamental interactions that arise in such hybrid pebble-planetesimal models. We combine a simple model of pebble formation and accretion with a global model of planet formation which considers the accretion of planetesimals. We compare synthetic populations of planets formed in disks composed of different amounts of pebbles and 600 meter sized planetesimals. On a system-level, we study the formation pathway of giant planets in these disks. We find that, in hybrid disks containing both pebbles and planetesimals, the formation of giant planets is strongly suppressed whereas in a pebbles-only or planetesimals-only scenario, giant planets can form. We identify the heating associated with the accretion of up to 100 km sized planetesimals after the pebble accretion period to delay the runaway gas accretion of massive cores. Coupled with strong inward type-I migration acting on these planets, this results in close-in icy sub-Neptunes originating from the outer disk. We conclude that, in hybrid pebble-planetesimal scenarios, the late accretion of planetesimals is a critical factor in the giant planet formation process and that inward migration is more efficient for planets in increasingly pebble dominated disks.

1.Tidal dissipation in stratified and semi-convective regions of giant planets

Authors:Christina M. Pontin, Adrian J. Barker, Rainer Hollerbach

Abstract: We study how stably stratified or semi-convective layers alter the tidal dissipation rates associated with the generation of internal waves in planetary interiors. We consider if these layers could contribute to the high rates of tidal dissipation observed for Jupiter and Saturn in our solar system. We use an idealised global spherical Boussinesq model to study the influence of stable stratification and semi-convective layers on tidal dissipation rates. We carry out analytical and numerical calculations considering realistic tidal forcing and measure how the viscous and thermal dissipation rates depend on the parameters relating to the internal stratification profile. We find that the strongly frequency-dependent tidal dissipation rate is highly dependent on the parameters relating to the stable stratification, with strong resonant peaks that align with the internal modes of the system. The locations and sizes of these resonances depend on the form and parameters of the stratification, which we explore both analytically and numerically. Our results suggest that stable stratification can significantly enhance the tidal dissipation in particular frequency ranges. Analytical calculations in the low frequency regime give us scaling laws for the key parameters, including the tidal quality factor $Q'$ due to internal gravity waves. Stably stratified layers can significantly contribute to tidal dissipation in solar and extrasolar giant planets, and we estimate substantial tidal evolution for hot Neptunes. Further investigation is needed to robustly quantify the significance of the contribution in realistic interior models, and to consider the contribution of inertial waves.

2.Prediction of the collisions of meteoroids originating in comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner with the Mercury, Venus, and Mars

Authors:Dušan Tomko, Luboš Neslušan

Abstract: After the prediction of meteor showers in the Earth's atmosphere caused by the particles originating in the nucleus of comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, we went on with the prediction of showers on the other three terrestrial planets. Based on our modeling of theoretical stream of the parent comet, we predicted several related meteorite (on Mercury) or meteor (on Venus and Mars) showers. There occurred the filaments, in the stream, with the particles coming to each planet from a similar direction. We found that this is a consequence of the specific distribution of argument of perihelion (peaked close to the value of $180^{\circ}$) and longitude of ascending node of the stream, and that the particles collide with each planet in an arc of their orbits being close to perihelion.

3.Detection of carbon monoxide's 4.6 micron fundamental band structure in WASP-39b's atmosphere with JWST NIRSpec G395H

Authors:David Grant, Joshua D. Lothringer, Hannah R. Wakeford, Munazza K. Alam, Lili Alderson, Jacob L. Bean, Björn Benneke, Jean-Michel Désert, Tansu Daylan, Laura Flagg, Renyu Hu, Julie Inglis, James Kirk, Laura Kreidberg, Mercedes López-Morales, Luigi Mancini, Thomas Mikal-Evans, Karan Molaverdikhani, Enric Palle, Benjamin V. Rackham, Seth Redfield, Kevin B. Stevenson, Jeff Valenti, Nicole L. Wallack, Keshav Aggarwal, Eva-Maria Ahrer, Ian J. M. Crossfield, Nicolas Crouzet, Nicolas Iro, Nikolay K. Nikolov, Peter J. Wheatley

Abstract: Carbon monoxide (CO) is predicted to be the dominant carbon-bearing molecule in giant planet atmospheres, and, along with water, is important for discerning the oxygen and therefore carbon-to-oxygen ratio of these planets. The fundamental absorption mode of CO has a broad double-branched structure composed of many individual absorption lines from 4.3 to 5.1 $\mathrm{\mu}$m, which can now be spectroscopically measured with JWST. Here we present a technique for detecting the rotational sub-band structure of CO at medium resolution with the NIRSpec G395H instrument. We use a single transit observation of the hot Jupiter WASP-39b from the JWST Transiting Exoplanet Community Early Release Science (JTEC ERS) program at the native resolution of the instrument ($R \,{\sim} 2700$) to resolve the CO absorption structure. We robustly detect absorption by CO, with an increase in transit depth of 264 $\pm$ 68 ppm, in agreement with the predicted CO contribution from the best-fit model at low resolution. This detection confirms our theoretical expectations that CO is the dominant carbon-bearing molecule in WASP-39b's atmosphere, and further supports the conclusions of low C/O and super-solar metallicities presented in the JTEC ERS papers for WASP-39b.

4.New compound and hybrid binding energy sputter model for modeling purposes in agreement with experimental data

Authors:Noah Jäggi, Andreas Mutzke, Herbert Biber, Johannes Brötzner, Paul Stefan Szabo, Friedrich Aumayr, Peter Wurz, André Galli

Abstract: Rocky planets and moons experiencing solar wind sputtering are continuously supplying their enveloping exosphere with ejected neutral atoms. To understand the quantity and properties of the ejecta, well established Binary Collision Approximation Monte Carlo codes like TRIM with default settings are used predominantly. Improved models such as SDTrimSP have come forward and together with new experimental data the underlying assumptions have been challenged. We introduce a hybrid model, combining the previous surface binding approach with a new bulk binding model akin to Hofs\"ass & Stegmaier (2023). In addition, we expand the model implementation by distinguishing between free and bound components sourced from mineral compounds such as oxides or sulfides. The use of oxides and sulfides also enables the correct setting of the mass densities of minerals, which was previously limited to the manual setting of individual atomic densities of elements. All of the energies and densities used are thereby based on tabulated data, so that only minimal user input and no fitting of parameters are required. We found unprecedented agreement between the newly implemented hybrid model and previously published sputter yields for incidence angles up to 45{\deg} from surface normal. Good agreement is found for the angular distribution of mass sputtered from enstatite MgSiO$_3$ compared to latest experimental data. Energy distributions recreate trends of experimental data of oxidized metals. Similar trends are to be expected from future mineral experimental data. The model thus serves its purpose of widespread applicability and ease of use for modelers of rocky body exospheres.

5.WASP-131 b with ESPRESSO I: A bloated sub-Saturn on a polar orbit around a differentially rotating solar-type star

Authors:L. Doyle, H. M. Cegla, D. R. Anderson, M. Lendl, V. Bourrier, E. Bryant, J. Vines, R. Allart, D. Bayliss, M. R. Burleigh, N. Buchschacher, S. L. Casewell, F. Hawthorn, J. S. Jenkins, M. Lafarga, M. Moyano, A. Psaridi, N. Roguet-Kern, D. Sosnowska, P. Wheatley

Abstract: In this paper, we present observations of two high-resolution transit datasets obtained with ESPRESSO of the bloated sub-Saturn planet WASP-131~b. We have simultaneous photometric observations with NGTS and EulerCam. In addition, we utilised photometric lightcurves from {\tess}, WASP, EulerCam and TRAPPIST of multiple transits to fit for the planetary parameters and update the ephemeris. We spatially resolve the stellar surface of WASP-131 utilising the Reloaded Rossiter McLaughlin technique to search for centre-to-limb convective variations, stellar differential rotation, and to determine the star-planet obliquity for the first time. We find WASP-131 is misaligned on a nearly retrograde orbit with a projected obliquity of $\lambda = 162.4\substack{+1.3 \\ -1.2}^{\circ}$. In addition, we determined a stellar differential rotation shear of $\alpha = 0.61 \pm 0.06$ and disentangled the stellar inclination ($i_* = 40.9\substack{+13.3 \\ -8.5}^{\circ}$) from the projected rotational velocity, resulting in an equatorial velocity of $v_{\rm{eq}} = 7.7\substack{+1.5 \\ -1.3}$~km s$^{-1}$. In turn, we determined the true 3D obliquity of $\psi = 123.7\substack{+12.8 \\ -8.0}^{\circ}$, meaning the planet is on a perpendicular/polar orbit. Therefore, we explored possible mechanisms for the planetary system's formation and evolution. Finally, we searched for centre-to-limb convective variations where there was a null detection, indicating that centre-to-limb convective variations are not prominent in this star or are hidden within red noise.

1.Showers with both northern and southern solutions

Authors:L. Neslušan, T. J. Jopek, R. Rudawska, M. Hajduková, G. Kokhirova

Abstract: Meteoroids of a low-inclination stream hit the Earth arriving from a direction near the ecliptic. The radiant area of stream like this is often divided into two parts: one is situated northward and the other southward of the ecliptic. In other words, two showers are caused by such a stream. Well-known examples of such showers are the Northern Taurids, #17, and Southern Taurids, #2, or the Northern $\delta$-Aquariids, #26, and Southern $\delta$-Aquariids, #5. While the meteoroids of the northern shower collide with the Earth in the descending node, those of the southern shower collide with our planet in the ascending node of their orbits. Because of this circumstance and tradition, the northern and southern showers must be distinguished. Unfortunately, this is not always the case with meteor showers listed in the IAU Meteor Data Center (MDC). For the same shower, some authors reported a set of its mean parameters corresponding to the northern shower and other authors to the southern shower. We found eleven such cases in the MDC. In this paper, we propose corrections of these mis-identifications.

2.Exploring the stellar surface phenomena of WASP-52 and HAT-P-30 with ESPRESSO

Authors:H. M. Cegla, N. Roguet-Kern, M. Lendl, B. Akinsanmi, J. McCormac, M. Oshagh, P. J. Wheatley, G. Chen, R. Allart, A. Mortier, V. Bourrier, N. Buchschacher, C. Lovis, D. Sosnowska, S. Sulis, O. Turner, N. Casasayas-Barris, E. Palle, F. Yan, M. R. Burleigh, S. L. Casewell, M. R. Goad, F. Hawthorn, A. Wyttenbach

Abstract: We analyse spectroscopic and photometric transits of the hot Jupiters WASP-52b and HAT-P30b obtained with ESPRESSO, Eulercam and NGTS for both targets, and additional TESS data for HAT-P-30. Our goal is to update the system parameters and refine our knowledge of the host star surfaces. For WASP-52, the companion planet has occulted starspots in the past, and as such our aim was to use the reloaded Rossiter-McLaughlin technique to directly probe its starspot properties. Unfortunately, we find no evidence for starspot occultations in the datasets herein. Additionally, we searched for stellar surface differential rotation (DR) and any centre-to-limb variation (CLV) due to convection, but return a null detection of both. This is unsurprising for WASP-52, given its relatively cool temperature, high magnetic activity (which leads to lower CLV), and projected obliquity near 0 degrees (meaning the transit chord is less likely to cross several stellar latitudes). For HAT-P-30, this result was more surprising given its hotter effective temperature, lower magnetic field, and high projected obliquity (near 70 degrees). To explore the reasons behind the null DR and CLV detection for HAT-P-30, we simulated a variety of scenarios. We find that either the CLV present on HAT-P-30 is below the solar level or the presence of DR prevents a CLV detection given the precision of the data herein. A careful treatment of both DR and CLV is required, especially for systems with high impact factors, due to potential degeneracies between the two. Future observations and/or a sophisticated treatment of the red noise present in the data (likely due to granulation) is required to refine the DR and CLV for these particular systems; such observations would also present another opportunity to try to examine starspots on WASP-52.

1.Jupiter Science Enabled by ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer

Authors:Leigh N. Fletcher, Thibault Cavalié, Davide Grassi, Ricardo Hueso, Luisa M. Lara, Yohai Kaspi, Eli Galanti, Thomas K. Greathouse, Philippa M. Molyneux, Marina Galand, Claire Vallat, Olivier Witasse, Rosario Lorente, Paul Hartogh, François Poulet, Yves Langevin, Pasquale Palumbo, G. Randall Gladstone, Kurt D. Retherford, Michele K. Dougherty, Jan-Erik Wahlund, Stas Barabash, Luciano Iess, Lorenzo Bruzonne, Hauke Hussmann, Leonid I. Gurvits, Ondřej Santolik, Ivana Kolmasova, Georg Fischer, Ingo Müller-Wodarg, Giuseppe Piccioni, Thierry Fouchet, Jean-Claude Gérard, Agustin Sánchez-Lavega, Patrick G. J. Irwin, Denis Grodent, Francesca Altieri, Alessandro Mura, Pierre Drossart, Josh Kammer, Rohini Giles, Stéphanie Cazaux, Geraint Jones, Maria Smirnova, Emmanuel Lellouch, Alexander S. Medvedev, Raphael Moreno, Ladislav Rezac, Athena Coustenis, Marc Costa

Abstract: ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) will provide a detailed investigation of the Jovian system in the 2030s, combining a suite of state-of-the-art instruments with an orbital tour tailored to maximise observing opportunities. We review the Jupiter science enabled by the JUICE mission, building on the legacy of discoveries from the Galileo, Cassini, and Juno missions, alongside ground- and space-based observatories. We focus on remote sensing of the climate, meteorology, and chemistry of the atmosphere and auroras from the cloud-forming weather layer, through the upper troposphere, into the stratosphere and ionosphere. The Jupiter orbital tour provides a wealth of opportunities for atmospheric and auroral science: global perspectives with its near-equatorial and inclined phases, sampling all phase angles from dayside to nightside, and investigating phenomena evolving on timescales from minutes to months. The remote sensing payload spans far-UV spectroscopy (50-210 nm), visible imaging (340-1080 nm), visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (0.49-5.56 $\mu$m), and sub-millimetre sounding (near 530-625\,GHz and 1067-1275\,GHz). This is coupled to radio, stellar, and solar occultation opportunities to explore the atmosphere at high vertical resolution; and radio and plasma wave measurements of electric discharges in the Jovian atmosphere and auroras. Cross-disciplinary scientific investigations enable JUICE to explore coupling processes in giant planet atmospheres, to show how the atmosphere is connected to (i) the deep circulation and composition of the hydrogen-dominated interior; and (ii) to the currents and charged particle environments of the external magnetosphere. JUICE will provide a comprehensive characterisation of the atmosphere and auroras of this archetypal giant planet.

1.MHD study of extreme space weather conditions for exoplanets with Earth-like magnetospheres: On habitability conditions and radio-emission

Authors:J. Varela, A. S. Brun, P. Zarka, A. Strugarek, F. Pantellini, V. Reville

Abstract: The present study aims at characterizing the habitability conditions of exoplanets with an Earth-like magnetosphere inside the habitable zone of M stars and F stars like tau Boo, caused by the direct deposition of the stellar wind on the exoplanet surface if the magnetosphere shielding is inefficient. In addition, the radio emission generated by exoplanets with a Earth-like magnetosphere is calculated for different space weather conditions. The study is based on a set of MHD simulations performed by the code PLUTO reproducing the space weather conditions expected for exoplanets orbiting the habitable zone of M stars and F stars type tau Boo. Exoplanets hosted by M stars at 0.2 au are protected from the stellar wind during regular and CME-like space weather conditions if the star rotation period is slower than 3 days, that is to say, faster rotators generate stellar winds and interplanetary magnetic fields large enough to endanger the exoplanet habitability. Exoplanets hosted by a F stars type tau Boo at >= 2.5 au are protected during regular space weather conditions, but a stronger magnetic field compared to the Earth is mandatory if the exoplanet is close to the inner edge of the star habitable zone (2.5 au) to shield the exoplanet surface during CME-like space weather conditions. The range of radio emission values calculated in the simulations are consistent with the scaling proposed by [Zarka 2018] during regular and common CME-like space weather conditions. If the radio telescopes measure a relative low radio emission signal with small variability from an exoplanet, that may indicate favorable exoplanet habitability conditions with respect to the space weather states considered and the intrinsic magnetic field of the exoplanet.

2.Secular orbital dynamics of the innermost exoplanet of the $\upsilon$-Andromedæ system

Authors:Rita Mastroianni, Ugo Locatelli

Abstract: We introduce a quasi-periodic restricted Hamiltonian to describe the secular motion of a small-mass planet in a multi-planetary system. In particular, we refer to the motion of $\upsilon$-And $b$ which is the innermost planet among those discovered in the extrasolar system orbiting around the $\upsilon$-Andromedae A star. We preassign the orbits of the Super-Jupiter exoplanets $\upsilon$-And $c$ and $\upsilon$-And $d$ in a stable configuration. The Fourier decompositions of their secular motions are reconstructed by using the Frequency Analysis and are injected in the equations describing the orbital dynamics of $\upsilon$-And $b$ under the gravitational effects exerted by those two external exoplanets (expected to be major ones in such an extrasolar system). We end up with a $2+3/2$ degrees of freedom Hamiltonian model; its validity is confirmed by the comparison with several numerical integrations of the complete $4$-body problem. Furthermore, the model is enriched by taking into account also the relativistic effects on the secular motion of the innermost exoplanet. We focus on the problem of the stability of $\upsilon$-And $b$ as a function of the parameters that mostly impact on its orbit, i.e. the initial values of its inclination and the longitude of its node. We study the evolution of its eccentricity, crucial to exclude orbital configurations with high probability of (quasi)collision with the central star in the long-time evolution of the system. Moreover, we also introduce a normal form approach, that further reduces our Hamiltonian model to a system with $2$ degrees of freedom, which is integrable because it admits a constant of motion related to the total angular momentum. This allows us to quickly preselect the domains of stability for $\upsilon$-And $b$, with respect to the set of the initial orbital configurations that are compatible with the observations.

3.Constraints on Europa's water group torus from HST/COS observations

Authors:Lorenz Roth, H. Todd Smith, Kazuo Yoshioka, Tracy M. Becker, Aljona Blöcker, Nathaniel J. Cunningham, Nickolay Ivchenko, Kurt D. Retherford, Joachim Saur, Michael Velez, Fuminori Tsuchiya

Abstract: In-situ plasma measurements as well as remote mapping of energetic neutral atoms around Jupiter provide indirect evidence that an enhancement of neutral gas is present near the orbit of the moon Europa. Simulations suggest that such a neutral gas torus can be sustained by escape from Europa's atmosphere and consists primarily of molecular hydrogen, but the neutral gas torus has not yet been measured directly through emissions or in-situ. Here we present observations by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST/COS) from 2020 and 2021, which scanned the equatorial plane between 8 and 10 planetary radii west of Jupiter. No neutral gas emissions are detected. We derive upper limits on the emissions and compare these to modelled emissions from electron impact and resonant scattering using a Europa torus Monte Carlo model for the neutral gases. The comparison supports the previous findings that the torus is dilute and primarily consists of molecular hydrogen. A detection of sulfur ion emissions radially inward of the Europa orbit is consistent with emissions from the extended Io torus and with sulfur ion fractional abundances as previously detected.

1.A high spatial and spectral resolution study of Jupiter's mid-infrared auroral emissions and their response to a solar wind compression

Authors:James A Sinclair, Thomas K Greathouse, Rohini S Giles, John Lacy, Julianne Moses, Vincent Hue, Denis Grodent, Bertrand Bonfond, Chihiro Tao, Thibault Cavalié, Emma K Dahl, Glenn S Orton, Leigh N Fletcher, Patrick G J Irwin

Abstract: We present mid-infrared spectroscopy of Jupiter's mid-to-high latitudes using Gemini-North/TEXES (Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph) on March 17-19, 2017. These observations capture Jupiter's hydrocarbon auroral emissions before, during and after the arrival of a solar wind compression on March 18th, which highlights the coupling between the polar stratosphere and external space environment. In comparing observations on March 17th and 19th, we observe a brightening of the CH$_4$, C$_2$H$_2$ and C$_2$H$_4$ emissions in regions spatially coincident with the northern, duskside main auroral emission (henceforth, MAE). In inverting the spectra to derive atmospheric information, we determine that the duskside brightening results from an upper stratospheric (p < 0.1 mbar/z > 200 km) heating (e.g. $\Delta T$ = 9.1 $\pm$ 2.1 K at 9 $\mu$bar at 67.5$^\circ$N, 162.5$^\circ$W) with negligible heating at deeper pressures. Our interpretation is that the arrival of the solar wind enhancement drove magnetospheric dynamics through compression and/or viscous interactions on the flank. These dynamics accelerated currents and/or generated higher Poynting fluxes, which ultimately warmed the atmosphere through Joule heating and ion-neutral collisions. Poleward of the southern MAE, temperature retrievals demonstrate that auroral-related heating penetrates as deep as the 10-mbar level, in contrast to poleward of the northern MAE, where heating is only observed as deep as $\sim$3 mbar. We suggest this results from the south having higher Pedersen conductivities, and therefore stronger currents and acceleration of the neutrals, as well as the poleward heating overlapping with the apex of Jupiter's circulation thereby inhibiting efficient horizontal mixing/advection.

1.Revisiting the trajectory of the interstellar object 'Oumuamua: preference for a radially directed non-gravitational acceleration?

Authors:Federico Spada

Abstract: I present a re-analysis of the available observational constraints on the trajectory of 'Oumuamua, the first confirmed interstellar object discovered in the solar system. 'Oumuamua passed through the inner solar system on a hyperbolic (i.e., unbound) trajectory. Its discovery occurred after perihelion passage, and near the time of its closest approach to Earth. After being observable for approximately four months, the object became too faint and was lost at a heliocentric distance of around 3 au. Intriguingly, analysis of the trajectory of 'Oumuamua revealed that a dynamical model including only gravitational accelerations does not provide a satisfactory fit of the data, and a non-gravitational term must be included. The detected non-gravitational acceleration is compatible with either solar radiation pressure or recoil due to outgassing. It has, however, proved challenging to reconcile either interpretation with the existing quantitative models of such effects without postulating unusual physical properties for 'Oumuamua (such as extremely low density and/or unusual geometry, non-standard chemistry). My analysis independently confirms the detection of the non-gravitational acceleration. After comparing several possible parametrizations for this effects, I find a strong preference for a radially directed non-gravitational acceleration, pointing away from the Sun, and a moderate preference for a power-law scaling with the heliocentric distance, with an exponent between 1 and 2. These results provide valuable constraints on the physical mechanism behind the effect; a conclusive identification, however, is probably not possible on the basis of dynamical arguments alone.

2.Magnetic winding and turbulence in ultra-hot Jupiters

Authors:Clàudia Soriano-Guerrero, Daniele Viganò, Rosalba Perna, Taner Akgün, Carlos Palenzuela

Abstract: While magnetism in exoplanets remains largely unknown, Hot Jupiters have been considered as natural candidates to harbour intense magnetic fields, both due to their large masses and their high energy budgets coming from irradiation as a consequence of their vicinity to their host stars. In this work we perform MHD simulations of a narrow day-side atmospheric column of ultra-hot Jupiters, suitable for very high local temperatures (T > 3000 K). Since the conductivity in this regime is very high, the dominant effect is winding due to the intense zonal winds. By including a forcing that mimics the wind profiles obtained in global circulation models, the shear layer induces a strong toroidal magnetic field (locally reaching hundreds of gauss), supported by meridional currents. Such fields and the sustaining currents don$'$t depend on the internally generated field, but are all confined in the thin (less than a scale-height) shear layer around 1 bar. Additionally, we add random perturbations that induce turbulent motions, which lead to further (but much smaller) magnetic field generation to a broader range of depths. These results allow an evaluation of the currents induced by the atmospheric dynamo. Although here we use ideal MHD and the only resistivity comes from the numerical scheme, we estimate a-posteriori the amount of Ohmic heat deposited in the outer layers, which could be employed in evolutionary models for Hot Jupiters' inflated radii.

1.A physically derived eddy parameterization for giant planet atmospheres with application on hot-Jupiter atmospheres

Authors:Anthony Arfaux, Panayotis Lavvas

Abstract: We present a parameterization for the eddy diffusion profile of gas giant exoplanets based on physical phenomena and we explore how the parameterized eddy profile impacts the chemical composition, the thermal structure, the haze microphysics, and the transit spectra of 8 hot-Jupiters. Our eddy parameterization depends on the planetary intrinsic temperature (T$_{int}$ ), we thus evaluate how the increase of this parameter to values higher than those typically used ($\sim$100K) impacts the atmospheric structure and composition. Our investigation demonstrates that despite the strong impact of T$_{int}$ on the chemical composition of the deep atmosphere, the upper atmosphere is not affected for T$_{eq}$ $>$ 1300 K owing to high altitude quench levels at these conditions. Below this threshold, however, the larger atmospheric temperatures produced by increasing T$_{int}$ affect the quenched chemical composition. Our parameterization depends on two parameters, the eddy magnitude at the radiative-convective boundary (K$_0$) and the corresponding magnitude at the homopause (K$_{top}$). We demonstrate that, when using common K$_0$ and K$_{top}$ values among most of the different planet cases studied, we derive transit spectra consistent with Hubble Space Telescope observations. Moreover, our simulations show that increasing the eddy profile enhances the photochemical production of haze particles and reduces their average radius, thus providing a steeper UV-Visible slope. Finally, we demonstrate for WASP-39b that the James Webb Space Telescope observations provide improved constraints for the hazes and clouds and we show that both components seem necessary to interpret the combined transit spectrum from HST and JWST observations.

2.Investigating the asymmetric chemistry in the disk around the young star HD 142527

Authors:Milou Temmink, Alice S. Booth, Nienke van der Marel, Ewine F. van Dishoeck

Abstract: The atmospheric composition of planets is determined by the chemistry of the disks in which they form. Studying the gas-phase molecular composition of disks thus allows us to infer what the atmospheric composition of forming planets might be. Recent observations of the IRS 48 disk have shown that (asymmetric) dust traps can directly impact the observable chemistry, through radial and vertical transport, and the sublimation of ices. The asymmetric HD 142527 disk provides another good opportunity to investigate the role of dust traps in setting the disk's chemical composition. In this work, we use archival ALMA observations of the HD 142527 disk to obtain an as large as possible molecular inventory, which allows us to investigate the possible influence of the asymmetric dust trap on the disk's chemistry. We present the first ALMA detections of [C I], 13C18O, DCO+, H2CO and additional transition of HCO+ and CS in this disk. In addition, we have acquired upper limits for non-detected species such as SO and CH3OH. For the majority of the observed molecules, a decrement in the emission at the location of the dust trap is found. For the main CO isotopologues continuum over-subtraction likely causes the observed asymmetry, while for CS and HCN we propose that the observed asymmetries are likely due to shadows cast by the misaligned inner disk. As the emission of the observed molecules is not co-spatial with the dust trap and no SO or CH3OH are found, thermal sublimation of icy mantles does not appear to play a major role in changing the gas-phase composition of the outer disk in HD 142527 disk. Using our observations of 13C18O and DCO+ and a RADMC-3D model, we determine the CO snowline to be located beyond the dust traps, favouring cold gas-phase formation of H2CO, rather than the hydrogenation of CO-ice and subsequent sublimation.

3.Revisiting K2-233 spectroscopic time-series with multidimensional Gaussian Processes

Authors:Oscar Barragán, Edward Gillen, Suzanne Aigrain, Annabella Meech, Baptiste Klein, Louise Dyregaard Nielsen, Haochuan Yu, Niamh K. O'Sullivan, Belinda A. Nicholson, Jorge Lillo-Box

Abstract: Detecting planetary signatures in radial velocity time-series of young stars is challenging due to their inherently strong stellar activity. However, it is possible to learn information about the properties of the stellar signal by using activity indicators measured from the same stellar spectra used to extract radial velocities. In this manuscript, we present a reanalysis of spectroscopic HARPS data of the young star K2-233, which hosts three transiting planets. We perform a multidimensional Gaussian Process regression on the radial velocity and the activity indicators to characterise the planetary Doppler signals. We demonstrate, for the first time on a real dataset, that the use of a multidimensional Gaussian Process can boost the precision with which we measure the planetary signals compared to a one-dimensional Gaussian Process applied to the radial velocities alone. We measure the semi-amplitudes of K2-233 b, c, and d as 1.31(-0.74)(+0.81), 1.81(-0.67)(+0.71), and 2.72(-0.70)(+0.66) m/s, which translates into planetary masses of 2.4(-1.3)(+1.5), 4.6(-1.7)(+1.8), and 10.3(-2.6)(+2.4), respectively. These new mass measurements make K2-233 d a valuable target for transmission spectroscopy observations with JWST. K2-233 is the only young system with two detected inner planets below the radius valley and a third outer planet above it. This makes it an excellent target to perform comparative studies, to inform our theories of planet evolution, formation, migration, and atmospheric evolution.

4.TOI-733 b -- a planet in the small-planet radius valley orbiting a Sun-like star

Authors:Iskra Y. Georgieva, Carina M. Persson, Elisa Goffo, Lorena Acuña, Artyom Aguichine, Luisa M. Serrano, Kristine W. F. Lam, Davide Gandolfi, Karen A. Collins, Steven B. Howell, Fei Dai, Malcolm Fridlund, Judith Korth, Magali Deleuil, Oscar Barragán, William D. Cochran, Szilárd Csizmadia, Hans J. Deeg, Eike Guenther, Artie P. Hatzes, Jon M. Jenkins, John Livingston, Rafael Luque, Olivier Mousis, Hannah L. M. Osborne, Enric Palle, Seth Redfield, Vincent Van Eylen, Joseph D. Twicken, Joshua N. Winn, Ahlam Alqasim, Kevin I. Collins, Crystal L. Gnilka, David W. Latham, Hannah M. Lewis, Howard M. Relles, George R. Ricker, Pamela Rowden, Sara Seager, Avi Shporer, Thiam-Guan Tan, Andrew Vanderburg, Roland Vanderspek

Abstract: We report the discovery of a hot ($T_{\rm eq}$ $\approx$ 1055 K) planet in the small planet radius valley transiting the Sun-like star TOI-733, as part of the KESPRINT follow-up program of TESS planets carried out with the HARPS spectrograph. TESS photometry from sectors 9 and 36 yields an orbital period of $P_{\rm orb}$ = $4.884765 _{ - 2.4e-5 } ^ { + 1.9e-5 }$ days and a radius of $R_{\mathrm{p}}$ = $1.992 _{ - 0.090 } ^ { + 0.085 }$ $R_{\oplus}$. Multi-dimensional Gaussian process modelling of the radial velocity measurements from HARPS and activity indicators, gives a semi-amplitude of $K$ = $2.23 \pm 0.26 $ m s$^{-1}$, translating into a planet mass of $M_{\mathrm{p}}$ = $5.72 _{ - 0.68 } ^ { + 0.70 }$ $M_{\oplus}$. These parameters imply that the planet is of moderate density ($\rho_\mathrm{p}$ = $3.98 _{ - 0.66 } ^ { + 0.77 }$ g cm$^{-3}$) and place it in the transition region between rocky and volatile-rich planets with H/He-dominated envelopes on the mass-radius diagram. Combining these with stellar parameters and abundances, we calculate planet interior and atmosphere models, which in turn suggest that TOI-733 b has a volatile-enriched, most likely secondary outer envelope, and may represent a highly irradiated ocean world - one of only a few such planets around G-type stars that are well-characterised.