arXiv daily: Cryptography and Security

arXiv daily: Cryptography and Security (cs.CR)

1.Protecting the Intellectual Property of Diffusion Models by the Watermark Diffusion Process

Authors:Sen Peng, Yufei Chen, Cong Wang, Xiaohua Jia

Abstract: Diffusion models have emerged as state-of-the-art deep generative architectures with the increasing demands for generation tasks. Training large diffusion models for good performance requires high resource costs, making them valuable intellectual properties to protect. While most of the existing ownership solutions, including watermarking, mainly focus on discriminative models. This paper proposes WDM, a novel watermarking method for diffusion models, including watermark embedding, extraction, and verification. WDM embeds the watermark data through training or fine-tuning the diffusion model to learn a Watermark Diffusion Process (WDP), different from the standard diffusion process for the task data. The embedded watermark can be extracted by sampling using the shared reverse noise from the learned WDP without degrading performance on the original task. We also provide theoretical foundations and analysis of the proposed method by connecting the WDP to the diffusion process with a modified Gaussian kernel. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate its effectiveness and robustness against various attacks.

2.Correlated Pseudorandomness from the Hardness of Quasi-Abelian Decoding

Authors:Maxime Bombar, Geoffroy Couteau, Alain Couvreur, Clément Ducros

Abstract: Secure computation often benefits from the use of correlated randomness to achieve fast, non-cryptographic online protocols. A recent paradigm put forth by Boyle $\textit{et al.}$ (CCS 2018, Crypto 2019) showed how pseudorandom correlation generators (PCG) can be used to generate large amounts of useful forms of correlated (pseudo)randomness, using minimal interactions followed solely by local computations, yielding silent secure two-party computation protocols (protocols where the preprocessing phase requires almost no communication). An additional property called programmability allows to extend this to build N-party protocols. However, known constructions for programmable PCG's can only produce OLE's over large fields, and use rather new splittable Ring-LPN assumption. In this work, we overcome both limitations. To this end, we introduce the quasi-abelian syndrome decoding problem (QA-SD), a family of assumptions which generalises the well-established quasi-cyclic syndrome decoding assumption. Building upon QA-SD, we construct new programmable PCG's for OLE's over any field $\mathbb{F}_q$ with $q>2$. Our analysis also sheds light on the security of the ring-LPN assumption used in Boyle $\textit{et al.}$ (Crypto 2020). Using our new PCG's, we obtain the first efficient N-party silent secure computation protocols for computing general arithmetic circuit over $\mathbb{F}_q$ for any $q>2$.

3.Adversarial Attacks and Defenses for Semantic Communication in Vehicular Metaverses

Authors:Jiawen Kang, Jiayi He, Hongyang Du, Zehui Xiong, Zhaohui Yang, Xumin Huang, Shengli Xie

Abstract: For vehicular metaverses, one of the ultimate user-centric goals is to optimize the immersive experience and Quality of Service (QoS) for users on board. Semantic Communication (SemCom) has been introduced as a revolutionary paradigm that significantly eases communication resource pressure for vehicular metaverse applications to achieve this goal. SemCom enables high-quality and ultra-efficient vehicular communication, even with explosively increasing data traffic among vehicles. In this article, we propose a hierarchical SemCom-enabled vehicular metaverses framework consisting of the global metaverse, local metaverses, SemCom module, and resource pool. The global and local metaverses are brand-new concepts from the metaverse's distribution standpoint. Considering the QoS of users, this article explores the potential security vulnerabilities of the proposed framework. To that purpose, this study highlights a specific security risk to the framework's SemCom module and offers a viable defense solution, so encouraging community researchers to focus more on vehicular metaverse security. Finally, we provide an overview of the open issues of secure SemCom in the vehicular metaverses, notably pointing out potential future research directions.

4.Greedy-Mine: A Profitable Mining Attack Strategy in Bitcoin-NG

Authors:Junjie Hu, Zhe Jiang, Chunxiang Xu

Abstract: Bitcoin-NG is an extensible blockchain protocol based on the same trust model as Bitcoin. It divides each epoch into one Key-Block and multiple Micro-Blocks, effectively improving transaction processing capacity. Bitcoin-NG adopts a special incentive mechanism (i.e., the transaction fees in each epoch are split to the current and next leader) to maintain its security. However, there are some limitations to the existing incentive analysis of Bitcoin-NG in recent works. First, the incentive division method of Bitcoin-NG only includes some specific mining attack strategies of adversary, while ignoring more stubborn attack strategies. Second, once adversaries find a whale transaction, they will deviate from honest mining strategy to obtain extra reward. In this paper, we are committed to solving these two limitations. First, we propose a novel mining strategy named Greedy-Mine attack. Then, we formulate a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model to analyze the competition of honest miners and adversaries. Furthermore, we analysis the extra reward of adversaries and summarize the mining power proportion range required for malicious adversaries to launch Greedy-Mine to obtain extra returns. Finally, we make a backward-compatibility progressive modification to Bitcoin-NG protocol that would raise the threshold of propagation factor from 0 to 1. Meanwhile, we get the winning condition of adversaries when adopting Greedy-Mine, compared with honest mining. Simulation and experimental results indicate that Bitcoin-NG is not incentive compatible, which is vulnerable to Greedy-Mine attack.

5.A Practical Framework for Storing and Searching Encrypted Data on Cloud Storage

Authors:Mazharul Islam

Abstract: Security has become a significant concern with the increased popularity of cloud storage services. It comes with the vulnerability of being accessed by third parties. Security is one of the major hurdles in the cloud server for the user when the user data that reside in local storage is outsourced to the cloud. It has given rise to security concerns involved in data confidentiality even after the deletion of data from cloud storage. Though, it raises a serious problem when the encrypted data needs to be shared with more people than the data owner initially designated. However, searching on encrypted data is a fundamental issue in cloud storage. The method of searching over encrypted data represents a significant challenge in the cloud. Searchable encryption allows a cloud server to conduct a search over encrypted data on behalf of the data users without learning the underlying plaintexts. While many academic SE schemes show provable security, they usually expose some query information, making them less practical, weak in usability, and challenging to deploy. Also, sharing encrypted data with other authorized users must provide each document's secret key. However, this way has many limitations due to the difficulty of key management and distribution. We have designed the system using the existing cryptographic approaches, ensuring the search on encrypted data over the cloud. The primary focus of our proposed model is to ensure user privacy and security through a less computationally intensive, user-friendly system with a trusted third party entity. To demonstrate our proposed model, we have implemented a web application called CryptoSearch as an overlay system on top of a well-known cloud storage domain. It exhibits secure search on encrypted data with no compromise to the user-friendliness and the scheme's functional performance in real-world applications.

6.Machine Unlearning: A Survey

Authors:Heng Xu, Tianqing Zhu, Lefeng Zhang, Wanlei Zhou, Philip S. Yu

Abstract: Machine learning has attracted widespread attention and evolved into an enabling technology for a wide range of highly successful applications, such as intelligent computer vision, speech recognition, medical diagnosis, and more. Yet a special need has arisen where, due to privacy, usability, and/or the right to be forgotten, information about some specific samples needs to be removed from a model, called machine unlearning. This emerging technology has drawn significant interest from both academics and industry due to its innovation and practicality. At the same time, this ambitious problem has led to numerous research efforts aimed at confronting its challenges. To the best of our knowledge, no study has analyzed this complex topic or compared the feasibility of existing unlearning solutions in different kinds of scenarios. Accordingly, with this survey, we aim to capture the key concepts of unlearning techniques. The existing solutions are classified and summarized based on their characteristics within an up-to-date and comprehensive review of each category's advantages and limitations. The survey concludes by highlighting some of the outstanding issues with unlearning techniques, along with some feasible directions for new research opportunities.

7.mdTLS: How to Make middlebox-aware TLS more efficient?

Authors:Taehyun Ahn, Jiwon Kwak, Seungjoo Kim

Abstract: The more data transmission over TLS protocol becomes increasingly common in IT Systems, the more middleboxes are deployed in networks. These middleboxes have several advantages, however, they become the target of cyber-attacks. Many researchers proposed revised versions of TLS protocols to make them secure, however, their approaches had some limitations. In this paper, we propose a middlebox-delegated TLS (mdTLS) protocol to improve performance based on the middlebox-aware TLS (maTLS), one of the most secure TLS protocols. We found out that the computational complexity of mdTLS is about twice as low as that of maTLS. Furthermore, we formally verified that our proposal meets newly defined security goals as well as those verified by maTLS. All of the formal models and lemmas are open to the public through following url

8.TALUS: Reinforcing TEE Confidentiality with Cryptographic Coprocessors (Technical Report)

Authors:Dhiman Chakraborty, Michael Schwarz, Sven Bugiel

Abstract: Platforms are nowadays typically equipped with tristed execution environments (TEES), such as Intel SGX and ARM TrustZone. However, recent microarchitectural attacks on TEEs repeatedly broke their confidentiality guarantees, including the leakage of long-term cryptographic secrets. These systems are typically also equipped with a cryptographic coprocessor, such as a TPM or Google Titan. These coprocessors offer a unique set of security features focused on safeguarding cryptographic secrets. Still, despite their simultaneous availability, the integration between these technologies is practically nonexistent, which prevents them from benefitting from each other's strengths. In this paper, we propose TALUS, a general design and a set of three main requirements for a secure symbiosis between TEEs and cryptographic coprocessors. We implement a proof-of-concept of TALUS based on Intel SGX and a hardware TPM. We show that with TALUS, the long-term secrets used in the SGX life cycle can be moved to the TPM. We demonstrate that our design is robust even in the presence of transient execution attacks, preventing an entire class of attacks due to the reduced attack surface on the shared hardware.

9.Effective Intrusion Detection in Highly Imbalanced IoT Networks with Lightweight S2CGAN-IDS

Authors:Caihong Wang, Du Xu, Zonghang Li, Dusit Niyato

Abstract: Since the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT), exchanging vast amounts of information has increased the number of security threats in networks. As a result, intrusion detection based on deep learning (DL) has been developed to achieve high throughput and high precision. Unlike general deep learning-based scenarios, IoT networks contain benign traffic far more than abnormal traffic, with some rare attacks. However, most existing studies have been focused on sacrificing the detection rate of the majority class in order to improve the detection rate of the minority class in class-imbalanced IoT networks. Although this way can reduce the false negative rate of minority classes, it both wastes resources and reduces the credibility of the intrusion detection systems. To address this issue, we propose a lightweight framework named S2CGAN-IDS. The proposed framework leverages the distribution characteristics of network traffic to expand the number of minority categories in both data space and feature space, resulting in a substantial increase in the detection rate of minority categories while simultaneously ensuring the detection precision of majority categories. To reduce the impact of sparsity on the experiments, the CICIDS2017 numeric dataset is utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that our proposed approach outperforms the superior method in both Precision and Recall, particularly with a 10.2% improvement in the F1-score.

10.A Novel Approach To User Agent String Parsing For Vulnerability Analysis Using Mutli-Headed Attention

Authors:Dhruv Nandakumar, Sathvik Murli, Ankur Khosla, Kevin Choi, Abdul Rahman, Drew Walsh, Scott Riede, Eric Dull, Edward Bowen

Abstract: The increasing reliance on the internet has led to the proliferation of a diverse set of web-browsers and operating systems (OSs) capable of browsing the web. User agent strings (UASs) are a component of web browsing that are transmitted with every Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request. They contain information about the client device and software, which is used by web servers for various purposes such as content negotiation and security. However, due to the proliferation of various browsers and devices, parsing UASs is a non-trivial task due to a lack of standardization of UAS formats. Current rules-based approaches are often brittle and can fail when encountering such non-standard formats. In this work, a novel methodology for parsing UASs using Multi-Headed Attention Based transformers is proposed. The proposed methodology exhibits strong performance in parsing a variety of UASs with differing formats. Furthermore, a framework to utilize parsed UASs to estimate the vulnerability scores for large sections of publicly visible IT networks or regions is also discussed. The methodology present here can also be easily extended or deployed for real-time parsing of logs in enterprise settings.

11.Interest-disclosing Mechanisms for Advertising are Privacy-Exposing (not Preserving)

Authors:Yohan Beugin, Patrick McDaniel

Abstract: Today, targeted online advertising relies on unique identifiers assigned to users through third-party cookies--a practice at odds with user privacy. While the web and advertising communities have proposed interest-disclosing mechanisms, including Google's Topics API, as solutions, an independent analysis of these proposals in realistic scenarios has yet to be performed. In this paper, we attempt to validate the privacy (i.e., preventing unique identification) and utility (i.e., enabling ad targeting) claims of Google's Topics proposal in the context of realistic user behavior. Through new statistical models of the distribution of user behaviors and resulting targeting topics, we analyze the capabilities of malicious advertisers observing users over time and colluding with other third parties. Our analysis shows that even in the best case, individual users' identification across sites is possible, as 0.4% of the 250k users we simulate are re-identified. These guarantees weaken further over time and when advertisers collude: 57% of users are uniquely re-identified after 15 weeks of browsing, increasing to 75% after 30 weeks. While measuring that the Topics API provides moderate utility, we also find that advertisers and publishers can abuse the Topics API to potentially assign unique identifiers to users, defeating the desired privacy guarantees. As a result, the inherent diversity of users' interests on the web is directly at odds with the privacy objectives of interest-disclosing mechanisms; we discuss how any replacement of third-party cookies may have to seek other avenues to achieve privacy for the web.

1.Building Resilient SMEs: Harnessing Large Language Models for Cyber Security in Australia

Authors:Benjamin Kereopa-Yorke

Abstract: The escalating digitalisation of our lives and enterprises has led to a parallel growth in the complexity and frequency of cyber-attacks. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), particularly in Australia, are experiencing increased vulnerability to cyber threats, posing a significant challenge to the nation's cyber security landscape. Embracing transformative technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML) and Large Language Models (LLMs) can potentially strengthen cyber security policies for Australian SMEs. However, their practical application, advantages, and limitations remain underexplored, with prior research mainly focusing on large corporations. This study aims to address this gap by providing a comprehensive understanding of the potential role of LLMs in enhancing cyber security policies for Australian SMEs. Employing a mixed-methods study design, this research includes a literature review, qualitative analysis of SME case studies, and a quantitative assessment of LLM performance metrics in cyber security applications. The findings highlight the promising potential of LLMs across various performance criteria, including relevance, accuracy, and applicability, though gaps remain in areas such as completeness and clarity. The study underlines the importance of integrating human expertise with LLM technology and refining model development to address these limitations. By proposing a robust conceptual framework guiding the effective adoption of LLMs, this research aims to contribute to a safer and more resilient cyber environment for Australian SMEs, enabling sustainable growth and competitiveness in the digital era.

2.Efficient Algorithms for Modeling SBoxes Using MILP

Authors:Debranjan Pal, Vishal Pankaj Chandratreya, Dipanwita Roy Chowdhury

Abstract: Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) is a well-known approach for the cryptanalysis of a symmetric cipher. A number of MILP-based security analyses have been reported for non-linear (SBoxes) and linear layers. Researchers proposed word- and bit-wise SBox modeling techniques using a set of inequalities which helps in searching differential trails for a cipher. In this paper, we propose two new techniques to reduce the number of inequalities to represent the valid differential transitions for SBoxes. Our first technique chooses the best greedy solution with a random tiebreaker and achieves improved results for the 4-bit SBoxes of MIBS, LBlock, and Serpent over the existing results of Sun et al. [25]. Subset addition, our second approach, is an improvement over the algorithm proposed by Boura and Coggia. Subset addition technique is faster than Boura and Coggia [10] and also improves the count of inequalities. Our algorithm emulates the existing results for the 4-bit SBoxes of Minalpher, LBlock, Serpent, Prince, and Rectangle. The subset addition method also works for 5-bit and 6-bit SBoxes. We improve the boundary of minimum number inequalities from the existing results for 5-bit SBoxes of ASCON and SC2000. Application of subset addition technique for 6-bit SBoxes of APN, FIDES, and SC2000 enhances the existing results. By applying multithreading, we reduced the execution time needed to find the minimum inequality set over the existing techniques.

3.Federated Intrusion Detection System based on Deep Belief Networks

Authors:Othmane Belarbi, Theodoros Spyridopoulos, Eirini Anthi, Ioannis Mavromatis, Pietro Carnelli, Aftab Khan

Abstract: The vast increase of IoT technologies and the ever-evolving attack vectors and threat actors have increased cyber-security risks dramatically. Novel attacks can compromise IoT devices to gain access to sensitive data or control them to deploy further malicious activities. The detection of novel attacks often relies upon AI solutions. A common approach to implementing AI-based IDS in distributed IoT systems is in a centralised manner. However, this approach may violate data privacy and secrecy. In addition, centralised data collection prohibits the scale-up of IDSs. Therefore, intrusion detection solutions in IoT ecosystems need to move towards a decentralised direction. FL has attracted significant interest in recent years due to its ability to perform collaborative learning while preserving data confidentiality and locality. Nevertheless, most FL-based IDS for IoT systems are designed under unrealistic data distribution conditions. To that end, we design an experiment representative of the real world and evaluate the performance of two FL IDS implementations, one based on DNNs and another on our previous work on DBNs. For our experiments, we rely on TON-IoT, a realistic IoT network traffic dataset, associating each IP address with a single FL client. Additionally, we explore pre-training and investigate various aggregation methods to mitigate the impact of data heterogeneity. Lastly, we benchmark our approach against a centralised solution. The comparison shows that the heterogeneous nature of the data has a considerable negative impact on the model performance when trained in a distributed manner. However, in the case of a pre-trained initial global FL model, we demonstrate a performance improvement of over 20% (F1-score) when compared against a randomly initiated global model.

4.Modular zk-Rollup On-Demand

Authors:Thomas Lavaur, Jonathan Detchart, Jérôme Lacan, Caroline P. C. Chanel

Abstract: The rapid expansion of the use of blockchain-based systems often leads to a choice between customizable private blockchains and more secure, scalable and decentralized but expensive public blockchains. This choice represents the trade-off between privacy and customization at a low cost and security, scalability, and a large user base but at a high cost. In order to improve the scalability of secure public blockchains while enabling privacy and cost reduction, zk-rollups, a layer 2 solution, appear to be a promising avenue. This paper explores the benefits of zk-rollups, including improved privacy, as well as their potential to support transactions designed for specific applications. We propose an innovative design that allows multiple zk-rollups to co-exist on the same smart contracts, simplifying their creation and customization. We then evaluate the first implementation of our system highlighting a low overhead on existing transaction types and on proof generation while strongly decreasing the cost of new transaction types and drastically reducing zk-rollup creation costs.

5.Evading Black-box Classifiers Without Breaking Eggs

Authors:Edoardo Debenedetti, Nicholas Carlini, Florian Tramèr

Abstract: Decision-based evasion attacks repeatedly query a black-box classifier to generate adversarial examples. Prior work measures the cost of such attacks by the total number of queries made to the classifier. We argue this metric is flawed. Most security-critical machine learning systems aim to weed out "bad" data (e.g., malware, harmful content, etc). Queries to such systems carry a fundamentally asymmetric cost: queries detected as "bad" come at a higher cost because they trigger additional security filters, e.g., usage throttling or account suspension. Yet, we find that existing decision-based attacks issue a large number of "bad" queries, which likely renders them ineffective against security-critical systems. We then design new attacks that reduce the number of bad queries by $1.5$-$7.3\times$, but often at a significant increase in total (non-bad) queries. We thus pose it as an open problem to build black-box attacks that are more effective under realistic cost metrics.

6.Hiding in Plain Sight: Disguising Data Stealing Attacks in Federated Learning

Authors:Kostadin Garov, Dimitar I. Dimitrov, Nikola Jovanović, Martin Vechev

Abstract: Malicious server (MS) attacks have enabled the scaling of data stealing in federated learning to large batch sizes and secure aggregation, settings previously considered private. However, many concerns regarding client-side detectability of MS attacks were raised, questioning their practicality once they are publicly known. In this work, for the first time, we thoroughly study the problem of client-side detectability.We demonstrate that most prior MS attacks, which fundamentally rely on one of two key principles, are detectable by principled client-side checks. Further, we formulate desiderata for practical MS attacks and propose SEER, a novel attack framework that satisfies all desiderata, while stealing user data from gradients of realistic networks, even for large batch sizes (up to 512 in our experiments) and under secure aggregation. The key insight of SEER is the use of a secret decoder, which is jointly trained with the shared model. Our work represents a promising first step towards more principled treatment of MS attacks, paving the way for realistic data stealing that can compromise user privacy in real-world deployments.

7.Discriminative Adversarial Privacy: Balancing Accuracy and Membership Privacy in Neural Networks

Authors:Eugenio Lomurno, Alberto Archetti, Francesca Ausonio, Matteo Matteucci

Abstract: The remarkable proliferation of deep learning across various industries has underscored the importance of data privacy and security in AI pipelines. As the evolution of sophisticated Membership Inference Attacks (MIAs) threatens the secrecy of individual-specific information used for training deep learning models, Differential Privacy (DP) raises as one of the most utilized techniques to protect models against malicious attacks. However, despite its proven theoretical properties, DP can significantly hamper model performance and increase training time, turning its use impractical in real-world scenarios. Tackling this issue, we present Discriminative Adversarial Privacy (DAP), a novel learning technique designed to address the limitations of DP by achieving a balance between model performance, speed, and privacy. DAP relies on adversarial training based on a novel loss function able to minimise the prediction error while maximising the MIA's error. In addition, we introduce a novel metric named Accuracy Over Privacy (AOP) to capture the performance-privacy trade-off. Finally, to validate our claims, we compare DAP with diverse DP scenarios, providing an analysis of the results from performance, time, and privacy preservation perspectives.

1.Proxy Re-encryption based Fair Trade Protocol for Digital Goods Transactions via Smart Contracts

Authors:Peng Zhang, Jiaquan Wei, Yuhong Liu, Hongwei Liu

Abstract: With the massive amount of digital data generated everyday, transactions of digital goods become a trend. One of the essential requirements for such transactions is fairness, which is defined as that both of the seller and the buyer get what they want, or neither. Current fair trade protocols generally involve a trusted third-party (TTP), which achieves fairness by heavily relying on the TTP's behaviors and the two parties' trust in the TTP. With the emergence of Blockchain, its decentralization and transparency make it a very good candidate to replace the TTP. In this work, we attempt to design a secure and fair protocol for digital goods transactions through smart contracts on Blockchain. To ensure security of the digital goods, we propose an advanced passive proxy re-encryption (PRE) scheme, which enables smart contracts to transfer the decryption right to a buyer after receiving his/her payment. Furthermore, based on smart contracts and the proposed passive PRE scheme, a fair trade protocol for digital goods transactions is proposed, whose fairness is guaranteed by the arbitration protocol. The proposed protocol supports Ciphertext publicity and repeatable sale, while involving less number of interactions. Comprehensive experiment results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed protocol.

2.Compatibility and Timing Attacks for JPEG Steganalysis

Authors:Etienne Levecque CRIStAL, Patrick Bas CRIStAL, Jan Butora CRIStAL

Abstract: This paper introduces a novel compatibility attack to detect a steganographic message embedded in the DCT domain of a JPEG image at high-quality factors (close to 100). Because the JPEG compression is not a surjective function, i.e. not every DCT blocks can be mapped from a pixel block, embedding a message in the DCT domain can create incompatible blocks. We propose a method to find such a block, which directly proves that a block has been modified during the embedding. This theoretical method provides many advantages such as being completely independent to Cover Source Mismatch, having good detection power, and perfect reliability since false alarms are impossible as soon as incompatible blocks are found. We show that finding an incompatible block is equivalent to proving the infeasibility of an Integer Linear Programming problem. However, solving such a problem requires considerable computational power and has not been reached for 8x8 blocks. Instead, a timing attack approach is presented to perform steganalysis without potentially any false alarms for large computing power.

3.FedCIP: Federated Client Intellectual Property Protection with Traitor Tracking

Authors:Junchuan Liang, Rong Wang

Abstract: Federated learning is an emerging privacy-preserving distributed machine learning that enables multiple parties to collaboratively learn a shared model while keeping each party's data private. However, federated learning faces two main problems: semi-honest server privacy inference attacks and malicious client-side model theft. To address privacy inference attacks, parameter-based encrypted federated learning secure aggregation can be used. To address model theft, a watermark-based intellectual property protection scheme can verify model ownership. Although watermark-based intellectual property protection schemes can help verify model ownership, they are not sufficient to address the issue of continuous model theft by uncaught malicious clients in federated learning. Existing IP protection schemes that have the ability to track traitors are also not compatible with federated learning security aggregation. Thus, in this paper, we propose a Federated Client-side Intellectual Property Protection (FedCIP), which is compatible with federated learning security aggregation and has the ability to track traitors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first IP protection scheme in federated learning that is compatible with secure aggregation and tracking capabilities.

4.Towards Robust GAN-generated Image Detection: a Multi-view Completion Representation

Authors:Chi Liu, Tianqing Zhu, Sheng Shen, Wanlei Zhou

Abstract: GAN-generated image detection now becomes the first line of defense against the malicious uses of machine-synthesized image manipulations such as deepfakes. Although some existing detectors work well in detecting clean, known GAN samples, their success is largely attributable to overfitting unstable features such as frequency artifacts, which will cause failures when facing unknown GANs or perturbation attacks. To overcome the issue, we propose a robust detection framework based on a novel multi-view image completion representation. The framework first learns various view-to-image tasks to model the diverse distributions of genuine images. Frequency-irrelevant features can be represented from the distributional discrepancies characterized by the completion models, which are stable, generalized, and robust for detecting unknown fake patterns. Then, a multi-view classification is devised with elaborated intra- and inter-view learning strategies to enhance view-specific feature representation and cross-view feature aggregation, respectively. We evaluated the generalization ability of our framework across six popular GANs at different resolutions and its robustness against a broad range of perturbation attacks. The results confirm our method's improved effectiveness, generalization, and robustness over various baselines.

5.Network Agnostic MPC with Statistical Security

Authors:Ananya Appan, Ashish Choudhury

Abstract: We initiate the study of the network agnostic MPC protocols with statistical security. Network agnostic protocols give the best possible security guarantees irrespective of the underlying network type. We consider the general-adversary model, where the adversary is characterized by an adversary structure which enumerates all possible candidate subsets of corrupt parties. The $\mathcal{Q}^{(k)}$ condition enforces that the union of no $k$ subsets from the adversary structure covers the party set. Given an unconditionally-secure PKI setup, known statistically-secure synchronous MPC protocols are secure against adversary structures satisfying the $\mathcal{Q}^{(2)}$ condition. Known statistically-secure asynchronous MPC protocols can tolerate $\mathcal{Q}^{(3)}$ adversary structures. Fix a set of $n$ parties $\mathcal{P} = \{P_1, ... ,P_n\}$ and adversary structures $\mathcal{Z}_s$ and $\mathcal{Z}_a$, satisfying the $\mathcal{Q}^{(2)}$ and $\mathcal{Q}^{(3)}$ conditions respectively, where $\mathcal{Z}_a \subset \mathcal{Z}_s$. Then, given an unconditionally-secure PKI, we ask whether it is possible to design a statistically-secure MPC protocol resilient against $\mathcal{Z}_s$ and $\mathcal{Z}_a$ in a synchronous and an asynchronous network respectively if the parties in $\mathcal{P}$ are unaware of the network type. We show that it is possible iff $\mathcal{Z}_s$ and $\mathcal{Z}_a$ satisfy the $\mathcal{Q}^{(2,1)}$ condition, meaning that the union of any two subsets from $\mathcal{Z}_s$ and any one subset from $\mathcal{Z}_a$ is a proper subset of $\mathcal{P}$. We design several important network agnostic building blocks with the $\mathcal{Q}^{(2,1)}$ condition, such as Byzantine broadcast, Byzantine agreement, information checking protocol, verifiable secret-sharing and secure multiplication protocol, whose complexity is polynomial in $n$ and $|\mathcal{Z}_s|$.

6.Blockchain Model for Environment/Infrastructure Monitoring in Cloud-Enabled High-Altitude Platform Systems

Authors:Khaleel Mershad, Hayssam Dahrouj

Abstract: The recently accentuated features of augmenting conventional wireless networks with high altitude platform systems (HAPS) have fueled a plethora of applications, which promise to offer new services to ground users, as well to enhance the efficiency and pervasion of existing applications. Cloud-enabled HAPS, which aims to create HAPS-based datacenters that offer cloud services to users, has particularly emerged as a promising key enabler to provide large-scale equitable services from the sky. Although offering cloud services from the HAPS proves to be efficient, its practical deployment at the stratosphere level still faces many challenges such as high energy requirements, physical maintenance, and is particularly prone to security considerations. Safeguarding the cloud-enabled HAPS against various cyberattacks is a necessity to guarantee its safe operation. This paper proposes a blockchain model to secure cloud-enabled HAPS networks that contain a large number of HAPS stations from recurring cyberattacks within the context of the environment and infrastructure monitoring (EIM) application. To this end, the paper first presents a detailed blockchain framework, and describes the ways of integrating the developed framework into the various system components. We then discuss the details of the system implementation, including the storing and consuming of cloud transactions, the generation of new blocks, and the blockchain consensus protocol that is tailored to the EIM requirements. Finally, we present numerical simulations that illustrate the performance of the system in terms of throughput, latency, and resilience to attacks.

7.Poisoning Network Flow Classifiers

Authors:Giorgio Severi, Simona Boboila, Alina Oprea, John Holodnak, Kendra Kratkiewicz, Jason Matterer

Abstract: As machine learning (ML) classifiers increasingly oversee the automated monitoring of network traffic, studying their resilience against adversarial attacks becomes critical. This paper focuses on poisoning attacks, specifically backdoor attacks, against network traffic flow classifiers. We investigate the challenging scenario of clean-label poisoning where the adversary's capabilities are constrained to tampering only with the training data - without the ability to arbitrarily modify the training labels or any other component of the training process. We describe a trigger crafting strategy that leverages model interpretability techniques to generate trigger patterns that are effective even at very low poisoning rates. Finally, we design novel strategies to generate stealthy triggers, including an approach based on generative Bayesian network models, with the goal of minimizing the conspicuousness of the trigger, and thus making detection of an ongoing poisoning campaign more challenging. Our findings provide significant insights into the feasibility of poisoning attacks on network traffic classifiers used in multiple scenarios, including detecting malicious communication and application classification.

1.Developing and Building Ontologies in Cyber Security

Authors:Muhammad Shoaib Farooq, Muhammad Talha Waseem

Abstract: Cyber Security is one of the most arising disciplines in our modern society. We work on Cybersecurity domain and in this the topic we chose is Cyber Security Ontologies. In this we gather all latest and previous ontologies and compare them on the basis of different analyzing factors to get best of them. Reason to select this topic is to assemble different ontologies from different era of time. Because, researches that included in this SLR is mostly studied single ontology. If any researcher wants to study ontologies, he has to study every single ontology and select which one is best for his research. So, we assemble different types of ontology and compare them against each other to get best of them. A total 24 papers between years 2010-2020 are carefully selected through systematic process and classified accordingly. Lastly, this SLR have been presented to provide the researchers promising future directions in the domain of cybersecurity ontologies.

2.Challenges and Remedies to Privacy and Security in AIGC: Exploring the Potential of Privacy Computing, Blockchain, and Beyond

Authors:Chuan Chen, Zhenpeng Wu, Yanyi Lai, Wenlin Ou, Tianchi Liao, Zibin Zheng

Abstract: Artificial Intelligence Generated Content (AIGC) is one of the latest achievements in AI development. The content generated by related applications, such as text, images and audio, has sparked a heated discussion. Various derived AIGC applications are also gradually entering all walks of life, bringing unimaginable impact to people's daily lives. However, the rapid development of such generative tools has also raised concerns about privacy and security issues, and even copyright issues in AIGC. We note that advanced technologies such as blockchain and privacy computing can be combined with AIGC tools, but no work has yet been done to investigate their relevance and prospect in a systematic and detailed way. Therefore it is necessary to investigate how they can be used to protect the privacy and security of data in AIGC by fully exploring the aforementioned technologies. In this paper, we first systematically review the concept, classification and underlying technologies of AIGC. Then, we discuss the privacy and security challenges faced by AIGC from multiple perspectives and purposefully list the countermeasures that currently exist. We hope our survey will help researchers and industry to build a more secure and robust AIGC system.

3.Harnessing the Potential of Blockchain in DevOps: A Framework for Distributed Integration and Development

Authors:Muhammad Shoaib Farooq, Usman Ali

Abstract: As the use of DevOps practices continues to grow, organizations are seeking ways to improve collaboration, speed up development cycles, and increase security, transparency, and traceability. Blockchain technology has the potential to support these goals by providing a secure, decentralized platform for distributed integration and development. In this paper, we propose a framework for distributed DevOps that utilizes the benefits of blockchain technology that can eliminate the shortcomings of DevOps. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential benefits of the proposed framework that involves developing and deploying applications in a distributed environment. We present a benchmark result demonstrating the effectiveness of our framework in a real-world scenario, highlighting its ability to improve collaboration, reduce costs, and enhance the security of the DevOps pipeline. Conclusively, our research contributes to the growing body of literature on the intersection of blockchain and DevOps, providing a practical framework for organizations looking to leverage blockchain technology to improve their development processes.

4.EduChain: A Blockchain-based Education Data Management System

Authors:Yihan Liu, Ke Li, Zihao Huang, Bowen Li, Guiyan Wang, Wei Cai

Abstract: The predominant centralized paradigm in educational data management currently suffers from several critical issues such as vulnerability to malicious tampering, a high prevalence of diploma counterfeiting, and the onerous cost of certificate authentication. Decentralized blockchain technology, with its cutting-edge capabilities, presents a viable solution to these pervasive problems. In this paper, we illuminate the inherent limitations of existing centralized systems and introduce EduChain, a novel heterogeneous blockchain-based system for managing educational data. EduChain uniquely harnesses the strengths of both private and consortium blockchains, offering an unprecedented level of security and efficiency. In addition, we propose a robust mechanism for performing database consistency checks and error tracing. This is achieved through the implementation of a secondary consensus, employing the pt-table-checksum tool. This approach effectively addresses the prevalent issue of database mismatches. Our system demonstrates superior performance in key areas such as information verification, error traceback, and data security, thereby significantly improving the integrity and trustworthiness of educational data management. Through EduChain, we offer a powerful solution for future advancements in secure and efficient educational data management.

5.ExTRUST: Reducing Exploit Stockpiles with a Privacy-Preserving Depletion System for Inter-State Relationships

Authors:Thomas Reinhold, Philipp Kuehn, Daniel Günther, Thomas Schneider, Christian Reuter

Abstract: Cyberspace is a fragile construct threatened by malicious cyber operations of different actors, with vulnerabilities in IT hardware and software forming the basis for such activities, thus also posing a threat to global IT security. Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence accelerate this development, either with artificial intelligence enabled cyber weapons, automated cyber defense measures, or artificial intelligence-based threat and vulnerability detection. Especially state actors, with their long-term strategic security interests, often stockpile such knowledge of vulnerabilities and exploits to enable their military or intelligence service cyberspace operations. While treaties and regulations to limit these developments and to enhance global IT security by disclosing vulnerabilities are currently being discussed on the international level, these efforts are hindered by state concerns about the disclosure of unique knowledge and about giving up tactical advantages. This leads to a situation where multiple states are likely to stockpile at least some identical exploits, with technical measures to enable a depletion process for these stockpiles that preserve state secrecy interests and consider the special constraints of interacting states as well as the requirements within such environments being non-existent. This paper proposes such a privacy-preserving approach that allows multiple state parties to privately compare their stock of vulnerabilities and exploits to check for items that occur in multiple stockpiles without revealing them so that their disclosure can be considered. We call our system ExTRUST and show that it is scalable and can withstand several attack scenarios. Beyond the intergovernmental setting, ExTRUST can also be used for other zero-trust use cases, such as bug-bounty programs.

6.Spying on the Spy: Security Analysis of Hidden Cameras

Authors:Samuel Herodotou, Feng Hao

Abstract: Hidden cameras, also called spy cameras, are surveillance tools commonly used to spy on people without their knowledge. Whilst previous studies largely focused on investigating the detection of such a camera and the privacy implications, the security of the camera itself has received limited attention. Compared with ordinary IP cameras, spy cameras are normally sold in bulk at cheap prices and are ubiquitously deployed in hidden places within homes and workplaces. A security compromise of these cameras can have severe consequences. In this paper, we analyse a generic IP camera module, which has been packaged and re-branded for sale by several spy camera vendors. The module is controlled by mobile phone apps. By analysing the Android app and the traffic data, we reverse-engineered the security design of the whole system, including the module's Linux OS environment, the file structure, the authentication mechanism, the session management, and the communication with a remote server. Serious vulnerabilities have been identified in every component. Combined together, they allow an adversary to take complete control of a spy camera from anywhere over the Internet, enabling arbitrary code execution. This is possible even if the camera is behind a firewall. All that an adversary needs to launch an attack is the camera's serial number, which users sometimes unknowingly share in online reviews. We responsibly disclosed our findings to the manufacturer. Whilst the manufacturer acknowledged our work, they showed no intention to fix the problems. Patching or recalling the affected cameras is infeasible due to complexities in the supply chain. However, it is prudent to assume that bad actors have already been exploiting these flaws. We provide details of the identified vulnerabilities in order to raise public awareness, especially on the grave danger of disclosing a spy camera's serial number.

7.Physical Attacks on the Railway System

Authors:Lukas Iffländer, Thomas Buder, Teresa Loreth, Marina Alonso Villota, Walter Schmitz, Karl Adolf Neubecker, Stefan Pickl

Abstract: Recent attacks encouraged public interest in physical security for railways. Knowing about and learning from previous attacks is necessary to secure against them. This paper presents a structured data set of physical attacks against railways. We analyze the data regarding the used means, the railway system's target component, the attacker type, and the geographical distribution of attacks. The results indicate a growing heterogeneity of observed attacks in the recent decade compared to the previous decades and centuries, making protecting railways more complex.

8.CRS-FL: Conditional Random Sampling for Communication-Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Federated Learning

Authors:Jianhua Wang. Xiaolin Chang, Jelena Mišić, Vojislav B. Mišić, Lin Li, Yingying Yao

Abstract: Federated Learning (FL), a privacy-oriented distributed ML paradigm, is being gaining great interest in Internet of Things because of its capability to protect participants data privacy. Studies have been conducted to address challenges existing in standard FL, including communication efficiency and privacy-preserving. But they cannot achieve the goal of making a tradeoff between communication efficiency and model accuracy while guaranteeing privacy. This paper proposes a Conditional Random Sampling (CRS) method and implements it into the standard FL settings (CRS-FL) to tackle the above-mentioned challenges. CRS explores a stochastic coefficient based on Poisson sampling to achieve a higher probability of obtaining zero-gradient unbiasedly, and then decreases the communication overhead effectively without model accuracy degradation. Moreover, we dig out the relaxation Local Differential Privacy (LDP) guarantee conditions of CRS theoretically. Extensive experiment results indicate that (1) in communication efficiency, CRS-FL performs better than the existing methods in metric accuracy per transmission byte without model accuracy reduction in more than 7% sampling ratio (# sampling size / # model size); (2) in privacy-preserving, CRS-FL achieves no accuracy reduction compared with LDP baselines while holding the efficiency, even exceeding them in model accuracy under more sampling ratio conditions.

9.Impact of using a privacy model on smart buildings data for CO2 prediction

Authors:Marlon P. da Silva, Henry C. Nunes, Charles V. Neu, Luana T. Thomas, Avelino F. Zorzo, Charles Morisset

Abstract: There is a constant trade-off between the utility of the data collected and processed by the many systems forming the Internet of Things (IoT) revolution and the privacy concerns of the users living in the spaces hosting these sensors. Privacy models, such as the SITA (Spatial, Identity, Temporal, and Activity) model, can help address this trade-off. In this paper, we focus on the problem of $CO_2$ prediction, which is crucial for health monitoring but can be used to monitor occupancy, which might reveal some private information. We apply a number of transformations on a real dataset from a Smart Building to simulate different SITA configurations on the collected data. We use the transformed data with multiple Machine Learning (ML) techniques to analyse the performance of the models to predict $CO_{2}$ levels. Our results show that, for different algorithms, different SITA configurations do not make one algorithm perform better or worse than others, compared to the baseline data; also, in our experiments, the temporal dimension was particularly sensitive, with scores decreasing up to $18.9\%$ between the original and the transformed data. The results can be useful to show the effect of different levels of data privacy on the data utility of IoT applications, and can also help to identify which parameters are more relevant for those systems so that higher privacy settings can be adopted while data utility is still preserved.

10.Interpreting GNN-based IDS Detections Using Provenance Graph Structural Features

Authors:Kunal Mukherjee, Joshua Wiedemeier, Tianhao Wang, Muhyun Kim, Feng Chen, Murat Kantarcioglu, Kangkook Jee

Abstract: The black-box nature of complex Neural Network (NN)-based models has hindered their widespread adoption in security domains due to the lack of logical explanations and actionable follow-ups for their predictions. To enhance the transparency and accountability of Graph Neural Network (GNN) security models used in system provenance analysis, we propose PROVEXPLAINER, a framework for projecting abstract GNN decision boundaries onto interpretable feature spaces. We first replicate the decision-making process of GNNbased security models using simpler and explainable models such as Decision Trees (DTs). To maximize the accuracy and fidelity of the surrogate models, we propose novel graph structural features founded on classical graph theory and enhanced by extensive data study with security domain knowledge. Our graph structural features are closely tied to problem-space actions in the system provenance domain, which allows the detection results to be explained in descriptive, human language. PROVEXPLAINER allowed simple DT models to achieve 95% fidelity to the GNN on program classification tasks with general graph structural features, and 99% fidelity on malware detection tasks with a task-specific feature package tailored for direct interpretation. The explanations for malware classification are demonstrated with case studies of five real-world malware samples across three malware families.

1.CryptOpt: Automatic Optimization of Straightline Code

Authors:Joel Kuepper, Andres Erbsen, Jason Gross, Owen Conoly, Chuyue Sun, Samuel Tian, David Wu, Adam Chlipala, Chitchanok Chuengsatiansup, Daniel Genkin, Markus Wagner, Yuval Yarom

Abstract: Manual engineering of high-performance implementations typically consumes many resources and requires in-depth knowledge of the hardware. Compilers try to address these problems; however, they are limited by design in what they can do. To address this, we present CryptOpt, an automatic optimizer for long stretches of straightline code. Experimental results across eight hardware platforms show that CryptOpt achieves a speed-up factor of up to 2.56 over current off-the-shelf compilers.

2.Concentrated Geo-Privacy

Authors:Yuting Liang, Ke Yi

Abstract: This paper proposes concentrated geo-privacy (CGP), a privacy notion that can be considered as the counterpart of concentrated differential privacy (CDP) for geometric data. Compared with the previous notion of geo-privacy [ABCP13, CABP13], which is the counterpart of standard differential privacy, CGP offers many benefits including simplicity of the mechanism, lower noise scale in high dimensions, and better composability known as advanced composition. The last one is the most important, as it allows us to design complex mechanisms using smaller building blocks while achieving better utilities. To complement this result, we show that the previous notion of geo-privacy inherently does not admit advanced composition even using its approximate version. Next, we study three problems on private geometric data: the identity query, k nearest neighbors, and convex hulls. While the first problem has been previously studied, we give the first mechanisms for the latter two under geo-privacy. For all three problems, composability is essential in obtaining good utility guarantees on the privatized query answer.

3.You Can Run But You Can't Hide: Runtime Protection Against Malicious Package Updates For Node.js

Authors:Marc Ohm, Timo Pohl, Felix Boes

Abstract: Maliciously prepared software packages are an extensively leveraged weapon for software supply chain attacks. The detection of malicious packages is undoubtedly of high priority and many academic and commercial approaches have been developed. In the inevitable case of an attack, one needs resilience against malicious code. To this end, we present a runtime protection for Node.js that automatically limits a package's capabilities to an established minimum. The detection of required capabilities as well as their enforcement at runtime has been implemented and evaluated against known malicious attacks. Our approach was able to prevent 9/10 historic attacks with a median install-time overhead of less than 0.6 seconds and a median runtime overhead of less than 0.2 seconds.

4.Off-By-One Implementation Error in J-UNIWARD

Authors:Benedikt Lorch

Abstract: J-UNIWARD is a popular steganography method for hiding secret messages in JPEG cover images. As a content-adaptive method, J-UNIWARD aims to embed into textured image regions where changes are difficult to detect. To this end, J-UNIWARD first assigns to each DCT coefficient an embedding cost calculated based on the image's Wavelet residual, and then uses a coding method that minimizes the cost while embedding the desired payload. Changing one DCT coefficient affects a 23x23 window of Wavelet coefficients. To speed up the costmap computation, the original implementation pre-computes the Wavelet residual and then considers per changed DCT coefficient a 23x23 window of the Wavelet residual. However, the implementation accesses a window accidentally shifted by one pixel to the bottom right. In this report, we evaluate the effect of this off-by-one error on the resulting costmaps. Some image blocks are over-priced while other image blocks are under-priced, but the difference is relatively small. The off-by-one error seems to make little difference for learning-based steganalysis.

5.A Hybrid Blockchain-Edge Architecture for Electronic Health Records Management with Attribute-based Cryptographic Mechanisms

Authors:Hao Guo, Wanxin Li, Mark Nejad, Chien-Chung Shen

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid blockchain-edge architecture for managing Electronic Health Records (EHRs) with attribute-based cryptographic mechanisms. The architecture introduces a novel attribute-based signature aggregation (ABSA) scheme and multi-authority attribute-based encryption (MA-ABE) integrated with Paillier homomorphic encryption (HE) to protect patients' anonymity and safeguard their EHRs. All the EHR activities and access control events are recorded permanently as blockchain transactions. We develop the ABSA module on Hyperledger Ursa cryptography library, MA-ABE module on OpenABE toolset, and blockchain network on Hyperledger Fabric. We measure the execution time of ABSA's signing and verification functions, MA-ABE with different access policies and homomorphic encryption schemes, and compare the results with other existing blockchain-based EHR systems. We validate the access activities and authentication events recorded in blockchain transactions and evaluate the transaction throughput and latency using Hyperledger Caliper. The results show that the performance meets real-world scenarios' requirements while safeguarding EHR and is robust against unauthorized retrievals.

6.Aggregated Zero-knowledge Proof and Blockchain-Empowered Authentication for Autonomous Truck Platooning

Authors:Wanxin Li, Collin Meese, Hao Guo, Mark Nejad

Abstract: Platooning technologies enable trucks to drive cooperatively and automatically, providing benefits including less fuel consumption, greater road capacity, and safety. This paper introduces an aggregated zero-knowledge proof and blockchain-empowered system for privacy-preserving identity verification in the mixed fleet platooning environment. The correctness proof and the security analysis of the proposed authentication scheme are provided, highlighting its increased security and fast performance in comparison to a single-proof design. The blockchain performs the role of verifier within the authentication scheme, reducing unnecessary communication overhead. Moreover, the blockchain improves system resilience by providing fault tolerance to the decentralized verification process. Platooning records are stored directly on the digital ledger to guarantee data immutability and integrity, while the programmable access control policies ensure data privacy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can perform authentication on the order of milliseconds, regardless of the number of proofs, highlighting feasibility for real-world deployment in truck platooning.

7.Lattice-Aided Extraction of Spread-Spectrum Hidden Data

Authors:Fan Yang, Shanxiang Lyu, Hao Cheng, Jinming Wen, Hao Chen

Abstract: This paper discusses the problem of extracting spread spectrum hidden data from the perspective of lattice decoding. Since the conventional blind extraction scheme multi-carrier iterative generalize least-squares (M-IGLS) and non-blind extraction scheme minimum mean square error (MMSE) suffer from performance degradation when the carriers lack sufficient orthogonality, we present two novel schemes from the viewpoint of lattice decoding, namely multi-carrier iterative successive interference cancellation (M-ISIC) and sphere decoding (SD). The better performance of M-ISIC and SD are confirmed by both theoretical justification and numerical simulations.

8.Hidden Stabilizers, the Isogeny To Endomorphism Ring Problem and the Cryptanalysis of pSIDH

Authors:Mingjie Chen, Muhammad Imran, Gábor Ivanyos, Péter Kutas, Antonin Leroux, Christophe Petit

Abstract: The Isogeny to Endomorphism Ring Problem (IsERP) asks to compute the endomorphism ring of the codomain of an isogeny between supersingular curves in characteristic $p$ given only a representation for this isogeny, i.e. some data and an algorithm to evaluate this isogeny on any torsion point. This problem plays a central role in isogeny-based cryptography; it underlies the security of pSIDH protocol (ASIACRYPT 2022) and it is at the heart of the recent attacks that broke the SIDH key exchange. Prior to this work, no efficient algorithm was known to solve IsERP for a generic isogeny degree, the hardest case seemingly when the degree is prime. In this paper, we introduce a new quantum polynomial-time algorithm to solve IsERP for isogenies whose degrees are odd and have $O(\log\log p)$ many prime factors. As main technical tools, our algorithm uses a quantum algorithm for computing hidden Borel subgroups, a group action on supersingular isogenies from EUROCRYPT 2021, various algorithms for the Deuring correspondence and a new algorithm to lift arbitrary quaternion order elements modulo an odd integer $N$ with $O(\log\log p)$ many prime factors to powersmooth elements. As a main consequence for cryptography, we obtain a quantum polynomial-time key recovery attack on pSIDH. The technical tools we use may also be of independent interest.

1.Lost at Sea: Assessment and Evaluation of Rootkit Attacks on Shipboard Microgrids

Authors:Suman Rath, Andres Intriago, Shamik Sengupta, Charalambos Konstantinou

Abstract: Increased dependence of the maritime industry on information and communication networks has made shipboard power systems vulnerable to stealthy cyber-attacks. One such attack variant, called rootkit, can leverage system knowledge to hide its presence and allow remotely located malware handlers to gain complete control of infected subsystems. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the threat landscape imposed by such attack variants on Medium Voltage DC (MVDC) shipboard microgrids, including a discussion of their impact on the overall maritime sector in general, and provides several simulation results to demonstrate the same. It also analyzes and presents the actions of possible defense mechanisms, with specific emphasis on evasion, deception, and detection frameworks, that will help ship operators and maritime cybersecurity professionals protect their systems from such attacks.

1.An Experimental Analysis of RowHammer in HBM2 DRAM Chips

Authors:Ataberk Olgun, Majd Osseiran, Abdullah Giray Ya{ğ}lık{c}ı, Yahya Can Tuğrul, Haocong Luo, Steve Rhyner, Behzad Salami, Juan Gomez Luna, Onur Mutlu

Abstract: RowHammer (RH) is a significant and worsening security, safety, and reliability issue of modern DRAM chips that can be exploited to break memory isolation. Therefore, it is important to understand real DRAM chips' RH characteristics. Unfortunately, no prior work extensively studies the RH vulnerability of modern 3D-stacked high-bandwidth memory (HBM) chips, which are commonly used in modern GPUs. In this work, we experimentally characterize the RH vulnerability of a real HBM2 DRAM chip. We show that 1) different 3D-stacked channels of HBM2 memory exhibit significantly different levels of RH vulnerability (up to 79% difference in bit error rate), 2) the DRAM rows at the end of a DRAM bank (rows with the highest addresses) exhibit significantly fewer RH bitflips than other rows, and 3) a modern HBM2 DRAM chip implements undisclosed RH defenses that are triggered by periodic refresh operations. We describe the implications of our observations on future RH attacks and defenses and discuss future work for understanding RH in 3D-stacked memories.

2.Blockchain Censorship

Authors:Anton Wahrstätter, Jens Ernstberger, Aviv Yaish, Liyi Zhou, Kaihua Qin, Taro Tsuchiya, Sebastian Steinhorst, Davor Svetinovic, Nicolas Christin, Mikolaj Barczentewicz, Arthur Gervais

Abstract: Permissionless blockchains promise to be resilient against censorship by a single entity. This suggests that deterministic rules, and not third-party actors, are responsible for deciding if a transaction is appended to the blockchain or not. In 2022, the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) sanctioned a Bitcoin mixer and an Ethereum application, putting the neutrality of permissionless blockchains to the test. In this paper, we formalize quantify and analyze the security impact of blockchain censorship. We start by defining censorship, followed by a quantitative assessment of current censorship practices. We find that 46% of Ethereum blocks were made by censoring actors that intend to comply with OFAC sanctions, indicating the significant impact of OFAC sanctions on the neutrality of public blockchains. We further uncover that censorship not only impacts neutrality, but also security. We show how after Ethereum's move to Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and adoption of Proposer-Builder Separation (PBS) the inclusion of censored transactions was delayed by an average of 85%. Inclusion delays compromise a transaction's security by, e.g., strengthening a sandwich adversary. Finally we prove a fundamental limitation of PoS and Proof-of-Work (PoW) protocols against censorship resilience.

3.Securing Cloud File Systems using Shielded Execution

Authors:Quinn Burke, Yohan Beugin, Blaine Hoak, Rachel King, Eric Pauley, Ryan Sheatsley, Mingli Yu, Ting He, Thomas La Porta, Patrick McDaniel

Abstract: Cloud file systems offer organizations a scalable and reliable file storage solution. However, cloud file systems have become prime targets for adversaries, and traditional designs are not equipped to protect organizations against the myriad of attacks that may be initiated by a malicious cloud provider, co-tenant, or end-client. Recently proposed designs leveraging cryptographic techniques and trusted execution environments (TEEs) still force organizations to make undesirable trade-offs, consequently leading to either security, functional, or performance limitations. In this paper, we introduce TFS, a cloud file system that leverages the security capabilities provided by TEEs to bootstrap new security protocols that meet real-world security, functional, and performance requirements. Through extensive security and performance analyses, we show that TFS can ensure stronger security guarantees while still providing practical utility and performance w.r.t. state-of-the-art systems; compared to the widely-used NFS, TFS achieves up to 2.1X speedups across micro-benchmarks and incurs <1X overhead for most macro-benchmark workloads. TFS demonstrates that organizations need not sacrifice file system security to embrace the functional and performance advantages of outsourcing.

1.Automated Verification of Correctness for Masked Arithmetic Programs

Authors:Mingyang Liu, Fu Song, Taolue Chen

Abstract: Masking is a widely-used effective countermeasure against power side-channel attacks for implementing cryptographic algorithms. Surprisingly, few formal verification techniques have addressed a fundamental question, i.e., whether the masked program and the original (unmasked) cryptographic algorithm are functional equivalent. In this paper, we study this problem for masked arithmetic programs over Galois fields of characteristic 2. We propose an automated approach based on term rewriting, aided by random testing and SMT solving. The overall approach is sound, and complete under certain conditions which do meet in practice. We implement the approach as a new tool FISCHER and carry out extensive experiments on various benchmarks. The results confirm the effectiveness, efficiency and scalability of our approach. Almost all the benchmarks can be proved for the first time by the term rewriting system solely. In particular, FISCHER detects a new flaw in a masked implementation published in EUROCRYPT 2017.

2.Panini -- Anonymous Anycast and an Instantiation

Authors:Christoph Coijanovic, Christiane Kuhn, Thorsten Strufe

Abstract: Anycast messaging (i.e., sending a message to an unspecified receiver) has long been neglected by the anonymous communication community. An anonymous anycast prevents senders from learning who the receiver of their message is, allowing for greater privacy in areas such as political activism and whistleblowing. While there have been some protocol ideas proposed, formal treatment of the problem is absent. Formal definitions of what constitutes anonymous anycast and privacy in this context are however a requirement for constructing protocols with provable guarantees. In this work, we define the anycast functionality and use a game-based approach to formalize its privacy and security goals. We further propose Panini, the first anonymous anycast protocol that only requires readily available infrastructure. We show that Panini allows the actual receiver of the anycast message to remain anonymous, even in the presence of an honest but curious sender. In an empirical evaluation, we find that Panini adds only minimal overhead over regular unicast: Sending a message anonymously to one of eight possible receivers results in an end-to-end latency of 0.76s.

1.Security Impact Analysis of Degree of Field Extension in Lattice Attacks on Ring-LWE Problem

Authors:Yuri Lucas Direbieski, Hiroki Tanioka, Kenji Matsuura, Hironori Takeuchi, Masahiko Sano, Tetsushi Ueta

Abstract: Modern information communications use cryptography to keep the contents of communications confidential. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography, which are public-key cryptosystems, are widely used cryptographic schemes. However, it is known that these cryptographic schemes can be deciphered in a very short time by Shor's algorithm when a quantum computer is put into practical use. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for quantum computer-resistant cryptosystems that cannot be cracked even by a quantum computer. A simple implementation of LWE-based lattice cryptography based on the LWE (Learning With Errors) problem requires a key length of $O(n^2)$ to ensure the same level of security as existing public-key cryptography schemes such as RSA and elliptic curve cryptography. In this paper, we attacked the Ring-LWE (RLWE) scheme, which can be implemented with a short key length, with a modified LLL (Lenstra-Lenstra-Lov\'asz) basis reduction algorithm and investigated the trend in the degree of field extension required to generate a secure and small key. Results showed that the lattice-based cryptography may be strengthened by employing Cullen or Mersenne prime numbers as the degree of field extension.

2.ACAI: Extending Arm Confidential Computing Architecture Protection from CPUs to Accelerators

Authors:Supraja Sridhara, Andrin Bertschi, Benedict Schlüter, Mark Kuhne, Fabio Aliberti, Shweta Shinde

Abstract: Trusted execution environments in several existing and upcoming CPUs demonstrate the success of confidential computing, with the caveat that tenants cannot use accelerators such as GPUs and FPGAs. If the accelerators have TEE support, the user-code executing on the CPU in a confidential VM has to rely on software-based encryption to facilitate communication between VMs and accelerators. Even after hardware changes to enable TEEs on both sides and software changes to adopt existing code to leverage these features, it results in redundant data copies and hardware encryption at the bus-level and on the accelerator thus degrading the performance and defeating the purpose of using accelerators. In this paper, we reconsider the Arm Confidential Computing Architecture (CCA) design-an upcoming TEE feature in Arm v9-to address this gap. We observe that CCA offers the right abstraction and mechanisms to allow confidential VM to use accelerators as a first class abstraction, while relying on the hardware-based memory protection to preserve security. We build Acai, a CCA-based solution, to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach without changes to hardware or software on the CPU and the accelerator. Our experimental results on GPU and FPGA show that Acai can achieve strong security guarantees with low performance overheads.

3.An Overview of FPGA-inspired Obfuscation Techniques

Authors:Zain Ul Abideen, Sumathi Gokulanathan, Muayad J. Aljafar, Samuel Pagliarini

Abstract: Building and maintaining a silicon foundry is a costly endeavor that requires substantial financial investment. From this scenario, the semiconductor business has largely shifted to a fabless model where the Integrated Circuit supply chain is globalized but potentially untrusted. In recent years, several hardware obfuscation techniques have emerged to thwart hardware security threats related to untrusted IC fabrication. Reconfigurable-based obfuscation schemes have shown great promise of security against state-of-the-art attacks -- these are techniques that rely on the transformation of static logic configurable elements such as Look Up Tables (LUTs). This survey provides a comprehensive analysis of reconfigurable-based obfuscation techniques, evaluating their overheads and enumerating their effectiveness against all known attacks. The techniques are also classified based on different factors, including the technology used, element type, and IP type. Additionally, we present a discussion on the advantages of reconfigurable-based obfuscation techniques when compared to Logic Locking techniques and the challenges associated with evaluating these techniques on hardware, primarily due to the lack of tapeouts. The survey's findings are essential for researchers interested in hardware obfuscation and future trends in this area.

4.Ring Signature from Bonsai Tree: How to Preserve the Long-Term Anonymity

Authors:Mingxing Hu

Abstract: Signer-anonymity is a central feature of ring signatures (RS) which enable a user to sign messages on behalf of an arbitrary set of users, called the ring, without revealing exactly which member of that ring actually generated the signature. The strong and long-term signer-ambiguous is a reassuring guarantee for the user hesitating to leak a secret, especially if the consequences of an identification are dire in some scenarios such as whistleblowing. The unconditional ambiguity notion, which protects the signer-ambiguous even confront with an infinitely powerful adversary, is considered for RS which wants to achieve long-term signer-ambiguous. However, the existing works that consider the unconditional ambiguity notion did not comprehensively and strictly capture the unconditional ambiguity notion, and the existing lattice-based RS constructions analyzed the unconditional ambiguity only in the random oracle model. In this paper, we reformalize the unconditional ambiguity notion for RS, which comprehensively and strictly captures the security requirements imposed by the practice. Then we propose a lattice-based RS construction with unconditional ambiguity and prove the security (unforgeability and signer-ambiguous) in the standard model.

5.A Survey of Security Concerns and Countermeasures in Modern Micro-architectures with Transient Execution

Authors:Nikhilesh Singh, Vinod Ganesan, Chester Rebeiro

Abstract: In the last two decades, the evolving cyber-threat landscape has brought to center stage the contentious tradeoffs between the security and performance of modern microprocessors. The guarantees provided by the hardware to ensure no violation of process boundaries have been shown to be breached in several real-world scenarios. While modern CPU features such as superscalar, out-of-order, simultaneous multi-threading, and speculative execution play a critical role in boosting system performance, they are central for a potent class of security attacks termed transient micro-architectural attacks. These attacks leverage shared hardware resources in the CPU that are used during speculative and out-of-order execution to steal sensitive information. Researchers have used these attacks to read data from the Operating Systems (OS) and Trusted Execution Environments (TEE) and to even break hardware-enforced isolation. Over the years, several variants of transient micro-architectural attacks have been developed. While each variant differs in the shared hardware resource used, the underlying attack follows a similar strategy. This paper presents a panoramic view of security concerns in modern CPUs, focusing on the mechanisms of these attacks and providing a classification of the variants. Further, we discuss state-of-the-art defense mechanisms towards mitigating these attacks.

6.FIDS: Fuzzy Intrusion Detection System for simultaneous detection of DoS/DDoS attacks in Cloud computing

Authors:Peyman Khordadpour, Saeed Ahmadi

Abstract: In recent times, I've encountered a principle known as cloud computing, a model that simplifies user access to data and computing power on a demand basis. The main objective of cloud computing is to accommodate users' growing needs by decreasing dependence on human resources, minimizing expenses, and enhancing the speed of data access. Nevertheless, preserving security and privacy in cloud computing systems pose notable challenges. This issue arises because these systems have a distributed structure, which is susceptible to unsanctioned access - a fundamental problem. In the context of cloud computing, the provision of services on demand makes them targets for common assaults like Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, which include Economic Denial of Sustainability (EDoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS). These onslaughts can be classified into three categories: bandwidth consumption attacks, specific application attacks, and connection layer attacks. Most of the studies conducted in this arena have concentrated on a singular type of attack, with the concurrent detection of multiple DoS attacks often overlooked. This article proposes a suitable method to identify four types of assaults: HTTP, Database, TCP SYN, and DNS Flood. The aim is to present a universal algorithm that performs effectively in detecting all four attacks instead of using separate algorithms for each one. In this technique, seventeen server parameters like memory usage, CPU usage, and input/output counts are extracted and monitored for changes, identifying the failure point using the CUSUM algorithm to calculate the likelihood of each attack. Subsequently, a fuzzy neural network is employed to determine the occurrence of an attack. When compared to the Snort software, the proposed method's results show a significant improvement in the average detection rate, jumping from 57% to 95%.

7.Composing Bridges

Authors:Mugurel Barcau, Vicenţiu Paşol, George C. Ţurcaş

Abstract: The present work builds on previous investigations of the authors (and their collaborators) regarding bridges, a certain type of morphisms between encryption schemes, making a step forward in developing a (category theory) language for studying relations between encryption schemes. Here we analyse the conditions under which bridges can be performed sequentially, formalizing the notion of composability. One of our results gives a sufficient condition for a pair of bridges to be composable. We illustrate that composing two bridges, each independently satisfying a previously established IND-CPA security definition, can actually lead to an insecure bridge. Our main result gives a sufficient condition that a pair of secure composable bridges should satisfy in order for their composition to be a secure bridge. We also introduce the concept of a complete bridge and show that it is connected to the notion of Fully composable Homomorphic Encryption (FcHE), recently considered by Micciancio. Moreover, we show that a result of Micciancio which gives a construction of FcHE schemes can be phrased in the language of complete bridges, where his insights can be formalised in a greater generality.

8.5G/6G-Enabled Metaverse Technologies: Taxonomy, Applications, and Open Security Challenges with Future Research Directions

Authors:Muhammad Adil, Houbing Song, Muhammad Khurram Khan, Ahmed Farouk, Zhanpeng Jin

Abstract: Internet technology has proven to be a vital contributor to many cutting-edge innovations that have given humans access to interact virtually with objects. Until now, numerous virtual systems had been developed for digital transformation to enable access to thousands of services and applications that range from virtual gaming to social networks. However, the majority of these systems lack to maintain consistency during interconnectivity and communication. To explore this discussion, in the recent past a new term, Metaverse has been introduced, which is the combination of meta and universe that describes a shared virtual environment, where a number of technologies, such as 4th and 5th generation technologies, VR, ML algorithms etc., work collectively to support each other for the sake of one objective, which is the virtual accessibility of objects via one network platform. With the development, integration, and virtualization of technologies, a lot of improvement in daily life applications is expected, but at the same time, there is a big challenge for the research community to secure this platform from external and external threats, because this technology is exposed to many cybersecurity attacks. Hence, it is imperative to systematically review and understand the taxonomy, applications, open security challenges, and future research directions of the emerging Metaverse technologies. In this paper, we have made useful efforts to present a comprehensive survey regarding Metaverse technology by taking into account the aforesaid parameters. Following this, in the initial phase, we explored the future of Metaverse in the presence of 4th and 5th generation technologies. Thereafter, we discussed the possible attacks to set a preface for the open security challenges. Based on that, we suggested potential research directions that could be beneficial to address these challenges cost-effectively.

1.Confidential Truth Finding with Multi-Party Computation (Extended Version)

Authors:Angelo Saadeh, Pierre Senellart, Stéphane Bressan

Abstract: Federated knowledge discovery and data mining are challenged to assess the trustworthiness of data originating from autonomous sources while protecting confidentiality and privacy. Truth-finding algorithms help corroborate data from disagreeing sources. For each query it receives, a truth-finding algorithm predicts a truth value of the answer, possibly updating the trustworthiness factor of each source. Few works, however, address the issues of confidentiality and privacy. We devise and present a secure secret-sharing-based multi-party computation protocol for pseudo-equality tests that are used in truth-finding algorithms to compute additions depending on a condition. The protocol guarantees confidentiality of the data and privacy of the sources. We also present variants of truth-finding algorithms that would make the computation faster when executed using secure multi-party computation. We empirically evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol on two state-of-the-art truth-finding algorithms, Cosine, and 3-Estimates, and compare them with that of the baseline plain algorithms. The results confirm that the secret-sharing-based secure multi-party algorithms are as accurate as the corresponding baselines but for proposed numerical approximations that significantly reduce the efficiency loss incurred.

2.Towards Understanding Crypto Money Laundering in Web3 Through the Lenses of Ethereum Heists

Authors:Dan Lin, Jiajing Wu, Qishuang Fu, Yunmei Yu, Kaixin Lin, Zibin Zheng, Shuo Yang

Abstract: With the overall momentum of the blockchain industry, crypto-based crimes are becoming more and more prevalent. After committing a crime, the main goal of cybercriminals is to obfuscate the source of the illicit funds in order to convert them into cash and get away with it. Many studies have analyzed money laundering in the field of the traditional financial sector and blockchain-based Bitcoin. But so far, little is known about the characteristics of crypto money laundering in the blockchain-based Web3 ecosystem. To fill this gap, and considering that Ethereum is the largest platform on Web3, in this paper, we systematically study the behavioral characteristics and economic impact of money laundering accounts through the lenses of Ethereum heists. Based on a very small number of tagged accounts of exchange hackers, DeFi exploiters, and scammers, we mine untagged money laundering groups through heuristic transaction tracking methods, to carve out a full picture of security incidents. By analyzing account characteristics and transaction networks, we obtain many interesting findings about crypto money laundering in Web3, observing the escalating money laundering methods such as creating counterfeit tokens and masquerading as speculators. Finally, based on these findings we provide inspiration for anti-money laundering to promote the healthy development of the Web3 ecosystem.

3.Sharpness-Aware Data Poisoning Attack

Authors:Pengfei He, Han Xu, Jie Ren, Yingqian Cui, Hui Liu, Charu C. Aggarwal, Jiliang Tang

Abstract: Recent research has highlighted the vulnerability of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) against data poisoning attacks. These attacks aim to inject poisoning samples into the models' training dataset such that the trained models have inference failures. While previous studies have executed different types of attacks, one major challenge that greatly limits their effectiveness is the uncertainty of the re-training process after the injection of poisoning samples, including the re-training initialization or algorithms. To address this challenge, we propose a novel attack method called ''Sharpness-Aware Data Poisoning Attack (SAPA)''. In particular, it leverages the concept of DNNs' loss landscape sharpness to optimize the poisoning effect on the worst re-trained model. It helps enhance the preservation of the poisoning effect, regardless of the specific retraining procedure employed. Extensive experiments demonstrate that SAPA offers a general and principled strategy that significantly enhances various types of poisoning attacks.

4.IoT Threat Detection Testbed Using Generative Adversarial Networks

Authors:Farooq Shaikh, Elias Bou-Harb, Aldin Vehabovic, Jorge Crichigno, Aysegul Yayimli, Nasir Ghani

Abstract: The Internet of Things(IoT) paradigm provides persistent sensing and data collection capabilities and is becoming increasingly prevalent across many market sectors. However, most IoT devices emphasize usability and function over security, making them very vulnerable to malicious exploits. This concern is evidenced by the increased use of compromised IoT devices in large scale bot networks (botnets) to launch distributed denial of service(DDoS) attacks against high value targets. Unsecured IoT systems can also provide entry points to private networks, allowing adversaries relatively easy access to valuable resources and services. Indeed, these evolving IoT threat vectors (ranging from brute force attacks to remote code execution exploits) are posing key challenges. Moreover, many traditional security mechanisms are not amenable for deployment on smaller resource-constrained IoT platforms. As a result, researchers have been developing a range of methods for IoT security, with many strategies using advanced machine learning(ML) techniques. Along these lines, this paper presents a novel generative adversarial network(GAN) solution to detect threats from malicious IoT devices both inside and outside a network. This model is trained using both benign IoT traffic and global darknet data and further evaluated in a testbed with real IoT devices and malware threats.

5.From Text to MITRE Techniques: Exploring the Malicious Use of Large Language Models for Generating Cyber Attack Payloads

Authors:P. V. Sai Charan, Hrushikesh Chunduri, P. Mohan Anand, Sandeep K Shukla

Abstract: This research article critically examines the potential risks and implications arising from the malicious utilization of large language models(LLM), focusing specifically on ChatGPT and Google's Bard. Although these large language models have numerous beneficial applications, the misuse of this technology by cybercriminals for creating offensive payloads and tools is a significant concern. In this study, we systematically generated implementable code for the top-10 MITRE Techniques prevalent in 2022, utilizing ChatGPT, and conduct a comparative analysis of its performance with Google's Bard. Our experimentation reveals that ChatGPT has the potential to enable attackers to accelerate the operation of more targeted and sophisticated attacks. Additionally, the technology provides amateur attackers with more capabilities to perform a wide range of attacks and empowers script kiddies to develop customized tools that contribute to the acceleration of cybercrime. Furthermore, LLMs significantly benefits malware authors, particularly ransomware gangs, in generating sophisticated variants of wiper and ransomware attacks with ease. On a positive note, our study also highlights how offensive security researchers and pentesters can make use of LLMs to simulate realistic attack scenarios, identify potential vulnerabilities, and better protect organizations. Overall, we conclude by emphasizing the need for increased vigilance in mitigating the risks associated with LLMs. This includes implementing robust security measures, increasing awareness and education around the potential risks of this technology, and collaborating with security experts to stay ahead of emerging threats.

6.Private and Collaborative Kaplan-Meier Estimators

Authors:Shadi Rahimian, Raouf Kerkouche, Ina Kurth, Mario Fritz

Abstract: Kaplan-Meier estimators capture the survival behavior of a cohort. They are one of the key statistics in survival analysis. As with any estimator, they become more accurate in presence of larger datasets. This motivates multiple data holders to share their data in order to calculate a more accurate Kaplan-Meier estimator. However, these survival datasets often contain sensitive information of individuals and it is the responsibility of the data holders to protect their data, thus a naive sharing of data is often not viable. In this work, we propose two novel differentially private schemes that are facilitated by our novel synthetic dataset generation method. Based on these scheme we propose various paths that allow a joint estimation of the Kaplan-Meier curves with strict privacy guarantees. Our contribution includes a taxonomy of methods for this task and an extensive experimental exploration and evaluation based on this structure. We show that we can construct a joint, global Kaplan-Meier estimator which satisfies very tight privacy guarantees and with no statistically-significant utility loss compared to the non-private centralized setting.

7.An Efficient Key Management Scheme For In-Vehicle Network

Authors:Hsinlin Tan

Abstract: Vehicle technology has developed rapidly these years, however, the security measures for in-vehicle network does not keep up with the trend. Controller area network(CAN) is the most used protocol in the in-vehicle network. With the characteristic of CAN, there exists many vulnerabilities including lacks of integrity and confidentiality, and hence CAN is vulnerable to various attacks such as impersonation attack, replay attack, etc. In order to implement the authentication and encryption, secret key derivation is necessary. In this work, we proposed an efficient key management scheme for in-vehicle network. In particular, the scheme has five phases. In the first and second phase, we utilize elliptic curve cryptography-based key encapsulation mechanism(KEM) to derive a pairwise secret between each ECU and a central secure ECU in the same group. Then in the third phase, we design secure communication to derive group shared secret among all ECU in a group. In the last two phases, SECU is not needed, regular ECU can derive session key on their own. We presented a possible attack analysis(chosen-ciphertext attack as the main threat) and a security property analysis for our scheme. Our scheme is evaluated based on a hardware-based experiment of three different microcontrollers and a software-based simulation of IVNS. We argue that based on our estimation and the experiment result, our scheme performs better in communication and computation overhead than similar works.

1.Achieving Maximum Efficiency in Schnorr-based Multi-signature and Applications in Blockchain

Authors:Peng Zhang, Fa Ge, Yuhong Liu

Abstract: Multi-signature aggregates signatures from multiple users on the same message into a joint signature, which is widely applied in blockchain to reduce the percentage of signatures in blocks and improve the throughput of transactions. The $k$-sum attacks are one of the major challenges to design secure multi-signature schemes. In this work, we address $k$-sum attacks from a novel angle by defining a Public Third Party (PTP), which is an automatic process that can be verifiable by the public and restricts the signing phase from continuing until receiving commitments from all signers. Further, a two-round multi-signature scheme MEMS with PTP is proposed, which is secure based on discrete logarithm assumption in the random oracle model. As each signer communicates directly with the PTP instead of other co-signers, the total amount of communications is significantly reduced. In addition, as PTP participates in the computation of the aggregation and signing algorithms, the computation cost left for each signer and verifier remains the same as the basis Schnorr signature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the maximum efficiency that a Schnorr-based multi-signature scheme can achieve. Further, MEMS is applied in blockchain platform, e.g., Fabric, to improve the transaction efficiency.

2.Multi-Granularity Detector for Vulnerability Fixes

Authors:Truong Giang Nguyen, Thanh Le-Cong, Hong Jin Kang, Ratnadira Widyasari, Chengran Yang, Zhipeng Zhao, Bowen Xu, Jiayuan Zhou, Xin Xia, Ahmed E. Hassan, Xuan-Bach D. Le, David Lo

Abstract: With the increasing reliance on Open Source Software, users are exposed to third-party library vulnerabilities. Software Composition Analysis (SCA) tools have been created to alert users of such vulnerabilities. SCA requires the identification of vulnerability-fixing commits. Prior works have proposed methods that can automatically identify such vulnerability-fixing commits. However, identifying such commits is highly challenging, as only a very small minority of commits are vulnerability fixing. Moreover, code changes can be noisy and difficult to analyze. We observe that noise can occur at different levels of detail, making it challenging to detect vulnerability fixes accurately. To address these challenges and boost the effectiveness of prior works, we propose MiDas (Multi-Granularity Detector for Vulnerability Fixes). Unique from prior works, Midas constructs different neural networks for each level of code change granularity, corresponding to commit-level, file-level, hunk-level, and line-level, following their natural organization. It then utilizes an ensemble model that combines all base models to generate the final prediction. This design allows MiDas to better handle the noisy and highly imbalanced nature of vulnerability-fixing commit data. Additionally, to reduce the human effort required to inspect code changes, we have designed an effort-aware adjustment for Midas's outputs based on commit length. The evaluation results demonstrate that MiDas outperforms the current state-of-the-art baseline in terms of AUC by 4.9% and 13.7% on Java and Python-based datasets, respectively. Furthermore, in terms of two effort-aware metrics, [email protected] and [email protected], MiDas also outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline, achieving improvements of up to 28.2% and 15.9% on Java, and 60% and 51.4% on Python, respectively.

3.REGARD: Rules of EngaGement for Automated cybeR Defense to aid in Intrusion Response

Authors:Damodar Panigrahi, William Anderson, Joshua Whitman, Sudip Mittal, Benjamin A Blakely

Abstract: Automated Intelligent Cyberdefense Agents (AICAs) that are part Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and part Intrusion Response Systems (IRS) are being designed to protect against sophisticated and automated cyber-attacks. An AICA based on the ideas of Self-Adaptive Autonomic Computing Systems (SA-ACS) can be considered as a managing system that protects a managed system like a personal computer, web application, critical infrastructure, etc. An AICA, specifically the IRS components, can compute a wide range of potential responses to meet its security goals and objectives, such as taking actions to prevent the attack from completing, restoring the system to comply with the organizational security policy, containing or confining an attack, attack eradication, deploying forensics measures to enable future attack analysis, counterattack, and so on. To restrict its activities in order to minimize collateral/organizational damage, such an automated system must have set Rules of Engagement (RoE). Automated systems must determine which operations can be completely automated (and when), which actions require human operator confirmation, and which actions must never be undertaken. In this paper, to enable this control functionality over an IRS, we create Rules of EngaGement for Automated cybeR Defense (REGARD) system which holds a set of Rules of Engagement (RoE) to protect the managed system according to the instructions provided by the human operator. These rules help limit the action of the IRS on the managed system in compliance with the recommendations of the domain expert. We provide details of execution, management, operation, and conflict resolution for Rules of Engagement (RoE) to constrain the actions of an automated IRS. We also describe REGARD system implementation, security case studies for cyber defense, and RoE demonstrations.

4.Towards Automated Security Analysis of Smart Contracts based on Execution Property Graph

Authors:Kaihua Qin, Zhe Ye, Zhun Wang, Weilin Li, Liyi Zhou, Chao Zhang, Dawn Song, Arthur Gervais

Abstract: Identifying and mitigating vulnerabilities in smart contracts is crucial, especially considering the rapid growth and increasing complexity of Decentralized Finance (DeFi) platforms. To address the challenges associated with securing these contracts, we introduce a versatile dynamic analysis framework specifically designed for the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). This comprehensive framework focuses on tracking contract executions, capturing valuable runtime information, while introducing and employing the Execution Property Graph (EPG) to propose a unique graph traversal technique that swiftly detects potential smart contract attacks. Our approach showcases its efficacy with rapid average graph traversal time per transaction and high true positive rates. The successful identification of a zero-day vulnerability affecting Uniswap highlights the framework's potential to effectively uncover smart contract vulnerabilities in complex DeFi systems.

5.QFA2SR: Query-Free Adversarial Transfer Attacks to Speaker Recognition Systems

Authors:Guangke Chen, Yedi Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Fu Song

Abstract: Current adversarial attacks against speaker recognition systems (SRSs) require either white-box access or heavy black-box queries to the target SRS, thus still falling behind practical attacks against proprietary commercial APIs and voice-controlled devices. To fill this gap, we propose QFA2SR, an effective and imperceptible query-free black-box attack, by leveraging the transferability of adversarial voices. To improve transferability, we present three novel methods, tailored loss functions, SRS ensemble, and time-freq corrosion. The first one tailors loss functions to different attack scenarios. The latter two augment surrogate SRSs in two different ways. SRS ensemble combines diverse surrogate SRSs with new strategies, amenable to the unique scoring characteristics of SRSs. Time-freq corrosion augments surrogate SRSs by incorporating well-designed time-/frequency-domain modification functions, which simulate and approximate the decision boundary of the target SRS and distortions introduced during over-the-air attacks. QFA2SR boosts the targeted transferability by 20.9%-70.7% on four popular commercial APIs (Microsoft Azure, iFlytek, Jingdong, and TalentedSoft), significantly outperforming existing attacks in query-free setting, with negligible effect on the imperceptibility. QFA2SR is also highly effective when launched over the air against three wide-spread voice assistants (Google Assistant, Apple Siri, and TMall Genie) with 60%, 46%, and 70% targeted transferability, respectively.

6.Software supply chain: review of attacks, risk assessment strategies and security controls

Authors:Betul Gokkaya, Leonardo Aniello, Basel Halak

Abstract: The software product is a source of cyber-attacks that target organizations by using their software supply chain as a distribution vector. As the reliance of software projects on open-source or proprietary modules is increasing drastically, SSC is becoming more and more critical and, therefore, has attracted the interest of cyber attackers. While existing studies primarily focus on software supply chain attacks' prevention and detection methods, there is a need for a broad overview of attacks and comprehensive risk assessment for software supply chain security. This study conducts a systematic literature review to fill this gap. We analyze the most common software supply chain attacks by providing the latest trend of analyzed attacks, and we identify the security risks for open-source and third-party software supply chains. Furthermore, this study introduces unique security controls to mitigate analyzed cyber-attacks and risks by linking them with real-life security incidence and attacks.

7.SXVCS: An XOR-based Visual Cryptography Scheme without Noise via Linear Algebra

Authors:Zizhuo Wang, Ziyang Xu, Xingxing Jia

Abstract: Visual Cryptography Schemes (VCS) based on the "XOR" operation (XVCS) exhibit significantly smaller pixel expansion and higher contrast compared to those based on the "OR" operation. Moreover, the "XOR" operation appears to possess superior qualities, as it effectively operates within a binary field, while the "OR" operation merely functions as a ring with identity. Despite these remarkable attributes, our understanding of XVCS remains limited. Especially, we have done little about the noise in the reconstructed image up to now. In this paper, we introduce a novel concept called Static XVCS (SXVCS), which completely eliminates the noise in the reconstructed image. We also demonstrate that the equivalent condition for perfect white pixel reconstruction is simply the existence of SXVCS. For its application, we naturally propose an efficient method for determining the existence of XVCS with perfect white pixel reconstruction. Furthermore, we apply our theorem to $(2,n)$-XVCS and achieve the optimal state of $(2,n)$-XVCS.

1.The "code'' of Ethics:A Holistic Audit of AI Code Generators

Authors:Wanlun Ma, Yiliao Song, Minhui Xue, Sheng Wen, Yang Xiang

Abstract: AI-powered programming language generation (PLG) models have gained increasing attention due to their ability to generate source code of programs in a few seconds with a plain program description. Despite their remarkable performance, many concerns are raised over the potential risks of their development and deployment, such as legal issues of copyright infringement induced by training usage of licensed code, and malicious consequences due to the unregulated use of these models. In this paper, we present the first-of-its-kind study to systematically investigate the accountability of PLG models from the perspectives of both model development and deployment. In particular, we develop a holistic framework not only to audit the training data usage of PLG models, but also to identify neural code generated by PLG models as well as determine its attribution to a source model. To this end, we propose using membership inference to audit whether a code snippet used is in the PLG model's training data. In addition, we propose a learning-based method to distinguish between human-written code and neural code. In neural code attribution, through both empirical and theoretical analysis, we show that it is impossible to reliably attribute the generation of one code snippet to one model. We then propose two feasible alternative methods: one is to attribute one neural code snippet to one of the candidate PLG models, and the other is to verify whether a set of neural code snippets can be attributed to a given PLG model. The proposed framework thoroughly examines the accountability of PLG models which are verified by extensive experiments. The implementations of our proposed framework are also encapsulated into a new artifact, named CodeForensic, to foster further research.

2.FGAM:Fast Adversarial Malware Generation Method Based on Gradient Sign

Authors:Kun Li, Fan Zhang, Wei Guo

Abstract: Malware detection models based on deep learning have been widely used, but recent research shows that deep learning models are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. Adversarial attacks are to deceive the deep learning model by generating adversarial samples. When adversarial attacks are performed on the malware detection model, the attacker will generate adversarial malware with the same malicious functions as the malware, and make the detection model classify it as benign software. Studying adversarial malware generation can help model designers improve the robustness of malware detection models. At present, in the work on adversarial malware generation for byte-to-image malware detection models, there are mainly problems such as large amount of injection perturbation and low generation efficiency. Therefore, this paper proposes FGAM (Fast Generate Adversarial Malware), a method for fast generating adversarial malware, which iterates perturbed bytes according to the gradient sign to enhance adversarial capability of the perturbed bytes until the adversarial malware is successfully generated. It is experimentally verified that the success rate of the adversarial malware deception model generated by FGAM is increased by about 84\% compared with existing methods.

3.Hot Pixels: Frequency, Power, and Temperature Attacks on GPUs and ARM SoCs

Authors:Hritvik Taneja, Jason Kim, Jie Jeff Xu, Stephan van Schaik, Daniel Genkin, Yuval Yarom

Abstract: The drive to create thinner, lighter, and more energy efficient devices has resulted in modern SoCs being forced to balance a delicate tradeoff between power consumption, heat dissipation, and execution speed (i.e., frequency). While beneficial, these DVFS mechanisms have also resulted in software-visible hybrid side-channels, which use software to probe analog properties of computing devices. Such hybrid attacks are an emerging threat that can bypass countermeasures for traditional microarchitectural side-channel attacks. Given the rise in popularity of both Arm SoCs and GPUs, in this paper we investigate the susceptibility of these devices to information leakage via power, temperature and frequency, as measured via internal sensors. We demonstrate that the sensor data observed correlates with both instructions executed and data processed, allowing us to mount software-visible hybrid side-channel attacks on these devices. To demonstrate the real-world impact of this issue, we present JavaScript-based pixel stealing and history sniffing attacks on Chrome and Safari, with all side channel countermeasures enabled. Finally, we also show website fingerprinting attacks, without any elevated privileges.

4.POSTER: spaceQUIC: Securing Communication in Computationally Constrained Spacecraft

Authors:Joshua Smailes, Razvan David, Sebastian Kohler, Simon Birnbach, Ivan Martinovic

Abstract: Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the number of CubeSats and other small satellites in orbit - these have highly constrained computational and communication resources, but still require robust secure communication to operate effectively. The QUIC transport layer protocol is designed to provide efficient communication with cryptography guarantees built-in, with a particular focus on networks with high latency and packet loss. In this work we provide spaceQUIC, a proof of concept implementation of QUIC for NASA's "core Flight System" satellite operating system, and assess its performance.

5.FSSA: Efficient 3-Round Secure Aggregation for Privacy-Preserving Federated Learning

Authors:Fucai Luo, Saif Al-Kuwari, Haiyan Wang, Xingfu Yan

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) allows a large number of clients to collaboratively train machine learning (ML) models by sending only their local gradients to a central server for aggregation in each training iteration, without sending their raw training data. Unfortunately, recent attacks on FL demonstrate that local gradients may leak information about local training data. In response to such attacks, Bonawitz \textit{et al.} (CCS 2017) proposed a secure aggregation protocol that allows a server to compute the sum of clients' local gradients in a secure manner. However, their secure aggregation protocol requires at least 4 rounds of communication between each client and the server in each training iteration. The number of communication rounds is closely related not only to the total communication cost but also the ML model accuracy, as the number of communication rounds affects client dropouts. In this paper, we propose FSSA, a 3-round secure aggregation protocol, that is efficient in terms of computation and communication, and resilient to client dropouts. We prove the security of FSSA in honest-but-curious setting and show that the security can be maintained even if an arbitrarily chosen subset of clients drop out at any time. We evaluate the performance of FSSA and show that its computation and communication overhead remains low even on large datasets. Furthermore, we conduct an experimental comparison between FSSA and Bonawitz \textit{et al.}'s protocol. The comparison results show that, in addition to reducing the number of communication rounds, FSSA achieves a significant improvement in computational efficiency.

6.Analyzing the Shuffle Model through the Lens of Quantitative Information Flow

Authors:Mireya Jurado, Ramon G. Gonze, Mário S. Alvim, Catuscia Palamidessi

Abstract: Local differential privacy (LDP) is a variant of differential privacy (DP) that avoids the need for a trusted central curator, at the cost of a worse trade-off between privacy and utility. The shuffle model is a way to provide greater anonymity to users by randomly permuting their messages, so that the link between users and their reported values is lost to the data collector. By combining an LDP mechanism with a shuffler, privacy can be improved at no cost for the accuracy of operations insensitive to permutations, thereby improving utility in many tasks. However, the privacy implications of shuffling are not always immediately evident, and derivations of privacy bounds are made on a case-by-case basis. In this paper, we analyze the combination of LDP with shuffling in the rigorous framework of quantitative information flow (QIF), and reason about the resulting resilience to inference attacks. QIF naturally captures randomization mechanisms as information-theoretic channels, thus allowing for precise modeling of a variety of inference attacks in a natural way and for measuring the leakage of private information under these attacks. We exploit symmetries of the particular combination of k-RR mechanisms with the shuffle model to achieve closed formulas that express leakage exactly. In particular, we provide formulas that show how shuffling improves protection against leaks in the local model, and study how leakage behaves for various values of the privacy parameter of the LDP mechanism. In contrast to the strong adversary from differential privacy, we focus on an uninformed adversary, who does not know the value of any individual in the dataset. This adversary is often more realistic as a consumer of statistical datasets, and we show that in some situations mechanisms that are equivalent w.r.t. the strong adversary can provide different privacy guarantees under the uninformed one.

7.Watermarking Text Data on Large Language Models for Dataset Copyright Protection

Authors:Yixin Liu, Hongsheng Hu, Xuyun Zhang, Lichao Sun

Abstract: Large Language Models (LLMs), such as BERT and GPT-based models like ChatGPT, have recently demonstrated their impressive capacity for learning language representations, yielding significant benefits for various downstream Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, the immense data requirements of these large models have incited substantial concerns regarding copyright protection and data privacy. In an attempt to address these issues, particularly the unauthorized use of private data in LLMs, we introduce a novel watermarking technique via a backdoor-based membership inference approach, i.e., TextMarker, which can safeguard diverse forms of private information embedded in the training text data in LLMs. Specifically, TextMarker is a new membership inference framework that can eliminate the necessity for additional proxy data and surrogate model training, which are common in traditional membership inference techniques, thereby rendering our proposal significantly more practical and applicable.

8.Network Participation and Accessibility of Proof-of-Stake (PoS) Blockchains: A Cross-platform Comparative Analysis

Authors:Jiseong Noh, Donghwan Kwon, Soohwan Cho, Neo C. K. Yiu

Abstract: The comparative analysis examined eleven Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus-based blockchain networks to assess their openness based on five indicative metrics. These metrics include those of decentralization-related aspects, such as the number of validators and capital concentration, and participation-related aspects, including entry capital requirements and economic network stability. This is to assess and characterize the openness of Proof-of-Stake blockchain networks. The analysis suggested that networks with higher openness included Solana and Avalanche, while BNB Chain, Klaytn, and Polygon measured with lower levels of openness. According to the comparative analysis, Ethereum scored high on network openness in terms of the number of participants and the cost of running the chain, but scored relatively low on capital concentration and staking ratio, which is likely due to the low ratio of staked ether (ETH) to circulating supply and the significant stakes in staking pools like Lido. Permissioned blockchains such as Klaytn and Polygon have limited openness, which suggests the need to take the level of openness into account when transitioning into a permissionless blockchain architecture with a more decentralized setting.

9.Data-Centric Machine Learning Approach for Early Ransomware Detection and Attribution

Authors:Aldin Vehabovic, Hadi Zanddizari, Nasir Ghani, Farooq Shaikh, Elias Bou-Harb, Morteza Safaei Pour, Jorge Crichigno

Abstract: Researchers have proposed a wide range of ransomware detection and analysis schemes. However, most of these efforts have focused on older families targeting Windows 7/8 systems. Hence there is a critical need to develop efficient solutions to tackle the latest threats, many of which may have relatively fewer samples to analyze. This paper presents a machine learning(ML) framework for early ransomware detection and attribution. The solution pursues a data-centric approach which uses a minimalist ransomware dataset and implements static analysis using portable executable(PE) files. Results for several ML classifiers confirm strong performance in terms of accuracy and zero-day threat detection.

1.Must the Communication Graph of MPC Protocols be an Expander?

Authors:Elette Boyle, Ran Cohen, Deepesh Data, Pavel Hubáček

Abstract: Secure multiparty computation (MPC) on incomplete communication networks has been studied within two primary models: (1) Where a partial network is fixed a priori, and thus corruptions can occur dependent on its structure, and (2) Where edges in the communication graph are determined dynamically as part of the protocol. Whereas a rich literature has succeeded in mapping out the feasibility and limitations of graph structures supporting secure computation in the fixed-graph model (including strong classical lower bounds), these bounds do not apply in the latter dynamic-graph setting, which has recently seen exciting new results, but remains relatively unexplored. In this work, we initiate a similar foundational study of MPC within the dynamic-graph model. As a first step, we investigate the property of graph expansion. All existing protocols (implicitly or explicitly) yield communication graphs which are expanders, but it is not clear whether this is inherent. Our results consist of two types (for constant fraction of corruptions): * Upper bounds: We demonstrate secure protocols whose induced communication graphs are not expander graphs, within a wide range of settings (computational, information theoretic, with low locality, even with low locality and adaptive security), each assuming some form of input-independent setup. * Lower bounds: In the plain model (no setup) with adaptive corruptions, we demonstrate that for certain functionalities, no protocol can maintain a non-expanding communication graph against all adversarial strategies. Our lower bound relies only on protocol correctness (not privacy), and requires a surprisingly delicate argument. More generally, we provide a formal framework for analyzing the evolving communication graph of MPC protocols, giving a starting point for studying the relation between secure computation and further, more general graph properties.

2.Chrowned by an Extension: Abusing the Chrome DevTools Protocol through the Debugger API

Authors:José Miguel Moreno, Narseo Vallina-Rodriguez, Juan Tapiador

Abstract: The Chromium open-source project has become a fundamental piece of the Web as we know it today, with multiple vendors offering browsers based on its codebase. One of its most popular features is the possibility of altering or enhancing the browser functionality through third-party programs known as browser extensions. Extensions have access to a wide range of capabilities through the use of APIs exposed by Chromium. The Debugger API -- arguably the most powerful of such APIs -- allows extensions to use the Chrome DevTools Protocol (CDP), a capability-rich tool for debugging and instrumenting the browser. In this paper, we describe several vulnerabilities present in the Debugger API and in the granting of capabilities to extensions that can be used by an attacker to take control of the browser, escalate privileges, and break context isolation. We demonstrate their impact by introducing six attacks that allow an attacker to steal user information, monitor network traffic, modify site permissions (\eg access to camera or microphone), bypass security interstitials without user intervention, and change the browser settings. Our attacks work in all major Chromium-based browsers as they are rooted at the core of the Chromium project. We reported our findings to the Chromium Development Team, who already fixed some of them and are currently working on fixing the remaining ones. We conclude by discussing how questionable design decisions, lack of public specifications, and an overpowered Debugger API have contributed to enabling these attacks, and propose mitigations.

3.DAP: A Dynamic Adversarial Patch for Evading Person Detectors

Authors:Amira Guesmi, Ruitian Ding, Muhammad Abdullah Hanif, Ihsen Alouani, Muhammad Shafique

Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel approach for generating naturalistic adversarial patches without using GANs. Our proposed approach generates a Dynamic Adversarial Patch (DAP) that looks naturalistic while maintaining high attack efficiency and robustness in real-world scenarios. To achieve this, we redefine the optimization problem by introducing a new objective function, where a similarity metric is used to construct a similarity loss. This guides the patch to follow predefined patterns while maximizing the victim model's loss function. Our technique is based on directly modifying the pixel values in the patch which gives higher flexibility and larger space to incorporate multiple transformations compared to the GAN-based techniques. Furthermore, most clothing-based physical attacks assume static objects and ignore the possible transformations caused by non-rigid deformation due to changes in a person's pose. To address this limitation, we incorporate a ``Creases Transformation'' (CT) block, i.e., a preprocessing block following an Expectation Over Transformation (EOT) block used to generate a large variation of transformed patches incorporated in the training process to increase its robustness to different possible real-world distortions (e.g., creases in the clothing, rotation, re-scaling, random noise, brightness and contrast variations, etc.). We demonstrate that the presence of different real-world variations in clothing and object poses (i.e., above-mentioned distortions) lead to a drop in the performance of state-of-the-art attacks. For instance, these techniques can merely achieve 20\% in the physical world and 30.8\% in the digital world while our attack provides superior success rate of up to 65\% and 84.56\%, respectively when attacking the YOLOv3tiny detector deployed in smart cameras at the edge.

4.A Path to Holistic Privacy in Stream Processing Systems

Authors:Mikhail Fomichev

Abstract: The massive streams of Internet of Things (IoT) data require a timely analysis to retain data usefulness. Stream processing systems (SPSs) enable this task, deriving knowledge from the IoT data in real-time. Such real-time analytics benefits many applications but can also be used to violate user privacy, as the IoT data collected from users or their vicinity is inherently sensitive. In this paper, we present our systematic look into privacy issues arising from the intersection of SPSs and IoT, identifying key research challenges towards achieving holistic privacy protection in SPSs and proposing the solutions.

5.Lifting Network Protocol Implementation to Precise Format Specification with Security Applications

Authors:Qingkai Shi, Junyang Shao, Yapeng Ye, Mingwei Zheng, Xiangyu Zhang

Abstract: Inferring protocol formats is critical for many security applications. However, existing format-inference techniques often miss many formats, because almost all of them are in a fashion of dynamic analysis and rely on a limited number of network packets to drive their analysis. If a feature is not present in the input packets, the feature will be missed in the resulting formats. We develop a novel static program analysis for format inference. It is well-known that static analysis does not rely on any input packets and can achieve high coverage by scanning every piece of code. However, for efficiency and precision, we have to address two challenges, namely path explosion and disordered path constraints. To this end, our approach uses abstract interpretation to produce a novel data structure called the abstract format graph. It delimits precise but costly operations to only small regions, thus ensuring precision and efficiency at the same time. Our inferred formats are of high coverage and precisely specify both field boundaries and semantic constraints among packet fields. Our evaluation shows that we can infer formats for a protocol in one minute with >95% precision and recall, much better than four baseline techniques. Our inferred formats can substantially enhance existing protocol fuzzers, improving the coverage by 20% to 260% and discovering 53 zero-days with 47 assigned CVEs. We also provide case studies of adopting our inferred formats in other security applications including traffic auditing and intrusion detection.

1.BrutePrint: Expose Smartphone Fingerprint Authentication to Brute-force Attack

Authors:Yu Chen, Yiling He

Abstract: Fingerprint authentication has been widely adopted on smartphones to complement traditional password authentication, making it a tempting target for attackers. The smartphone industry is fully aware of existing threats, and especially for the presentation attack studied by most prior works, the threats are nearly eliminated by liveness detection and attempt limit. In this paper, we study the seemingly impossible fingerprint brute-force attack on off-the-shelf smartphones and propose a generic attack framework. We implement BrutePrint to automate the attack, that acts as a middleman to bypass attempt limit and hijack fingerprint images. Specifically, the bypassing exploits two zero-day vulnerabilities in smartphone fingerprint authentication (SFA) framework, and the hijacking leverages the simplicity of SPI protocol. Moreover, we consider a practical cross-device attack scenario and tackle the liveness and matching problems with neural style transfer (NST). We also propose a method based on neural style transfer to generate valid brute-forcing inputs from arbitrary fingerprint images. A case study shows that we always bypasses liveness detection and attempt limit while 71% spoofs are accepted. We evaluate BrutePrint on 10 representative smartphones from top-5 vendors and 3 typical types of applications involving screen lock, payment, and privacy. As all of them are vulnerable to some extent, fingerprint brute-force attack is validated on on all devices except iPhone, where the shortest time to unlock the smartphone without prior knowledge about the victim is estimated at 40 minutes. Furthermore, we suggest software and hardware mitigation measures.

2.GraphMoco:a Graph Momentum Contrast Model that Using Multimodel Structure Information for Large-scale Binary Function Representation Learning

Authors:Sun RuiJin, Guo ShiZe, Guo Xi, Pan ZhiSong

Abstract: The ability to compute similarity scores of binary code at the function level is essential for cyber security. A single binary file can contain tens of thousands of functions. A deployable learning framework for cybersecurity applications needs to work not only accurately but also efficiently with large amounts of data. Traditional methods suffer from two drawbacks. First, it is very difficult to annotate different pairs of functions with accurate labels. These supervised learning methods can easily be overtrained with inaccurate labels. The second is that they either use the pre-trained encoder or use the fine-grained graph comparison. However, these methods have shortcomings in terms of time or memory consumption. We focus on large-scale Binary Code Similarity Detection (BCSD) and to mitigate the traditional problems, we propose GraphMoco: a graph momentum contrast model that uses multimodal structure information for large-scale binary function representation learning. We take an unsupervised learning approach and make full use of the structural information in the binary code. It does not require manually labelled similar or dissimilar information. Our models perform efficiently on large amounts of training data. Our experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of accuracy.

3.Amplification by Shuffling without Shuffling

Authors:Borja Balle, James Bell, Adrià Gascón

Abstract: Motivated by recent developments in the shuffle model of differential privacy, we propose a new approximate shuffling functionality called Alternating Shuffle, and provide a protocol implementing alternating shuffling in a single-server threat model where the adversary observes all communication. Unlike previous shuffling protocols in this threat model, the per-client communication of our protocol only grows sub-linearly in the number of clients. Moreover, we study the concrete efficiency of our protocol and show it can improve per-client communication by one or more orders of magnitude with respect to previous (approximate) shuffling protocols. We also show a differential privacy amplification result for alternating shuffling analogous to the one for uniform shuffling, and demonstrate that shuffling-based protocols for secure summation based a construction of Ishai et al. (FOCS'06) remain secure under the Alternating Shuffle. In the process we also develop a protocol for exact shuffling in single-server threat model with amortized logarithmic communication per-client which might be of independent interest.

4.Deep PackGen: A Deep Reinforcement Learning Framework for Adversarial Network Packet Generation

Authors:Soumyadeep Hore, Jalal Ghadermazi, Diwas Paudel, Ankit Shah, Tapas K. Das, Nathaniel D. Bastian

Abstract: Recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) algorithms, coupled with the availability of faster computing infrastructure, have enhanced the security posture of cybersecurity operations centers (defenders) through the development of ML-aided network intrusion detection systems (NIDS). Concurrently, the abilities of adversaries to evade security have also increased with the support of AI/ML models. Therefore, defenders need to proactively prepare for evasion attacks that exploit the detection mechanisms of NIDS. Recent studies have found that the perturbation of flow-based and packet-based features can deceive ML models, but these approaches have limitations. Perturbations made to the flow-based features are difficult to reverse-engineer, while samples generated with perturbations to the packet-based features are not playable. Our methodological framework, Deep PackGen, employs deep reinforcement learning to generate adversarial packets and aims to overcome the limitations of approaches in the literature. By taking raw malicious network packets as inputs and systematically making perturbations on them, Deep PackGen camouflages them as benign packets while still maintaining their functionality. In our experiments, using publicly available data, Deep PackGen achieved an average adversarial success rate of 66.4\% against various ML models and across different attack types. Our investigation also revealed that more than 45\% of the successful adversarial samples were out-of-distribution packets that evaded the decision boundaries of the classifiers. The knowledge gained from our study on the adversary's ability to make specific evasive perturbations to different types of malicious packets can help defenders enhance the robustness of their NIDS against evolving adversarial attacks.

1.Blockchain-enabled Parametric Solar Energy Insurance via Remote Sensing

Authors:Mingyu Hao, Keyang Qian, Sid Chi-Kin Chau

Abstract: Despite its popularity, the nature of solar energy is highly uncertain and weather dependent, affecting the business viability and investment of solar energy generation, especially for household users. To stabilize the income from solar energy generation, there have been limited traditional options, such as using energy storage to pool excessive solar energy in off-peak periods or financial derivatives from future markets to hedge energy prices. In this paper, we explore a novel idea of "parametric solar energy insurance", by which solar panel owners can insure their solar energy generation based on a verifiable geographically specific index (surface solar irradiation). Parametric solar energy insurance offers opportunities of financial subsidies for insufficient solar energy generation and amortizes the fluctuations of renewable energy generation geographically. Furthermore, we propose to leverage blockchain and remote sensing (satellite imagery) to provide a publicly verifiable platform for solar energy insurance, which not only automates the underwriting and claims of a solar energy insurance policy, but also improves its accountability and transparency. We utilize the state-of-the-art succinct zero-knowledge proofs (zk-SNARK) to realize privacy-preserving blockchain-based solar energy insurance on real-world permissionless blockchain platform Ethereum.

2.Function synthesis for maximizing model counting

Authors:Thomas Vigouroux VERIMAG - IMAG, Marius Bozga VERIMAG - IMAG, Cristian Ene VERIMAG - IMAG, Laurent Mounier VERIMAG - IMAG

Abstract: Given a boolean formula $\Phi$(X, Y, Z), the Max\#SAT problem asks for finding a partial model on the set of variables X, maximizing its number of projected models over the set of variables Y. We investigate a strict generalization of Max\#SAT allowing dependencies for variables in X, effectively turning it into a synthesis problem. We show that this new problem, called DQMax\#SAT, subsumes the DQBF problem as well. We provide a general resolution method, based on a reduction to Max\#SAT, together with two improvements for dealing with its inherent complexity. We further discuss a concrete application of DQMax\#SAT for symbolic synthesis of adaptive attackers in the field of program security. Finally, we report preliminary results obtained on the resolution on benchmark problems using a prototype DQMax\#SAT solver implementation.

3.Towards Data Redaction in Bitcoin

Authors:Vincenzo Botta, Vincenzo Iovino, Ivan Visconti

Abstract: A major issue for many applications of blockchain technology is the tension between immutability and compliance to regulations. For instance, the GDPR in the EU requires to guarantee, under some circumstances, the right to be forgotten. This could imply that at some point one might be forced to delete some data from a locally stored blockchain, therefore irreparably hurting the security and transparency of such decentralized platforms. Motivated by such data protection and consistency issues, in this work we design and implement a mechanism for securely deleting data from Bitcoin blockchain. We use zero-knowledge proofs to allow any node to delete some data from Bitcoin transactions, still preserving the public verifiability of the correctness of the spent and spendable coins. Moreover, we specifically use STARK proofs to exploit the transparency that they provide. Our solution, unlike previous approaches, avoids the complications of asking nodes to reach consensus on the content to delete. In particular, our design allows every node to delete some specific data without coordinating this decision with others. In our implementation, data removal can be performed (resp., verified) in minutes (resp., seconds) on a standard laptop rather than in days as required in previous designs based on consensus.

4.A 334$μ$W 0.158mm$^2$ ASIC for Post-Quantum Key-Encapsulation Mechanism Saber with Low-latency Striding Toom-Cook Multiplication Authors Version

Authors:Archisman Ghosh, Jose Maria Bermudo Mera, Angshuman Karmakar, Debayan Das, Santosh Ghosh, Ingrid Verbauwhede, Shreyas Sen

Abstract: The hard mathematical problems that assure the security of our current public-key cryptography (RSA, ECC) are broken if and when a quantum computer appears rendering them ineffective for use in the quantum era. Lattice based cryptography is a novel approach to public key cryptography, of which the mathematical investigation (so far) resists attacks from quantum computers. By choosing a module learning with errors (MLWE) algorithm as the next standard, National Institute of Standard & Technology (NIST) follows this approach. The multiplication of polynomials is the central bottleneck in the computation of lattice based cryptography. Because public key cryptography is mostly used to establish common secret keys, focus is on compact area, power and energy budget and to a lesser extent on throughput or latency. While most other work focuses on optimizing number theoretic transform (NTT) based multiplications, in this paper we highly optimize a Toom-Cook based multiplier. We demonstrate that a memory-efficient striding Toom-Cook with lazy interpolation, results in a highly compact, low power implementation, which on top enables a very regular memory access scheme. To demonstrate the efficiency, we integrate this multiplier into a Saber post-quantum accelerator, one of the four NIST finalists. Algorithmic innovation to reduce active memory, timely clock gating and shift-add multiplier has helped to achieve 38% less power than state-of-the art PQC core, 4x less memory, 36.8% reduction in multiplier energy and 118x reduction in active power with respect to state-of-the-art Saber accelerator (not silicon verified). This accelerator consumes 0.158mm2 active area which is lowest reported till date despite process disadvantages of the state-of-the-art designs.

1.Trustworthy Privacy-preserving Hierarchical Ensemble and Federated Learning in Healthcare 4.0 with Blockchain

Authors:Veronika Stephanie, Ibrahim Khalil, Mohammed Atiquzzaman, Xun Yi

Abstract: The advancement of Internet and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has led to the era of Industry 4.0. This shift is followed by healthcare industries creating the term Healthcare 4.0. In Healthcare 4.0, the use of IoT-enabled medical imaging devices for early disease detection has enabled medical practitioners to increase healthcare institutions' quality of service. However, Healthcare 4.0 is still lagging in Artificial Intelligence and big data compared to other Industry 4.0 due to data privacy concerns. In addition, institutions' diverse storage and computing capabilities restrict institutions from incorporating the same training model structure. This paper presents a secure multi-party computation-based ensemble federated learning with blockchain that enables heterogeneous models to collaboratively learn from healthcare institutions' data without violating users' privacy. Blockchain properties also allow the party to enjoy data integrity without trust in a centralized server while also providing each healthcare institution with auditability and version control capability.

2.A Multi-Client Searchable Encryption Scheme for IoT Environment

Authors:Nazatul H. Sultan, Shabnam Kasra-Kermanshahi, Yen Tran, Shangqi Lai, Vijay Varadharajan, Surya Nepal, Xun Yi

Abstract: The proliferation of connected devices through Internet connectivity presents both opportunities for smart applications and risks to security and privacy. It is vital to proactively address these concerns to fully leverage the potential of the Internet of Things. IoT services where one data owner serves multiple clients, like smart city transportation, smart building management and healthcare can offer benefits but also bring cybersecurity and data privacy risks. For example, in healthcare, a hospital may collect data from medical devices and make it available to multiple clients such as researchers and pharmaceutical companies. This data can be used to improve medical treatments and research but if not protected, it can also put patients' personal information at risk. To ensure the benefits of these services, it is important to implement proper security and privacy measures. In this paper, we propose a symmetric searchable encryption scheme with dynamic updates on a database that has a single owner and multiple clients for IoT environments. Our proposed scheme supports both forward and backward privacy. Additionally, our scheme supports a decentralized storage environment in which data owners can outsource data across multiple servers or even across multiple service providers to improve security and privacy. Further, it takes a minimum amount of effort and costs to revoke a client's access to our system at any time. The performance and formal security analyses of the proposed scheme show that our scheme provides better functionality, and security and is more efficient in terms of computation and storage than the closely related works.

3.Privacy-Preserving Ensemble Infused Enhanced Deep Neural Network Framework for Edge Cloud Convergence

Authors:Veronika Stephanie, Ibrahim Khalil, Mohammad Saidur Rahman, Mohammed Atiquzzaman

Abstract: We propose a privacy-preserving ensemble infused enhanced Deep Neural Network (DNN) based learning framework in this paper for Internet-of-Things (IoT), edge, and cloud convergence in the context of healthcare. In the convergence, edge server is used for both storing IoT produced bioimage and hosting DNN algorithm for local model training. The cloud is used for ensembling local models. The DNN-based training process of a model with a local dataset suffers from low accuracy, which can be improved by the aforementioned convergence and Ensemble Learning. The ensemble learning allows multiple participants to outsource their local model for producing a generalized final model with high accuracy. Nevertheless, Ensemble Learning elevates the risk of leaking sensitive private data from the final model. The proposed framework presents a Differential Privacy-based privacy-preserving DNN with Transfer Learning for a local model generation to ensure minimal loss and higher efficiency at edge server. We conduct several experiments to evaluate the performance of our proposed framework.

4.A SKG Security Challenge: Indoor SKG Under an On-The-Shoulder Eavesdropping Attack

Authors:Amitha Mayya, Miroslav Mitev, Arsenia Chorti, Gerhard Fettweis

Abstract: Physical layer security (PLS) is seen as the means to enhance physical layer trustworthiness in 6G. This work provides a proof-of-concept for one of the most mature PLS technologies, i.e., secret key generation (SKG) from wireless fading coefficients during the channel's coherence time. As opposed to other works, where only specific parts of the protocol are typically investigated, here, we implement the full SKG chain in four indoor experimental campaigns. In detail, we consider two legitimate nodes, who use the wireless channel to extract secret keys and a malicious node placed in the immediate vicinity of one of them, who acts as a passive eavesdropper. To estimate the final SKG rate we evaluate the conditional min-entropy by taking into account all information available to the eavesdropper. Finally, we use this paper to announce the first ever physical layer security challenge, mirroring practices in cryptography. We call the community to scrutinize the presented results and try to ``break'' our SKG implementation. To this end, we provide, i) the full dataset observed by the eavesdroppers and all algorithms used, ii) $20$ blocks of $16-$byte long ciphertexts, encrypted using AES-256 with $20$ distilled secret keys, and, iii) all codes and software used in our SKG implementation. An attack will be considered successful if any part(s) of the plaintext are successfully retrieved.

5.Trust-Worthy Semantic Communications for the Metaverse Relying on Federated Learning

Authors:Jianrui Chen, Jingjing Wang, Chunxiao Jiang, Yong Ren, Lajos Hanzo

Abstract: As an evolving successor to the mobile Internet, the Metaverse creates the impression of an immersive environment, integrating the virtual as well as the real world. In contrast to the traditional mobile Internet based on servers, the Metaverse is constructed by billions of cooperating users by harnessing their smart edge devices having limited communication and computation resources. In this immersive environment an unprecedented amount of multi-modal data has to be processed. To circumvent this impending bottleneck, low-rate semantic communication might be harnessed in support of the Metaverse. But given that private multi-modal data is exchanged in the Metaverse, we have to guard against security breaches and privacy invasions. Hence we conceive a trust-worthy semantic communication system for the Metaverse based on a federated learning architecture by exploiting its distributed decision-making and privacy-preserving capability. We conclude by identifying a suite of promising research directions and open issues.

6.Challenges with the Application of Cyber Security for Airworthiness (CSA) in Real-World Contexts

Authors:Beckett LeClair, James McLeod, Lee Ramsay, Mick Warren

Abstract: The ever increasing push towards reliance upon computerised technology in commercial, general, and military aerospace brings with it an increasing amount of potential cyber hazards and attacks. Consequently, the variety of attack vectors is greater than ever. Recognized Good Practice standards such as DO 326A and ED 202A attempt to address this by providing guidelines for cyber security on in-service aircraft, though implementation work for such initiatives is still in early stages. From previous work on in service aircraft, the authors have determined that one of the key challenges is that of the retrospective application of new regulations to existing designs. This can present significant requirements for time, money, and Suitably Qualified and Experienced Personnel resource, things which are often in already limited supply in military environments. The authors have previously explored efficient ways of approaching compliance, with promising results. There is still the need to consider this retroactivity challenge in tandem with other key factors affecting the application of CSA, in order to determine any more potential mitigating actions that could lower the barrier to effective and efficient implementation of secure approaches in the air domain. This work explores the interrelated challenges surrounding real-world applications of CSA and the beginnings of how these may be overcome.

7.Flexible remote attestation of pre-SNP SEV VMs using SGX enclaves

Authors:Pedro Antonino, Ante Derek, Wojciech Aleksander Wołoszyn

Abstract: We propose a protocol that explores a synergy between two TEE implementations: it brings SGX-like remote attestation to SEV VMs. We use the notion of a \emph{trusted guest owner}, implemented as an SGX enclave, to deploy, attest, and provision a SEV VM. This machine can, in turn, rely on the trusted owner to generate SGX-like attestation proofs on its behalf. Our protocol combines the application portability of SEV with the flexible remote attestation of SGX. We formalise our protocol and prove that it achieves the intended guarantees using the Tamarin prover. Moreover, we develop an implementation for our trusted guest owner together with example SEV machines, and put those together to demonstrate how our protocol can be used in practice; we use this implementation to evaluate our protocol in the context of creating \emph{accountable machine-learning models}. We also discuss how our protocol can be extended to provide a simple remote attestation mechanism for a heterogeneous infrastructure of trusted components.

8.Comprehensively Analyzing the Impact of Cyberattacks on Power Grids

Authors:Lennart Bader, Martin Serror, Olav Lamberts, Ömer Sen, Dennis van der Velde, Immanuel Hacker, Julian Filter, Elmar Padilla, Martin Henze

Abstract: The increasing digitalization of power grids and especially the shift towards IP-based communication drastically increase the susceptibility to cyberattacks, potentially leading to blackouts and physical damage. Understanding the involved risks, the interplay of communication and physical assets, and the effects of cyberattacks are paramount for the uninterrupted operation of this critical infrastructure. However, as the impact of cyberattacks cannot be researched in real-world power grids, current efforts tend to focus on analyzing isolated aspects at small scales, often covering only either physical or communication assets. To fill this gap, we present WATTSON, a comprehensive research environment that facilitates reproducing, implementing, and analyzing cyberattacks against power grids and, in particular, their impact on both communication and physical processes. We validate WATTSON's accuracy against a physical testbed and show its scalability to realistic power grid sizes. We then perform authentic cyberattacks, such as Industroyer, within the environment and study their impact on the power grid's energy and communication side. Besides known vulnerabilities, our results reveal the ripple effects of susceptible communication on complex cyber-physical processes and thus lay the foundation for effective countermeasures.

9.Unconditionally Secure Non-malleable Secret Sharing and Circular External Difference Families

Authors:Shannon Veitch, Douglas R. Stinson

Abstract: Various notions of non-malleable secret sharing schemes have been considered. In this paper, we review the existing work on non-malleable secret sharing and suggest a novel game-based definition. We provide a new construction of an unconditionally secure non-malleable threshold scheme with respect to a specified relation. To do so, we introduce a new type of algebraic manipulation detection (AMD) code and construct examples of new variations of external difference families, which are of independent combinatorial interest.

10.Analyzing and Improving Eligibility Verifiability of the Proposed Belgian Remote Voting System

Authors:Jan Willemson

Abstract: This paper discusses several recent electronic-paper remote voting hybrid schemes, concentrating more specifically on the proposal put forward for Belgian elections. We point to some problems in the proposal, and consider addition of blind signatures as one possible approach to dealing with the identified shortcomings. We discuss the concomitant updates from both the protocol and electoral processes point of view, arguing that our proposal would strike a better balance between different requirements. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first proposal to use blind signatures in a paper-based voting system.

11.Time for Change: How Clocks Break UWB Secure Ranging

Authors:Claudio Anliker, Giovanni Camurati, Srdjan Capkun

Abstract: Due to its suitability for wireless ranging, Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) has gained traction over the past years. UWB chips have been integrated into consumer electronics and considered for security-relevant use cases, such as access control or contactless payments. However, several publications in the recent past have shown that it is difficult to protect the integrity of instance measurements on the physical layer. In this paper, we identify transceiver clock imperfections as a new, important parameter that has been widely ignored so far. We present Mix-Down and Stretch-and-Advance, two novel attacks against the current (IEEE 802.15.4z) and the upcoming (IEEE 802.15.4ab) UWB standard, respectively. We demonstrate Mix-Down on commercial chips and achieve distance reduction from 10 m to 0 m. For the Stretch-and-Advance attack, we show analytically that the current proposal of IEEE 802.15.4ab allows reductions of over 90 m. In order to prevent the attack, we propose and analyze an effective countermeasure.

12.Secure compilation of rich smart contracts on poor UTXO blockchains

Authors:Massimo Bartoletti, Riccardo Marchesin, Roberto Zunino

Abstract: Most blockchain platforms from Ethereum onwards render smart contracts as stateful reactive objects that update their state and transfer crypto-assets in response to transactions. In this way, they support the development of contracts in the imperative procedural paradigm, familiar to most programmers. A drawback of this design choice is that when a user submits a transaction, they cannot predict in which state it will be executed, exposing them to transaction-ordering attacks. The UTXO model is an alternative blockchain design that thwarts these attacks by requiring new transactions to spend past ones: since transactions have unique identifiers, reordering attacks are ineffective. Currently, the blockchains following the UTXO model either provide contracts with limited expressiveness (Bitcoin), or require complex run-time environments and unfamiliar programming abstractions (Cardano). We present a framework for smart contracts in the UTXO model, that allows expressive contracts to be securely executed by bare-bone UTXO blockchains with loop-free scripts enriched with covenants, and supports the familiar procedural programming style.

13.Trojan Playground: A Reinforcement Learning Framework for Hardware Trojan Insertion and Detection

Authors:Amin Sarihi, Ahmad Patooghy, Peter Jamieson, Abdel-Hameed A. Badawy

Abstract: Current Hardware Trojan (HT) detection techniques are mostly developed based on a limited set of HT benchmarks. Existing HT benchmarks circuits are generated with multiple shortcomings, i.e., i) they are heavily biased by the designers' mindset when they are created, and ii) they are created through a one-dimensional lens, mainly the signal activity of nets. To address these shortcomings, we introduce the first automated reinforcement learning (RL) HT insertion and detection framework. In the insertion phase, an RL agent explores the circuits and finds different locations that are best for keeping inserted HTs hidden. On the defense side, we introduce a multi-criteria RL-based detector that generates test vectors to discover the existence of HTs. Using the proposed framework, one can explore the HT insertion and detection design spaces to break the human mindset limitations as well as the benchmark issues, ultimately leading toward the next-generation of innovative detectors. Our HT toolset is open-source to accelerate research in this field and reduce the initial setup time for newcomers. We demonstrate the efficacy of our framework on ISCAS-85 benchmarks and provide the attack and detection success rates and define a methodology for comparing our techniques.

14.HiNoVa: A Novel Open-Set Detection Method for Automating RF Device Authentication

Authors:Luke Puppo, Weng-Keen Wong, Bechir Hamdaoui, Abdurrahman Elmaghbub

Abstract: New capabilities in wireless network security have been enabled by deep learning, which leverages patterns in radio frequency (RF) data to identify and authenticate devices. Open-set detection is an area of deep learning that identifies samples captured from new devices during deployment that were not part of the training set. Past work in open-set detection has mostly been applied to independent and identically distributed data such as images. In contrast, RF signal data present a unique set of challenges as the data forms a time series with non-linear time dependencies among the samples. We introduce a novel open-set detection approach based on the patterns of the hidden state values within a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model. Our approach greatly improves the Area Under the Precision-Recall Curve on LoRa, Wireless-WiFi, and Wired-WiFi datasets, and hence, can be used successfully to monitor and control unauthorized network access of wireless devices.

1.Quadratic Functional Encryption for Secure Training in Vertical Federated Learning

Authors:Shuangyi Chen, Anuja Modi, Shweta Agrawal, Ashish Khisti

Abstract: Vertical federated learning (VFL) enables the collaborative training of machine learning (ML) models in settings where the data is distributed amongst multiple parties who wish to protect the privacy of their individual data. Notably, in VFL, the labels are available to a single party and the complete feature set is formed only when data from all parties is combined. Recently, Xu et al. proposed a new framework called FedV for secure gradient computation for VFL using multi-input functional encryption. In this work, we explain how some of the information leakage in Xu et al. can be avoided by using Quadratic functional encryption when training generalized linear models for vertical federated learning.

2.Privacy-preserving Blockchain-enabled Parametric Insurance via Remote Sensing and IoT

Authors:Mingyu Hao, Keyang Qian, Sid Chi-Kin Chau

Abstract: Traditional Insurance, a popular approach of financial risk management, has suffered from the issues of high operational costs, opaqueness, inefficiency and a lack of trust. Recently, blockchain-enabled "parametric insurance" through authorized data sources (e.g., remote sensing and IoT) aims to overcome these issues by automating the underwriting and claim processes of insurance policies on a blockchain. However, the openness of blockchain platforms raises a concern of user privacy, as the private user data in insurance claims on a blockchain may be exposed to outsiders. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving parametric insurance framework based on succinct zero-knowledge proofs (zk-SNARKs), whereby an insuree submits a zero-knowledge proof (without revealing any private data) for the validity of an insurance claim and the authenticity of its data sources to a blockchain for transparent verification. Moreover, we extend the recent zk-SNARKs to support robust privacy protection for multiple heterogeneous data sources and improve its efficiency to cut the incurred gas cost by 80%. As a proof-of-concept, we implemented a working prototype of bushfire parametric insurance on real-world blockchain platform Ethereum, and present extensive empirical evaluations.

3.Trustchain - Trustworthy Decentralised Public Key Infrastructure for Digital Credentials

Authors:Tim Hobson, Lydia France, Sam Greenbury, Luke Hare, Pamela Wochner

Abstract: The sharing of public key information is central to the digital credential security model, but the existing Web PKI with its opaque Certification Authorities and synthetic attestations serves a very different purpose. We propose a new approach to decentralised public key infrastructure, designed for digital identity, in which connections between legal entities that are represented digitally correspond to genuine, pre-existing relationships between recognisable institutions. In this scenario, users can judge for themselves the level of trust they are willing to place in a given chain of attestations. Our proposal includes a novel mechanism for establishing a root of trust in a decentralised setting via independently-verifiable timestamping. We also present a reference implementation built on open networks, protocols and standards. The system has minimal setup costs and is freely available for any community to adopt as a digital public good.

4.ESAFL: Efficient Secure Additively Homomorphic Encryption for Cross-Silo Federated Learning

Authors:Jiahui Wu, Weizhe Zhang, Fucai Luo

Abstract: Cross-silo federated learning (FL) enables multiple clients to collaboratively train a machine learning model without sharing training data, but privacy in FL remains a major challenge. Techniques using homomorphic encryption (HE) have been designed to solve this but bring their own challenges. Many techniques using single-key HE (SKHE) require clients to fully trust each other to prevent privacy disclosure between clients. However, fully trusted clients are hard to ensure in practice. Other techniques using multi-key HE (MKHE) aim to protect privacy from untrusted clients but lead to the disclosure of training results in public channels by untrusted third parties, e.g., the public cloud server. Besides, MKHE has higher computation and communication complexity compared with SKHE. We present a new FL protocol ESAFL that leverages a novel efficient and secure additively HE (ESHE) based on the hard problem of ring learning with errors. ESAFL can ensure the security of training data between untrusted clients and protect the training results against untrusted third parties. In addition, theoretical analyses present that ESAFL outperforms current techniques using MKHE in computation and communication, and intensive experiments show that ESAFL achieves approximate 204 times-953 times and 11 times-14 times training speedup while reducing the communication burden by 77 times-109 times and 1.25 times-2 times compared with the state-of-the-art FL models using SKHE.

5.European 5G Security in the Wild: Reality versus Expectations

Authors:Oscar Lasierra, Gines Garcia-Aviles, Esteban Municio, Antonio Skarmeta, Xavier Costa-Pérez

Abstract: 5G cellular systems are slowly being deployed worldwide delivering the promised unprecedented levels of throughput and latency to hundreds of millions of users. At such scale security is crucial, and consequently, the 5G standard includes a new series of features to improve the security of its predecessors (i.e., 3G and 4G). In this work, we evaluate the actual deployment in practice of the promised 5G security features by analysing current commercial 5G networks from several European operators. By collecting 5G signalling traffic in the wild in several cities in Spain, we i) fact-check which 5G security enhancements are actually implemented in current deployments, ii) provide a rich overview of the implementation status of each 5G security feature in a wide range of 5G commercial networks in Europe and compare it with previous results in China, iii) analyse the implications of optional features not being deployed, and iv) discuss on the still remaining 4G-inherited vulnerabilities. Our results show that in European 5G commercial networks, the deployment of the 5G security features is still on the works. This is well aligned with results previously reported from China [16] and keeps these networks vulnerable to some 4G attacks, during their migration period from 4G to 5G.

6.BRF: eBPF Runtime Fuzzer

Authors:Hsin-Wei Hung, Ardalan Amiri Sani

Abstract: The eBPF technology in the Linux kernel has been widely adopted for different applications, such as networking, tracing, and security, thanks to the programmability it provides. By allowing user-supplied eBPF programs to be executed directly in the kernel, it greatly increases the flexibility and efficiency of deploying customized logic. However, eBPF also introduces a new and wide attack surface: malicious eBPF programs may try to exploit the vulnerabilities in the eBPF subsystem in the kernel. Fuzzing is a promising technique to find such vulnerabilities. Unfortunately, our experiments with the state-of-the-art kernel fuzzer, Syzkaller, shows that it cannot effectively fuzz the eBPF runtime, those components that are in charge of executing an eBPF program, for two reasons. First, the eBPF verifier (which is tasked with verifying the safety of eBPF programs) rejects many fuzzing inputs because (1) they do not comply with its required semantics or (2) they miss some dependencies, i.e., other syscalls that need to be issued before the program is loaded. Second, Syzkaller fails to attach and trigger the execution of eBPF programs most of the times. This paper introduces the BPF Runtime Fuzzer (BRF), a fuzzer that can satisfy the semantics and dependencies required by the verifier and the eBPF subsystem. Our experiments show, in 48-hour fuzzing sessions, BRF can successfully execute 8x more eBPF programs compared to Syzkaller. Moreover, eBPF programs generated by BRF are much more expressive than Syzkaller's. As a result, BRF achieves 101% higher code coverage. Finally, BRF has so far managed to find 4 vulnerabilities (some of them have been assigned CVE numbers) in the eBPF runtime, proving its effectiveness.

1.A Lightweight Authentication Protocol against Modeling Attacks based on a Novel LFSR-APUF

Authors:Yao Wang, Xue Mei, Zhengtai Chang, Wenbing Fan, Benqing Guo, Zhi Quan

Abstract: Simple authentication protocols based on conventional physical unclonable function (PUF) are vulnerable to modeling attacks and other security threats. This paper proposes an arbiter PUF based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR-APUF). Different from the previously reported linear feedback shift register for challenge extension, the proposed scheme feeds the external random challenges into the LFSR module to obfuscate the linear mapping relationship between the challenge and response. It can prevent attackers from obtaining valid challenge-response pairs (CRPs), increasing its resistance to modeling attacks significantly. A 64-stage LFSR-APUF has been implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) board. The experimental results reveal that the proposed design can effectively resist various modeling attacks such as logistic regression (LR), evolutionary strategy (ES), Artificial Neuro Network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM) with a prediction rate of 51.79% and a slight effect on the randomness, reliability, and uniqueness. Further, a lightweight authentication protocol is established based on the proposed LFSR-APUF. The protocol incorporates a low-overhead, ultra-lightweight, novel private bit conversion Cover function that is uniquely bound to each device in the authentication network. A dynamic and timevariant obfuscation scheme in combination with the proposed LFSR-APUF is implemented in the protocol. The proposed authentication protocol not only resists spoofing attacks, physical attacks, and modeling attacks effectively, but also ensures the security of the entire authentication network by transferring important information in encrypted form from the server to the database even when the attacker completely controls the server.

2.Two-in-One: A Model Hijacking Attack Against Text Generation Models

Authors:Wai Man Si, Michael Backes, Yang Zhang, Ahmed Salem

Abstract: Machine learning has progressed significantly in various applications ranging from face recognition to text generation. However, its success has been accompanied by different attacks. Recently a new attack has been proposed which raises both accountability and parasitic computing risks, namely the model hijacking attack. Nevertheless, this attack has only focused on image classification tasks. In this work, we broaden the scope of this attack to include text generation and classification models, hence showing its broader applicability. More concretely, we propose a new model hijacking attack, Ditto, that can hijack different text classification tasks into multiple generation ones, e.g., language translation, text summarization, and language modeling. We use a range of text benchmark datasets such as SST-2, TweetEval, AGnews, QNLI, and IMDB to evaluate the performance of our attacks. Our results show that by using Ditto, an adversary can successfully hijack text generation models without jeopardizing their utility.

3.Differentially Private Set-Based Estimation Using Zonotopes

Authors:Mohammed M. Dawoud, Changxin Liu, Amr Alanwar, Karl H. Johansson

Abstract: For large-scale cyber-physical systems, the collaboration of spatially distributed sensors is often needed to perform the state estimation process. Privacy concerns naturally arise from disclosing sensitive measurement signals to a cloud estimator that predicts the system state. To solve this issue, we propose a differentially private set-based estimation protocol that preserves the privacy of the measurement signals. Compared to existing research, our approach achieves less privacy loss and utility loss using a numerically optimized truncated noise distribution. The proposed estimator is perturbed by weaker noise than the analytical approaches in the literature to guarantee the same level of privacy, therefore improving the estimation utility. Numerical and comparison experiments with truncated Laplace noise are presented to support our approach. Zonotopes, a less conservative form of set representation, are used to represent estimation sets, giving set operations a computational advantage. The privacy-preserving noise anonymizes the centers of these estimated zonotopes, concealing the precise positions of the estimated zonotopes.

4.Unconditionally Secure Access Control Encryption

Authors:Cheuk Ting Li, Sherman S. M. Chow

Abstract: Access control encryption (ACE) enforces, through a sanitizer as the mediator, that only legitimate sender-receiver pairs can communicate, without the sanitizer knowing the communication metadata, including its sender and recipient identity, the policy over them, and the underlying plaintext. Any illegitimate transmission is indistinguishable from pure noise. Existing works focused on computational security and require trapdoor functions and possibly other heavyweight primitives. We present the first ACE scheme with information-theoretic security (unconditionally against unbounded adversaries). Our novel randomization techniques over matrices realize sanitization (traditionally via homomorphism over a fixed randomness space) such that the secret message in the hidden message subspace remains intact if and only if there is no illegitimate transmission.

1.AEWAE: An Efficient Ensemble Framework for Concept Drift Adaptation in IoT Data Stream

Authors:Yafeng Wu, Lan Liu, Yongjie Yu, Guiming Chen, Junhan Hu

Abstract: With the evolution of the fifth-generation (5G) wireless network, smart technology based on the Internet of Things (IoT) has become increasingly popular. As a crucial component of smart technology, IoT systems for service delivery often face concept drift issues in network data stream analytics due to dynamic IoT environments, resulting in performance degradation. In this article, we propose a drift-adaptive framework called Adaptive Exponentially Weighted Average Ensemble (AEWAE) consisting of three stages: IoT data preprocessing, base model learning, and online ensembling. It is a data stream analytics framework that integrates dynamic adjustments of ensemble methods to tackle various scenarios. Experimental results on two public IoT datasets demonstrate that our proposed framework outperforms state-of-the-art methods, achieving high accuracy and efficiency in IoT data stream analytics.

2.Simplification of General Mixed Boolean-Arithmetic Expressions: GAMBA

Authors:Benjamin Reichenwallner, Peter Meerwald-Stadler

Abstract: Malware code often resorts to various self-protection techniques to complicate analysis. One such technique is applying Mixed-Boolean Arithmetic (MBA) expressions as a way to create opaque predicates and diversify and obfuscate the data flow. In this work we aim to provide tools for the simplification of nonlinear MBA expressions in a very practical context to compete in the arms race between the generation of hard, diverse MBAs and their analysis. The proposed algorithm GAMBA employs algebraic rewriting at its core and extends SiMBA. It achieves efficient deobfuscation of MBA expressions from the most widely tested public datasets and simplifies expressions to their ground truths in most cases, surpassing peer tools.

3.MISO: Legacy-compatible Privacy-preserving Single Sign-on using Trusted Execution Environments

Authors:Rongwu Xu, Sen Yang, Fan Zhang, Zhixuan Fang

Abstract: Single sign-on (SSO) allows users to authenticate to third-party applications through a central identity provider. Despite their wide adoption, deployed SSO systems suffer from privacy problems such as user tracking by the identity provider. While numerous solutions have been proposed by academic papers, none were adopted because they require modifying identity providers, a significant adoption barrier in practice. Solutions do get deployed, however, fail to eliminate major privacy issues. Leveraging Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs), we propose MISO, the first privacy-preserving SSO system that is completely compatible with existing identity providers (such as Google and Facebook). This means MISO can be easily integrated into existing SSO ecosystem today and benefit end users. MISO also enables new functionality that standard SSO cannot offer: MISO allows users to leverage multiple identity providers in a single SSO workflow, potentially in a threshold fashion, to better protect user accounts. We fully implemented MISO based on Intel SGX. Our evaluation shows that MISO can handle high user concurrency with practical performance.

4.Assault and Battery: Evaluating the Security of Power Conversion Systems Against Electromagnetic Injection Attacks

Authors:Marcell Szakály, Sebastian Köhler, Martin Strohmeier, Ivan Martinovic

Abstract: Many modern devices, including critical infrastructures, depend on the reliable operation of electrical power conversion systems. The small size and versatility of switched-mode power converters has resulted in their widespread adoption. Whereas transformer-based systems passively convert voltage, switched-mode converters feature an actively regulated feedback loop, which relies on accurate sensor measurements. Previous academic work has shown that many types of sensors are vulnerable to Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) attacks, and it has been postulated that power converters, too, are affected. In this paper, we present the first detailed study on switched-mode power converters by targeting their voltage and current sensors through IEMI attacks. We present a theoretical framework for evaluating IEMI attacks against feedback-based power supplies in the general case. We experimentally validate our theoretical predictions by analyzing multiple AC-DC and DC-DC converters, automotive grade current sensors, and dedicated battery chargers, and demonstrate the systematic vulnerability of all examined categories under real-world conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that sensor attacks on power converters can cause permanent damage to Li-Ion batteries during the charging process.

5.REMaQE -- Reverse Engineering Math Equations from Executables

Authors:Meet Udeshi, Prashanth Krishnamurthy, Hammond Pearce, Ramesh Karri, Farshad Khorrami

Abstract: Cybersecurity attacks against industrial control systems and cyber-physical systems can cause catastrophic real-world damage by infecting device binaries with malware. Mitigating such attacks can benefit from reverse engineering tools that recover sufficient semantic knowledge in terms of mathematical operations in the code. Conventional reverse engineering tools can decompile binaries to low-level code, but offer little semantic insight. This paper proposes REMaQE, an automated framework for reverse engineering of math equations from binary executables. REMaQE uses symbolic execution for dynamic analysis of the binary to extract the relevant semantic knowledge of the implemented algorithms. REMaQE provides an automatic parameter analysis pass which also leverages symbolic execution to identify input, output, and constant parameters of the implemented math equations. REMaQE automatically handles parameters accessed via registers, the stack, global memory, or pointers, and supports reverse engineering of object-oriented implementations such as C++ classes. REMaQE uses an algebraic simplification method which allows it to scale to complex conditional equations with ease. These features make REMaQE stand out over existing reverse engineering approaches for math equations. On a dataset of randomly generated math equations compiled to binaries from C and Simulink implementations, REMaQE accurately recovers a semantically matching equation for 97.53% of the models. For complex equations with more operations, accuracy stays consistently over 94%. REMaQE executes in 0.25 seconds on average and in 1.3 seconds for more complex equations. This real-time execution speed enables a smooth integration in an interactive mathematics-oriented reverse engineering workflow.

6.Watch This Space: Securing Satellite Communication through Resilient Transmitter Fingerprinting

Authors:Joshua Smailes, Sebastian Kohler, Simon Birnbach, Martin Strohmeier, Ivan Martinovic

Abstract: Due to an increase in the availability of cheap off-the-shelf radio hardware, spoofing and replay attacks on satellite ground systems have become more accessible than ever. This is particularly a problem for legacy systems, many of which do not offer cryptographic security and cannot be patched to support novel security measures. In this paper we explore radio transmitter fingerprinting in satellite systems. We introduce the SatIQ system, proposing novel techniques for authenticating transmissions using characteristics of transmitter hardware expressed as impairments on the downlinked signal. We look in particular at high sample rate fingerprinting, making fingerprints difficult to forge without similarly high sample rate transmitting hardware, thus raising the budget for attacks. We also examine the difficulty of this approach with high levels of atmospheric noise and multipath scattering, and analyze potential solutions to this problem. We focus on the Iridium satellite constellation, for which we collected 1010464 messages at a sample rate of 25 MS/s. We use this data to train a fingerprinting model consisting of an autoencoder combined with a Siamese neural network, enabling the model to learn an efficient encoding of message headers that preserves identifying information. We demonstrate the system's robustness under attack by replaying messages using a Software-Defined Radio, achieving an Equal Error Rate of 0.120, and ROC AUC of 0.946. Finally, we analyze its stability over time by introducing a time gap between training and testing data, and its extensibility by introducing new transmitters which have not been seen before. We conclude that our techniques are useful for building systems that are stable over time, can be used immediately with new transmitters without retraining, and provide robustness against spoofing and replay by raising the required budget for attacks.

7.Specification and Verification of Side-channel Security for Open-source Processors via Leakage Contracts

Authors:Zilong Wang, Gideon Mohr, Klaus von Gleissenthall, Jan Reineke, Marco Guarnieri

Abstract: Leakage contracts have recently been proposed as a new security abstraction at the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) level. Such contracts aim to faithfully capture the information processors may leak through side effects of their microarchitectural implementations. However, so far, we lack a verification methodology to check that a processor actually satisfies a given leakage contract. In this paper, we address this problem by developing LeaVe, the first tool for verifying register-transfer-level (RTL) processor designs against ISA-level leakage contracts. To this end, we introduce a decoupling theorem that separates security and functional correctness concerns when verifying contract satisfaction. LeaVe leverages this decoupling to make verification of contract satisfaction practical. To scale to realistic processor designs LeaVe further employs inductive reasoning on relational abstractions. Using LeaVe, we precisely characterize the side-channel security guarantees provided by three open-source RISC-V processors, thereby obtaining the first contract satisfaction proofs for RTL processor designs.

1.RNNS: Representation Nearest Neighbor Search Black-Box Attack on Code Models

Authors:Jie Zhang, Wei Ma, Qiang Hu, Xiaofei Xie, Yves Le Traon, Yang Liu

Abstract: Pre-trained code models are mainly evaluated using the in-distribution test data. The robustness of models, i.e., the ability to handle hard unseen data, still lacks evaluation. In this paper, we propose a novel search-based black-box adversarial attack guided by model behaviours for pre-trained programming language models, named Representation Nearest Neighbor Search(RNNS), to evaluate the robustness of Pre-trained PL models. Unlike other black-box adversarial attacks, RNNS uses the model-change signal to guide the search in the space of the variable names collected from real-world projects. Specifically, RNNS contains two main steps, 1) indicate which variable (attack position location) we should attack based on model uncertainty, and 2) search which adversarial tokens we should use for variable renaming according to the model behaviour observations. We evaluate RNNS on 6 code tasks (e.g., clone detection), 3 programming languages (Java, Python, and C), and 3 pre-trained code models: CodeBERT, GraphCodeBERT, and CodeT5. The results demonstrate that RNNS outperforms the state-of-the-art black-box attacking methods (MHM and ALERT) in terms of attack success rate (ASR) and query times (QT). The perturbation of generated adversarial examples from RNNS is smaller than the baselines with respect to the number of replaced variables and the variable length change. Our experiments also show that RNNS is efficient in attacking the defended models and is useful for adversarial training.

2.Revisiting Fully Homomorphic Encryption Schemes

Authors:Nimish Jain, Aswani Kumar Cherukuri

Abstract: Homomorphic encryption is a sophisticated encryption technique that allows computations on encrypted data to be done without the requirement for decryption. This trait makes homomorphic encryption appropriate for safe computation in sensitive data scenarios, such as cloud computing, medical data exchange, and financial transactions. The data is encrypted using a public key in homomorphic encryption, and the calculation is conducted on the encrypted data using an algorithm that retains the encryption. The computed result is then decrypted with a private key to acquire the final output. This abstract notion protects data while allowing complicated computations to be done on the encrypted data, resulting in a secure and efficient approach to analysing sensitive information. This article is intended to give a clear idea about the various fully Homomorphic Encryption Schemes present in the literature and analyse and compare the results of each of these schemes. Further, we also provide applications and open-source tools of homomorphic encryption schemes.

3.Unraveling the MEV Enigma: ABI-Free Detection Model using Graph Neural Networks

Authors:Seongwan Park, Woojin Jeong, Yunyoung Lee, Bumho Son, Huisu Jang, Jaewook Lee

Abstract: The detection of Maximal Extractable Value (MEV) in blockchain is crucial for enhancing blockchain security, as it enables the evaluation of potential consensus layer risks, the effectiveness of anti-centralization solutions, and the assessment of user exploitation. However, existing MEV detection methods face limitations due to their low recall rate, reliance on pre-registered Application Binary Interfaces (ABIs) and the need for continuous monitoring of new DeFi services. In this paper, we propose ArbiNet, a novel GNN-based detection model that offers a low-overhead and accurate solution for MEV detection without requiring knowledge of smart contract code or ABIs. We collected an extensive MEV dataset, surpassing currently available public datasets, to train ArbiNet. Our implemented model and open dataset enhance the understanding of the MEV landscape, serving as a foundation for MEV quantification and improved blockchain security.

4.FedSOV: Federated Model Secure Ownership Verification with Unforgeable Signature

Authors:Wenyuan Yang, Gongxi Zhu, Yuguo Yin, Hanlin Gu, Lixin Fan, Qiang Yang, Xiaochun Cao

Abstract: Federated learning allows multiple parties to collaborate in learning a global model without revealing private data. The high cost of training and the significant value of the global model necessitates the need for ownership verification of federated learning. However, the existing ownership verification schemes in federated learning suffer from several limitations, such as inadequate support for a large number of clients and vulnerability to ambiguity attacks. To address these limitations, we propose a cryptographic signature-based federated learning model ownership verification scheme named FedSOV. FedSOV allows numerous clients to embed their ownership credentials and verify ownership using unforgeable digital signatures. The scheme provides theoretical resistance to ambiguity attacks with the unforgeability of the signature. Experimental results on computer vision and natural language processing tasks demonstrate that FedSOV is an effective federated model ownership verification scheme enhanced with provable cryptographic security.

5.SafeLLVM: LLVM Without The ROP Gadgets!

Authors:Federico Cassano, Charles Bershatsky, Jacob Ginesin

Abstract: Memory safety is a cornerstone of secure and robust software systems, as it prevents a wide range of vulnerabilities and exploitation techniques. Among these, we focus on Return-Oriented Programming (ROP). ROP works as such: the attacker takes control of the program's execution flow via a memory corruption attack, then takes advantages of code snippets already in the program's memory, dubbed "gadgets," to achieve the attacker's desired effect. In this paper, we introduce SafeLLVM, an approach to minimize the number of gadgets in x86-64 binaries compiled with the LLVM infrastructure. Building upon the techniques outlined in previous works, we implement a series of passes within the LLVM compiler's backend to minimize the number of gadgets present and thus prevent ROP attacks. We evaluated our approach by compiling a number of real-world applications, including cJSON, zlib, curl, and mimalloc. The results show our solution is able to prevent any form of ROP on the binaries compiled with SafeLLVM while maintaining the same functionality as the original binaries.

6.A Deep Dive into NFT Rug Pulls

Authors:Jintao Huang, Ningyu He, Kai Ma, Jiang Xiao, Haoyu Wang

Abstract: NFT rug pull is one of the most prominent type of scam that the developers of a project abandon it and then run away with investors' funds. Although they have drawn attention from our community, to the best of our knowledge, the NFT rug pulls have not been systematically explored. To fill the void, this paper presents the first in-depth study of NFT rug pulls. Specifically, we first compile a list of 253 known NFT rug pulls as our initial ground truth, based on which we perform a pilot study, highlighting the key symptoms of NFT rug pulls. Then, we enforce a strict rule-based method to flag more rug pulled NFT projects in the wild, and have labelled 7,487 NFT rug pulls as our extended ground truth. Atop it, we have investigated the art of NFT rug pulls, with kinds of tricks including explicit ones that are embedded with backdoors, and implicit ones that manipulate the market. To release the expansion of the scam, we further design a prediction model to proactively identify the potential rug pull projects in an early stage ahead of the scam happens. We have implemented a prototype system deployed in the real-world setting for over 5 months. Our system has raised alarms for 7,821 NFT projects, by the time of this writing, which can work as a whistle blower that pinpoints rug pull scams timely, thus mitigating the impacts.

7.Conflict Analysis and Resolution of Safety and Security Boundary Conditions for Industrial Control Systems

Authors:Chidi Agbo, Hoda Mehrpouyan

Abstract: Safety and security are the two most important properties of industrial control systems (ICS), and their integration is necessary to ensure that safety goals do not undermine security goals and vice versa. Sometimes, safety and security co-engineering leads to conflicting requirements or violations capable of impacting the normal behavior of the system. Identification, analysis, and resolution of conflicts arising from safety and security co-engineering is a major challenge, an under-researched area in safety-critical systems(ICS). This paper presents an STPA-SafeSec-CDCL approach that addresses the challenge. Our proposed methodology combines the STPA-SafeSec approach for safety and security analysis and the Conflict-Driven Clause Learning (CDCL) approach for the identification, analysis, and resolution of conflicts where conflicting constraints are encoded in satisfiability (SAT) problems. We apply our framework to the Tennessee Eastman Plant process model, a chemical process model developed specifically for the study of industrial control processes, to demonstrate how to use the proposed method. Our methodology goes beyond the requirement analysis phase and can be applied to the early stages of system design and development to increase system reliability, robustness, and resilience.

1.The Day-After-Tomorrow: On the Performance of Radio Fingerprinting over Time

Authors:Saeif Alhazbi, Savio Sciancalepore, Gabriele Oligeri

Abstract: The performance of Radio Frequency (RF) fingerprinting techniques is negatively impacted when the training data is not temporally close to the testing data. This can limit the practical implementation of physical-layer authentication solutions. To circumvent this problem, current solutions involve collecting training and testing datasets at close time intervals -- this being detrimental to the real-life deployment of any physical-layer authentication solution. We refer to this issue as the Day-After-Tomorrow (DAT) effect, being widely attributed to the temporal variability of the wireless channel, which masks the physical-layer features of the transmitter, thus impairing the fingerprinting process. In this work, we investigate the DAT effect shedding light on its root causes. Our results refute previous knowledge by demonstrating that the DAT effect is not solely caused by the variability of the wireless channel. Instead, we prove that it is also due to the power-cycling of the radios, i.e., the turning off and on of the radios between the collection of training and testing data. We show that state-of-the-art RF fingerprinting solutions double their performance when the devices under test are not power-cycled, i.e., the accuracy increases from about 0.5 to about 1 in a controlled scenario. Finally, we propose a new technique to mitigate the DAT effect in real-world scenarios. Our experimental results show a significant improvement in accuracy, from approximately 0.45 to 0.85. Additionally, our solution reduces the variance of the results, making the overall performance more reliable.

2.PSP Framework: A novel risk assessment method in compliance with ISO/SAE-21434

Authors:Franco Oberti, Ernesto Sanchez, Alessandro Savino, Filippo Parisi, Stefano Di Carlo

Abstract: As more cars connect to the internet and other devices, the automotive market has become a lucrative target for cyberattacks. This has made the industry more vulnerable to security threats. As a result, car manufacturers and governments are working together to reduce risks and prevent cyberattacks in the automotive sector. However, existing attack feasibility models derived from the information technology field may not always provide accurate assessments of the potential risks faced by Vehicle Electronic Control Units in different operating conditions and domains. This paper introduces the PUNCH Softronix and Politecnico di Torino (PSP) framework to address this issue. This framework is designed to provide accurate assessments compatible with the attack feasibility models defined by the automotive product security standards. The PSP framework utilizes social sentiment analysis to evaluate the real threat risk levels.

3.Data Protection and Security Issues With Network Error Logging

Authors:Libor Polčák, Kamil Jeřábek

Abstract: Network Error Logging helps web server operators detect operational problems in real-time to provide fast and reliable services. This paper analyses Network Error Logging from two angles. Firstly, this paper overviews Network Error Logging from the data protection view. The ePrivacy Directive requires consent for non-essential access to the end devices. Nevertheless, the Network Error Logging design does not allow limiting the tracking to consenting users. Other issues lay in GDPR requirements for transparency and the obligations in the contract between controllers and processors of personal data. Secondly, this paper explains Network Error Logging exploitations to deploy long-time trackers to the victim devices. Even though users should be able to disable Network Error Logging, it is not clear how to do so. Web server operators can mitigate the attack by configuring servers to preventively remove policies that adversaries might have added.

4.Probabilistic Detection of GNSS Spoofing using Opportunistic Information

Authors:Wenjie Liu, Panos Papadimitratos

Abstract: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are integrated into many devices. However, civilian GNSS signals are usually not cryptographically protected. This makes attacks that forge signals relatively easy. Considering modern devices often have network connections and onboard sensors, the proposed here Probabilistic Detection of GNSS Spoofing (PDS) scheme is based on such opportunistic information. PDS has at its core two parts. First, a regression problem with motion model constraints, which equalizes the noise of all locations considering the motion model of the device. Second, a Gaussian process, that analyzes statistical properties of location data to construct uncertainty. Then, a likelihood function, that fuses the two parts, as a basis for a Neyman-Pearson lemma (NPL)-based detection strategy. Our experimental evaluation shows a performance gain over the state-of-the-art, in terms of attack detection effectiveness.

5.Energy-Efficient Mining for Blockchain-Enabled IoT Applications. An Optimal Multiple-Stopping Time Approach

Authors:Anurag Gupta, Vikram Krishnamurthy

Abstract: What are the optimal times for an Internet of Things (IoT) device to act as a blockchain miner? The aim is to minimize the energy consumed by low-power IoT devices that log their data into a secure (tamper-proof) distributed ledger. We formulate the energy-efficient blockchain mining for IoT devices as a multiple-stopping time partially observed Markov decision process (POMDP) to maximize the probability of adding a block in the blockchain; we also present a model to optimize the number of stops (mining instants). In general, POMDPs are computationally intractable to solve, but we show mathematically using submodularity that the optimal mining policy has a useful structure: 1) it is monotone in belief space, and 2) it exhibits a threshold structure, which divides the belief space into two connected sets. Exploiting the structural results, we formulate a computationally-efficient linear mining policy for the blockchain-enabled IoT device. We present a policy gradient technique to optimize the parameters of the linear mining policy. Finally, we use synthetic and real Bitcoin datasets to study the performance of our proposed mining policy. We demonstrate the energy efficiency achieved by the optimal linear mining policy in contrast to other heuristic strategies.

1.Location Privacy Threats and Protections in Future Vehicular Networks: A Comprehensive Review

Authors:Baihe Ma, Xu Wang, Xiaojie Lin, Yanna Jiang, Caijun Sun, Zhe Wang, Guangsheng Yu, Ying He, Wei Ni, Ren Ping Liu

Abstract: Location privacy is critical in vehicular networks, where drivers' trajectories and personal information can be exposed, allowing adversaries to launch data and physical attacks that threaten drivers' safety and personal security. This survey reviews comprehensively different localization techniques, including widely used ones like sensing infrastructure-based, optical vision-based, and cellular radio-based localization, and identifies inadequately addressed location privacy concerns. We classify Location Privacy Preserving Mechanisms (LPPMs) into user-side, server-side, and user-server-interface-based, and evaluate their effectiveness. Our analysis shows that the user-server-interface-based LPPMs have received insufficient attention in the literature, despite their paramount importance in vehicular networks. Further, we examine methods for balancing data utility and privacy protection for existing LPPMs in vehicular networks and highlight emerging challenges from future upper-layer location privacy attacks, wireless technologies, and network convergences. By providing insights into the relationship between localization techniques and location privacy, and evaluating the effectiveness of different LPPMs, this survey can help inform the development of future LPPMs in vehicular networks.

2.FedZKP: Federated Model Ownership Verification with Zero-knowledge Proof

Authors:Wenyuan Yang, Yuguo Yin, Gongxi Zhu, Hanlin Gu, Lixin Fan, Xiaochun Cao, Qiang Yang

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) allows multiple parties to cooperatively learn a federated model without sharing private data with each other. The need of protecting such federated models from being plagiarized or misused, therefore, motivates us to propose a provable secure model ownership verification scheme using zero-knowledge proof, named FedZKP. It is shown that the FedZKP scheme without disclosing credentials is guaranteed to defeat a variety of existing and potential attacks. Both theoretical analysis and empirical studies demonstrate the security of FedZKP in the sense that the probability for attackers to breach the proposed FedZKP is negligible. Moreover, extensive experimental results confirm the fidelity and robustness of our scheme.

3.Physical Layer Secret Key Generation with Kalman Filter Detrending

Authors:Miroslav Mitev, Arsenia Chorti, Gerhard Fettweis

Abstract: The massive deployment of low-end wireless Internet of things (IoT) devices opens the challenge of finding de-centralized and lightweight alternatives for secret key distribution. A possible solution, coming from the physical layer, is the secret key generation (SKG) from channel state information (CSI) during the channel's coherence time. This work acknowledges the fact that the CSI consists of deterministic (predictable) and stochastic (unpredictable) components, loosely captured through the terms large-scale and small-scale fading, respectively. Hence, keys must be generated using only the random and unpredictable part. To detrend CSI measurements from deterministic components, a simple and lightweight approach based on Kalman filters is proposed and is evaluated using an implementation of the complete SKG protocol (including privacy amplification that is typically missing in many published works). In our study we use a massive multiple input multiple output (mMIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing outdoor measured CSI dataset. The threat model assumes a passive eavesdropper in the vicinity (at 1 meter distance or less) from one of the legitimate nodes and the Kalman filter is parameterized to maximize the achievable key rate.

4.Recovering the Block-wise Relationship in an Encryption-Then-Compression System

Authors:Chengqing Li, Sheng Liu

Abstract: Joint encryption and compression is an ideal solution for protecting security and privacy of image data in a real scenario, e.g. storing them on an existing cloud-based service like Facebook. Recently, some block-wise encryption-then-compression (ETC) schemes compatible with JPEG were proposed to provide a reasonably high level of security without compromising compression ratio much. This paper investigates recovering the block-wise relationship in an ETC scheme exerting on single-color blocks of size $8\times 8$ in the scenarios of ciphertext-only attack, known-plaintext attack and chosen-plaintext attack. Then, the attacking targets are extended to the other conventional ETC schemes exerting on multiple color channels and blocks of various sizes. Especially, an elaborate jigsaw puzzle solver is designed to recover enough visual information from multiple cipher-images encrypted by the same secret key. Moreover, the nice attacking performance was verified over two social media platforms, Facebook and Weibo.

5.PBL: System for Creating and Maintaining Personal Blockchain Ledgers

Authors:Collin Connors, Dilip Sarkar

Abstract: Blockchain technology has experienced substantial growth in recent years, yet the diversity of blockchain applications has been limited. Blockchain provides many desirable features for applications, including being append-only, immutable, tamper-evident, tamper-resistant, and fault-tolerant; however, many applications that would benefit from these features cannot incorporate current blockchains. This work presents a novel architecture for creating and maintaining personal blockchain ledgers that address these concerns. Our system utilizes independent modular services, enabling individuals to securely store their data in a personal blockchain ledger. Unlike traditional blockchain, which stores all transactions of multiple users, our novel personal blockchains are designed to allow individuals to maintain their privacy without requiring extensive technical expertise. Using rigorous mathematical methods, we prove that our system produces append-only, immutable, tamper-evident, tamper-resistant ledgers. Our system addresses use cases not addressed by traditional blockchain development platforms. Our system creates a new blockchain paradigm, enabling more individuals and applications to leverage blockchain technology for their needs.

6.If it's Provably Secure, It Probably Isn't: Why Learning from Proof Failure is Hard

Authors:Ross Anderson, Nicholas Boucher

Abstract: In this paper we're going to explore the ways in which security proofs can fail, and their broader lessons for security engineering. To mention just one example, Larry Paulson proved the security of SSL/TLS using his theorem prover Isabelle in 1999, yet it's sprung multiple leaks since then, from timing attacks to Heartbleed. We will go through a number of other examples in the hope of elucidating general principles. Proofs can be irrelevant, they can be opaque, they can be misleading and they can even be wrong. So we can look to the philosophy of mathematics for illumination. But the problem is more general. What happens, for example, when we have a choice between relying on mathematics and on physics? The security proofs claimed for quantum cryptosystems based on entanglement raise some pointed questions and may engage the philosophy of physics. And then there's the other varieties of assurance; we will recall the reliance placed on FIPS-140 evaluations, which API attacks suggested may have been overblown. Where the defenders focus their assurance effort on a subsystem or a model that cannot capture the whole attack surface they may just tell the attacker where to focus their effort. However, we think it's deeper and broader than that. The models of proof and assurance on which we try to rely have a social aspect, which we can try to understand from other perspectives ranging from the philosophy or sociology of science to the psychology of shared attention. These perspectives suggest, in various ways, how the management of errors and exceptions may be particularly poor. They do not merely relate to failure modes that the designers failed to consider properly or at all; they also relate to failure modes that the designers (or perhaps the verifiers) did not want to consider for institutional and cultural reasons.

1.Detecting GNSS misbehavior leveraging secure heterogeneous time sources

Authors:Marco Spanghero, Panos Papadimitratos

Abstract: Civilian Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) vulnerabilities are a threat to a wide gamut of critical systems. GNSS receivers, as part of the encompassing platform, can leverage external information to detect GNSS attacks. Specifically, cross-checking the time produced by the GNSS receiver against multiple trusted time sources can provide robust and assured PNT. In this work, we explore the combination of secure remote, network-based time providers and local precision oscillators. This multi-layered defense mechanism detects GNSS attacks that induce even small time offsets, including attacks mounted in cold start. Our system does not require any modification to the current structure of the GNSS receiver, it is agnostic to the satellite constellation and the attacker type. This makes time-based data validation of GNSS information compatible with existing receivers and readily deployable.

2.Hardware Honeypot: Setting Sequential Reverse Engineering on a Wrong Track

Authors:Michaela Brunner, Hye Hyun Lee, Alexander Hepp, Johanna Baehr, Georg Sigl

Abstract: Reverse engineering of finite state machines is a serious threat when protecting designs against reverse engineering attacks. While most recent protection techniques rely on the security of a secret key, this work presents a new approach: hardware state machine honeypots. These honeypots lead the reverse engineering tools to a wrong, but for the tools highly attractive state machine, while the original state machine is made less attractive. The results show that state-of-the-art reverse engineering methods favor the highly attractive honeypot as state machine candidate or do no longer detect the correct, original state machine.

1.Madvex: Instrumentation-based Adversarial Attacks on Machine Learning Malware Detection

Authors:Nils Loose, Felix Mächtle, Claudius Pott, Volodymyr Bezsmertnyi, Thomas Eisenbarth

Abstract: WebAssembly (Wasm) is a low-level binary format for web applications, which has found widespread adoption due to its improved performance and compatibility with existing software. However, the popularity of Wasm has also led to its exploitation for malicious purposes, such as cryptojacking, where malicious actors use a victim's computing resources to mine cryptocurrencies without their consent. To counteract this threat, machine learning-based detection methods aiming to identify cryptojacking activities within Wasm code have emerged. It is well-known that neural networks are susceptible to adversarial attacks, where inputs to a classifier are perturbed with minimal changes that result in a crass misclassification. While applying changes in image classification is easy, manipulating binaries in an automated fashion to evade malware classification without changing functionality is non-trivial. In this work, we propose a new approach to include adversarial examples in the code section of binaries via instrumentation. The introduced gadgets allow for the inclusion of arbitrary bytes, enabling efficient adversarial attacks that reliably bypass state-of-the-art machine learning classifiers such as the CNN-based Minos recently proposed at NDSS 2021. We analyze the cost and reliability of instrumentation-based adversarial example generation and show that the approach works reliably at minimal size and performance overheads.

2.Enhancing IoT Security and Privacy with Trusted Execution Environments and Machine Learning

Authors:Peterson Yuhala

Abstract: With the increasing popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, security concerns have become a major challenge: confidential information is constantly being transmitted (sometimes inadvertently) from user devices to untrusted cloud services. This work proposes a design to enhance security and privacy in IoT based systems by isolating hardware peripheral drivers in a trusted execution environment (TEE), and leveraging secure machine learning classification techniques to filter out sensitive data, e.g., speech, images, etc. from the associated peripheral devices before it makes its way to an untrusted party in the cloud.

3.Uncertainty Aware Deep Learning Model for Secure and Trustworthy Channel Estimation in 5G Networks

Authors:Ferhat Ozgur Catak, Umit Cali, Murat Kuzlu, Salih Sarp

Abstract: With the rise of intelligent applications, such as self-driving cars and augmented reality, the security and reliability of wireless communication systems have become increasingly crucial. One of the most critical components of ensuring a high-quality experience is channel estimation, which is fundamental for efficient transmission and interference management in wireless networks. However, using deep neural networks (DNNs) in channel estimation raises security and trust concerns due to their complexity and the need for more transparency in decision-making. This paper proposes a Monte Carlo Dropout (MCDO)-based approach for secure and trustworthy channel estimation in 5G networks. Our approach combines the advantages of traditional and deep learning techniques by incorporating conventional pilot-based channel estimation as a prior in the deep learning model. Additionally, we use MCDO to obtain uncertainty-aware predictions, enhancing the model's security and trustworthiness. Our experiments demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms traditional and deep learning-based approaches regarding security, trustworthiness, and performance in 5G scenarios.

4.ItoV: Efficiently Adapting Deep Learning-based Image Watermarking to Video Watermarking

Authors:Guanhui Ye, Jiashi Gao, Yuchen Wang, Liyan Song, Xuetao Wei

Abstract: Robust watermarking tries to conceal information within a cover image/video imperceptibly that is resistant to various distortions. Recently, deep learning-based approaches for image watermarking have made significant advancements in robustness and invisibility. However, few studies focused on video watermarking using deep neural networks due to the high complexity and computational costs. Our paper aims to answer this research question: Can well-designed deep learning-based image watermarking be efficiently adapted to video watermarking? Our answer is positive. First, we revisit the workflow of deep learning-based watermarking methods that leads to a critical insight: temporal information in the video may be essential for general computer vision tasks but not for specific video watermarking. Inspired by this insight, we propose a method named ItoV for efficiently adapting deep learning-based Image watermarking to Video watermarking. Specifically, ItoV merges the temporal dimension of the video with the channel dimension to enable deep neural networks to treat videos as images. We further explore the effects of different convolutional blocks in video watermarking. We find that spatial convolution is the primary influential component in video watermarking and depthwise convolutions significantly reduce computational cost with negligible impact on performance. In addition, we propose a new frame loss to constrain that the watermark intensity in each video clip frame is consistent, significantly improving the invisibility. Extensive experiments show the superior performance of the adapted video watermarking method compared with the state-of-the-art methods on Kinetics-600 and Inter4K datasets, which demonstrate the efficacy of our method ItoV.

5.Faulting original McEliece's implementations is possible: How to mitigate this risk?

Authors:Vincent Giraud, Guillaume Bouffard

Abstract: Private and public actors increasingly encounter use cases where they need to implement sensitive operations on mass-market peripherals for which they have little or no control. They are sometimes inclined to attempt this without using hardware-assisted equipment, such as secure elements. In this case, the white-box attack model is particularly relevant and includes access to every asset, retro-engineering, and binary instrumentation by attackers. At the same time, quantum attacks are becoming more and more of a threat and challenge traditional asymmetrical ciphers, which are treasured by private and public actors. The McEliece cryptosystem is a code-based public key algorithm introduced in 1978 that is not subject to well-known quantum attacks and that could be implemented in an uncontrolled environment. During the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process, a derived candidate commonly refer to as classic McEliece was selected. This algorithm is however vulnerable to some fault injection attacks while a priori, this does not apply to the original McEliece. In this article, we thus focus on the original McEliece cryptosystem and we study its resilience against fault injection attacks on an ARM reference implementation. We disclose the first fault injection based attack and we discuss on how to modify the original McEliece cryptosystem to make it resilient to fault injection attacks.

1.Data Privacy with Homomorphic Encryption in Neural Networks Training and Inference

Authors:Ivone Amorim, Eva Maia, Pedro Barbosa, Isabel Praça

Abstract: The use of Neural Networks (NNs) for sensitive data processing is becoming increasingly popular, raising concerns about data privacy and security. Homomorphic Encryption (HE) has the potential to be used as a solution to preserve data privacy in NN. This study provides a comprehensive analysis on the use of HE for NN training and classification, focusing on the techniques and strategies used to enhance data privacy and security. The current state-of-the-art in HE for NNs is analysed, and the challenges and limitations that need to be addressed to make it a reliable and efficient approach for privacy preservation are identified. Also, the different categories of HE schemes and their suitability for NNs are discussed, as well as the techniques used to optimize the accuracy and efficiency of encrypted models. The review reveals that HE has the potential to provide strong data privacy guarantees for NNs, but several challenges need to be addressed, such as limited support for advanced NN operations, scalability issues, and performance trade-offs.

2.The offline digital currency puzzle solved by a local blockchain

Authors:Henrique de Carvalho Videira

Abstract: A major drawback in deploying central bank digital currencies (CDBC) is the offline puzzle, which requires that a CBDC must keep the provision given by cash, and, simultaneously, avoid double-spending, counterfeiting, and other issues. The puzzle is solved by minting the coins in serials, which are stored on a local blockchain (e.g. smartphone). The local blockchain is secured by keys embedded in the hardware and can be continuously mined by the wallet to enhance security. The coins can be either minted as hot coins, which can be retrieved in case of loss, or minted as cold coins, like physical cash.

1.CNS-Net: Conservative Novelty Synthesizing Network for Malware Recognition in an Open-set Scenario

Authors:Jingcai Guo, Song Guo, Shiheng Ma, Yuxia Sun, Yuanyuan Xu

Abstract: We study the challenging task of malware recognition on both known and novel unknown malware families, called malware open-set recognition (MOSR). Previous works usually assume the malware families are known to the classifier in a close-set scenario, i.e., testing families are the subset or at most identical to training families. However, novel unknown malware families frequently emerge in real-world applications, and as such, require to recognize malware instances in an open-set scenario, i.e., some unknown families are also included in the test-set, which has been rarely and non-thoroughly investigated in the cyber-security domain. One practical solution for MOSR may consider jointly classifying known and detecting unknown malware families by a single classifier (e.g., neural network) from the variance of the predicted probability distribution on known families. However, conventional well-trained classifiers usually tend to obtain overly high recognition probabilities in the outputs, especially when the instance feature distributions are similar to each other, e.g., unknown v.s. known malware families, and thus dramatically degrades the recognition on novel unknown malware families. In this paper, we propose a novel model that can conservatively synthesize malware instances to mimic unknown malware families and support a more robust training of the classifier. Moreover, we also build a new large-scale malware dataset, named MAL-100, to fill the gap of lacking large open-set malware benchmark dataset. Experimental results on two widely used malware datasets and our MAL-100 demonstrate the effectiveness of our model compared with other representative methods.

2.MDENet: Multi-modal Dual-embedding Networks for Malware Open-set Recognition

Authors:Jingcai Guo, Yuanyuan Xu, Wenchao Xu, Yufeng Zhan, Yuxia Sun, Song Guo

Abstract: Malware open-set recognition (MOSR) aims at jointly classifying malware samples from known families and detect the ones from novel unknown families, respectively. Existing works mostly rely on a well-trained classifier considering the predicted probabilities of each known family with a threshold-based detection to achieve the MOSR. However, our observation reveals that the feature distributions of malware samples are extremely similar to each other even between known and unknown families. Thus the obtained classifier may produce overly high probabilities of testing unknown samples toward known families and degrade the model performance. In this paper, we propose the Multi-modal Dual-Embedding Networks, dubbed MDENet, to take advantage of comprehensive malware features (i.e., malware images and malware sentences) from different modalities to enhance the diversity of malware feature space, which is more representative and discriminative for down-stream recognition. Last, to further guarantee the open-set recognition, we dually embed the fused multi-modal representation into one primary space and an associated sub-space, i.e., discriminative and exclusive spaces, with contrastive sampling and rho-bounded enclosing sphere regularizations, which resort to classification and detection, respectively. Moreover, we also enrich our previously proposed large-scaled malware dataset MAL-100 with multi-modal characteristics and contribute an improved version dubbed MAL-100+. Experimental results on the widely used malware dataset Mailing and the proposed MAL-100+ demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

3.Block Design-Based Local Differential Privacy Mechanisms

Authors:Hyun-Young Park, Seung-Hyun Nam, Si-Hyeon Lee

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new class of local differential privacy (LDP) schemes based on combinatorial block designs for a discrete distribution estimation. This class not only recovers many known LDP schemes in a unified framework of combinatorial block design, but also suggests a novel way of finding new schemes achieving the optimal (or near-optimal) privacy-utility trade-off with lower communication costs. Indeed, we find many new LDP schemes that achieve both the optimal privacy-utility trade-off and the minimum communication cost among all the unbiased schemes for a certain set of input data size and LDP constraint. Furthermore, to partially solve the sparse existence issue of block design schemes, we consider a broader class of LDP schemes based on regular and pairwise-balanced designs, called RPBD schemes, which relax one of the symmetry requirements on block designs. By considering this broader class of RPBD schemes, we can find LDP schemes achieving near-optimal privacy-utility trade-off with reasonably low communication costs for a much larger set of input data size and LDP constraint.

4.DABS: Data-Agnostic Backdoor attack at the Server in Federated Learning

Authors:Wenqiang Sun, Sen Li, Yuchang Sun, Jun Zhang

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) attempts to train a global model by aggregating local models from distributed devices under the coordination of a central server. However, the existence of a large number of heterogeneous devices makes FL vulnerable to various attacks, especially the stealthy backdoor attack. Backdoor attack aims to trick a neural network to misclassify data to a target label by injecting specific triggers while keeping correct predictions on original training data. Existing works focus on client-side attacks which try to poison the global model by modifying the local datasets. In this work, we propose a new attack model for FL, namely Data-Agnostic Backdoor attack at the Server (DABS), where the server directly modifies the global model to backdoor an FL system. Extensive simulation results show that this attack scheme achieves a higher attack success rate compared with baseline methods while maintaining normal accuracy on the clean data.

5.An extension of Overbeck's attack with an application to cryptanalysis of Twisted Gabidulin-based schemes

Authors:Alain Couvreur, Ilaria Zappatore

Abstract: In the present article, we discuss the decoding of Gabidulin and related codes from a cryptographic perspective and we observe that these codes can be decoded with the single knowledge of a generator matrix. Then, we extend and revisit Gibson's and Overbeck's attacks on the generalised GPT encryption scheme (instantiated with Gabidulin codes) for various ranks of the distortion matrix and apply our attack to the case of an instantiation with twisted Gabidulin codes.

6.Towards a better labeling process for network security datasets

Authors:Sebastian Garcia, Veronica Valeros

Abstract: Most network security datasets do not have comprehensive label assignment criteria, hindering the evaluation of the datasets, the training of models, the results obtained, the comparison with other methods, and the evaluation in real-life scenarios. There is no labeling ontology nor tools to help assign the labels, resulting in most analyzed datasets assigning labels in files or directory names. This paper addresses the problem of having a better labeling process by (i) reviewing the needs of stakeholders of the datasets, from creators to model users, (ii) presenting a new ontology of label assignment, (iii) presenting a new tool for assigning structured labels for Zeek network flows based on the ontology, and (iv) studying the differences between generating labels and consuming labels in real-life scenarios. We conclude that a process for structured label assignment is paramount for advancing research in network security and that the new ontology-based label assignation rules should be published as an artifact of every dataset.

7.Attacker Profiling Through Analysis of Attack Patterns in Geographically Distributed Honeypots

Authors:Veronica Valeros, Maria Rigaki, Sebastian Garcia

Abstract: Honeypots are a well-known and widely used technology in the cybersecurity community, where it is assumed that placing honeypots in different geographical locations provides better visibility and increases effectiveness. However, how geolocation affects the usefulness of honeypots is not well-studied, especially for threat intelligence as early warning systems. This paper examines attack patterns in a large public dataset of geographically distributed honeypots by answering methodological questions and creating behavioural profiles of attackers. Results show that the location of honeypots helps identify attack patterns and build profiles for the attackers. We conclude that not all the intelligence collected from geographically distributed honeypots is equally valuable and that a good early warning system against resourceful attackers may be built with only two distributed honeypots and a production server.

8.SoK: Log Based Transparency Enhancing Technologies

Authors:Alexander Hicks

Abstract: This paper systematizes log based Transparency Enhancing Technologies. Based on established work on transparency from multiple disciplines we outline the purpose, usefulness, and pitfalls of transparency. We outline the mechanisms that allow log based transparency enhancing technologies to be implemented, in particular logging mechanisms, sanitisation mechanisms and the trade-offs with privacy, data release and query mechanisms, and how transparency relates to the external mechanisms that can provide the ability to contest a system and hold system operators accountable. We illustrate the role these mechanisms play with two case studies, Certificate Transparency and cryptocurrencies, and show the role that transparency plays in their function as well as the issues these systems face in delivering transparency.

1.slytHErin: An Agile Framework for Encrypted Deep Neural Network Inference

Authors:Francesco Intoci, Sinem Sav, Apostolos Pyrgelis, Jean-Philippe Bossuat, Juan Ramon Troncoso-Pastoriza, Jean-Pierre Hubaux

Abstract: Homomorphic encryption (HE), which allows computations on encrypted data, is an enabling technology for confidential cloud computing. One notable example is privacy-preserving Prediction-as-a-Service (PaaS), where machine-learning predictions are computed on encrypted data. However, developing HE-based solutions for encrypted PaaS is a tedious task which requires a careful design that predominantly depends on the deployment scenario and on leveraging the characteristics of modern HE schemes. Prior works on privacy-preserving PaaS focus solely on protecting the confidentiality of the client data uploaded to a remote model provider, e.g., a cloud offering a prediction API, and assume (or take advantage of the fact) that the model is held in plaintext. Furthermore, their aim is to either minimize the latency of the service by processing one sample at a time, or to maximize the number of samples processed per second, while processing a fixed (large) number of samples. In this work, we present slytHErin, an agile framework that enables privacy-preserving PaaS beyond the application scenarios considered in prior works. Thanks to its hybrid design leveraging HE and its multiparty variant (MHE), slytHErin enables novel PaaS scenarios by encrypting the data, the model or both. Moreover, slytHErin features a flexible input data packing approach that allows processing a batch of an arbitrary number of samples, and several computation optimizations that are model-and-setting-agnostic. slytHErin is implemented in Go and it allows end-users to perform encrypted PaaS on custom deep learning models comprising fully-connected, convolutional, and pooling layers, in a few lines of code and without having to worry about the cumbersome implementation and optimization concerns inherent to HE.

2.SGX Switchless Calls Made Configless

Authors:Peterson Yuhala, Michael Paper, Timothée Zerbib, Pascal Felber, Valerio Schiavoni, Alain Tchana

Abstract: Intel's software guard extensions (SGX) provide hardware enclaves to guarantee confidentiality and integrity for sensitive code and data. However, systems leveraging such security mechanisms must often pay high performance overheads. A major source of this overhead is SGX enclave transitions which induce expensive cross-enclave context switches. The Intel SGX SDK mitigates this with a switchless call mechanism for transitionless cross-enclave calls using worker threads. Intel's SGX switchless call implementation improves performance but provides limited flexibility: developers need to statically fix the system configuration at build time, which is error-prone and misconfigurations lead to performance degradations and waste of CPU resources. ZC-SWITCHLESS is a configless and efficient technique to drive the execution of SGX switchless calls. Its dynamic approach optimises the total switchless worker threads at runtime to minimise CPU waste. The experimental evaluation shows that ZC-SWITCHLESS obviates the performance penalty of misconfigured switchless systems while minimising CPU waste.

3.Montsalvat: Intel SGX Shielding for GraalVM Native Images

Authors:Peterson Yuhala, Jämes Ménétrey, Pascal Felber, Valerio Schiavoni, Alain Tchana, Gaël Thomas, Hugo Guiroux, Jean-Pierre Lozi

Abstract: The popularity of the Java programming language has led to its wide adoption in cloud computing infrastructures. However, Java applications running in untrusted clouds are vulnerable to various forms of privileged attacks. The emergence of trusted execution environments (TEEs) such as Intel SGX mitigates this problem. TEEs protect code and data in secure enclaves inaccessible to untrusted software, including the kernel and hypervisors. To efficiently use TEEs, developers must manually partition their applications into trusted and untrusted parts, in order to reduce the size of the trusted computing base (TCB) and minimise the risks of security vulnerabilities. However, partitioning applications poses two important challenges: (i) ensuring efficient object communication between the partitioned components, and (ii) ensuring the consistency of garbage collection between the parts, especially with memory-managed languages such as Java. We present Montsalvat, a tool which provides a practical and intuitive annotation-based partitioning approach for Java applications destined for secure enclaves. Montsalvat provides an RMI-like mechanism to ensure inter-object communication, as well as consistent garbage collection across the partitioned components. We implement Montsalvat with GraalVM native-image, a tool for compiling Java applications ahead-of-time into standalone native executables that do not require a JVM at runtime. Our extensive evaluation with micro- and macro-benchmarks shows our partitioning approach to boost performance in real-world applications

4.No One Size (PPM) Fits All: Towards Privacy in Stream Processing Systems

Authors:Mikhail Fomichev, Manisha Luthra, Maik Benndorf, Pratyush Agnihotri

Abstract: Stream processing systems (SPSs) have been designed to process data streams in real-time, allowing organizations to analyze and act upon data on-the-fly, as it is generated. However, handling sensitive or personal data in these multilayered SPSs that distribute resources across sensor, fog, and cloud layers raises privacy concerns, as the data may be subject to unauthorized access and attacks that can violate user privacy, hence facing regulations such as the GDPR across the SPS layers. To address these issues, different privacy-preserving mechanisms (PPMs) are proposed to protect user privacy in SPSs. However, selecting and applying such PPMs in SPSs is challenging, as they must operate in real-time while tolerating little overhead. The nature of multilayered SPSs complicates privacy protection, as each layer may face different privacy threats which must be addressed by specific PPMs. To overcome these challenges, we present Prinseps, a comprehensive privacy vision for SPSs. Towards this vision, we (1) identify critical privacy threats at different layers of a multilayered SPS, (2) evaluate the effectiveness of existing PPMs in tackling these threats, and (3) integrate privacy considerations into the decision-making processes of SPSs.

5.IoTFlowGenerator: Crafting Synthetic IoT Device Traffic Flows for Cyber Deception

Authors:Joseph Bao, Murat Kantarcioglu, Yevgeniy Vorobeychik, Charles Kamhoua

Abstract: Over the years, honeypots emerged as an important security tool to understand attacker intent and deceive attackers to spend time and resources. Recently, honeypots are being deployed for Internet of things (IoT) devices to lure attackers, and learn their behavior. However, most of the existing IoT honeypots, even the high interaction ones, are easily detected by an attacker who can observe honeypot traffic due to lack of real network traffic originating from the honeypot. This implies that, to build better honeypots and enhance cyber deception capabilities, IoT honeypots need to generate realistic network traffic flows. To achieve this goal, we propose a novel deep learning based approach for generating traffic flows that mimic real network traffic due to user and IoT device interactions. A key technical challenge that our approach overcomes is scarcity of device-specific IoT traffic data to effectively train a generator. We address this challenge by leveraging a core generative adversarial learning algorithm for sequences along with domain specific knowledge common to IoT devices. Through an extensive experimental evaluation with 18 IoT devices, we demonstrate that the proposed synthetic IoT traffic generation tool significantly outperforms state of the art sequence and packet generators in remaining indistinguishable from real traffic even to an adaptive attacker.

6.How effective is multifactor authentication at deterring cyberattacks?

Authors:Lucas Augusto Meyer, Sergio Romero, Gabriele Bertoli, Tom Burt, Alex Weinert, Juan Lavista Ferres

Abstract: This study investigates the effectiveness of multifactor authentication (MFA) in protecting commercial accounts from unauthorized access, with an additional focus on accounts with known credential leaks. We employ the benchmark-multiplier method, coupled with manual account review, to evaluate the security performance of various MFA methods in a large dataset of Microsoft Azure Active Directory users exhibiting suspicious activity. Our findings reveal that MFA implementation offers outstanding protection, with over 99.99% of MFA-enabled accounts remaining secure during the investigation period. Moreover, MFA reduces the risk of compromise by 99.22% across the entire population and by 98.56% in cases of leaked credentials. We further demonstrate that dedicated MFA applications, such as Microsoft Authenticator, outperform SMS-based authentication, though both methods provide significantly enhanced security compared to not using MFA. Based on these results, we strongly advocate for the default implementation of MFA in commercial accounts to increase security and mitigate unauthorized access risks.

1.Hybrid Key Authentication Scheme for Privacy over Adhoc Communication

Authors:B. Murugeshwari, R. Amirthavalli, C. Bharathi Sri, S. Neelavathy Pari

Abstract: Since communication signals are publicly exposed while they transmit across space, Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are where secured communication is most crucial. Unfortunately, these systems are more open to intrusions that range from passive listening to aggressive spying. A Hybrid Team centric Re-Key Control Framework (HT-RCF) suggests that this research examines private group communication in Adhoc environments. Each group selects a Group Manager to oversee the group's members choose the group manager, and the suggested HT-RCF uses the Improved Hybrid Power-Aware Decentralized (I-HPAD) mechanism. The Key Distribution Center (KDC) generates the keys and distributes them to the group managers (GMs) using the base algorithm Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). The key agreement technique is investigated for safe user-user communication. Threats that aim to exploit a node are recognized and stopped using regular transmissions. The rekeying procedure is started every time a node enters and exits the network. The research findings demonstrate that the suggested approach outperforms the currently used Cluster-based Group Key Management in terms of power use, privacy level, storage use, and processing time.

2.Trust Aware Privacy Preserving Routing Protocol for Wireless Adhoc Network

Authors:B. Murugeshwari, D. Saral Jeeva Jothi, B. Hemalatha, S. Neelavathy Pari

Abstract: Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks are especially helpful and quite well for essential circumstances such as defense, public safety, and disaster recovery. MANETs require communication privacy and security, notably in core routing protocols, when functioning in hostile or suspicious environments. The Trust Aware Privacy-Preserving Protocol (TAP3) is a mechanism for supporting the origin in proactively selecting a trust-able target and doing privacy-preserving route verification. We suggest TAP3 using the fellow recommendation model for MANETs in this work. Nodes use their features to discover their fellow node and use the trust to create strong connections with the random node via a multi-hop trusting chain by identifying the secure location. The verification duties are then spread among the nodes and validate the log updates without exposing the nodes' details. Unlike previous models that uncover node vulnerabilities or misconduct after an attack, TAP3 may guarantee the origin node to prevent data from being transferred through malicious nodes from the beginning and do verification without needing a third party. Our results show that this approach can locate problematic nodes with minimal overhead than the conventional routing protocol.

3.Effective Data Aggregation in WSN for Enhanced Security and Data Privacy

Authors:B. Murugeshwari, S. Aminta Sabatini, Lovelit Jose, S. Padmapriya

Abstract: The two biggest problems with wireless sensor networks are security and energy usage. In sensing devices, malicious nodes could be found in large numbers. The researchers have proposed several methods to find these rogue nodes. To prevent assaults on these networks and data transmission, the data must be secured. Data aggregation aids in reducing the number of messages transmitted within the network, which in turn lowers total network energy consumption. Additionally, when decrypting the aggregated data, the base station can distinguish between encrypted and consolidated analysis based on top of the cryptographic keys. By examining the effectiveness of the data aggregation in this research. To solve the above problem, the system provides a method in which an efficient cluster agent is preferred pedestal on its location at the access point and energy availability. The sensor network's energy consumption is reduced by selecting an effective cluster agent, extending the network's lifespan. The cluster's agent is in indict of compiling data for each member node. The clustering agent validates the data and tosses any errors before aggregation. The clustering agent only aggregates confirmed data. To provide end-to-end anonymity, ElGamal elliptic curve (ECE) encryption is used to secure the client data and reassign the encrypted information en route for the cluster agent. Only the base station (BS) can decrypt the data. Furthermore, an ID-based signature system is utilized to enable authenticity. This research presents a technique for recuperating lost data. The access point employs a cache-based backup system to search for lost data.

4.faulTPM: Exposing AMD fTPMs' Deepest Secrets

Authors:Hans Niklas Jacob, Christian Werling, Robert Buhren, Jean-Pierre Seifert

Abstract: Trusted Platform Modules constitute an integral building block of modern security features. Moreover, as Windows 11 made a TPM 2.0 mandatory, they are subject to an ever-increasing academic challenge. While discrete TPMs - as found in higher-end systems - have been susceptible to attacks on their exposed communication interface, more common firmware TPMs (fTPMs) are immune to this attack vector as they do not communicate with the CPU via an exposed bus. In this paper, we analyze a new class of attacks against fTPMs: Attacking their Trusted Execution Environment can lead to a full TPM state compromise. We experimentally verify this attack by compromising the AMD Secure Processor, which constitutes the TEE for AMD's fTPMs. In contrast to previous dTPM sniffing attacks, this vulnerability exposes the complete internal TPM state of the fTPM. It allows us to extract any cryptographic material stored or sealed by the fTPM regardless of authentication mechanisms such as Platform Configuration Register validation or passphrases with anti-hammering protection. First, we demonstrate the impact of our findings by - to the best of our knowledge - enabling the first attack against Full Disk Encryption solutions backed by an fTPM. Furthermore, we lay out how any application relying solely on the security properties of the TPM - like Bitlocker's TPM- only protector - can be defeated by an attacker with 2-3 hours of physical access to the target device. Lastly, we analyze the impact of our attack on FDE solutions protected by a TPM and PIN strategy. While a naive implementation also leaves the disk completely unprotected, we find that BitLocker's FDE implementation withholds some protection depending on the complexity of the used PIN. Our results show that when an fTPM's internal state is compromised, a TPM and PIN strategy for FDE is less secure than TPM-less protection with a reasonable passphrase.

5.Zero Trust Chain A Design Pattern for Improved Interoperability and Security in Polkadot

Authors:Santiago Márquez Solís

Abstract: This research article presents various design patterns for improving interoperability in Polkadot, a blockchain platform. These patterns include chain bridges, interoperability standards, common asset identifiers, governance agreements, oracle chains, and a hypothetical design pattern called Zero Trust Chain. Implementation of these design patterns can help improve security and confidence in transactions between different chains on the Polkadot network, allowing for faster and more efficient communication. The article also emphasizes the importance of interoperability in blockchain technology and highlights Polkadot's flexibility in creating customized specialized chains that can further improve interoperability on the network. Overall, this article highlights how design patterns can improve interoperability in Polkadot, which could lead to greater adoption of blockchain technology in various industries.

6.FlowTransformer: A Transformer Framework for Flow-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

Authors:Liam Daly Manocchio, Siamak Layeghy, Wai Weng Lo, Gayan K. Kulatilleke, Mohanad Sarhan, Marius Portmann

Abstract: This paper presents the FlowTransformer framework, a novel approach for implementing transformer-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs). FlowTransformer leverages the strengths of transformer models in identifying the long-term behaviour and characteristics of networks, which are often overlooked by most existing NIDSs. By capturing these complex patterns in network traffic, FlowTransformer offers a flexible and efficient tool for researchers and practitioners in the cybersecurity community who are seeking to implement NIDSs using transformer-based models. FlowTransformer allows the direct substitution of various transformer components, including the input encoding, transformer, classification head, and the evaluation of these across any flow-based network dataset. To demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the FlowTransformer framework, we utilise it to provide an extensive evaluation of various common transformer architectures, such as GPT 2.0 and BERT, on three commonly used public NIDS benchmark datasets. We provide results for accuracy, model size and speed. A key finding of our evaluation is that the choice of classification head has the most significant impact on the model performance. Surprisingly, Global Average Pooling, which is commonly used in text classification, performs very poorly in the context of NIDS. In addition, we show that model size can be reduced by over 50\%, and inference and training times improved, with no loss of accuracy, by making specific choices of input encoding and classification head instead of other commonly used alternatives.

7.Account Verification on Social Media: User Perceptions and Paid Enrollment

Authors:Madelyne Xiao, Mona Wang, Anunay Kulshrestha, Jonathan Mayer

Abstract: We study the gap between user perceptions of social media verification indicators and their actual meaning, and the type of behavior that emerges when such a gap is present. We use recent changes to Twitter's verification process as a unique case study wherein the meaning of a verification indicator has rapidly shifted. The study consists of a U.S. demographically-representative survey of 300 respondents and quantitative and qualitative analyses of results, and an analysis of verified Twitter accounts sampled from a large-scale dataset of 15 million Tweets collected in October 2022. The survey addresses differences in user-perceived and actual requirements for verification marks on popular social media platforms, with a focus on evolving perceptions of verification marks on Twitter. We find that more than half of survey respondents misunderstood Twitter's criteria for assigning blue verification check marks to user accounts; more than 80% of survey respondents did not understand what differentiated blue check marks from gold and grey check marks. We also note interesting correlations between respondent age and perception of verification marks. From our qualitative analysis of verified user accounts, we find that cryptocurrency promotion accounts constitute significantly more Blue subscribers than our randomly sampled control dataset, indicating that a significant number of Blue users may be leveraging the confusion between legacy and Blue verification to promote their own commodities. Finally, we provide recommendations for improving verification indicators and processes on social media.

8.QR-SACP: Quantitative Risk-based Situational Awareness Calculation and Projection through Threat Information Sharing

Authors:Mahdieh Safarzadehvahed, Farzaneh Abazari, Afsaneh Madani, Fatemeh Shabani

Abstract: When a threat is observed, one of the most important challenges is to choose the most appropriate and adequate timely decisions in response to the current and near future situation in order to have the least consequences and costs. Making the appropriate and sufficient decisions requires knowing what situations the threat has engendered or may engender. In this paper, we propose a quantitative risk-based method called QR-SACP to calculate and project situational awareness in a network based on threat information sharing. In this method, we investigate a threat from different aspects and evaluate the threat's effects through dependency weight among a network's services. We calculate the definite effect of a threat on a service and the cascading propagation of the threat's definite effect on other dependent services to that service. In addition, we project the probability of a threat propagation or recurrence of the threat in other network services in three ways: procedurally, network connections and similar infrastructure or services. Experimental results demonstrate that the QR-SACP method can calculate and project definite and probable threats' effects across the entire network and reveal more details about the threat's current and near future situations.

9.A Systematization of Cybersecurity Regulations, Standards and Guidelines for the Healthcare Sector

Authors:Maria Patrizia Carello, Alberto Marchetti Spaccamela, Leonardo Querzoni, Marco Angelini

Abstract: The growing adoption of IT solutions in the healthcare sector is leading to a steady increase in the number of cybersecurity incidents. As a result, organizations worldwide have introduced regulations, standards, and best practices to address cybersecurity and data protection issues in this sector. However, the application of this large corpus of documents presents operational difficulties, and operators continue to lag behind in resilience to cyber attacks. This paper contributes a systematization of the significant cybersecurity documents relevant to the healthcare sector. We collected the 49 most significant documents and used the NIST cybersecurity framework to categorize key information and support the implementation of cybersecurity measures.

1.You Can't Always Check What You Wanted: Selective Checking and Trusted Execution to Prevent False Actuations in Cyber-Physical Systems

Authors:Monowar Hasan, Sibin Mohan

Abstract: Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are vulnerable to attacks targeting outgoing actuation commands that modify their physical behaviors. The limited resources in such systems, coupled with their stringent timing constraints, often prevents the checking of every outgoing command. We present a "selective checking" mechanism that uses game-theoretic modeling to identify the right subset of commands to be checked in order to deter an adversary. This mechanism is coupled with a "delay-aware" trusted execution environment (TEE) to ensure that only verified actuation commands are ever sent to the physical system, thus maintaining their safety and integrity. The selective checking and trusted execution (SCATE) framework is implemented on an off-the-shelf ARM platform running standard embedded Linux. We demonstrate the effectiveness of SCATE using four realistic cyber-physical systems (a ground rover, a flight controller, a robotic arm and an automated syringe pump) and study design trade-offs. Not only does SCATE provide a high level of security and high performance, it also suffers from significantly lower overheads (30.48%-47.32% less) in the process. In fact, SCATE can work with more systems without negatively affecting the safety of the system. Considering that most CPS do not have any such checking mechanisms, and SCATE is guaranteed to meet all the timing requirements (i.e., ensure the safety/integrity of the system), our methods can significantly improve the security (and, hence, safety) of the system.

2.Boosting Big Brother: Attacking Search Engines with Encodings

Authors:Nicholas Boucher, Luca Pajola, Ilia Shumailov, Ross Anderson, Mauro Conti

Abstract: Search engines are vulnerable to attacks against indexing and searching via text encoding manipulation. By imperceptibly perturbing text using uncommon encoded representations, adversaries can control results across search engines for specific search queries. We demonstrate that this attack is successful against two major commercial search engines - Google and Bing - and one open source search engine - Elasticsearch. We further demonstrate that this attack is successful against LLM chat search including Bing's GPT-4 chatbot and Google's Bard chatbot. We also present a variant of the attack targeting text summarization and plagiarism detection models, two ML tasks closely tied to search. We provide a set of defenses against these techniques and warn that adversaries can leverage these attacks to launch disinformation campaigns against unsuspecting users, motivating the need for search engine maintainers to patch deployed systems.

3.Holo-Block Chain: A Hybrid Approach for Secured IoT Healthcare Ecosystem

Authors:Asad Aftab, Chrysostomos Chrysostomou, Hassaan Khaliq Qureshi, Semeen Rehman

Abstract: The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is an imminent and corporal technology that enables the connectivity of smart physical devices with virtual objects contriving in distinct platforms with the help of the internet. The IoT is under massive experimentation to operate in a distributed manner, making it favourable to be utilized in the healthcare ecosystem. However, un- der the IoT healthcare ecosystem (IoT-HS), the nodes of the IoT networks are unveiled to an aberrant level of security threats. Regulating an adequate volume of sensitive and personal data, IoT-HS undergoes various security challenges for which a distributed mechanism to address such concerns plays a vital role. Although Blockchain, having a distributed ledger, is integral to solving security concerns in IoT-HSs, it undergoes major problems, including massive storage and computational requirements. Also, Holochain, which has low computational and memory requirements, lacks authentication distribution availability. Therefore, this paper proposes a hybrid Holochain and Blockchain-based privacy perseverance and security framework for IoT-HSs that combines the benefits Holochain and Blockchain provide, overcoming the computational, memory, and authentication challenges. This framework is more suited for IoT scenarios where resource needs to be optimally utilized. Comprehensive security and performance analysis is conducted to demonstrate the suitability and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid security approach for IoT-HSs in contrast to the Blockchain-only or Holochain-only based approaches.

1.SMPC-based Federated Learning for 6G enabled Internet of Medical Things

Authors:Aditya Pribadi Kalapaaking, Veronika Stephanie, Ibrahim Khalil, Mohammed Atiquzzaman, Xun Yi, Mahathir Almashor

Abstract: Rapidly developing intelligent healthcare systems are underpinned by Sixth Generation (6G) connectivity, ubiquitous Internet of Things (IoT), and Deep Learning (DL) techniques. This portends a future where 6G powers the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) with seamless, large-scale, and real-time connectivity amongst entities. This article proposes a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based Federated Learning framework that combines Secure Multi-Party Computation (SMPC) based aggregation and Encrypted Inference methods, all within the context of 6G and IoMT. We consider multiple hospitals with clusters of mixed IoMT and edge devices that encrypt locally trained models. Subsequently, each hospital sends the encrypted local models for SMPC-based encrypted aggregation in the cloud, which generates the encrypted global model. Ultimately, the encrypted global model is returned to each edge server for more localized training, further improving model accuracy. Moreover, hospitals can perform encrypted inference on their edge servers or the cloud while maintaining data and model privacy. Multiple experiments were conducted with varying CNN models and datasets to evaluate the proposed framework's performance.

2.Blockchain-based Federated Learning with SMPC Model Verification Against Poisoning Attack for Healthcare Systems

Authors:Aditya Pribadi Kalapaaking, Ibrahim Khalil, Xun Yi

Abstract: Due to the rising awareness of privacy and security in machine learning applications, federated learning (FL) has received widespread attention and applied to several areas, e.g., intelligence healthcare systems, IoT-based industries, and smart cities. FL enables clients to train a global model collaboratively without accessing their local training data. However, the current FL schemes are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. Its architecture makes detecting and defending against malicious model updates difficult. In addition, most recent studies to detect FL from malicious updates while maintaining the model's privacy have not been sufficiently explored. This paper proposed blockchain-based federated learning with SMPC model verification against poisoning attacks for healthcare systems. First, we check the machine learning model from the FL participants through an encrypted inference process and remove the compromised model. Once the participants' local models have been verified, the models are sent to the blockchain node to be securely aggregated. We conducted several experiments with different medical datasets to evaluate our proposed framework.

3.Blockchain-based Access Control for Secure Smart Industry Management Systems

Authors:Aditya Pribadi Kalapaaking, Ibrahim Khalil, Mohammad Saidur Rahman, Abdelaziz Bouras

Abstract: Smart manufacturing systems involve a large number of interconnected devices resulting in massive data generation. Cloud computing technology has recently gained increasing attention in smart manufacturing systems for facilitating cost-effective service provisioning and massive data management. In a cloud-based manufacturing system, ensuring authorized access to the data is crucial. A cloud platform is operated under a single authority. Hence, a cloud platform is prone to a single point of failure and vulnerable to adversaries. An internal or external adversary can easily modify users' access to allow unauthorized users to access the data. This paper proposes a role-based access control to prevent modification attacks by leveraging blockchain and smart contracts in a cloud-based smart manufacturing system. The role-based access control is developed to determine users' roles and rights in smart contracts. The smart contracts are then deployed to the private blockchain network. We evaluate our solution by utilizing Ethereum private blockchain network to deploy the smart contract. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and evaluation of the proposed framework's performance.

4.Secure Communication Model For Quantum Federated Learning: A Post Quantum Cryptography (PQC) Framework

Authors:Dev Gurung, Shiva Raj Pokhrel, Gang Li

Abstract: We design a model of Post Quantum Cryptography (PQC) Quantum Federated Learning (QFL). We develop a framework with a dynamic server selection and study convergence and security conditions. The implementation and results are publicly available1.

5.Thwarting Code-Reuse and Side-Channel Attacks in Embedded Systems

Authors:Rodothea Myrsini Tsoupidi, Elena Troubitsyna, Panagiotis Papadimitratos

Abstract: Nowadays, embedded devices are increasingly present in everyday life, often controlling and processing critical information. For this reason, these devices make use of cryptographic protocols. However, embedded devices are particularly vulnerable to attackers seeking to hijack their operation and extract sensitive information. Code-Reuse Attacks (CRAs) can steer the execution of a program to malicious outcomes, leveraging existing on-board code without direct access to the device memory. Moreover, Side-Channel Attacks (SCAs) may reveal secret information to the attacker based on mere observation of the device. In this paper, we are particularly concerned with thwarting CRAs and SCAs against embedded devices, while taking into account their resource limitations. Fine-grained code diversification can hinder CRAs by introducing uncertainty to the binary code; while software mechanisms can thwart timing or power SCAs. The resilience to either attack may come at the price of the overall efficiency. Moreover, a unified approach that preserves these mitigations against both CRAs and SCAs is not available. This is the main novelty of our approach, Secure Diversity by Construction (SecDivCon); a combinatorial compiler-based approach that combines software diversification against CRAs with software mitigations against SCAs. SecDivCon restricts the performance overhead in the generated code, offering a secure-by-design control on the performance-security trade-off. Our experiments show that SCA-aware diversification is effective against CRAs, while preserving SCA mitigation properties at a low, controllable overhead. Given the combinatorial nature of our approach, SecDivCon is suitable for small, performance-critical functions that are sensitive to SCAs. SecDivCon may be used as a building block to whole-program code diversification or in a re-randomization scheme of cryptographic code.

1.Differential Privacy via Distributionally Robust Optimization

Authors:Aras Selvi, Huikang Liu, Wolfram Wiesemann

Abstract: In recent years, differential privacy has emerged as the de facto standard for sharing statistics of datasets while limiting the disclosure of private information about the involved individuals. This is achieved by randomly perturbing the statistics to be published, which in turn leads to a privacy-accuracy trade-off: larger perturbations provide stronger privacy guarantees, but they result in less accurate statistics that offer lower utility to the recipients. Of particular interest are therefore optimal mechanisms that provide the highest accuracy for a pre-selected level of privacy. To date, work in this area has focused on specifying families of perturbations a priori and subsequently proving their asymptotic and/or best-in-class optimality. In this paper, we develop a class of mechanisms that enjoy non-asymptotic and unconditional optimality guarantees. To this end, we formulate the mechanism design problem as an infinite-dimensional distributionally robust optimization problem. We show that the problem affords a strong dual, and we exploit this duality to develop converging hierarchies of finite-dimensional upper and lower bounding problems. Our upper (primal) bounds correspond to implementable perturbations whose suboptimality can be bounded by our lower (dual) bounds. Both bounding problems can be solved within seconds via cutting plane techniques that exploit the inherent problem structure. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that our perturbations can outperform the previously best results from the literature on artificial as well as standard benchmark problems.

2.Docmarking: Real-Time Screen-Cam Robust Document Image Watermarking

Authors:Aleksey Yakushev, Yury Markin, Dmitry Obydenkov, Alexander Frolov, Stas Fomin, Manuk Akopyan, Alexander Kozachok, Arthur Gaynov

Abstract: This paper focuses on investigation of confidential documents leaks in the form of screen photographs. Proposed approach does not try to prevent leak in the first place but rather aims to determine source of the leak. Method works by applying on the screen a unique identifying watermark as semi-transparent image that is almost imperceptible for human eyes. Watermark image is static and stays on the screen all the time thus watermark present on every captured photograph of the screen. The key components of the approach are three neural networks. The first network generates an image with embedded message in a way that this image is almost invisible when displayed on the screen. The other two neural networks are used to retrieve embedded message with high accuracy. Developed method was comprehensively tested on different screen and cameras. Test results showed high efficiency of the proposed approach.

3.Blockchain Large Language Models

Authors:Yu Gai, Liyi Zhou, Kaihua Qin, Dawn Song, Arthur Gervais

Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic, real-time approach to detecting anomalous blockchain transactions. The proposed tool, TXRANK, generates tracing representations of blockchain activity and trains from scratch a large language model to act as a real-time Intrusion Detection System. Unlike traditional methods, TXRANK is designed to offer an unrestricted search space and does not rely on predefined rules or patterns, enabling it to detect a broader range of anomalies. We demonstrate the effectiveness of TXRANK through its use as an anomaly detection tool for Ethereum transactions. In our experiments, it effectively identifies abnormal transactions among a dataset of 68M transactions and has a batched throughput of 2284 transactions per second on average. Our results show that, TXRANK identifies abnormal transactions by ranking 49 out of 124 attacks among the top-3 most abnormal transactions interacting with their victim contracts. This work makes contributions to the field of blockchain transaction analysis by introducing a custom data encoding compatible with the transformer architecture, a domain-specific tokenization technique, and a tree encoding method specifically crafted for the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) trace representation.

4.Evaluation of Parameter-based Attacks against Embedded Neural Networks with Laser Injection

Authors:Mathieu Dumont, Kevin Hector, Pierre-Alain Moellic, Jean-Max Dutertre, Simon Pontié

Abstract: Upcoming certification actions related to the security of machine learning (ML) based systems raise major evaluation challenges that are amplified by the large-scale deployment of models in many hardware platforms. Until recently, most of research works focused on API-based attacks that consider a ML model as a pure algorithmic abstraction. However, new implementation-based threats have been revealed, emphasizing the urgency to propose both practical and simulation-based methods to properly evaluate the robustness of models. A major concern is parameter-based attacks (such as the Bit-Flip Attack, BFA) that highlight the lack of robustness of typical deep neural network models when confronted by accurate and optimal alterations of their internal parameters stored in memory. Setting in a security testing purpose, this work practically reports, for the first time, a successful variant of the BFA on a 32-bit Cortex-M microcontroller using laser fault injection. It is a standard fault injection means for security evaluation, that enables to inject spatially and temporally accurate faults. To avoid unrealistic brute-force strategies, we show how simulations help selecting the most sensitive set of bits from the parameters taking into account the laser fault model.

5.Blockchain-based Federated Learning with Secure Aggregation in Trusted Execution Environment for Internet-of-Things

Authors:Aditya Pribadi Kalapaaking, Ibrahim Khalil, Mohammad Saidur Rahman, Mohammed Atiquzzaman, Xun Yi, Mahathir Almashor

Abstract: This paper proposes a blockchain-based Federated Learning (FL) framework with Intel Software Guard Extension (SGX)-based Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) to securely aggregate local models in Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoTs). In FL, local models can be tampered with by attackers. Hence, a global model generated from the tampered local models can be erroneous. Therefore, the proposed framework leverages a blockchain network for secure model aggregation. Each blockchain node hosts an SGX-enabled processor that securely performs the FL-based aggregation tasks to generate a global model. Blockchain nodes can verify the authenticity of the aggregated model, run a blockchain consensus mechanism to ensure the integrity of the model, and add it to the distributed ledger for tamper-proof storage. Each cluster can obtain the aggregated model from the blockchain and verify its integrity before using it. We conducted several experiments with different CNN models and datasets to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework.

6.SPDH-Sign: towards Efficient, Post-quantum Group-based Signatures

Authors:Christopher Battarbee, Delaram Kahrobaei, Ludovic Perret, Siamak F. Shahandashti

Abstract: In this paper, we present a new diverse class of post-quantum group-based Digital Signature Schemes (DSS). The approach is significantly different from previous examples of group-based digital signatures and adopts the framework of group action-based cryptography: we show that each finite group defines a group action relative to the semidirect product of the group by its automorphism group, and give security bounds on the resulting signature scheme in terms of the group-theoretic computational problem known as the Semidirect Discrete Logarithm Problem (SDLP). Crucially, we make progress towards being able to efficiently compute the novel group action, and give an example of a parameterised family of groups for which the group action can be computed for any parameters, thereby negating the need for expensive offline computation or inclusion of redundancy required in other schemes of this type.

1.Safe and Secure Smart Home using Cisco Packet Tracer

Authors:Shivansh Walia, Tejas Iyer, Shubham Tripathi, Akshith Vanaparthy

Abstract: This project presents an implementation and designing of safe, secure and smart home with enhanced levels of security features which uses IoT-based technology. We got our motivation for this project after learning about movement of west towards smart homes and designs. This galvanized us to engage in this work as we wanted for homeowners to have a greater control over their in-house environment while also promising more safety and security features for the denizen. This contrivance of smart-home archetype has been intended to assimilate many kinds of sensors, boards along with advanced IoT devices and programming languages all of which in conjunction validate control and monitoring prowess over discrete electronic items present in home.

2.A Secure Third-Party Auditing Scheme Based on Blockchain Technology in Cloud Storage

Authors:S. M. Udhaya Sankar, D. Selvaraj, G. K. Monica, Jeevaa Katiravan

Abstract: With the help of a shared pool of reconfigurable computing resources, clients of the cloud-based model can keep sensitive data remotely and access the apps and services it offers on-demand without having to worry about maintaining and storing it locally. To protect the privacy of the public auditing system that supports the cloud data exchange system. The data's owner has the ability to change it using the private key and publishes it in the cloud. The RSA Technique is used to produce key codes for the cloud services atmosphere's privacy utilizing the system's baseboard number, disc number, and client passcode for validation. The method is based on a cutting-edge User End Generated (UEG) privacy technique that minimizes the involvement of a third party and improves security checks by automatically documenting destructive activities. To strengthen extensibility, various authorization-assigning modalities and block access patterns were established together with current operational design approaches. In order to meet the demands for decentralization, fine-grained auditability, extensibility, flexibility, and privacy protection for multilevel data access in networked environments, the suggested approach makes use of blockchain technology. According to a thorough performance and security assessment, the current proposal is exceptionally safe and effective.

3.Changes in Conducting Data Protection Risk Assessment and After GDPR implementation

Authors:Fatemeh Zarrabi, Isabel Wagner, Eerke Boiten

Abstract: Based on Article 35 of the EU (European Union) General Data Protection Regulation, a Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA) is necessary whenever there is a possibility of a high privacy and data protection risk to individuals caused by a new project under development. A similar process to DPIA had been previously known as Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA). We are investigating here to find out if GDPR and DPIA specifically as its privacy risk assessment tool have resolved the challenges privacy practitioners were previously facing in implementing PIA. To do so, our methodology is based on comparison and thematic analysis on two sets of focus groups we held with privacy professionals back in January 2018 (four months before GDPR came into effect) and then in November 2019 (18 months after GDPR implementation).

4.ThreatCrawl: A BERT-based Focused Crawler for the Cybersecurity Domain

Authors:Philipp Kuehn, Mike Schmidt, Christian Reuter

Abstract: Publicly available information contains valuable information for Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI). This can be used to prevent attacks that have already taken place on other systems. Ideally, only the initial attack succeeds and all subsequent ones are detected and stopped. But while there are different standards to exchange this information, a lot of it is shared in articles or blog posts in non-standardized ways. Manually scanning through multiple online portals and news pages to discover new threats and extracting them is a time-consuming task. To automize parts of this scanning process, multiple papers propose extractors that use Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) from documents. However, while this already solves the problem of extracting the information out of documents, the search for these documents is rarely considered. In this paper, a new focused crawler is proposed called ThreatCrawl, which uses Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT)-based models to classify documents and adapt its crawling path dynamically. While ThreatCrawl has difficulties to classify the specific type of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) named in texts, e.g., IOC content, it can successfully find relevant documents and modify its path accordingly. It yields harvest rates of up to 52%, which are, to the best of our knowledge, better than the current state of the art.

5.iTieProbe: Is Your IoT Setup Secure against (Modern) Evil Twin?

Authors:Anand Agrawal, Rajib Ranjan Maiti

Abstract: Evil twin attack on Wi-Fi network has been a challenging security problem and several solutions have been proposed to this problem. In general, evil twin attack aims to exfiltrate data, like Wi-Fi and service credentials, from the client devices and considered as a serious threat at MAC layer. IoT devices with its companion apps provides different pairing methods for provisioning. The "SmartConfig Mode", the one proposed by Texas Instrument (TI) and the "Access Point pairing mode (AP mode)" are the most common pairing modes provided by the application developer and vendor of the IoT devices. Especially, AP mode use Wi-Fi connectivity to setup IoT devices where a device activates an access point to which the mobile device running the corresponding mobile application is required to connect. In this paper, we have used evil twin attack as a weapon to test the security posture of IoT devices that use Wi-Fi network to set them up. We have designed, implemented and applied a system, called iTieProbe, that can be used in ethical hacking for discovering certain vulnerabilities during such setup. AP mode successfully completes when the mobile device is able to communicate with the IoT device via a home router over a Wi-Fi network. Our proposed system, iTieProbe, is capable of discovering several serious vulnerabilities in the commercial IoT devices that use AP mode or similar approach. We evaluated iTieProbe's efficacy on 9 IoT devices, like IoT cameras, smart plugs, Echo Dot and smart bulbs, and discovered that several of these IoT devices have certain serious threats, like leaking Wi-Fi credential of home router and creating fake IoT device, during the setup of the IoT devices.

6.Exploration and Exploitation of Hidden PMU Events

Authors:Yihao Yang, Pengfei Qiu, Chunlu Wang, Yu Jin, Dongsheng Wang, Gang Qu

Abstract: Performance Monitoring Unit (PMU) is a common hardware module in Intel CPUs. It can be used to record various CPU behaviors therefore it is often used for performance analysis and optimization. Of the 65536 event spaces, Intel has officially published only 200 or so. In this paper, we design a hidden PMU event collection method. And we found a large number of undocumented PMU events in CPUs of Skylake, Kabylake, and Alderlake microarchitectures. We further demonstrate the existence of these events by using them for transient execution attack detection and build-side channel attacks. This also implies that these hidden PMU events have huge exploitation potential and security threats.

7.SQLi Detection with ML: A data-source perspective

Authors:Balazs Pejo, Nikolett Kapui

Abstract: Almost 50 years after the invention of SQL, injection attacks are still top-tier vulnerabilities of today's ICT systems. Consequently, SQLi detection is still an active area of research, where the most recent works incorporate machine learning techniques into the proposed solutions. In this work, we highlight the shortcomings of the previous ML-based results focusing on four aspects: the evaluation methods, the optimization of the model parameters, the distribution of utilized datasets, and the feature selection. Since no single work explored all of these aspects satisfactorily, we fill this gap and provide an in-depth and comprehensive empirical analysis. Moreover, we cross-validate the trained models by using data from other distributions. This aspect of ML models (trained for SQLi detection) was never studied. Yet, the sensitivity of the model's performance to this is crucial for any real-life deployment. Finally, we validate our findings on a real-world industrial SQLi dataset.

1.Outsourced Analysis of Encrypted Graphs in the Cloud with Privacy Protection

Authors:D. Selvaraj, S. M. Udhaya Sankar, D. Dhinakaran, T. P. Anish

Abstract: Huge diagrams have unique properties for organizations and research, such as client linkages in informal organizations and customer evaluation lattices in social channels. They necessitate a lot of financial assets to maintain because they are large and frequently continue to expand. Owners of large diagrams may need to use cloud resources due to the extensive arrangement of open cloud resources to increase capacity and computation flexibility. However, the cloud's accountability and protection of schematics have become a significant issue. In this study, we consider calculations for security savings for essential graph examination practices: schematic extraterrestrial examination for outsourcing graphs in the cloud server. We create the security-protecting variants of the two proposed Eigen decay computations. They are using two cryptographic algorithms: additional substance homomorphic encryption (ASHE) strategies and some degree homomorphic encryption (SDHE) methods. Inadequate networks also feature a distinctively confidential info adaptation convention to allow the trade-off between secrecy and data sparseness. Both dense and sparse structures are investigated. According to test results, calculations with sparse encoding can drastically reduce information. SDHE-based strategies have reduced computing time, while ASHE-based methods have reduced stockpiling expenses.

2.Mining Privacy-Preserving Association Rules based on Parallel Processing in Cloud Computing

Authors:Dhinakaran D, Joe Prathap P. M, Selvaraj D, Arul Kumar D, Murugeshwari B

Abstract: With the onset of the Information Era and the rapid growth of information technology, ample space for processing and extracting data has opened up. However, privacy concerns may stifle expansion throughout this area. The challenge of reliable mining techniques when transactions disperse across sources is addressed in this study. This work looks at the prospect of creating a new set of three algorithms that can obtain maximum privacy, data utility, and time savings while doing so. This paper proposes a unique double encryption and Transaction Splitter approach to alter the database to optimize the data utility and confidentiality tradeoff in the preparation phase. This paper presents a customized apriori approach for the mining process, which does not examine the entire database to estimate the support for each attribute. Existing distributed data solutions have a high encryption complexity and an insufficient specification of many participants' properties. Proposed solutions provide increased privacy protection against a variety of attack models. Furthermore, in terms of communication cycles and processing complexity, it is much simpler and quicker. Proposed work tests on top of a realworld transaction database demonstrate that the aim of the proposed method is realistic.

3.Timing the Transient Execution: A New Side-Channel Attack on Intel CPUs

Authors:Yu Jin, Pengfei Qiu, Chunlu Wang, Yihao Yang, Dongsheng Wang, Gang Qu

Abstract: The transient execution attack is a type of attack leveraging the vulnerability of modern CPU optimization technologies. New attacks surface rapidly. The side-channel is a key part of transient execution attacks to leak data. In this work, we discover a vulnerability that the change of the EFLAGS register in transient execution may have a side effect on the Jcc (jump on condition code) instruction after it in Intel CPUs. Based on our discovery, we propose a new side-channel attack that leverages the timing of both transient execution and Jcc instructions to deliver data. This attack encodes secret data to the change of register which makes the execution time of context slightly slower, which can be measured by the attacker to decode data. This attack doesn't rely on the cache system and doesn't need to reset the EFLAGS register manually to its initial state before the attack, which may make it more difficult to detect or mitigate. We implemented this side-channel on machines with Intel Core i7-6700, i7-7700, and i9-10980XE CPUs. In the first two processors, we combined it as the side-channel of the Meltdown attack, which could achieve 100\% success leaking rate. We evaluate and discuss potential defenses against the attack. Our contributions include discovering security vulnerabilities in the implementation of Jcc instructions and EFLAGS register and proposing a new side-channel attack that does not rely on the cache system.

4.Launching a Robust Backdoor Attack under Capability Constrained Scenarios

Authors:Ming Yi, Yixiao Xu, Kangyi Ding, Mingyong Yin, Xiaolei Liu

Abstract: As deep neural networks continue to be used in critical domains, concerns over their security have emerged. Deep learning models are vulnerable to backdoor attacks due to the lack of transparency. A poisoned backdoor model may perform normally in routine environments, but exhibit malicious behavior when the input contains a trigger. Current research on backdoor attacks focuses on improving the stealthiness of triggers, and most approaches require strong attacker capabilities, such as knowledge of the model structure or control over the training process. These attacks are impractical since in most cases the attacker's capabilities are limited. Additionally, the issue of model robustness has not received adequate attention. For instance, model distillation is commonly used to streamline model size as the number of parameters grows exponentially, and most of previous backdoor attacks failed after model distillation; the image augmentation operations can destroy the trigger and thus disable the backdoor. This study explores the implementation of black-box backdoor attacks within capability constraints. An attacker can carry out such attacks by acting as either an image annotator or an image provider, without involvement in the training process or knowledge of the target model's structure. Through the design of a backdoor trigger, our attack remains effective after model distillation and image augmentation, making it more threatening and practical. Our experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves a high attack success rate in black-box scenarios and evades state-of-the-art backdoor defenses.

5.Decentralized Inverse Transparency With Blockchain

Authors:Valentin Zieglmeier, Gabriel Loyola Daiqui, Alexander Pretschner

Abstract: Employee data can be used to facilitate work, but their misusage may pose risks for individuals. Inverse transparency therefore aims to track all usages of personal data, allowing individuals to monitor them to ensure accountability for potential misusage. This necessitates a trusted log to establish an agreed-upon and non-repudiable timeline of events. The unique properties of blockchain facilitate this by providing immutability and availability. For power asymmetric environments such as the workplace, permissionless blockchain is especially beneficial as no trusted third party is required. Yet, two issues remain: (1) In a decentralized environment, no arbiter can facilitate and attest to data exchanges. Simple peer-to-peer sharing of data, conversely, lacks the required non-repudiation. (2) With data governed by privacy legislation such as the GDPR, the core advantage of immutability becomes a liability. After a rightful request, an individual's personal data need to be rectified or deleted, which is impossible in an immutable blockchain. To solve these issues, we present Kovacs, a decentralized data exchange and usage logging system for inverse transparency built on blockchain. Its new-usage protocol ensures non-repudiation, and therefore accountability, for inverse transparency. Its one-time pseudonym generation algorithm guarantees unlinkability and enables proof of ownership, which allows data subjects to exercise their legal rights regarding their personal data. With our implementation, we show the viability of our solution. The decentralized communication impacts performance and scalability, but exchange duration and storage size are still reasonable. More importantly, the provided information security meets high requirements. We conclude that Kovacs realizes decentralized inverse transparency through secure and GDPR-compliant use of permissionless blockchain.

6.Implementing and Evaluating Security in O-RAN: Interfaces, Intelligence, and Platforms

Authors:Joshua Groen, Salvatore DOro, Utku Demir, Leonardo Bonati, Michele Polese, Tommaso Melodia, Kaushik Chowdhury

Abstract: The Open Radio Access Network (RAN) is a networking paradigm that builds on top of cloud-based, multi-vendor, open and intelligent architectures to shape the next generation of cellular networks for 5G and beyond. While this new paradigm comes with many advantages in terms of observatibility and reconfigurability of the network, it inevitably expands the threat surface of cellular systems and can potentially expose its components to several cyber attacks, thus making securing O-RAN networks a necessity. In this paper, we explore the security aspects of O-RAN systems by focusing on the specifications and architectures proposed by the O-RAN Alliance. We address the problem of securing O-RAN systems with an holistic perspective, including considerations on the open interfaces used to interconnect the different O-RAN components, on the overall platform, and on the intelligence used to monitor and control the network. For each focus area we identify threats, discuss relevant solutions to address these issues, and demonstrate experimentally how such solutions can effectively defend O-RAN systems against selected cyber attacks. This article is the first work in approaching the security aspect of O-RAN holistically and with experimental evidence obtained on a state-of-the-art programmable O-RAN platform, thus providing unique guideline for researchers in the field.

1.Securing Semantic Communications with Physical-layer Semantic Encryption and Obfuscation

Authors:Qi Qin, Yankai Rong, Guoshun Nan, Shaokang Wu, Xuefei Zhang, Qimei Cui, Xiaofeng Tao

Abstract: Deep learning based semantic communication(DLSC) systems have shown great potential of making wireless networks significantly more efficient by only transmitting the semantics of the data. However, the open nature of wireless channel and fragileness of neural models cause DLSC systems extremely vulnerable to various attacks. Traditional wireless physical layer key (PLK), which relies on reciprocal channel and randomness characteristics between two legitimate users, holds the promise of securing DLSC. The main challenge lies in generating secret keys in the static environment with ultra-low/zero rate. Different from prior efforts that use relays or reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) to manipulate wireless channels, this paper proposes a novel physical layer semantic encryption scheme by exploring the randomness of bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) scores in the field of machine translation, and additionally presents a novel semantic obfuscation mechanism to provide further physical layer protections. Specifically, 1) we calculate the BLEU scores and corresponding weights of the DLSC system. Then, we generate semantic keys (SKey) by feeding the weighted sum of the scores into a hash function. 2) Equipped with the SKey, our proposed subcarrier obfuscation is able to further secure semantic communications with a dynamic dummy data insertion mechanism. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method, especially in the static wireless environment.

2.Cyber Security in Smart Manufacturing (Threats, Landscapes Challenges)

Authors:Rahat Masum

Abstract: Industry 4.0 is a blend of the hyper-connected digital industry within two world of Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT). With this amalgamate opportunity, smart manufacturing involves production assets with the manufacturing equipment having its own intelligence, while the system-wide intelligence is provided by the cyber layer. However Smart manufacturing now becomes one of the prime targets of cyber threats due to vulnerabilities in the existing process of operation. Since smart manufacturing covers a vast area of production industries from cyber physical system to additive manufacturing, to autonomous vehicles, to cloud based IIoT (Industrial IoT), to robotic production, cyber threat stands out with this regard questioning about how to connect manufacturing resources by network, how to integrate a whole process chain for a factory production etc. Cybersecurity confidentiality, integrity and availability expose their essential existence for the proper operational thread model known as digital thread ensuring secure manufacturing. In this work, a literature survey is presented from the existing threat models, attack vectors and future challenges over the digital thread of smart manufacturing.

3.BackCache: Mitigating Contention-Based Cache Timing Attacks by Hiding Cache Line Evictions

Authors:Quancheng Wang, Ming Tang, Han Wang, Yuzhe Gu

Abstract: Caches are used to reduce the speed differential between the CPU and memory to improve the performance of modern processors. However, attackers can use contention-based cache timing attacks to steal sensitive information from victim processes through carefully designed cache eviction sets. And L1 data cache attacks are widely exploited and pose a significant privacy and confidentiality threat. Existing hardware-based countermeasures mainly focus on cache partitioning, randomization, and cache line flushing, which unfortunately either incur high overhead or can be circumvented by sophisticated attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware-software co-design called BackCache with the idea of always achieving cache hits instead of cache misses to mitigate contention-based cache timing attacks on the L1 data cache. BackCache places the evicted cache lines from the L1 data cache into a fully-associative backup cache to hide the evictions. To improve the security of BackCache, we introduce a randomly used replacement policy (RURP) and a dynamic backup cache resizing mechanism. We also present a theoretical security analysis to demonstrate the effectiveness of BackCache. Our evaluation on the gem5 simulator shows that BackCache can degrade the performance by 1.33%, 7.34%, and 7.59% For OS kernel, single-thread, and multi-thread benchmarks.

4.Secret-Key-Agreement Advantage Distillation With Quantization Correction

Authors:Francesco Ardizzon, Francesco Giurisato, Stefano Tomasin

Abstract: We propose a novel advantage distillation strategy for physical layer-based secret-key-agreement (SKA). We consider a scenario where Alice and Bob aim at extracting a common bit sequence, which should remain secret to Eve, by quantizing a random number obtained from measurements at their communication channel. We propose an asymmetric advantage distillation protocol with two novel features: i) Alice quantizes her measurement and sends partial information on it over an authenticated public side channel, and ii) Bob quantizes his measurement by exploiting the partial information. The partial information on the position of the measurement in the quantization interval and its sharing allows Bob to obtain a quantized value closer to that of Alice. Both strategies increase the lower bound of the secret key rate.

5.ORIGAMI: A flexible state channels design for public blockchain systems

Authors:Lydia Negka, Angeliki Katsika, Georgios Spathoulas, Vassilis Plagianakos

Abstract: Public blockchain systems offer security guarantees that cannot be matched by any centralised system. This offering has attracted a lot of interest and has exposed a significant limitation of most blockchain designs with regards to scalability. One of the scaling solutions proposed is state channels which enables serving given applications with minimum number of transactions. Existing state channels designs set multiple compatibility requirements for applications to be deployed. Origami is a novel state channels design which removes most of the requirements of existing approaches, while it also offers a number of new features. Origami enables dynamic groups of users to interact in an unordered way completely off-chain after an initial on-boarding on-chain transaction. The proposed design is analysed in detail and compared to existing schemes, while a formal security analysis validates the security properties it offers.

1.A Protocol for Cast-as-Intended Verifiability with a Second Device

Authors:Johannes Müller, Tomasz Truderung

Abstract: Numerous institutions, such as companies, universities, or non-governmental organizations, employ Internet voting for remote elections. Since the main purpose of an election is to determine the voters' will, it is fundamentally important to ensure that the final election result correctly reflects the voters' votes. To this end, modern secure Internet voting schemes aim for what is called end-to-end verifiability. This fundamental security property ensures that the correctness of the final result can be verified, even if some of the computers or parties involved are malfunctioning or corrupted. A standard component in this approach is so called cast-as-intended verifiability which enables individual voters to verify that the ballots cast on their behalf contain their intended choices. Numerous approaches for cast-as-intended verifiability have been proposed in the literature, some of which have also been employed in real-life Internet elections. One of the well established approaches for cast-as-intended verifiability is to employ a second device which can be used by voters to audit their submitted ballots. This approach offers several advantages - including support for flexible ballot/election types and intuitive user experience - and it has been used in real-life elections, for instance in Estonia. In this work, we improve the existing solutions for cast-as-intended verifiability based on the use of a second device. We propose a solution which, while preserving the advantageous practical properties sketched above, provides tighter security guarantees. Our method does not increase the risk of vote-selling when compared to the underlying voting protocol being augmented and, to achieve this, it requires only comparatively weak trust assumptions. It can be combined with various voting protocols, including commitment-based systems offering everlasting privacy.

2.Secure Mobile Payment Architecture Enabling Multi-factor Authentication

Authors:Hosam Alamleh, Ali Abdullah S. AlQahtani, Baker Al Smadi

Abstract: The rise of smartphones has led to a significant increase in the usage of mobile payments. Mobile payments allow individuals to access financial resources and make transactions through their mobile devices while on the go. However, the current mobile payment systems were designed to align with traditional payment structures, which limits the full potential of smartphones, including their security features. This has become a major concern in the rapidly growing mobile payment market. To address these security concerns,in this paper we propose new mobile payment architecture. This architecture leverages the advanced capabilities of modern smartphones to verify various aspects of a payment, such as funds, biometrics, location, and others. The proposed system aims to guarantee the legitimacy of transactions and protect against identity theft by verifying multiple elements of a payment. The security of mobile payment systems is crucial, given the rapid growth of the market. Evaluating mobile payment systems based on their authentication, encryption, and fraud detection capabilities is of utmost importance. The proposed architecture provides a secure mobile payment solution that enhances the overall payment experience by taking advantage of the advanced capabilities of modern smartphones. This will not only improve the security of mobile payments but also offer a more user-friendly payment experience for consumers.

3.Security and Privacy Problems in Voice Assistant Applications: A Survey

Authors:Jingjin Li, Chao chen, Lei Pan, Mostafa Rahimi Azghadi, Hossein Ghodosi, Jun Zhang

Abstract: Voice assistant applications have become omniscient nowadays. Two models that provide the two most important functions for real-life applications (i.e., Google Home, Amazon Alexa, Siri, etc.) are Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) models and Speaker Identification (SI) models. According to recent studies, security and privacy threats have also emerged with the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT). The security issues researched include attack techniques toward machine learning models and other hardware components widely used in voice assistant applications. The privacy issues include technical-wise information stealing and policy-wise privacy breaches. The voice assistant application takes a steadily growing market share every year, but their privacy and security issues never stopped causing huge economic losses and endangering users' personal sensitive information. Thus, it is important to have a comprehensive survey to outline the categorization of the current research regarding the security and privacy problems of voice assistant applications. This paper concludes and assesses five kinds of security attacks and three types of privacy threats in the papers published in the top-tier conferences of cyber security and voice domain.

4.Neural Network Quantisation for Faster Homomorphic Encryption

Authors:Wouter Legiest, Jan-Pieter D'Anvers, Furkan Turan, Michiel Van Beirendonck, Ingrid Verbauwhede

Abstract: Homomorphic encryption (HE) enables calculating on encrypted data, which makes it possible to perform privacypreserving neural network inference. One disadvantage of this technique is that it is several orders of magnitudes slower than calculation on unencrypted data. Neural networks are commonly trained using floating-point, while most homomorphic encryption libraries calculate on integers, thus requiring a quantisation of the neural network. A straightforward approach would be to quantise to large integer sizes (e.g. 32 bit) to avoid large quantisation errors. In this work, we reduce the integer sizes of the networks, using quantisation-aware training, to allow more efficient computations. For the targeted MNIST architecture proposed by Badawi et al., we reduce the integer sizes by 33% without significant loss of accuracy, while for the CIFAR architecture, we can reduce the integer sizes by 43%. Implementing the resulting networks under the BFV homomorphic encryption scheme using SEAL, we could reduce the execution time of an MNIST neural network by 80% and by 40% for a CIFAR neural network.

5.Maybenot: A Framework for Traffic Analysis Defenses

Authors:Tobias Pulls

Abstract: End-to-end encryption is a powerful tool for protecting the privacy of Internet users. Together with the increasing use of technologies such as Tor, VPNs, and encrypted messaging, it is becoming increasingly difficult for network adversaries to monitor and censor Internet traffic. One remaining avenue for adversaries is traffic analysis: the analysis of patterns in encrypted traffic to infer information about the users and their activities. Recent improvements using deep learning have made traffic analysis attacks more effective than ever before. We present Maybenot, a framework for traffic analysis defenses. Maybenot is designed to be easy to use and integrate into existing end-to-end encrypted protocols. It is implemented in the Rust programming language as a crate (library), together with a simulator to further the development of defenses. Defenses in Maybenot are expressed as probabilistic state machines that schedule actions to inject padding or block outgoing traffic. Maybenot is an evolution from the Tor Circuit Padding Framework by Perry and Kadianakis, designed to support a wide range of protocols and use cases.

6.5G-SRNG: 5G Spectrogram-based Random Number Generation for Devices with Low Entropy Sources

Authors:Ferhat Ozgur Catak, Evren Catak, Ogerta Elezaj

Abstract: Random number generation (RNG) is a crucial element in security protocols, and its performance and reliability are critical for the safety and integrity of digital systems. This is especially true in 5G networks with many devices with low entropy sources. This paper proposes 5G-SRNG, an end-to-end random number generation solution for devices with low entropy sources in 5G networks. Compared to traditional RNG methods, the 5G-SRNG relies on hardware or software random number generators, using 5G spectral information, such as from spectrum-sensing or a spectrum-aware feedback mechanism, as a source of entropy. The proposed algorithm is experimentally verified, and its performance is analysed by simulating a realistic 5G network environment. Results show that 5G-SRNG outperforms existing RNG in all aspects, including randomness, partial correlation and power, making it suitable for 5G network deployments.

7.Visualising Personal Data Flows: Insights from a Case Study of

Authors:Haiyue Yuan, Matthew Boakes, Xiao Ma, Dongmei Cao, Shujun Li

Abstract: Commercial organisations are holding and processing an ever-increasing amount of personal data. Policies and laws are continually changing to require these companies to be more transparent regarding collection, storage, processing and sharing of this data. This paper reports our work of taking as a case study to visualise personal data flows extracted from their privacy policy. By showcasing how the company shares its consumers' personal data, we raise questions and extend discussions on the challenges and limitations of using privacy policy to inform customers the true scale and landscape of personal data flows. More importantly, this case study can inform us about future research on more data flow-oriented privacy policy analysis and on the construction of a more comprehensive ontology on personal data flows in complicated business ecosystems.

8.How Secure is Code Generated by ChatGPT?

Authors:Raphaël Khoury, Anderson R. Avila, Jacob Brunelle, Baba Mamadou Camara

Abstract: In recent years, large language models have been responsible for great advances in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). ChatGPT in particular, an AI chatbot developed and recently released by OpenAI, has taken the field to the next level. The conversational model is able not only to process human-like text, but also to translate natural language into code. However, the safety of programs generated by ChatGPT should not be overlooked. In this paper, we perform an experiment to address this issue. Specifically, we ask ChatGPT to generate a number of program and evaluate the security of the resulting source code. We further investigate whether ChatGPT can be prodded to improve the security by appropriate prompts, and discuss the ethical aspects of using AI to generate code. Results suggest that ChatGPT is aware of potential vulnerabilities, but nonetheless often generates source code that are not robust to certain attacks.

1.Masked Language Model Based Textual Adversarial Example Detection

Authors:Xiaomei Zhang, Zhaoxi Zhang, Qi Zhong, Xufei Zheng, Yanjun Zhang, Shengshan Hu, Leo Yu Zhang

Abstract: Adversarial attacks are a serious threat to the reliable deployment of machine learning models in safety-critical applications. They can misguide current models to predict incorrectly by slightly modifying the inputs. Recently, substantial work has shown that adversarial examples tend to deviate from the underlying data manifold of normal examples, whereas pre-trained masked language models can fit the manifold of normal NLP data. To explore how to use the masked language model in adversarial detection, we propose a novel textual adversarial example detection method, namely Masked Language Model-based Detection (MLMD), which can produce clearly distinguishable signals between normal examples and adversarial examples by exploring the changes in manifolds induced by the masked language model. MLMD features a plug and play usage (i.e., no need to retrain the victim model) for adversarial defense and it is agnostic to classification tasks, victim model's architectures, and to-be-defended attack methods. We evaluate MLMD on various benchmark textual datasets, widely studied machine learning models, and state-of-the-art (SOTA) adversarial attacks (in total $3*4*4 = 48$ settings). Experimental results show that MLMD can achieve strong performance, with detection accuracy up to 0.984, 0.967, and 0.901 on AG-NEWS, IMDB, and SST-2 datasets, respectively. Additionally, MLMD is superior, or at least comparable to, the SOTA detection defenses in detection accuracy and F1 score. Among many defenses based on the off-manifold assumption of adversarial examples, this work offers a new angle for capturing the manifold change. The code for this work is openly accessible at \url{}.

2.Towards the Transferable Audio Adversarial Attack via Ensemble Methods

Authors:Feng Guo, Zheng Sun, Yuxuan Chen, Lei Ju

Abstract: In recent years, deep learning (DL) models have achieved significant progress in many domains, such as autonomous driving, facial recognition, and speech recognition. However, the vulnerability of deep learning models to adversarial attacks has raised serious concerns in the community because of their insufficient robustness and generalization. Also, transferable attacks have become a prominent method for black-box attacks. In this work, we explore the potential factors that impact adversarial examples (AEs) transferability in DL-based speech recognition. We also discuss the vulnerability of different DL systems and the irregular nature of decision boundaries. Our results show a remarkable difference in the transferability of AEs between speech and images, with the data relevance being low in images but opposite in speech recognition. Motivated by dropout-based ensemble approaches, we propose random gradient ensembles and dynamic gradient-weighted ensembles, and we evaluate the impact of ensembles on the transferability of AEs. The results show that the AEs created by both approaches are valid for transfer to the black box API.

3.In ChatGPT We Trust? Measuring and Characterizing the Reliability of ChatGPT

Authors:Xinyue Shen, Zeyuan Chen, Michael Backes, Yang Zhang

Abstract: The way users acquire information is undergoing a paradigm shift with the advent of ChatGPT. Unlike conventional search engines, ChatGPT retrieves knowledge from the model itself and generates answers for users. ChatGPT's impressive question-answering (QA) capability has attracted more than 100 million users within a short period of time but has also raised concerns regarding its reliability. In this paper, we perform the first large-scale measurement of ChatGPT's reliability in the generic QA scenario with a carefully curated set of 5,695 questions across ten datasets and eight domains. We find that ChatGPT's reliability varies across different domains, especially underperforming in law and science questions. We also demonstrate that system roles, originally designed by OpenAI to allow users to steer ChatGPT's behavior, can impact ChatGPT's reliability. We further show that ChatGPT is vulnerable to adversarial examples, and even a single character change can negatively affect its reliability in certain cases. We believe that our study provides valuable insights into ChatGPT's reliability and underscores the need for strengthening the reliability and security of large language models (LLMs).

1.Energy Attacks in the Battery-less Internet of Things

Authors:Luca Mottola, Arslan Hameed, Thiemo Voigt

Abstract: We study how ambient energy harvesting may be used as an attack vector in the battery-less Internet of Things (IoT). Battery-less IoT devices are employed in a multitude of application scenarios, including safety-critical ones such as biomedical implants and space systems, while relying on ambient energy harvesting to power their operation. Due to extreme scarcity of energy intakes and limited energy buffers, their executions become intermittent, alternating periods of active operation with periods of recharging their energy buffer while the device is off. We demonstrate that by exerting a limited control on the ambient supply of energy to the system, one can create situations of livelock, denial of service, and priority inversion, without requiring physical access to a device. Using machine learning and concepts of approximate computing, we design a technique that can detect energy attacks with 92%+ accuracy, corresponding to a 73+% improvement in accuracy over the baselines we consider, and run on extremely resource-constrained devices by imposing a limited overhead.

2.Evil from Within: Machine Learning Backdoors through Hardware Trojans

Authors:Alexander Warnecke, Julian Speith, Jan-Niklas Möller, Konrad Rieck, Christof Paar

Abstract: Backdoors pose a serious threat to machine learning, as they can compromise the integrity of security-critical systems, such as self-driving cars. While different defenses have been proposed to address this threat, they all rely on the assumption that the hardware on which the learning models are executed during inference is trusted. In this paper, we challenge this assumption and introduce a backdoor attack that completely resides within a common hardware accelerator for machine learning. Outside of the accelerator, neither the learning model nor the software is manipulated, so that current defenses fail. To make this attack practical, we overcome two challenges: First, as memory on a hardware accelerator is severely limited, we introduce the concept of a minimal backdoor that deviates as little as possible from the original model and is activated by replacing a few model parameters only. Second, we develop a configurable hardware trojan that can be provisioned with the backdoor and performs a replacement only when the specific target model is processed. We demonstrate the practical feasibility of our attack by implanting our hardware trojan into the Xilinx Vitis AI DPU, a commercial machine-learning accelerator. We configure the trojan with a minimal backdoor for a traffic-sign recognition system. The backdoor replaces only 30 (0.069%) model parameters, yet it reliably manipulates the recognition once the input contains a backdoor trigger. Our attack expands the hardware circuit of the accelerator by 0.24% and induces no run-time overhead, rendering a detection hardly possible. Given the complex and highly distributed manufacturing process of current hardware, our work points to a new threat in machine learning that is inaccessible to current security mechanisms and calls for hardware to be manufactured only in fully trusted environments.

3.Security and Privacy Issues for Urban Smart Traffic Infrastructure

Authors:Anubhab Baksi, Ahmed Ibrahim Samir Khalil, Anupam Chattopadhyay

Abstract: In recent times, the research works relating to smart traffic infrastructure have gained serious attention. As a result, research has been carried out in multiple directions to ensure that such infrastructure can improve upon our existing (mostly) human-controlled traffic infrastructure, without violating the safety margins. For this reason, cyber security issues of such infrastructure are of paramount interest. Keeping this in mind, we conduct a review of existing models, their vulnerabilities and how such vulnerabilities can be handled. Our work covers a vast area from the domain of security, starting from the theoretical notions of cryptography to the real-life adaptation of them. At the same time, we also consider the security issues that may arise due to the usage of artificial intelligence/machine learning in the infrastructure. We believe that our work will help future researchers to gain a comprehensive yet concise look at cyber security for smart traffic infrastructure.

1.Challenges towards the Next Frontier in Privacy

Authors:Rachel Cummings, Damien Desfontaines, David Evans, Roxana Geambasu, Matthew Jagielski, Yangsibo Huang, Peter Kairouz, Gautam Kamath, Sewoong Oh, Olga Ohrimenko, Nicolas Papernot, Ryan Rogers, Milan Shen, Shuang Song, Weijie Su, Andreas Terzis, Abhradeep Thakurta, Sergei Vassilvitskii, Yu-Xiang Wang, Li Xiong, Sergey Yekhanin, Da Yu, Huanyu Zhang, Wanrong Zhang

Abstract: In July 2022, we organized a workshop (with the title Differential privacy (DP): Challenges towards the next frontier) with experts from industry, academia, and the public sector to seek answers to broad questions pertaining to privacy and its implications in the design of industry-grade systems. This document is the only public summary of the conversations from the workshop. There are two potential purposes of this document, which we envision: i) it serves as a standing reference for algorithmic/design decisions that are taken in the space of privacy, and ii) it provides guidance on future research directions. The document covers a broad array of topics, from infrastructure needs for designing private systems, to achieving better privacy/utility trade-offs, to conveying privacy guarantees to a broad audience. Finally, the document also looks at attacking and auditing these systems.

2.Delay Impact on Stubborn Mining Attack Severity in Imperfect Bitcoin Network

Authors:Haoran Zhu, Xiaolin Chang, Jelena Mišić, Vojislav B. Mišić

Abstract: Stubborn mining attack greatly downgrades Bitcoin throughput and also benefits malicious miners (attackers). This paper aims to quantify the impact of block receiving delay on stubborn mining attack severity in imperfect Bitcoin networks. We develop an analytic model and derive formulas of both relative revenue and system throughput, which are applied to study attack severity. Experiment results validate our analysis method and show that imperfect networks favor attackers. The quantitative analysis offers useful insight into stubborn mining attack and then helps the development of countermeasures.

3.No Easy Way Out: The Effectiveness of Deplatforming an Extremist Forum to Suppress Hate and Harassment

Authors:Anh V. Vu, Alice Hutchings, Ross Anderson

Abstract: Legislators and policymakers worldwide are debating options for suppressing illegal, harmful and undesirable material online. Drawing on several quantitative datasets, we show that deplatforming an active community to suppress online hate and harassment, even with a substantial collective effort involving several tech firms, can be hard. Our case study is the disruption of the largest and longest-running harassment forum Kiwi Farms in late 2022, which is probably the most extensive industry effort to date. We collected complete snapshots of this site and its primary competitor Lolcow Farm, encompassing over 14.7M posts during their lifespan over the past decade. These data are supplemented with a full scrape of the Telegram channel used to disseminate new updates when the forum was down, tweets made by the online community leading the takedown, and search interest and web traffic to the forum spanning two months before and four months after the event. Despite the active participation of several tech firms over a few months, this campaign failed to shut down the forum and remove its objectionable content. While briefly raising public awareness, it led to rapid platform displacement and traffic fragmentation. Part of the activity decamped to Telegram, while traffic shifted from the primary domain to previously abandoned alternatives. The community leading the campaign lost interest quickly, traffic was directed back to the main domain, users quickly returned, and the forum was back online and became even more connected. The net effect was that forum activity, active users, threads, posts and traffic were all cut by about half. Deplatforming a dispersed community using a series of court orders against individual service providers appears unlikely to be very effective if the censor cannot incapacitate the key maintainers, whether by arresting them, enjoining them or otherwise deterring them.

4.Publicly Verifiable Deletion from Minimal Assumptions

Authors:Fuyuki Kitagawa, Ryo Nishimaki, Takashi Yamakawa

Abstract: We present a general compiler to add the publicly verifiable deletion property for various cryptographic primitives including public key encryption, attribute-based encryption, and quantum fully homomorphic encryption. Our compiler only uses one-way functions, or more generally hard quantum planted problems for NP, which are implied by one-way functions. It relies on minimal assumptions and enables us to add the publicly verifiable deletion property with no additional assumption for the above primitives. Previously, such a compiler needs additional assumptions such as injective trapdoor one-way functions or pseudorandom group actions [Bartusek-Khurana-Poremba, ePrint:2023/370]. Technically, we upgrade an existing compiler for privately verifiable deletion [Bartusek-Khurana, ePrint:2022/1178] to achieve publicly verifiable deletion by using digital signatures.

5.Obfuscation of Discrete Data

Authors:Saswata Naha, Sayantan Roy, Arkaprava Sanki, Diptanil Santra

Abstract: Data obfuscation deals with the problem of masking a data-set in such a way that the utility of the data is maximized while minimizing the risk of the disclosure of sensitive information. To protect data we address some ways that may as well retain its statistical uses to some extent. One such way is to mask a data with additive noise and revert to certain desired parameters of the original distribution from the knowledge of the noise distribution and masked data. In this project, we discuss the estimation of any desired quantile and range of a quantitative data set masked with additive noise.

6.Pool Inference Attacks on Local Differential Privacy: Quantifying the Privacy Guarantees of Apple's Count Mean Sketch in Practice

Authors:Andrea Gadotti, Florimond Houssiau, Meenatchi Sundaram Muthu Selva Annamalai, Yves-Alexandre de Montjoye

Abstract: Behavioral data generated by users' devices, ranging from emoji use to pages visited, are collected at scale to improve apps and services. These data, however, contain fine-grained records and can reveal sensitive information about individual users. Local differential privacy has been used by companies as a solution to collect data from users while preserving privacy. We here first introduce pool inference attacks, where an adversary has access to a user's obfuscated data, defines pools of objects, and exploits the user's polarized behavior in multiple data collections to infer the user's preferred pool. Second, we instantiate this attack against Count Mean Sketch, a local differential privacy mechanism proposed by Apple and deployed in iOS and Mac OS devices, using a Bayesian model. Using Apple's parameters for the privacy loss $\varepsilon$, we then consider two specific attacks: one in the emojis setting -- where an adversary aims at inferring a user's preferred skin tone for emojis -- and one against visited websites -- where an adversary wants to learn the political orientation of a user from the news websites they visit. In both cases, we show the attack to be much more effective than a random guess when the adversary collects enough data. We find that users with high polarization and relevant interest are significantly more vulnerable, and we show that our attack is well-calibrated, allowing the adversary to target such vulnerable users. We finally validate our results for the emojis setting using user data from Twitter. Taken together, our results show that pool inference attacks are a concern for data protected by local differential privacy mechanisms with a large $\varepsilon$, emphasizing the need for additional technical safeguards and the need for more research on how to apply local differential privacy for multiple collections.

7.Hybrid DLT as a data layer for real-time, data-intensive applications

Authors:Andrea Canciani, Claudio Felicioli, Andrea Lisi, Fabio Severino

Abstract: We propose a new approach, termed Hybrid DLT, to address a broad range of industrial use cases where certain properties of both private and public DLTs are valuable, while other properties may be unnecessary or detrimental. The Hybrid DLT approach involves a system where private ledgers, with limited data block dissemination, are collaboratively created by nodes within a private network. The Notary, a publicly auditable authoritative component, maintains a single, official, coherent history for each private ledger without requiring access to data blocks. This is achieved by leveraging a public DLT solution to render the ledger histories tamper-proof, consequently providing tamper-evidence for ledger data disclosed to external actors. We present Traent Hybrid Blockchain, a commercial implementation of the Hybrid DLT approach: a real-time, data-intensive collaboration system for organizations seeking immutable data while also needing to comply with the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

8.Fuzzing the Latest NTFS in Linux with Papora: An Empirical Study

Authors:Edward Lo, Ningyu He, Yuejie Shi, Jiajia Xu, Chiachih Wu, Ding Li, Yao Guo

Abstract: Recently, the first feature-rich NTFS implementation, NTFS3, has been upstreamed to Linux. Although ensuring the security of NTFS3 is essential for the future of Linux, it remains unclear, however, whether the most recent version of NTFS for Linux contains 0-day vulnerabilities. To this end, we implemented Papora, the first effective fuzzer for NTFS3. We have identified and reported 3 CVE-assigned 0-day vulnerabilities and 9 severe bugs in NTFS3. Furthermore, we have investigated the underlying causes as well as types of these vulnerabilities and bugs. We have conducted an empirical study on the identified bugs while the results of our study have offered practical insights regarding the security of NTFS3 in Linux.

9.Separating Key Agreement and Computational Differential Privacy

Authors:Eldon Chung, Vipul Arora, Thomas Tan, Zeyong Li

Abstract: Two party differential privacy allows two parties who do not trust each other, to come together and perform a joint analysis on their data whilst maintaining individual-level privacy. We show that any efficient, computationally differentially private protocol that has black-box access to key agreement (and nothing stronger), is also an efficient, information-theoretically differentially private protocol. In other words, the existence of efficient key agreement protocols is insufficient for efficient, computationally differentially private protocols. In doing so, we make progress in answering an open question posed by Vadhan about the minimal computational assumption needed for computational differential privacy. Combined with the information-theoretic lower bound due to McGregor, Mironov, Pitassi, Reingold, Talwar, and Vadhan in [FOCS'10], we show that there is no fully black-box reduction from efficient, computationally differentially private protocols for computing the Hamming distance (or equivalently inner product over the integers) on $n$ bits, with additive error lower than $O\left(\frac{\sqrt{n}}{e^{\epsilon}\log(n)}\right)$, to key agreement. This complements the result by Haitner, Mazor, Silbak, and Tsfadia in [STOC'22], which showed that computing the Hamming distance implies key agreement. We conclude that key agreement is \emph{strictly} weaker than computational differential privacy for computing the inner product, thereby answering their open question on whether key agreement is sufficient.

1.Majority is not Needed: A Counterstrategy to Selfish Mining

Authors:Jonathan Gal, Maytal B Szabo

Abstract: In the last few years several papers investigated selfish mine attacks, most of which assumed that every miner that is not part of the selfish mine pool will continue to mine honestly. However, in reality, remaining honest is not always incentivized, particularly when another pool is employing selfish mining or other deviant strategies. In this work we explore the scenario in which a large enough pool capitalises on another selfish pool to gain 100\% of the profit and commit double spending attacks. We show that this counterstrategy can effectively counter any deviant strategy, and that even the possibility of it discourages other pools from implementing deviant strategies.

2.EF/CF: High Performance Smart Contract Fuzzing for Exploit Generation

Authors:Michael Rodler, David Paaßen, Wenting Li, Lukas Bernhard, Thorsten Holz, Ghassan Karame, Lucas Davi

Abstract: Smart contracts are increasingly being used to manage large numbers of high-value cryptocurrency accounts. There is a strong demand for automated, efficient, and comprehensive methods to detect security vulnerabilities in a given contract. While the literature features a plethora of analysis methods for smart contracts, the existing proposals do not address the increasing complexity of contracts. Existing analysis tools suffer from false alarms and missed bugs in today's smart contracts that are increasingly defined by complexity and interdependencies. To scale accurate analysis to modern smart contracts, we introduce EF/CF, a high-performance fuzzer for Ethereum smart contracts. In contrast to previous work, EF/CF efficiently and accurately models complex smart contract interactions, such as reentrancy and cross-contract interactions, at a very high fuzzing throughput rate. To achieve this, EF/CF transpiles smart contract bytecode into native C++ code, thereby enabling the reuse of existing, optimized fuzzing toolchains. Furthermore, EF/CF increases fuzzing efficiency by employing a structure-aware mutation engine for smart contract transaction sequences and using a contract's ABI to generate valid transaction inputs. In a comprehensive evaluation, we show that EF/CF scales better -- without compromising accuracy -- to complex contracts compared to state-of-the-art approaches, including other fuzzers, symbolic/concolic execution, and hybrid approaches. Moreover, we show that EF/CF can automatically generate transaction sequences that exploit reentrancy bugs to steal Ether.

3.An attack resilient policy on the tip pool for DAG-based distributed ledgers

Authors:Lianna Zhao, Andrew Culleny, Sebastian Muellerz, Olivia Saay, Robert Shorten

Abstract: This paper discusses congestion control and inconsistency problems in DAG-based distributed ledgers and proposes an additional filter to mitigate these issues. Unlike traditional blockchains, DAG-based DLTs use a directed acyclic graph structure to organize transactions, allowing higher scalability and efficiency. However, this also introduces challenges in controlling the rate at which blocks are added to the network and preventing the influence of spam attacks. To address these challenges, we propose a filter to limit the tip pool size and to avoid referencing old blocks. Furthermore, we present experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of this filter in reducing the negative impacts of various attacks. Our approach offers a lightweight and efficient solution for managing the flow of blocks in DAG-based DLTs, which can enhance the consistency and reliability of these systems. Index

4.Cryptanalysis of Random Affine Transformations for Encrypted Control

Authors:Nils Schlüter, Philipp Binfet, Moritz Schulze Darup

Abstract: Cloud-based and distributed computations are of growing interest in modern control systems. However, these technologies require performing computations on not necessarily trustworthy platforms and, thus, put the confidentiality of sensitive control-related data at risk. Encrypted control has dealt with this issue by utilizing modern cryptosystems with homomorphic properties, which allow a secure evaluation at the cost of an increased computation or communication effort (among others). Recently, a cipher based on a random affine transformation gained attention in the encrypted control community. Its appeal stems from the possibility to construct security providing homomorphisms that do not suffer from the restrictions of ``conventional'' approaches. This paper provides a cryptanalysis of random affine transformations in the context of encrypted control. To this end, a deterministic and probabilistic variant of the cipher over real numbers are analyzed in a generalized setup, where we use cryptographic definitions for security and attacker models. It is shown that the deterministic cipher breaks under a known-plaintext attack, and unavoidably leaks information of the closed-loop, which opens another angle of attack. For the probabilistic variant, statistical indistinguishability of ciphertexts can be achieved, which makes successful attacks unlikely. We complete our analysis by investigating a floating point realization of the probabilistic random affine transformation cipher, which unfortunately suggests the impracticality of the scheme if a security guarantee is needed.

5.False Claims against Model Ownership Resolution

Authors:Jian Liu, Rui Zhang, Sebastian Szyller, Kui Ren, N. Asokan

Abstract: Deep neural network (DNN) models are valuable intellectual property of model owners, constituting a competitive advantage. Therefore, it is crucial to develop techniques to protect against model theft. Model ownership resolution (MOR) is a class of techniques that can deter model theft. A MOR scheme enables an accuser to assert an ownership claim for a suspect model by presenting evidence, such as a watermark or fingerprint, to show that the suspect model was stolen or derived from a source model owned by the accuser. Most of the existing MOR schemes prioritize robustness against malicious suspects, ensuring that the accuser will win if the suspect model is indeed a stolen model. In this paper, we show that common MOR schemes in the literature are vulnerable to a different, equally important but insufficiently explored, robustness concern: a malicious accuser. We show how malicious accusers can successfully make false claims against independent suspect models that were not stolen. Our core idea is that a malicious accuser can deviate (without detection) from the specified MOR process by finding (transferable) adversarial examples that successfully serve as evidence against independent suspect models. To this end, we first generalize the procedures of common MOR schemes and show that, under this generalization, defending against false claims is as challenging as preventing (transferable) adversarial examples. Via systematic empirical evaluation we demonstrate that our false claim attacks always succeed in all prominent MOR schemes with realistic configurations, including against a real-world model: Amazon's Rekognition API.

1.Generative Adversarial Networks-Driven Cyber Threat Intelligence Detection Framework for Securing Internet of Things

Authors:Mohamed Amine Ferrag, Djallel Hamouda, Merouane Debbah, Leandros Maglaras, Abderrahmane Lakas

Abstract: While the benefits of 6G-enabled Internet of Things (IoT) are numerous, providing high-speed, low-latency communication that brings new opportunities for innovation and forms the foundation for continued growth in the IoT industry, it is also important to consider the security challenges and risks associated with the technology. In this paper, we propose a two-stage intrusion detection framework for securing IoTs, which is based on two detectors. In the first stage, we propose an adversarial training approach using generative adversarial networks (GAN) to help the first detector train on robust features by supplying it with adversarial examples as validation sets. Consequently, the classifier would perform very well against adversarial attacks. Then, we propose a deep learning (DL) model for the second detector to identify intrusions. We evaluated the proposed approach's efficiency in terms of detection accuracy and robustness against adversarial attacks. Experiment results with a new cyber security dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in detecting both intrusions and persistent adversarial examples with a weighted avg of 96%, 95%, 95%, and 95% for precision, recall, f1-score, and accuracy, respectively.

2.Automated Information Flow Analysis for Integrated Computing-in-Memory Modules

Authors:Lennart M. Reimann, Felix Staudigl, Rainer Leupers

Abstract: Novel non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies offer high-speed and high-density data storage. In addition, they overcome the von Neumann bottleneck by enabling computing-in-memory (CIM). Various computer architectures have been proposed to integrate CIM blocks in their design, forming a mixed-signal system to combine the computational benefits of CIM with the robustness of conventional CMOS. Novel electronic design automation (EDA) tools are necessary to design and manufacture these so-called neuromorphic systems. Furthermore, EDA tools must consider the impact of security vulnerabilities, as hardware security attacks have increased in recent years. Existing information flow analysis (IFA) frameworks offer an automated tool-suite to uphold the confidentiality property for sensitive data during the design of hardware. However, currently available mixed-signal EDA tools are not capable of analyzing the information flow of neuromorphic systems. To illustrate the shortcomings, we develop information flow protocols for NVMs that can be easily integrated in the already existing tool-suites. We show the limitation of the state-of-the-art by analyzing the flow from sensitive signals through multiple memristive crossbar structures to potential untrusted components and outputs. Finally, we provide a thorough discussion of the merits and flaws of the mixed-signal IFA frameworks on neuromorphic systems.

3.A Security Evaluation Framework for Software-Defined Network Architectures in Data Center Environments

Authors:Igor Ivkić, Dominik Thiede, Nicholas Race, Matthew Broadbent, Antonios Gouglidis

Abstract: The importance of cloud computing has grown over the last years, which resulted in a significant increase of Data Center (DC) network requirements. Virtualisation is one of the key drivers of that transformation and enables a massive deployment of computing resources, which exhausts server capacity limits. Furthermore, the increased network endpoints need to be handled dynamically and centrally to facilitate cloud computing functionalities. Traditional DCs barely satisfy those demands because of their inherent limitations based on the network topology. Software-Defined Networks (SDN) promise to meet the increasing network requirements for cloud applications by decoupling control functionalities from data forwarding. Although SDN solutions add more flexibility to DC networks, they also pose new vulnerabilities with a high impact due to the centralised architecture. In this paper we propose an evaluation framework for assessing the security level of SDN architectures in four different stages. Furthermore, we show in an experimental study, how the framework can be used for mapping SDN threats with associated vulnerabilities and necessary mitigations in conjunction with risk and impact classification. The proposed framework helps administrators to evaluate the network security level, to apply countermeasures for identified SDN threats, and to meet the networks security requirements.

4.Automated and Secure Onboarding for System of Systems

Authors:Silia Maksuti, Ani Bicaku, Mario Zsilak, Igor Ivkić, Bálint Péceli, Gábor Singler, Kristóf Kovács, Markus Tauber, Jerger Delsing

Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly changing the number of connected devices and the way they interact with each other. This increases the need for an automated and secure onboarding procedure for IoT devices, systems and services. Device manufacturers are entering the market with internet connected devices, ranging from small sensors to production devices, which are subject of security threats specific to IoT. The onboarding procedure is required to introduce a new device in a System of Systems (SoS) without compromising the already onboarded devices and the underlying infrastructure. Onboarding is the process of providing access to the network and registering the components for the first time in an IoT/SoS framework, thus creating a chain of trust from the hardware device to its hosted software systems and their provided services. The large number and diversity of device hardware, software systems and running services raises the challenge to establish a generic onboarding procedure. In this paper, we present an automated and secure onboarding procedure for SoS. We have implemented the onboarding procedure in the Eclipse Arrowhead framework. However, it can be easily adapted for other IoT/SoS frameworks that are based on Service-oriented Architecture (SoA) principles. The automated onboarding procedure ensures a secure and trusted communication between the new IoT devices and the Eclipse Arrowhead framework. We show its application in a smart charging use case and perform a security assessment.

5.Cost-damage analysis of attack trees

Authors:Milan Lopuhaä-Zwakenberg, Mariëlle Stoelinga

Abstract: Attack trees (ATs) are a widely deployed modelling technique to categorize potential attacks on a system. An attacker of such a system aims at doing as much damage as possible, but might be limited by a cost budget. The maximum possible damage for a given cost budget is an important security metric of a system. In this paper, we find the maximum damage given a cost budget by modelling this problem with ATs, both in deterministic and probabilistic settings. We show that the general problem is NP-complete, and provide heuristics to solve it. For general ATs these are based on integer linear programming. However when the AT is tree-structured, then one can instead use a faster bottom-up approach. We also extend these methods to other problems related to the cost-damage tradeoff, such as the cost-damage Pareto front.

6.Exploiting Logic Locking for a Neural Trojan Attack on Machine Learning Accelerators

Authors:Hongye Xu, Dongfang Liu, Cory Merkel, Michael Zuzack

Abstract: Logic locking has been proposed to safeguard intellectual property (IP) during chip fabrication. Logic locking techniques protect hardware IP by making a subset of combinational modules in a design dependent on a secret key that is withheld from untrusted parties. If an incorrect secret key is used, a set of deterministic errors is produced in locked modules, restricting unauthorized use. A common target for logic locking is neural accelerators, especially as machine-learning-as-a-service becomes more prevalent. In this work, we explore how logic locking can be used to compromise the security of a neural accelerator it protects. Specifically, we show how the deterministic errors caused by incorrect keys can be harnessed to produce neural-trojan-style backdoors. To do so, we first outline a motivational attack scenario where a carefully chosen incorrect key, which we call a trojan key, produces misclassifications for an attacker-specified input class in a locked accelerator. We then develop a theoretically-robust attack methodology to automatically identify trojan keys. To evaluate this attack, we launch it on several locked accelerators. In our largest benchmark accelerator, our attack identified a trojan key that caused a 74\% decrease in classification accuracy for attacker-specified trigger inputs, while degrading accuracy by only 1.7\% for other inputs on average.

1.Detecting Anomalous Microflows in IoT Volumetric Attacks via Dynamic Monitoring of MUD Activity

Authors:Ayyoob Hamza, Hassan Habibi Gharakheili, Theophilus A. Benson, Gustavo Batista, Vijay Sivaraman

Abstract: IoT networks are increasingly becoming target of sophisticated new cyber-attacks. Anomaly-based detection methods are promising in finding new attacks, but there are certain practical challenges like false-positive alarms, hard to explain, and difficult to scale cost-effectively. The IETF recent standard called Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD) seems promising to limit the attack surface on IoT devices by formally specifying their intended network behavior. In this paper, we use SDN to enforce and monitor the expected behaviors of each IoT device, and train one-class classifier models to detect volumetric attacks. Our specific contributions are fourfold. (1) We develop a multi-level inferencing model to dynamically detect anomalous patterns in network activity of MUD-compliant traffic flows via SDN telemetry, followed by packet inspection of anomalous flows. This provides enhanced fine-grained visibility into distributed and direct attacks, allowing us to precisely isolate volumetric attacks with microflow (5-tuple) resolution. (2) We collect traffic traces (benign and a variety of volumetric attacks) from network behavior of IoT devices in our lab, generate labeled datasets, and make them available to the public. (3) We prototype a full working system (modules are released as open-source), demonstrates its efficacy in detecting volumetric attacks on several consumer IoT devices with high accuracy while maintaining low false positives, and provides insights into cost and performance of our system. (4) We demonstrate how our models scale in environments with a large number of connected IoTs (with datasets collected from a network of IP cameras in our university campus) by considering various training strategies (per device unit versus per device type), and balancing the accuracy of prediction against the cost of models in terms of size and training time.

2.EESMR: Energy Efficient BFT-SMR for the masses

Authors:Adithya Bhat, Akhil Bandarupalli, Manish Nagaraj, Saurabh Bagchi, Aniket Kate, Micheal K. Reiter

Abstract: Modern Byzantine Fault-Tolerant State Machine Replication (BFT-SMR) solutions focus on reducing communication complexity, improving throughput, or lowering latency. This work explores the energy efficiency of BFT-SMR protocols. First, we propose a novel SMR protocol that optimizes for the steady state, i.e., when the leader is correct. This is done by reducing the number of required signatures per consensus unit and the communication complexity by order of the number of nodes n compared to the state-of-the-art BFT-SMR solutions. Concretely, we employ the idea that a quorum (collection) of signatures on a proposed value is avoidable during the failure-free runs. Second, we model and analyze the energy efficiency of protocols and argue why the steady-state needs to be optimized. Third, we present an application in the cyber-physical system (CPS) setting, where we consider a partially connected system by optionally leveraging wireless multicasts among neighbors. We analytically determine the parameter ranges for when our proposed protocol offers better energy efficiency than communicating with a baseline protocol utilizing an external trusted node. We present a hypergraph-based network model and generalize previous fault tolerance results to the model. Finally, we demonstrate our approach's practicality by analyzing our protocol's energy efficiency through experiments on a CPS test bed. In particular, we observe as high as 64% energy savings when compared to the state-of-the-art SMR solution for n=10 settings using BLE.

3.Privacy Amplification via Shuffling: Unified, Simplified, and Tightened

Authors:Shaowei Wang

Abstract: In decentralized settings, the shuffle model of differential privacy has emerged as a promising alternative to the classical local model. Analyzing privacy amplification via shuffling is a critical component in both single-message and multi-message shuffle protocols. However, current methods used in these two areas are distinct and specific, making them less convenient for protocol designers and practitioners. In this work, we introduce variation-ratio reduction as a unified framework for privacy amplification analyses in the shuffle model. This framework utilizes total variation bounds of local messages and probability ratio bounds of other users' blanket messages, converting them to indistinguishable levels. Our results indicate that the framework yields tighter bounds for both single-message and multi-message encoders (e.g., with local DP, local metric DP, or general multi-message randomizers). Specifically, for a broad range of local randomizers having extremal probability design, our amplification bounds are precisely tight. We also demonstrate that variation-ratio reduction is well-suited for parallel composition in the shuffle model and results in stricter privacy accounting for common sampling-based local randomizers. Our experimental findings show that, compared to existing amplification bounds, our numerical amplification bounds can save up to $30\%$ of the budget for single-message protocols, $75\%$ of the budget for multi-message protocols, and $75\%$-$95\%$ of the budget for parallel composition. Additionally, our implementation for numerical amplification bounds has only $\tilde{O}(n)$ complexity and is highly efficient in practice, taking just $2$ minutes for $n=10^8$ users. The code for our implementation can be found at \url{}.

4.Algorithms for Reconstructing DDoS Attack Graphs using Probabilistic Packet Marking

Authors:Dina Barak-Pelleg, Daniel Berend, Thomas J. Robinson, Itamar Zimmerman

Abstract: DoS and DDoS attacks are widely used and pose a constant threat. Here we explore Probability Packet Marking (PPM), one of the important methods for reconstructing the attack-graph and detect the attackers. We present two algorithms. Differently from others, their stopping time is not fixed a priori. It rather depends on the actual distance of the attacker from the victim. Our first algorithm returns the graph at the earliest feasible time, and turns out to guarantee high success probability. The second algorithm enables attaining any predetermined success probability at the expense of a longer runtime. We study the performance of the two algorithms theoretically, and compare them to other algorithms by simulation. Finally, we consider the order in which the marks corresponding to the various edges of the attack graph are obtained by the victim. We show that, although edges closer to the victim tend to be discovered earlier in the process than farther edges, the differences are much smaller than previously thought.

5.Improving Performance of Private Federated Models in Medical Image Analysis

Authors:Xiangjian Hou, Sarit Khirirat, Mohammad Yaqub, Samuel Horvath

Abstract: Federated learning (FL) is a distributed machine learning (ML) approach that allows data to be trained without being centralized. This approach is particularly beneficial for medical applications because it addresses some key challenges associated with medical data, such as privacy, security, and data ownership. On top of that, FL can improve the quality of ML models used in medical applications. Medical data is often diverse and can vary significantly depending on the patient population, making it challenging to develop ML models that are accurate and generalizable. FL allows medical data to be used from multiple sources, which can help to improve the quality and generalizability of ML models. Differential privacy (DP) is a go-to algorithmic tool to make this process secure and private. In this work, we show that the model performance can be further improved by employing local steps, a popular approach to improving the communication efficiency of FL, and tuning the number of communication rounds. Concretely, given the privacy budget, we show an optimal number of local steps and communications rounds. We provide theoretical motivations further corroborated with experimental evaluations on real-world medical imaging tasks.

6.Journey to the Center of Software Supply Chain Attacks

Authors:Piergiorgio Ladisa, Serena Elisa Ponta, Antonino Sabetta, Matias Martinez, Olivier Barais

Abstract: This work discusses open-source software supply chain attacks and proposes a general taxonomy describing how attackers conduct them. We then provide a list of safeguards to mitigate such attacks. We present our tool "Risk Explorer for Software Supply Chains" to explore such information and we discuss its industrial use-cases.

7.TREBUCHET: Fully Homomorphic Encryption Accelerator for Deep Computation

Authors:David Bruce Cousins, Yuriy Polyakov, Ahmad Al Badawi, Matthew French, Andrew Schmidt, Ajey Jacob, Benedict Reynwar, Kellie Canida, Akhilesh Jaiswal, Clynn Mathew, Homer Gamil, Negar Neda, Deepraj Soni, Michail Maniatakos, Brandon Reagen

Abstract: Secure computation is of critical importance to not only the DoD, but across financial institutions, healthcare, and anywhere personally identifiable information (PII) is accessed. Traditional security techniques require data to be decrypted before performing any computation. When processed on untrusted systems the decrypted data is vulnerable to attacks to extract the sensitive information. To address these vulnerabilities Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) keeps the data encrypted during computation and secures the results, even in these untrusted environments. However, FHE requires a significant amount of computation to perform equivalent unencrypted operations. To be useful, FHE must significantly close the computation gap (within 10x) to make encrypted processing practical. To accomplish this ambitious goal the TREBUCHET project is leading research and development in FHE processing hardware to accelerate deep computations on encrypted data, as part of the DARPA MTO Data Privacy for Virtual Environments (DPRIVE) program. We accelerate the major secure standardized FHE schemes (BGV, BFV, CKKS, FHEW, etc.) at >=128-bit security while integrating with the open-source PALISADE and OpenFHE libraries currently used in the DoD and in industry. We utilize a novel tile-based chip design with highly parallel ALUs optimized for vectorized 128b modulo arithmetic. The TREBUCHET coprocessor design provides a highly modular, flexible, and extensible FHE accelerator for easy reconfiguration, deployment, integration and application on other hardware form factors, such as System-on-Chip or alternate chip areas.

8.Optimizing Linear Correctors: A Tight Output Min-Entropy Bound and Selection Technique

Authors:Miloš Grujić, Ingrid Verbauwhede

Abstract: Post-processing of the raw bits produced by a true random number generator (TRNG) is always necessary when the entropy per bit is insufficient for security applications. In this paper, we derive a tight bound on the output min-entropy of the algorithmic post-processing module based on linear codes, known as linear correctors. Our bound is based on the codes' weight distributions, and we prove that it holds even for the real-world noise sources that produce independent but not identically distributed bits. Additionally, we present a method for identifying the optimal linear corrector for a given input min-entropy rate that maximizes the throughput of the post-processed bits while simultaneously achieving the needed security level. Our findings show that for an output min-entropy rate of $0.999$, the extraction efficiency of the linear correctors with the new bound can be up to $130.56\%$ higher when compared to the old bound, with an average improvement of $41.2\%$ over the entire input min-entropy range. On the other hand, the required min-entropy of the raw bits for the individual correctors can be reduced by up to $61.62\%$.

1.Ransomware Detection and Classification Strategies

Authors:Aldin Vehabovic, Nasir Ghani, Elias Bou-Harb, Jorge Crichigno, Aysegul Yayimli

Abstract: Ransomware uses encryption methods to make data inaccessible to legitimate users. To date a wide range of ransomware families have been developed and deployed, causing immense damage to governments, corporations, and private users. As these cyberthreats multiply, researchers have proposed a range of ransomware detection and classification schemes. Most of these methods use advanced machine learning techniques to process and analyze real-world ransomware binaries and action sequences. Hence this paper presents a survey of this critical space and classifies existing solutions into several categories, i.e., including network-based, host-based, forensic characterization, and authorship attribution. Key facilities and tools for ransomware analysis are also presented along with open challenges.

2.Differentially Private Numerical Vector Analyses in the Local and Shuffle Model

Authors:Shaowei Wang, Jin Li, Yuntong Li, Jin Li, Wei Yang, Hongyang Yan

Abstract: Numerical vector aggregation plays a crucial role in privacy-sensitive applications, such as distributed gradient estimation in federated learning and statistical analysis of key-value data. In the context of local differential privacy, this study provides a tight minimax error bound of $O(\frac{ds}{n\epsilon^2})$, where $d$ represents the dimension of the numerical vector and $s$ denotes the number of non-zero entries. By converting the conditional/unconditional numerical mean estimation problem into a frequency estimation problem, we develop an optimal and efficient mechanism called Collision. In contrast, existing methods exhibit sub-optimal error rates of $O(\frac{d^2}{n\epsilon^2})$ or $O(\frac{ds^2}{n\epsilon^2})$. Specifically, for unconditional mean estimation, we leverage the negative correlation between two frequencies in each dimension and propose the CoCo mechanism, which further reduces estimation errors for mean values compared to Collision. Moreover, to surpass the error barrier in local privacy, we examine privacy amplification in the shuffle model for the proposed mechanisms and derive precisely tight amplification bounds. Our experiments validate and compare our mechanisms with existing approaches, demonstrating significant error reductions for frequency estimation and mean estimation on numerical vectors.

3.Quantum Cyber-Attack on Blockchain-based VANET

Authors:Kazi Hassan Shakib, Mizanur Rahman, Mhafuzul Islam

Abstract: Blockchain-based Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is widely considered as secure communication architecture for a connected transportation system. With the advent of quantum computing, there are concerns regarding the vulnerability of this architecture against cyber-attacks. In this study, a potential threat is investigated in a blockchain-based VANET, and a corresponding quantum cyber-attack is developed. Specifically, a quantum impersonation attack using Quantum-Shor algorithm is developed to break the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encrypted digital signatures of VANET and thus create a threat for the trust-based blockchain scheme of VANET. A blockchain-based VANET, vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication, and vehicular mobility are simulated using OMNET++, the extended INET library, and vehicles-in-network simulation (VEINS) along with simulation of urban mobility (SUMO), respectively. A small key RSA based message encryption is implemented using IBM Qiskit, which is an open-source quantum software development kit. The findings reveal that the quantum cyber-attack, example, impersonation attack is able to successfully break the trust chain of a blockchain-based VANET. This highlights the need for a quantum secured blockchain.

4.On the existence of highly organized communities in networks of locally interacting agents

Authors:V. Liagkou, P. E. Nastou, P. Spirakis, Y. C. Stamatiou

Abstract: In this paper we investigate phenomena of spontaneous emergence or purposeful formation of highly organized structures in networks of related agents. We show that the formation of large organized structures requires exponentially large, in the size of the structures, networks. Our approach is based on Kolmogorov, or descriptional, complexity of networks viewed as finite size strings. We apply this approach to the study of the emergence or formation of simple organized, hierarchical, structures based on Sierpinski Graphs and we prove a Ramsey type theorem that bounds the number of vertices in Kolmogorov random graphs that contain Sierpinski Graphs as subgraphs. Moreover, we show that Sierpinski Graphs encompass close-knit relationships among their vertices that facilitate fast spread and learning of information when agents in their vertices are engaged in pairwise interactions modelled as two person games. Finally, we generalize our findings for any organized structure with succinct representations. Our work can be deployed, in particular, to study problems related to the security of networks by identifying conditions which enable or forbid the formation of sufficiently large insider subnetworks with malicious common goal to overtake the network or cause disruption of its operation.

5.Fast polynomial arithmetic in homomorphic encryption with cyclo-multiquadratic fields

Authors:Iván Blanco-Chacón, Alberto Pedrouzo-Ulloa, Rahinatou Yuh Njah, Beatriz Barbero-Lucas

Abstract: This work provides refined polynomial upper bounds for the condition number of the transformation between RLWE/PLWE for cyclotomic number fields with up to 6 primes dividing the conductor. We also provide exact expressions of the condition number for any cyclotomic field, but under what we call the twisted power basis. Finally, from a more practical perspective, we discuss the advantages and limitations of cyclotomic fields to have fast polynomial arithmetic within homomorphic encryption, for which we also study the RLWE/PLWE equivalence of a concrete non-cyclotomic family of number fields. We think this family could be of particular interest due to its arithmetic efficiency properties.