Large language models (LLMs) trained on huge corpora of text datasets demonstrate complex, emergent capabilities, achieving state-of-the-art performance on tasks they were not explicitly trained for. The precise nature of LLM capabilities is often mysterious, and different prompts can elicit different capabilities through in-context learning. We propose a Cognitive Interpretability framework that enables us to analyze in-context learning dynamics to understand latent concepts in LLMs underlying behavioral patterns. This provides a more nuanced understanding than success-or-failure evaluation benchmarks, but does not require observing internal activations as a mechanistic interpretation of circuits would. Inspired by the cognitive science of human randomness perception, we use random binary sequences as context and study dynamics of in-context learning by manipulating properties of context data, such as sequence length. In the latest GPT-3.5+ models, we find emergent abilities to generate pseudo-random numbers and learn basic formal languages, with striking in-context learning dynamics where model outputs transition sharply from pseudo-random behaviors to deterministic repetition.