Interplay of superconductivity and dissipation in quantum Hall edges
Systems harboring parafermion zero-modes hold promise as platforms for topological quantum computation. Recent experimental work (Gül et al., arXiv:2009.07836) provided evidence for proximity-induced superconductivity in fractional quantum Hall edges, a prerequisite in proposed realizations of parafermion zero-modes. The main evidence was the observation of a crossed Andreev reflection signal, in which electrons enter the superconductor from one chiral mode and are reflected as holes to another, counter-propagating chiral mode. Remarkably, while the probability for cross Andreev reflection was much smaller than one, it was stronger for $\nu=1/3$ fractional quantum Hall edges than for integer ones. We theoretically explain these findings, including the relative strengths of the signals in the two cases and their qualitatively different temperature dependencies. Beyond the coupling of the two counter-propagating modes through Andreev reflection and back-scattering, an essential part of our model is the coupling of the edge modes to normal states in the cores of Abrikosov vortices located close to the edges. These vortices are made dense by the magnetic field needed to form the quantum Hall states, and provide a metallic bath to which the edges are tunnel-coupled. The stronger crossed Andreev reflection in the fractional case originates from the suppression of electronic tunneling between the bath and the fractional quantum Hall edges. Our theory shows that the mere observation of crossed Andreev reflection signal does not necessarily imply the presence of localized parafermion zero-modes, and suggests ways to identify their presence from the behavior of this signal in the low-temperature limit.