Available only for arXiv papers.
High-altitude hypoxia acclimatization requires whole-body physiological regulation in highland immigrants, but the underlying genetic mechanism has not been clarified. Here we used sheep as an animal model for plain-to-plateau transplantation. We generated multi-omics data including time-resolved bulk RNA-Seq, ATAC-Seq and single-cell RNA-Seq from multiple tissues as well as phenotypic data from 20 bio-indicators. We characterized transcriptional changes of all genes in each tissue, and examined multi-tissue temporal dynamics and transcriptional interactions among genes. In particular, we identified critical functional genes regulating the short response to hypoxia in each tissue (e.g., PARG in the cerebellum and HMOX1 in the colon). We further identified TAD-constrained cis-regulatory elements, which suppressed the transcriptional activity of most genes under hypoxia. Phenotypic and transcriptional evidence indicated that antenatal hypoxia could improve hypoxia tolerance in offspring. Furthermore, we provided time-series expression data of candidate genes associated with human mountain sickness (e.g., BMPR2) and high-altitude adaptation (e.g., HIF1A). Our study provides valuable resources and insights for future hypoxia-related studies in mammals.