TicTacToes: Assessing Toe Movements as an Input Modality



Florian Müller LMU Munich, Daniel Schmitt TU Darmstadt, Andrii Matviienko KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Dominik Schön TU Darmstadt, Sebastian Günther TU Darmstadt, Thomas Kosch HU Berlin, Martin Schmitz Saarland University


From carrying grocery bags to holding onto handles on the bus, there are a variety of situations where one or both hands are busy, hindering the vision of ubiquitous interaction with technology. Voice commands, as a popular hands-free alternative, struggle with ambient noise and privacy issues. As an alternative approach, research explored movements of various body parts (e.g., head, arms) as input modalities, with foot-based techniques proving particularly suitable for hands-free interaction. Whereas previous research only considered the movement of the foot as a whole, in this work, we argue that our toes offer further degrees of freedom that can be leveraged for interaction. To explore the viability of toe-based interaction, we contribute the results of a controlled experiment with 18 participants assessing the impact of five factors on the accuracy, efficiency and user experience of such interfaces. Based on the findings, we provide design recommendations for future toe-based interfaces.

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Dear Dr. Müller -- Thank you for your interesting submission. Would you mind replacing with cover (thumbnail) with a different picture? For example, the title slide the screenshot of the paper would work. We are trying to keep the content engaging, but professional, and appealing for a general scientific audience. This one is a bit outside our professional standards. Thank you,
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