ULDP-FL: Federated Learning with Across Silo User-Level Differential Privacy

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ULDP-FL: Federated Learning with Across Silo User-Level Differential Privacy


Fumiyuki Kato, Li Xiong, Shun Takagi, Yang Cao, Masatoshi Yoshikawa


Differentially Private Federated Learning (DP-FL) has garnered attention as a collaborative machine learning approach that ensures formal privacy. Most DP-FL approaches ensure DP at the record-level within each silo for cross-silo FL. However, a single user's data may extend across multiple silos, and the desired user-level DP guarantee for such a setting remains unknown. In this study, we present ULDP-FL, a novel FL framework designed to guarantee user-level DP in cross-silo FL where a single user's data may belong to multiple silos. Our proposed algorithm directly ensures user-level DP through per-user weighted clipping, departing from group-privacy approaches. We provide a theoretical analysis of the algorithm's privacy and utility. Additionally, we enhance the algorithm's utility and showcase its private implementation using cryptographic building blocks. Empirical experiments on real-world datasets show substantial improvements in our methods in privacy-utility trade-offs under user-level DP compared to baseline methods. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first FL framework that effectively provides user-level DP in the general cross-silo FL setting.

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